GIT(1)                            Git Manual                            GIT(1)

       git - the stupid content tracker

       git [--version] [--help] [-C <path>] [-c <name>=<value>]
           [--exec-path[=<path>]] [--html-path] [--man-path] [--info-path]
           [-p|--paginate|-P|--no-pager] [--no-replace-objects] [--bare]
           [--git-dir=<path>] [--work-tree=<path>] [--namespace=<name>]
           <command> [<args>]

       Git is a fast, scalable, distributed revision control system with an
       unusually rich command set that provides both high-level operations and
       full access to internals.

       See gittutorial(7) to get started, then see giteveryday(7) for a useful
       minimum set of commands. The Git User's Manual[1] has a more in-depth

       After you mastered the basic concepts, you can come back to this page
       to learn what commands Git offers. You can learn more about individual
       Git commands with "git help command". gitcli(7) manual page gives you
       an overview of the command-line command syntax.

       A formatted and hyperlinked copy of the latest Git documentation can be
       viewed at or

           Prints the Git suite version that the git program came from.

           Prints the synopsis and a list of the most commonly used commands.
           If the option --all or -a is given then all available commands are
           printed. If a Git command is named this option will bring up the
           manual page for that command.

           Other options are available to control how the manual page is
           displayed. See git-help(1) for more information, because git --help
           ...  is converted internally into git help ....

       -C <path>
           Run as if git was started in <path> instead of the current working
           directory. When multiple -C options are given, each subsequent
           non-absolute -C <path> is interpreted relative to the preceding -C
           <path>. If <path> is present but empty, e.g.  -C "", then the
           current working directory is left unchanged.

           This option affects options that expect path name like --git-dir
           and --work-tree in that their interpretations of the path names
           would be made relative to the working directory caused by the -C
           option. For example the following invocations are equivalent:

               git --git-dir=a.git --work-tree=b -C c status
               git --git-dir=c/a.git --work-tree=c/b status

       -c <name>=<value>
           Pass a configuration parameter to the command. The value given will
           override values from configuration files. The <name> is expected in
           the same format as listed by git config (subkeys separated by

           Note that omitting the = in git -c ...  is allowed and sets
  to the boolean true value (just like [foo]bar would in a
           config file). Including the equals but with an empty value (like
           git -c ...) sets to the empty string which git
           config --type=bool will convert to false.

           Path to wherever your core Git programs are installed. This can
           also be controlled by setting the GIT_EXEC_PATH environment
           variable. If no path is given, git will print the current setting
           and then exit.

           Print the path, without trailing slash, where Git's HTML
           documentation is installed and exit.

           Print the manpath (see man(1)) for the man pages for this version
           of Git and exit.

           Print the path where the Info files documenting this version of Git
           are installed and exit.

       -p, --paginate
           Pipe all output into less (or if set, $PAGER) if standard output is
           a terminal. This overrides the pager.<cmd> configuration options
           (see the "Configuration Mechanism" section below).

       -P, --no-pager
           Do not pipe Git output into a pager.

           Set the path to the repository. This can also be controlled by
           setting the GIT_DIR environment variable. It can be an absolute
           path or relative path to current working directory.

           Set the path to the working tree. It can be an absolute path or a
           path relative to the current working directory. This can also be
           controlled by setting the GIT_WORK_TREE environment variable and
           the core.worktree configuration variable (see core.worktree in git-
           config(1) for a more detailed discussion).

           Set the Git namespace. See gitnamespaces(7) for more details.
           Equivalent to setting the GIT_NAMESPACE environment variable.

           Currently for internal use only. Set a prefix which gives a path
           from above a repository down to its root. One use is to give
           submodules context about the superproject that invoked it.

           Treat the repository as a bare repository. If GIT_DIR environment
           is not set, it is set to the current working directory.

           Do not use replacement refs to replace Git objects. See git-
           replace(1) for more information.

           Treat pathspecs literally (i.e. no globbing, no pathspec magic).
           This is equivalent to setting the GIT_LITERAL_PATHSPECS environment
           variable to 1.

