git push [--all | --mirror | --tags] [-n | --dry-run] [--receive-pack=<git-receive-pack>]
[--repo=<repository>] [-f | --force] [-v | --verbose] [-u | --set-upstream]
Updates remote refs using local refs, while sending objects necessary
to complete the given refs.
You can make interesting things happen to a repository every time you
push into it, by setting up hooks there. See documentation for git-
The "remote" repository that is destination of a push operation.
This parameter can be either a URL (see the section GIT URLS below)
or the name of a remote (see the section REMOTES below).
The format of a <refspec> parameter is an optional plus +, followed
by the source ref <src>, followed by a colon :, followed by the
destination ref <dst>. It is used to specify with what <src> object
the <dst> ref in the remote repository is to be updated.
The <src> is often the name of the branch you would want to push,
but it can be any arbitrary "SHA-1 expression", such as master~4 or
HEAD (see git-rev-parse(1)).
The <dst> tells which ref on the remote side is updated with this
push. Arbitrary expressions cannot be used here, an actual ref must
be named. If :<dst> is omitted, the same ref as <src> will be
The object referenced by <src> is used to update the <dst>
reference on the remote side, but by default this is only allowed
if the update can fast-forward <dst>. By having the optional
leading +, you can tell git to update the <dst> ref even when the
update is not a fast-forward. This does not attempt to merge <src>
into <dst>. See EXAMPLES below for details.
tag <tag> means the same as refs/tags/<tag>:refs/tags/<tag>.
Pushing an empty <src> allows you to delete the <dst> ref from the
The special refspec : (or +: to allow non-fast-forward updates)
directs git to push "matching" branches: for every branch that
exists on the local side, the remote side is updated if a branch of
the same name already exists on the remote side. This is the
default operation mode if no explicit refspec is found (that is
neither on the command line nor in any Push line of the
and deleted refs will be removed from the remote end. This is the
default if the configuration option remote.<remote>.mirror is set.
Do everything except actually send the updates.
Produce machine-readable output. The output status line for each
ref will be tab-separated and sent to stdout instead of stderr. The
full symbolic names of the refs will be given.
All listed refs are deleted from the remote repository. This is the
same as prefixing all refs with a colon.
All refs under refs/tags are pushed, in addition to refspecs
explicitly listed on the command line.
Path to the git-receive-pack program on the remote end. Sometimes
useful when pushing to a remote repository over ssh, and you do not
have the program in a directory on the default $PATH.
Usually, the command refuses to update a remote ref that is not an
ancestor of the local ref used to overwrite it. This flag disables
the check. This can cause the remote repository to lose commits;
use it with care.
This option is only relevant if no <repository> argument is passed
in the invocation. In this case, git push derives the remote name
from the current branch: If it tracks a remote branch, then that
remote repository is pushed to. Otherwise, the name "origin" is
used. For this latter case, this option can be used to override the
name "origin". In other words, the difference between these two
git push public #1
git push --repo=public #2
is that #1 always pushes to "public" whereas #2 pushes to "public"
only if the current branch does not track a remote branch. This is
useful if you write an alias or script around git push.
For every branch that is up to date or successfully pushed, add
upstream (tracking) reference, used by argument-less git-pull(1)
and other commands. For more information, see branch.<name>.merge
These options are passed to git-send-pack(1). A thin transfer
One of the following notations can be used to name the remote
SSH is the default transport protocol over the network. You can
optionally specify which user to log-in as, and an alternate, scp-like
syntax is also supported. Both syntaxes support username expansion, as
does the native git protocol, but only the former supports port
specification. The following three are identical to the last three
To sync with a local directory, you can use:
They are mostly equivalent, except when cloning. See git-clone(1) for
If there are a large number of similarly-named remote repositories and
you want to use a different format for them (such that the URLs you use
will be rewritten into URLs that work), you can create a configuration
section of the form:
[url "<actual url base>"]
insteadOf = <other url base>
For example, with this:
[url "<actual url base>"]
pushInsteadOf = <other url base>
For example, with this:
pushInsteadOf = git://example.org/
a URL like "git://example.org/path/to/repo.git" will be rewritten to
"ssh://example.org/path/to/repo.git" for pushes, but pulls will still
use the original URL.
The name of one of the following can be used instead of a URL as
o a remote in the git configuration file: $GIT_DIR/config,
o a file in the $GIT_DIR/remotes directory, or
o a file in the $GIT_DIR/branches directory.
All of these also allow you to omit the refspec from the command line
because they each contain a refspec which git will use by default.
Named remote in configuration file
You can choose to provide the name of a remote which you had previously
configured using git-remote(1), git-config(1) or even by a manual edit
to the $GIT_DIR/config file. The URL of this remote will be used to
access the repository. The refspec of this remote will be used by
default when you do not provide a refspec on the command line. The
entry in the config file would appear like this:
url = <url>
pushurl = <pushurl>
push = <refspec>
fetch = <refspec>
The <pushurl> is used for pushes only. It is optional and defaults to
Named file in $GIT_DIR/remotes
You can choose to provide the name of a file in $GIT_DIR/remotes. The
URL in this file will be used to access the repository. The refspec in
this file will be used as default when you do not provide a refspec on
the command line. This file should have the following format:
URL: one of the above URL format
<url> is required; #<head> is optional.
