git-diff-tree

SYNOPSIS
       git diff-tree [--stdin] [-m] [-s] [-v] [--no-commit-id] [--pretty]
                     [-t] [-r] [-c | --cc] [--root] [<common diff options>]
                     <tree-ish> [<tree-ish>] [<path>...]

DESCRIPTION
       Compares the content and mode of the blobs found via two tree objects.

       If there is only one <tree-ish> given, the commit is compared with its
       parents (see --stdin below).

       Note that git diff-tree can use the tree encapsulated in a commit
       object.

OPTIONS
       -p, -u, --patch
           Generate patch (see section on generating patches).

       -s, --no-patch
           Suppress diff output. Useful for commands like git show that show
           the patch by default, or to cancel the effect of --patch.

       -U<n>, --unified=<n>
           Generate diffs with <n> lines of context instead of the usual
           three. Implies -p.

       --raw
           Generate the diff in raw format. This is the default.

       --patch-with-raw
           Synonym for -p --raw.

       --minimal
           Spend extra time to make sure the smallest possible diff is
           produced.

       --patience
           Generate a diff using the "patience diff" algorithm.

       --histogram
           Generate a diff using the "histogram diff" algorithm.

       --diff-algorithm={patience|minimal|histogram|myers}
           Choose a diff algorithm. The variants are as follows:

           default, myers
               The basic greedy diff algorithm. Currently, this is the
               default.

           minimal
               Spend extra time to make sure the smallest possible diff is
               produced.

           patience
           used for the filename part, and the rest for the graph part.
           Maximum width defaults to terminal width, or 80 columns if not
           connected to a terminal, and can be overridden by <width>. The
           width of the filename part can be limited by giving another width
           <name-width> after a comma. The width of the graph part can be
           limited by using --stat-graph-width=<width> (affects all commands
           generating a stat graph) or by setting diff.statGraphWidth=<width>
           (does not affect git format-patch). By giving a third parameter
           <count>, you can limit the output to the first <count> lines,
           followed by ...  if there are more.

           These parameters can also be set individually with
           --stat-width=<width>, --stat-name-width=<name-width> and
           --stat-count=<count>.

       --numstat
           Similar to --stat, but shows number of added and deleted lines in
           decimal notation and pathname without abbreviation, to make it more
           machine friendly. For binary files, outputs two - instead of saying
           0 0.

       --shortstat
           Output only the last line of the --stat format containing total
           number of modified files, as well as number of added and deleted
           lines.

       --dirstat[=<param1,param2,...>]
           Output the distribution of relative amount of changes for each
           sub-directory. The behavior of --dirstat can be customized by
           passing it a comma separated list of parameters. The defaults are
           controlled by the diff.dirstat configuration variable (see git-
           config(1)). The following parameters are available:

           changes
               Compute the dirstat numbers by counting the lines that have
               been removed from the source, or added to the destination. This
               ignores the amount of pure code movements within a file. In
               other words, rearranging lines in a file is not counted as much
               as other changes. This is the default behavior when no
               parameter is given.

           lines
               Compute the dirstat numbers by doing the regular line-based
               diff analysis, and summing the removed/added line counts. (For
               binary files, count 64-byte chunks instead, since binary files
               have no natural concept of lines). This is a more expensive
               --dirstat behavior than the changes behavior, but it does count
               rearranged lines within a file as much as other changes. The
               resulting output is consistent with what you get from the other
               --*stat options.

           files
               Compute the dirstat numbers by counting the number of files
               changed. Each changed file counts equally in the dirstat
               An integer parameter specifies a cut-off percent (3% by
               default). Directories contributing less than this percentage of
               the changes are not shown in the output.

           Example: The following will count changed files, while ignoring
           directories with less than 10% of the total amount of changed
           files, and accumulating child directory counts in the parent
           directories: --dirstat=files,10,cumulative.

       --summary
           Output a condensed summary of extended header information such as
           creations, renames and mode changes.

       --patch-with-stat
           Synonym for -p --stat.

       -z
           When --raw, --numstat, --name-only or --name-status has been given,
           do not munge pathnames and use NULs as output field terminators.

           Without this option, each pathname output will have TAB, LF, double
           quotes, and backslash characters replaced with \t, \n, \", and \\,
           respectively, and the pathname will be enclosed in double quotes if
           any of those replacements occurred.

       --name-only
           Show only names of changed files.

       --name-status
           Show only names and status of changed files. See the description of
           the --diff-filter option on what the status letters mean.