           Add "glob" magic to all pathspec. This is equivalent to setting the
           GIT_GLOB_PATHSPECS environment variable to 1. Disabling globbing on
           individual pathspecs can be done using pathspec magic ":(literal)"

           Add "literal" magic to all pathspec. This is equivalent to setting
           the GIT_NOGLOB_PATHSPECS environment variable to 1. Enabling
           globbing on individual pathspecs can be done using pathspec magic

           Add "icase" magic to all pathspec. This is equivalent to setting
           the GIT_ICASE_PATHSPECS environment variable to 1.

           Do not perform optional operations that require locks. This is
           equivalent to setting the GIT_OPTIONAL_LOCKS to 0.

           List commands by group. This is an internal/experimental option and
           may change or be removed in the future. Supported groups are:
           builtins, parseopt (builtin commands that use parse-options), main
           (all commands in libexec directory), others (all other commands in
           $PATH that have git- prefix), list-<category> (see categories in
           command-list.txt), nohelpers (exclude helper commands), alias and
           config (retrieve command list from config variable

       We divide Git into high level ("porcelain") commands and low level
       ("plumbing") commands.

       We separate the porcelain commands into the main commands and some
       ancillary user utilities.

   Main porcelain commands
           Add file contents to the index.

           Apply a series of patches from a mailbox.

           Create an archive of files from a named tree.

           Use binary search to find the commit that introduced a bug.

           List, create, or delete branches.

           Move objects and refs by archive.

           Switch branches or restore working tree files.

           Apply the changes introduced by some existing commits.

           Graphical alternative to git-commit.

           Remove untracked files from the working tree.

           Clone a repository into a new directory.

           Record changes to the repository.

           Give an object a human readable name based on an available ref.

           Show changes between commits, commit and working tree, etc.

           Download objects and refs from another repository.

           Prepare patches for e-mail submission.

           Cleanup unnecessary files and optimize the local repository.

           Print lines matching a pattern.

           A portable graphical interface to Git.

           Create an empty Git repository or reinitialize an existing one.

           Show commit logs.

           Join two or more development histories together.

           Move or rename a file, a directory, or a symlink.

           Add or inspect object notes.

           Fetch from and integrate with another repository or a local branch.

           Update remote refs along with associated objects.

           Compare two commit ranges (e.g. two versions of a branch).

           Reapply commits on top of another base tip.

           Reset current HEAD to the specified state.

           Restore working tree files.

           Revert some existing commits.

           Remove files from the working tree and from the index.

           Summarize git log output.

           Show various types of objects.

           Initialize and modify the sparse-checkout.

           Stash the changes in a dirty working directory away.

           Show the working tree status.

           Initialize, update or inspect submodules.

           Switch branches.

           Create, list, delete or verify a tag object signed with GPG.

           Manage multiple working trees.

           The Git repository browser.

   Ancillary Commands

           Get and set repository or global options.

           Git data exporter.

           Backend for fast Git data importers.

           Rewrite branches.

           Run merge conflict resolution tools to resolve merge conflicts.

           Pack heads and tags for efficient repository access.

           Prune all unreachable objects from the object database.

           Manage reflog information.

           Manage set of tracked repositories.

           Pack unpacked objects in a repository.

           Create, list, delete refs to replace objects.


           Annotate file lines with commit information.

           Show what revision and author last modified each line of a file.

           Count unpacked number of objects and their disk consumption.

           Show changes using common diff tools.

           Verifies the connectivity and validity of the objects in the

           Display help information about Git.

           Instantly browse your working repository in gitweb.

           Show three-way merge without touching index.

           Reuse recorded resolution of conflicted merges.

           Show branches and their commits.

           Check the GPG signature of commits.

           Check the GPG signature of tags.

           Show logs with difference each commit introduces.

           Git web interface (web frontend to Git repositories).

   Interacting with Others
       These commands are to interact with foreign SCM and with other people
       via patch over e-mail.

           Import a GNU Arch repository into Git.

           Export a single commit to a CVS checkout.

           Salvage your data out of another SCM people love to hate.

           A CVS server emulator for Git.