Depending on the operation, git will use one of the following refspecs,
if you don't provide one on the command line. <branch> is the name of
this file in $GIT_DIR/branches and <head> defaults to master.
git fetch uses:
git push uses:
The output of "git push" depends on the transport method used; this
section describes the output when pushing over the git protocol (either
locally or via ssh).
The status of the push is output in tabular form, with each line
representing the status of a single ref. Each line is of the form:
<flag> <summary> <from> -> <to> (<reason>)
If --porcelain is used, then each line of the output is of the form:
<flag> \t <from>:<to> \t <summary> (<reason>)
The status of up-to-date refs is shown only if --porcelain or --verbose
option is used.
A single character indicating the status of the ref:
for a successfully pushed fast-forward;
for a successful forced update;
for a successfully deleted ref;
for a successfully pushed new ref;
for a ref that was rejected or failed to push; and
end refused the update; this rejection is typically caused by a
hook on the remote side. The string remote failure indicates that
the remote end did not report the successful update of the ref
(perhaps because of a temporary error on the remote side, a break
in the network connection, or other transient error).
The name of the local ref being pushed, minus its refs/<type>/
prefix. In the case of deletion, the name of the local ref is
The name of the remote ref being updated, minus its refs/<type>/
A human-readable explanation. In the case of successfully pushed
refs, no explanation is needed. For a failed ref, the reason for
failure is described.
NOTE ABOUT FAST-FORWARDS
When an update changes a branch (or more in general, a ref) that used
to point at commit A to point at another commit B, it is called a
fast-forward update if and only if B is a descendant of A.
In a fast-forward update from A to B, the set of commits that the
original commit A built on top of is a subset of the commits the new
commit B builds on top of. Hence, it does not lose any history.
In contrast, a non-fast-forward update will lose history. For example,
suppose you and somebody else started at the same commit X, and you
built a history leading to commit B while the other person built a
history leading to commit A. The history looks like this:
Further suppose that the other person already pushed changes leading to
A back to the original repository you two obtained the original commit
The push done by the other person updated the branch that used to point
at commit X to point at commit A. It is a fast-forward.
But if you try to push, you will attempt to update the branch (that now
points at A) with commit B. This does not fast-forward. If you did so,
the changes introduced by commit A will be lost, because everybody will
now start building on top of B.
The command by default does not allow an update that is not a
fast-forward to prevent such loss of history.
Updating A with the resulting merge commit will fast-forward and your
push will be accepted.
Alternatively, you can rebase your change between X and B on top of A,
with "git pull --rebase", and push the result back. The rebase will
create a new commit D that builds the change between X and B on top of
Again, updating A with this commit will fast-forward and your push will
There is another common situation where you may encounter
non-fast-forward rejection when you try to push, and it is possible
even when you are pushing into a repository nobody else pushes into.
After you push commit A yourself (in the first picture in this
section), replace it with "git commit --amend" to produce commit B, and
you try to push it out, because forgot that you have pushed A out
already. In such a case, and only if you are certain that nobody in the
meantime fetched your earlier commit A (and started building on top of
it), you can run "git push --force" to overwrite it. In other words,
"git push --force" is a method reserved for a case where you do mean to
Works like git push <remote>, where <remote> is the current
branch's remote (or origin, if no remote is configured for the
git push origin
Without additional configuration, works like git push origin :.
The default behavior of this command when no <refspec> is given can
be configured by setting the push option of the remote.
For example, to default to pushing only the current branch to
origin use git config remote.origin.push HEAD. Any valid <refspec>
(like the ones in the examples below) can be configured as the
default for git push origin.
git push origin
Push "matching" branches to origin. See <refspec> in the
OPTIONS section above for a description of "matching" branches.
git push origin master
Find a ref that matches master in the source repository (most
likely, it would find refs/heads/master), and update the same ref
git push origin HEAD:master
Push the current branch to the remote ref matching master in the
origin repository. This form is convenient to push the current
branch without thinking about its local name.
git push origin master:refs/heads/experimental
Create the branch experimental in the origin repository by copying
the current master branch. This form is only needed to create a new
branch or tag in the remote repository when the local name and the
remote name are different; otherwise, the ref name on its own will
git push origin :experimental
Find a ref that matches experimental in the origin repository (e.g.
refs/heads/experimental), and delete it.
git push origin +dev:master
Update the origin repository's master branch with the dev branch,
allowing non-fast-forward updates. This can leave unreferenced
commits dangling in the origin repository. Consider the following
situation, where a fast-forward is not possible:
The above command would change the origin repository to
A---B (unnamed branch)
Commits A and B would no longer belong to a branch with a symbolic
name, and so would be unreachable. As such, these commits would be
removed by a git gc command on the origin repository.
Written by Junio C Hamano <email@example.com>, later rewritten in C
by Linus Torvalds <firstname.lastname@example.org>
Documentation by Junio C Hamano and the git-list
Part of the git(1) suite
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