       --submodule[=<format>]
           Specify how differences in submodules are shown. When --submodule
           or --submodule=log is given, the log format is used. This format
           lists the commits in the range like git-submodule(1) summary does.
           Omitting the --submodule option or specifying --submodule=short,
           uses the short format. This format just shows the names of the
           commits at the beginning and end of the range. Can be tweaked via
           the diff.submodule configuration variable.

       --color[=<when>]
           Show colored diff.  --color (i.e. without =<when>) is the same as
           --color=always.  <when> can be one of always, never, or auto.

       --no-color
           Turn off colored diff. It is the same as --color=never.

       --word-diff[=<mode>]
           Show a word diff, using the <mode> to delimit changed words. By
           default, words are delimited by whitespace; see --word-diff-regex
           below. The <mode> defaults to plain, and must be one of:

           color
               Newlines in the input are represented by a tilde ~ on a line of
               its own.

           none
               Disable word diff again.

           Note that despite the name of the first mode, color is used to
           highlight the changed parts in all modes if enabled.

       --word-diff-regex=<regex>
           Use <regex> to decide what a word is, instead of considering runs
           of non-whitespace to be a word. Also implies --word-diff unless it
           was already enabled.

           Every non-overlapping match of the <regex> is considered a word.
           Anything between these matches is considered whitespace and
           ignored(!) for the purposes of finding differences. You may want to
           append |[^[:space:]] to your regular expression to make sure that
           it matches all non-whitespace characters. A match that contains a
           newline is silently truncated(!) at the newline.

           For example, --word-diff-regex=.  will treat each character as a
           word and, correspondingly, show differences character by character.

           The regex can also be set via a diff driver or configuration
           option, see gitattributes(1) or git-config(1). Giving it explicitly
           overrides any diff driver or configuration setting. Diff drivers
           override configuration settings.

       --color-words[=<regex>]
           Equivalent to --word-diff=color plus (if a regex was specified)
           --word-diff-regex=<regex>.

       --no-renames
           Turn off rename detection, even when the configuration file gives
           the default to do so.

       --check
           Warn if changes introduce whitespace errors. What are considered
           whitespace errors is controlled by core.whitespace configuration.
           By default, trailing whitespaces (including lines that solely
           consist of whitespaces) and a space character that is immediately
           followed by a tab character inside the initial indent of the line
           are considered whitespace errors. Exits with non-zero status if
           problems are found. Not compatible with --exit-code.

       --ws-error-highlight=<kind>
           Highlight whitespace errors on lines specified by <kind> in the
           color specified by color.diff.whitespace. <kind> is a comma
           separated list of old, new, context. When this option is not given,
           only whitespace errors in new lines are highlighted. E.g.
           --ws-error-highlight=new,old highlights whitespace errors on both
           deleted and added lines.  all can be used as a short-hand for
           old,new,context.
           diff-raw format output and diff-tree header lines, show only a
           partial prefix. This is independent of the --full-index option
           above, which controls the diff-patch output format. Non default
           number of digits can be specified with --abbrev=<n>.

       -B[<n>][/<m>], --break-rewrites[=[<n>][/<m>]]
           Break complete rewrite changes into pairs of delete and create.
           This serves two purposes:

           It affects the way a change that amounts to a total rewrite of a
           file not as a series of deletion and insertion mixed together with
           a very few lines that happen to match textually as the context, but
           as a single deletion of everything old followed by a single
           insertion of everything new, and the number m controls this aspect
           of the -B option (defaults to 60%).  -B/70% specifies that less
           than 30% of the original should remain in the result for Git to
           consider it a total rewrite (i.e. otherwise the resulting patch
           will be a series of deletion and insertion mixed together with
           context lines).

           When used with -M, a totally-rewritten file is also considered as
           the source of a rename (usually -M only considers a file that
           disappeared as the source of a rename), and the number n controls
           this aspect of the -B option (defaults to 50%).  -B20% specifies
           that a change with addition and deletion compared to 20% or more of
           the file's size are eligible for being picked up as a possible
           source of a rename to another file.

       -M[<n>], --find-renames[=<n>]
           Detect renames. If n is specified, it is a threshold on the
           similarity index (i.e. amount of addition/deletions compared to the
           file's size). For example, -M90% means Git should consider a
           delete/add pair to be a rename if more than 90% of the file hasn't
           changed. Without a % sign, the number is to be read as a fraction,
           with a decimal point before it. I.e., -M5 becomes 0.5, and is thus
           the same as -M50%. Similarly, -M05 is the same as -M5%. To limit
           detection to exact renames, use -M100%. The default similarity
           index is 50%.