           Send a collection of patches from stdin to an IMAP folder.

           Import from and submit to Perforce repositories.

           Applies a quilt patchset onto the current branch.

           Generates a summary of pending changes.

           Send a collection of patches as emails.

           Bidirectional operation between a Subversion repository and Git.

   Reset, restore and revert
       There are three commands with similar names: git reset, git restore and
       git revert.

       o   git-revert(1) is about making a new commit that reverts the changes
           made by other commits.

       o   git-restore(1) is about restoring files in the working tree from
           either the index or another commit. This command does not update
           your branch. The command can also be used to restore files in the
           index from another commit.

       o   git-reset(1) is about updating your branch, moving the tip in order
           to add or remove commits from the branch. This operation changes
           the commit history.

           git reset can also be used to restore the index, overlapping with
           git restore.

       Although Git includes its own porcelain layer, its low-level commands
       are sufficient to support development of alternative porcelains.
       Developers of such porcelains might start by reading about git-update-
       index(1) and git-read-tree(1).

       The interface (input, output, set of options and the semantics) to
       these low-level commands are meant to be a lot more stable than
       Porcelain level commands, because these commands are primarily for
       scripted use. The interface to Porcelain commands on the other hand are
       subject to change in order to improve the end user experience.

       The following description divides the low-level commands into commands
       that manipulate objects (in the repository, index, and working tree),
       commands that interrogate and compare objects, and commands that move
       objects and references between repositories.

   Manipulation commands
           Apply a patch to files and/or to the index.

           Copy files from the index to the working tree.

           Write and verify Git commit-graph files.

           Create a new commit object.

           Compute object ID and optionally creates a blob from a file.

           Build pack index file for an existing packed archive.

           Run a three-way file merge.

           Run a merge for files needing merging.

           Creates a tag object.

           Build a tree-object from ls-tree formatted text.

           Write and verify multi-pack-indexes.

           Create a packed archive of objects.

           Remove extra objects that are already in pack files.

           Reads tree information into the index.

           Read, modify and delete symbolic refs.

           Unpack objects from a packed archive.

           Register file contents in the working tree to the index.

           Update the object name stored in a ref safely.

           Create a tree object from the current index.

   Interrogation commands
           Provide content or type and size information for repository

           Find commits yet to be applied to upstream.

           Compares files in the working tree and the index.

           Compare a tree to the working tree or index.

           Compares the content and mode of blobs found via two tree objects.

           Output information on each ref.

           Extract commit ID from an archive created using git-archive.

           Show information about files in the index and the working tree.

           List references in a remote repository.

           List the contents of a tree object.

           Find as good common ancestors as possible for a merge.

           Find symbolic names for given revs.

           Find redundant pack files.

           Lists commit objects in reverse chronological order.

           Pick out and massage parameters.

           Show packed archive index.

           List references in a local repository.

           Creates a temporary file with a blob's contents.

           Show a Git logical variable.

           Validate packed Git archive files.

       In general, the interrogate commands do not touch the files in the
       working tree.

   Syncing repositories
           A really simple server for Git repositories.

           Receive missing objects from another repository.

           Server side implementation of Git over HTTP.

           Push objects over Git protocol to another repository.

           Update auxiliary info file to help dumb servers.

       The following are helper commands used by the above; end users
       typically do not use them directly.

           Download from a remote Git repository via HTTP.

           Push objects over HTTP/DAV to another repository.

           Routines to help parsing remote repository access parameters.

           Receive what is pushed into the repository.

           Restricted login shell for Git-only SSH access.

           Send archive back to git-archive.

           Send objects packed back to git-fetch-pack.

   Internal helper commands
       These are internal helper commands used by other commands; end users
       typically do not use them directly.

           Display gitattributes information.

           Debug gitignore / exclude files.

           Show canonical names and email addresses of contacts.

           Ensures that a reference name is well formed.

           Display data in columns.

           Retrieve and store user credentials.

           Helper to temporarily store passwords in memory.

           Helper to store credentials on disk.

           Produce a merge commit message.

           Add or parse structured information in commit messages.