       -C[<n>], --find-copies[=<n>]
           Detect copies as well as renames. See also --find-copies-harder. If
           n is specified, it has the same meaning as for -M<n>.

       --find-copies-harder
           For performance reasons, by default, -C option finds copies only if
           the original file of the copy was modified in the same changeset.
           This flag makes the command inspect unmodified files as candidates
           for the source of copy. This is a very expensive operation for
           large projects, so use it with caution. Giving more than one -C
           option has the same effect.

       -D, --irreversible-delete
           Omit the preimage for deletes, i.e. print only the header but not
           the diff between the preimage and /dev/null. The resulting patch is
           rename/copy detection from running if the number of rename/copy
           targets exceeds the specified number.

       --diff-filter=[(A|C|D|M|R|T|U|X|B)...[*]]
           Select only files that are Added (A), Copied (C), Deleted (D),
           Modified (M), Renamed (R), have their type (i.e. regular file,
           symlink, submodule, ...) changed (T), are Unmerged (U), are Unknown
           (X), or have had their pairing Broken (B). Any combination of the
           filter characters (including none) can be used. When *
           (All-or-none) is added to the combination, all paths are selected
           if there is any file that matches other criteria in the comparison;
           if there is no file that matches other criteria, nothing is
           selected.

       -S<string>
           Look for differences that change the number of occurrences of the
           specified string (i.e. addition/deletion) in a file. Intended for
           the scripter's use.

           It is useful when you're looking for an exact block of code (like a
           struct), and want to know the history of that block since it first
           came into being: use the feature iteratively to feed the
           interesting block in the preimage back into -S, and keep going
           until you get the very first version of the block.

       -G<regex>
           Look for differences whose patch text contains added/removed lines
           that match <regex>.

           To illustrate the difference between -S<regex> --pickaxe-regex and
           -G<regex>, consider a commit with the following diff in the same
           file:

               +    return !regexec(regexp, two->ptr, 1, &regmatch, 0);
               ...
               -    hit = !regexec(regexp, mf2.ptr, 1, &regmatch, 0);

           While git log -G"regexec\(regexp" will show this commit, git log
           -S"regexec\(regexp" --pickaxe-regex will not (because the number of
           occurrences of that string did not change).

           See the pickaxe entry in gitdiffcore(7) for more information.

       --pickaxe-all
           When -S or -G finds a change, show all the changes in that
           changeset, not just the files that contain the change in <string>.

       --pickaxe-regex
           Treat the <string> given to -S as an extended POSIX regular
           expression to match.

       -O<orderfile>
           Output the patch in the order specified in the <orderfile>, which
           has one shell glob pattern per line. This overrides the
           output relative to by giving a <path> as an argument.

       -a, --text
           Treat all files as text.

       --ignore-space-at-eol
           Ignore changes in whitespace at EOL.

       -b, --ignore-space-change
           Ignore changes in amount of whitespace. This ignores whitespace at
           line end, and considers all other sequences of one or more
           whitespace characters to be equivalent.

       -w, --ignore-all-space
           Ignore whitespace when comparing lines. This ignores differences
           even if one line has whitespace where the other line has none.

       --ignore-blank-lines
           Ignore changes whose lines are all blank.

       --inter-hunk-context=<lines>
           Show the context between diff hunks, up to the specified number of
           lines, thereby fusing hunks that are close to each other.

       -W, --function-context
           Show whole surrounding functions of changes.

       --exit-code
           Make the program exit with codes similar to diff(1). That is, it
           exits with 1 if there were differences and 0 means no differences.

       --quiet
           Disable all output of the program. Implies --exit-code.

       --ext-diff
           Allow an external diff helper to be executed. If you set an
           external diff driver with gitattributes(5), you need to use this
           option with git-log(1) and friends.

       --no-ext-diff
           Disallow external diff drivers.

       --textconv, --no-textconv
           Allow (or disallow) external text conversion filters to be run when
           comparing binary files. See gitattributes(5) for details. Because
           textconv filters are typically a one-way conversion, the resulting
           diff is suitable for human consumption, but cannot be applied. For
           this reason, textconv filters are enabled by default only for git-
           diff(1) and git-log(1), but not for git-format-patch(1) or diff
           plumbing commands.

       --ignore-submodules[=<when>]
           Ignore changes to submodules in the diff generation. <when> can be
           either "none", "untracked", "dirty" or "all", which is the default.
           Show the given source prefix instead of "a/".

       --dst-prefix=<prefix>
           Show the given destination prefix instead of "b/".

       --no-prefix
           Do not show any source or destination prefix.

       For more detailed explanation on these common options, see also
       gitdiffcore(7).

       <tree-ish>
           The id of a tree object.

       <path>...
           If provided, the results are limited to a subset of files matching
           one of these prefix strings. i.e., file matches
           /^<pattern1>|<pattern2>|.../ Note that this parameter does not
           provide any wildcard or regexp features.

       -r
           recurse into sub-trees

       -t
           show tree entry itself as well as subtrees. Implies -r.

       --root
           When --root is specified the initial commit will be shown as a big
           creation event. This is equivalent to a diff against the NULL tree.

       --stdin
           When --stdin is specified, the command does not take <tree-ish>
           arguments from the command line. Instead, it reads lines containing
           either two <tree>, one <commit>, or a list of <commit> from its
           standard input. (Use a single space as separator.)

           When two trees are given, it compares the first tree with the
           second. When a single commit is given, it compares the commit with
           its parents. The remaining commits, when given, are used as if they
           are parents of the first commit.

           When comparing two trees, the ID of both trees (separated by a
           space and terminated by a newline) is printed before the
           difference. When comparing commits, the ID of the first (or only)
           commit, followed by a newline, is printed.

           The following flags further affect the behavior when comparing
           commits (but not trees).

       -m
           By default, git diff-tree --stdin does not show differences for
           merge commits. With this flag, it shows differences to that commit
           from all of its parents. See also -c.

           email, raw, format:<string> and tformat:<string>. When <format> is
           none of the above, and has %placeholder in it, it acts as if
           --pretty=tformat:<format> were given.

           See the "PRETTY FORMATS" section for some additional details for
           each format. When =<format> part is omitted, it defaults to medium.

           Note: you can specify the default pretty format in the repository
           configuration (see git-config(1)).

       --abbrev-commit
           Instead of showing the full 40-byte hexadecimal commit object name,
           show only a partial prefix. Non default number of digits can be
           specified with "--abbrev=<n>" (which also modifies diff output, if
           it is displayed).

           This should make "--pretty=oneline" a whole lot more readable for
           people using 80-column terminals.

       --no-abbrev-commit
           Show the full 40-byte hexadecimal commit object name. This negates
           --abbrev-commit and those options which imply it such as
           "--oneline". It also overrides the log.abbrevCommit variable.

       --oneline
           This is a shorthand for "--pretty=oneline --abbrev-commit" used
           together.

       --encoding=<encoding>
           The commit objects record the encoding used for the log message in
           their encoding header; this option can be used to tell the command
           to re-code the commit log message in the encoding preferred by the
           user. For non plumbing commands this defaults to UTF-8. Note that
           if an object claims to be encoded in X and we are outputting in X,
           we will output the object verbatim; this means that invalid
           sequences in the original commit may be copied to the output.

       --notes[=<ref>]
           Show the notes (see git-notes(1)) that annotate the commit, when
           showing the commit log message. This is the default for git log,
           git show and git whatchanged commands when there is no --pretty,
           --format, or --oneline option given on the command line.

           By default, the notes shown are from the notes refs listed in the
           core.notesRef and notes.displayRef variables (or corresponding
           environment overrides). See git-config(1) for more details.

           With an optional <ref> argument, show this notes ref instead of the
           default notes ref(s). The ref specifies the full refname when it
           begins with refs/notes/; when it begins with notes/, refs/ and
           otherwise refs/notes/ is prefixed to form a full name of the ref.

           Multiple --notes options can be combined to control which notes are
           being displayed. Examples: "--notes=foo" will show only notes from
           options instead.

       --show-signature
           Check the validity of a signed commit object by passing the
           signature to gpg --verify and show the output.

       --no-commit-id
           git diff-tree outputs a line with the commit ID when applicable.
           This flag suppressed the commit ID output.

       -c
           This flag changes the way a merge commit is displayed (which means
           it is useful only when the command is given one <tree-ish>, or
           --stdin). It shows the differences from each of the parents to the
           merge result simultaneously instead of showing pairwise diff
           between a parent and the result one at a time (which is what the -m
           option does). Furthermore, it lists only files which were modified
           from all parents.

       --cc
           This flag changes the way a merge commit patch is displayed, in a
           similar way to the -c option. It implies the -c and -p options and
           further compresses the patch output by omitting uninteresting hunks
           whose the contents in the parents have only two variants and the
           merge result picks one of them without modification. When all hunks
           are uninteresting, the commit itself and the commit log message is
           not shown, just like in any other "empty diff" case.