           Extracts patch and authorship from a single e-mail message.

           Simple UNIX mbox splitter program.

           The standard helper program to use with git-merge-index.

           Compute unique ID for a patch.

           Git's i18n setup code for shell scripts.

           Common Git shell script setup code.

           Remove unnecessary whitespace.

       Git uses a simple text format to store customizations that are per
       repository and are per user. Such a configuration file may look like

           # A '#' or ';' character indicates a comment.

           ; core variables
                   ; Don't trust file modes
                   filemode = false

           ; user identity
                   name = "Junio C Hamano"
                   email = ""

       Various commands read from the configuration file and adjust their
       operation accordingly. See git-config(1) for a list and more details
       about the configuration mechanism.

           Indicates the object name for any type of object.

           Indicates a blob object name.

           Indicates a tree object name.

           Indicates a commit object name.

           Indicates a tree, commit or tag object name. A command that takes a
           <tree-ish> argument ultimately wants to operate on a <tree> object
           but automatically dereferences <commit> and <tag> objects that
           point at a <tree>.

           Indicates a commit or tag object name. A command that takes a
           <commit-ish> argument ultimately wants to operate on a <commit>
           object but automatically dereferences <tag> objects that point at a

           Indicates that an object type is required. Currently one of: blob,
           tree, commit, or tag.

           Indicates a filename - almost always relative to the root of the
           tree structure GIT_INDEX_FILE describes.

       Any Git command accepting any <object> can also use the following
       symbolic notation:

           indicates the head of the current branch.

           a valid tag name (i.e. a refs/tags/<tag> reference).

           a valid head name (i.e. a refs/heads/<head> reference).

       For a more complete list of ways to spell object names, see "SPECIFYING
       REVISIONS" section in gitrevisions(7).

       Please see the gitrepository-layout(5) document.

       Read githooks(5) for more details about each hook.

       Higher level SCMs may provide and manage additional information in the

       Please see gitglossary(7).

       Various Git commands use the following environment variables:

   The Git Repository
       These environment variables apply to all core Git commands. Nb: it is
       worth noting that they may be used/overridden by SCMS sitting above Git
       so take care if using a foreign front-end.

           This environment allows the specification of an alternate index
           file. If not specified, the default of $GIT_DIR/index is used.

           This environment variable allows the specification of an index
           version for new repositories. It won't affect existing index files.
           By default index file version 2 or 3 is used. See git-update-
           index(1) for more information.

           If the object storage directory is specified via this environment
           variable then the sha1 directories are created underneath -
           otherwise the default $GIT_DIR/objects directory is used.

           Due to the immutable nature of Git objects, old objects can be
           archived into shared, read-only directories. This variable
           specifies a ":" separated (on Windows ";" separated) list of Git
           object directories which can be used to search for Git objects. New
           objects will not be written to these directories.

           Entries that begin with " (double-quote) will be interpreted as
           C-style quoted paths, removing leading and trailing double-quotes
           and respecting backslash escapes. E.g., the value
           "path-with-\"-and-:-in-it":vanilla-path has two paths:
           path-with-"-and-:-in-it and vanilla-path.

           If the GIT_DIR environment variable is set then it specifies a path
           to use instead of the default .git for the base of the repository.
           The --git-dir command-line option also sets this value.

           Set the path to the root of the working tree. This can also be
           controlled by the --work-tree command-line option and the
           core.worktree configuration variable.

           Set the Git namespace; see gitnamespaces(7) for details. The
           --namespace command-line option also sets this value.

           This should be a colon-separated list of absolute paths. If set, it
           is a list of directories that Git should not chdir up into while
           looking for a repository directory (useful for excluding
           slow-loading network directories). It will not exclude the current
           working directory or a GIT_DIR set on the command line or in the
           environment. Normally, Git has to read the entries in this list and
           resolve any symlink that might be present in order to compare them
           with the current directory. However, if even this access is slow,
           you can add an empty entry to the list to tell Git that the
           subsequent entries are not symlinks and needn't be resolved; e.g.,

           When run in a directory that does not have ".git" repository
           directory, Git tries to find such a directory in the parent
           directories to find the top of the working tree, but by default it
           does not cross filesystem boundaries. This environment variable can
           be set to true to tell Git not to stop at filesystem boundaries.
           Like GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES, this will not affect an explicit
           repository directory set via GIT_DIR or on the command line.

           If this variable is set to a path, non-worktree files that are
           normally in $GIT_DIR will be taken from this path instead.
           Worktree-specific files such as HEAD or index are taken from
           $GIT_DIR. See gitrepository-layout(5) and git-worktree(1) for
           details. This variable has lower precedence than other path
           variables such as GIT_INDEX_FILE, GIT_OBJECT_DIRECTORY...

   Git Commits
           The human-readable name used in the author identity when creating
           commit or tag objects, or when writing reflogs. Overrides the
  and configuration settings.

           The email address used in the author identity when creating commit
           or tag objects, or when writing reflogs. Overrides the
           and configuration settings.

           The date used for the author identity when creating commit or tag
           objects, or when writing reflogs. See git-commit(1) for valid

           The human-readable name used in the committer identity when
           creating commit or tag objects, or when writing reflogs. Overrides
           the and configuration settings.

           The email address used in the author identity when creating commit
           or tag objects, or when writing reflogs. Overrides the
           and configuration settings.

           The date used for the committer identity when creating commit or
           tag objects, or when writing reflogs. See git-commit(1) for valid

           The email address used in the author and committer identities if no
           other relevant environment variable or configuration setting has
           been set.

   Git Diffs
           Only valid setting is "--unified=??" or "-u??" to set the number of
           context lines shown when a unified diff is created. This takes
           precedence over any "-U" or "--unified" option value passed on the
           Git diff command line.

           When the environment variable GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF is set, the program
           named by it is called, instead of the diff invocation described
           above. For a path that is added, removed, or modified,
           GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF is called with 7 parameters:

               path old-file old-hex old-mode new-file new-hex new-mode


           are files GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF can use to read the contents of

           are the 40-hexdigit SHA-1 hashes,

           are the octal representation of the file modes.

           The file parameters can point at the user's working file (e.g.
           new-file in "git-diff-files"), /dev/null (e.g.  old-file when a new
           file is added), or a temporary file (e.g.  old-file in the index).
           GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF should not worry about unlinking the temporary
           file --- it is removed when GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF exits.

           For a path that is unmerged, GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF is called with 1
           parameter, <path>.

           For each path GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF is called, two environment
           variables, GIT_DIFF_PATH_COUNTER and GIT_DIFF_PATH_TOTAL are set.

           A 1-based counter incremented by one for every path.

           The total number of paths.

           A number controlling the amount of output shown by the recursive
           merge strategy. Overrides merge.verbosity. See git-merge(1)

           This environment variable overrides $PAGER. If it is set to an
           empty string or to the value "cat", Git will not launch a pager.
           See also the core.pager option in git-config(1).

           A number controlling how many seconds to delay before showing
           optional progress indicators. Defaults to 2.

           This environment variable overrides $EDITOR and $VISUAL. It is used
           by several Git commands when, on interactive mode, an editor is to
           be launched. See also git-var(1) and the core.editor option in git-

           If either of these environment variables is set then git fetch and
           git push will use the specified command instead of ssh when they
           need to connect to a remote system. The command-line parameters
           passed to the configured command are determined by the ssh variant.
           See ssh.variant option in git-config(1) for details.

           $GIT_SSH_COMMAND takes precedence over $GIT_SSH, and is interpreted
           by the shell, which allows additional arguments to be included.
           $GIT_SSH on the other hand must be just the path to a program
           (which can be a wrapper shell script, if additional arguments are

           Usually it is easier to configure any desired options through your
           personal .ssh/config file. Please consult your ssh documentation
           for further details.

           If this environment variable is set, it overrides Git's
           autodetection whether GIT_SSH/GIT_SSH_COMMAND/core.sshCommand refer
           to OpenSSH, plink or tortoiseplink. This variable overrides the
           config setting ssh.variant that serves the same purpose.

           If this environment variable is set, then Git commands which need
           to acquire passwords or passphrases (e.g. for HTTP or IMAP
           authentication) will call this program with a suitable prompt as
           command-line argument and read the password from its STDOUT. See
           also the core.askPass option in git-config(1).

           If this environment variable is set to 0, git will not prompt on
           the terminal (e.g., when asking for HTTP authentication).

           Whether to skip reading settings from the system-wide
           $(prefix)/etc/gitconfig file. This environment variable can be used
           along with $HOME and $XDG_CONFIG_HOME to create a predictable
           environment for a picky script, or you can set it temporarily to
           avoid using a buggy /etc/gitconfig file while waiting for someone
           with sufficient permissions to fix it.

           If this environment variable is set to "1", then commands such as
           git blame (in incremental mode), git rev-list, git log, git
           check-attr and git check-ignore will force a flush of the output
           stream after each record have been flushed. If this variable is set
           to "0", the output of these commands will be done using completely
           buffered I/O. If this environment variable is not set, Git will
           choose buffered or record-oriented flushing based on whether stdout
           appears to be redirected to a file or not.

           Enables general trace messages, e.g. alias expansion, built-in
           command execution and external command execution.

           If this variable is set to "1", "2" or "true" (comparison is case
           insensitive), trace messages will be printed to stderr.

           If the variable is set to an integer value greater than 2 and lower
           than 10 (strictly) then Git will interpret this value as an open
           file descriptor and will try to write the trace messages into this
           file descriptor.

           Alternatively, if the variable is set to an absolute path (starting
           with a / character), Git will interpret this as a file path and
           will try to append the trace messages to it.

           Unsetting the variable, or setting it to empty, "0" or "false"
           (case insensitive) disables trace messages.

           Enables trace messages for the filesystem monitor extension. See
           GIT_TRACE for available trace output options.

           Enables trace messages for all accesses to any packs. For each
           access, the pack file name and an offset in the pack is recorded.
           This may be helpful for troubleshooting some pack-related
           performance problems. See GIT_TRACE for available trace output

           Enables trace messages for all packets coming in or out of a given
           program. This can help with debugging object negotiation or other
           protocol issues. Tracing is turned off at a packet starting with
           "PACK" (but see GIT_TRACE_PACKFILE below). See GIT_TRACE for
           available trace output options.

           Enables tracing of packfiles sent or received by a given program.
           Unlike other trace output, this trace is verbatim: no headers, and
           no quoting of binary data. You almost certainly want to direct into
           a file (e.g., GIT_TRACE_PACKFILE=/tmp/my.pack) rather than
           displaying it on the terminal or mixing it with other trace output.

           Note that this is currently only implemented for the client side of
           clones and fetches.

           Enables performance related trace messages, e.g. total execution
           time of each Git command. See GIT_TRACE for available trace output

           Enables trace messages printing the .git, working tree and current
           working directory after Git has completed its setup phase. See
           GIT_TRACE for available trace output options.

           Enables trace messages that can help debugging fetching / cloning
           of shallow repositories. See GIT_TRACE for available trace output

           Enables a curl full trace dump of all incoming and outgoing data,
           including descriptive information, of the git transport protocol.
           This is similar to doing curl --trace-ascii on the command line.
           This option overrides setting the GIT_CURL_VERBOSE environment
           variable. See GIT_TRACE for available trace output options.

           When a curl trace is enabled (see GIT_TRACE_CURL above), do not
           dump data (that is, only dump info lines and headers).

           Enables more detailed trace messages from the "trace2" library.
           Output from GIT_TRACE2 is a simple text-based format for human

           If this variable is set to "1", "2" or "true" (comparison is case
           insensitive), trace messages will be printed to stderr.

           If the variable is set to an integer value greater than 2 and lower
           than 10 (strictly) then Git will interpret this value as an open
           file descriptor and will try to write the trace messages into this
           file descriptor.

           Alternatively, if the variable is set to an absolute path (starting
           with a / character), Git will interpret this as a file path and
           will try to append the trace messages to it. If the path already
           exists and is a directory, the trace messages will be written to
           files (one per process) in that directory, named according to the
           last component of the SID and an optional counter (to avoid
           filename collisions).

           In addition, if the variable is set to
           af_unix:[<socket_type>:]<absolute-pathname>, Git will try to open
           the path as a Unix Domain Socket. The socket type can be either
           stream or dgram.

           Unsetting the variable, or setting it to empty, "0" or "false"
           (case insensitive) disables trace messages.

           See Trace2 documentation[2] for full details.

           This setting writes a JSON-based format that is suited for machine
           interpretation. See GIT_TRACE2 for available trace output options
           and Trace2 documentation[2] for full details.

           In addition to the text-based messages available in GIT_TRACE2,
           this setting writes a column-based format for understanding nesting
           regions. See GIT_TRACE2 for available trace output options and
           Trace2 documentation[2] for full details.

           This can be set to a comma-separated list of strings. When a curl
           trace is enabled (see GIT_TRACE_CURL above), whenever a "Cookies:"
           header sent by the client is dumped, values of cookies whose key is
           in that list (case-sensitive) are redacted.

           Setting this variable to 1 will cause Git to treat all pathspecs
           literally, rather than as glob patterns. For example, running
           GIT_LITERAL_PATHSPECS=1 git log -- '*.c' will search for commits
           that touch the path *.c, not any paths that the glob *.c matches.
           You might want this if you are feeding literal paths to Git (e.g.,
           paths previously given to you by git ls-tree, --raw diff output,

           Setting this variable to 1 will cause Git to treat all pathspecs as
           glob patterns (aka "glob" magic).

           Setting this variable to 1 will cause Git to treat all pathspecs as
           literal (aka "literal" magic).

           Setting this variable to 1 will cause Git to treat all pathspecs as

           When a ref is updated, reflog entries are created to keep track of
           the reason why the ref was updated (which is typically the name of
           the high-level command that updated the ref), in addition to the
           old and new values of the ref. A scripted Porcelain command can use
           set_reflog_action helper function in git-sh-setup to set its name
           to this variable when it is invoked as the top level command by the
           end user, to be recorded in the body of the reflog.

           If set to 1, include broken or badly named refs when iterating over
           lists of refs. In a normal, non-corrupted repository, this does
           nothing. However, enabling it may help git to detect and abort some
           operations in the presence of broken refs. Git sets this variable
           automatically when performing destructive operations like git-
           prune(1). You should not need to set it yourself unless you want to
           be paranoid about making sure an operation has touched every ref
           (e.g., because you are cloning a repository to make a backup).

           If set to a colon-separated list of protocols, behave as if
           protocol.allow is set to never, and each of the listed protocols
           has protocol.<name>.allow set to always (overriding any existing
           configuration). In other words, any protocol not mentioned will be
           disallowed (i.e., this is a whitelist, not a blacklist). See the
           description of protocol.allow in git-config(1) for more details.

           Set to 0 to prevent protocols used by fetch/push/clone which are
           configured to the user state. This is useful to restrict recursive
           submodule initialization from an untrusted repository or for
           programs which feed potentially-untrusted URLS to git commands. See
           git-config(1) for more details.

           For internal use only. Used in handshaking the wire protocol.
           Contains a colon : separated list of keys with optional values
           key[=value]. Presence of unknown keys and values must be ignored.

           If set to 0, Git will complete any requested operation without
           performing any optional sub-operations that require taking a lock.
           For example, this will prevent git status from refreshing the index
           as a side effect. This is useful for processes running in the
           background which do not want to cause lock contention with other
           operations on the repository. Defaults to 1.

           Windows-only: allow redirecting the standard input/output/error
           handles to paths specified by the environment variables. This is
           particularly useful in multi-threaded applications where the
           canonical way to pass standard handles via CreateProcess() is not
           an option because it would require the handles to be marked
           inheritable (and consequently every spawned process would inherit
           them, possibly blocking regular Git operations). The primary
           intended use case is to use named pipes for communication (e.g.

           Two special values are supported: off will simply close the
           corresponding standard handle, and if GIT_REDIRECT_STDERR is 2>&1,
           standard error will be redirected to the same handle as standard

       GIT_PRINT_SHA1_ELLIPSIS (deprecated)
           If set to yes, print an ellipsis following an (abbreviated) SHA-1
           value. This affects indications of detached HEADs (git-checkout(1))
           and the raw diff output (git-diff(1)). Printing an ellipsis in the
           cases mentioned is no longer considered adequate and support for it
           is likely to be removed in the foreseeable future (along with the

       More detail on the following is available from the Git concepts chapter
       of the user-manual[3] and gitcore-tutorial(7).

       A Git project normally consists of a working directory with a ".git"
       subdirectory at the top level. The .git directory contains, among other
       things, a compressed object database representing the complete history
       of the project, an "index" file which links that history to the current
       contents of the working tree, and named pointers into that history such
       as tags and branch heads.

       The object database contains objects of three main types: blobs, which
       hold file data; trees, which point to blobs and other trees to build up
       directory hierarchies; and commits, which each reference a single tree
       and some number of parent commits.

       The commit, equivalent to what other systems call a "changeset" or
       "version", represents a step in the project's history, and each parent
       represents an immediately preceding step. Commits with more than one
       parent represent merges of independent lines of development.

       All objects are named by the SHA-1 hash of their contents, normally
       written as a string of 40 hex digits. Such names are globally unique.
       The entire history leading up to a commit can be vouched for by signing
       just that commit. A fourth object type, the tag, is provided for this

       When first created, objects are stored in individual files, but for
       efficiency may later be compressed together into "pack files".

       Named pointers called refs mark interesting points in history. A ref
       may contain the SHA-1 name of an object or the name of another ref.
       Refs with names beginning ref/head/ contain the SHA-1 name of the most
       recent commit (or "head") of a branch under development. SHA-1 names of
       tags of interest are stored under ref/tags/. A special ref named HEAD
       contains the name of the currently checked-out branch.

       The index file is initialized with a list of all paths and, for each
       path, a blob object and a set of attributes. The blob object represents
       the contents of the file as of the head of the current branch. The
       attributes (last modified time, size, etc.) are taken from the
       corresponding file in the working tree. Subsequent changes to the
       working tree can be found by comparing these attributes. The index may
       be updated with new content, and new commits may be created from the
       content stored in the index.

       The index is also capable of storing multiple entries (called "stages")
       for a given pathname. These stages are used to hold the various
       unmerged version of a file when a merge is in progress.

       See the references in the "description" section to get started using
       Git. The following is probably more detail than necessary for a
       first-time user.

       The Git concepts chapter of the user-manual[3] and gitcore-tutorial(7)
       both provide introductions to the underlying Git architecture.

       See gitworkflows(7) for an overview of recommended workflows.

       See also the howto[4] documents for some useful examples.

       The internals are documented in the Git API documentation[5].

       Users migrating from CVS may also want to read gitcvs-migration(7).

       Git was started by Linus Torvalds, and is currently maintained by Junio
       C Hamano. Numerous contributions have come from the Git mailing list
       <[6]>. gives you a more
       complete list of contributors.

       If you have a clone of git.git itself, the output of git-shortlog(1)
       and git-blame(1) can show you the authors for specific parts of the

       Report bugs to the Git mailing list <[6]> where the
       development and maintenance is primarily done. You do not have to be
       subscribed to the list to send a message there. See the list archive at for previous bug reports and other

       Issues which are security relevant should be disclosed privately to the
       Git Security mailing list <[7]>.

       gittutorial(7), gittutorial-2(7), giteveryday(7), gitcvs-migration(7),
       gitglossary(7), gitcore-tutorial(7), gitcli(7), The Git User's
       Manual[1], gitworkflows(7)

       Part of the git(1) suite

        1. Git User's Manual

        2. Trace2 documentation

        3. Git concepts chapter of the user-manual

        4. howto

        5. Git API documentation



Git 2.25.1                        04/26/2023                            GIT(1)
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