       --always
           Show the commit itself and the commit log message even if the diff
           itself is empty.

PRETTY FORMATS
       If the commit is a merge, and if the pretty-format is not oneline,
       email or raw, an additional line is inserted before the Author: line.
       This line begins with "Merge: " and the sha1s of ancestral commits are
       printed, separated by spaces. Note that the listed commits may not
       necessarily be the list of the direct parent commits if you have
       limited your view of history: for example, if you are only interested
       in changes related to a certain directory or file.

       There are several built-in formats, and you can define additional
       formats by setting a pretty.<name> config option to either another
       format name, or a format: string, as described below (see git-
       config(1)). Here are the details of the built-in formats:

       o   oneline

               <sha1> <title line>

           This is designed to be as compact as possible.

       o   short


               <full commit message>

       o   full

               commit <sha1>
               Author: <author>
               Commit: <committer>

               <title line>

               <full commit message>

       o   fuller

               commit <sha1>
               Author:     <author>
               AuthorDate: <author date>
               Commit:     <committer>
               CommitDate: <committer date>

               <title line>

               <full commit message>

       o   email

               From <sha1> <date>
               From: <author>
               Date: <author date>
               Subject: [PATCH] <title line>

               <full commit message>

       o   raw

           The raw format shows the entire commit exactly as stored in the
           commit object. Notably, the SHA-1s are displayed in full,
           regardless of whether --abbrev or --no-abbrev are used, and parents
           information show the true parent commits, without taking grafts or
           history simplification into account. Note that this format affects
           the way commits are displayed, but not the way the diff is shown
           e.g. with git log --raw. To get full object names in a raw diff
           format, use --no-abbrev.

       o   format:<string>

           The format:<string> format allows you to specify which information
           you want to show. It works a little bit like printf format, with
           the notable exception that you get a newline with %n instead of \n.

           E.g, format:"The author of %h was %an, %ar%nThe title was >>%s<<%n"
           would show something like this:


           o   %P: parent hashes

           o   %p: abbreviated parent hashes

           o   %an: author name

           o   %aN: author name (respecting .mailmap, see git-shortlog(1) or
               git-blame(1))

           o   %ae: author email

           o   %aE: author email (respecting .mailmap, see git-shortlog(1) or
               git-blame(1))

           o   %ad: author date (format respects --date= option)

           o   %aD: author date, RFC2822 style

           o   %ar: author date, relative

           o   %at: author date, UNIX timestamp

           o   %ai: author date, ISO 8601-like format

           o   %aI: author date, strict ISO 8601 format

           o   %cn: committer name

           o   %cN: committer name (respecting .mailmap, see git-shortlog(1)
               or git-blame(1))

           o   %ce: committer email

           o   %cE: committer email (respecting .mailmap, see git-shortlog(1)
               or git-blame(1))

           o   %cd: committer date (format respects --date= option)

           o   %cD: committer date, RFC2822 style

           o   %cr: committer date, relative

           o   %ct: committer date, UNIX timestamp

           o   %ci: committer date, ISO 8601-like format

           o   %cI: committer date, strict ISO 8601 format

           o   %d: ref names, like the --decorate option of git-log(1)

           o   %D: ref names without the " (", ")" wrapping.

           o   %e: encoding

           o   %G?: show "G" for a Good signature, "B" for a Bad signature,
               "U" for a good, untrusted signature and "N" for no signature

           o   %GS: show the name of the signer for a signed commit

           o   %GK: show the key used to sign a signed commit

           o   %gD: reflog selector, e.g., refs/stash@{1}

           o   %gd: shortened reflog selector, e.g., stash@{1}

           o   %gn: reflog identity name

           o   %gN: reflog identity name (respecting .mailmap, see git-
               shortlog(1) or git-blame(1))

           o   %ge: reflog identity email

           o   %gE: reflog identity email (respecting .mailmap, see git-
               shortlog(1) or git-blame(1))

           o   %gs: reflog subject

           o   %Cred: switch color to red

           o   %Cgreen: switch color to green

           o   %Cblue: switch color to blue

           o   %Creset: reset color

           o   %C(...): color specification, as described in color.branch.*
               config option; adding auto, at the beginning will emit color
               only when colors are enabled for log output (by color.diff,
               color.ui, or --color, and respecting the auto settings of the
               former if we are going to a terminal).  auto alone (i.e.
               %C(auto)) will turn on auto coloring on the next placeholders
               until the color is switched again.

           o   %m: left, right or boundary mark

           o   %n: newline

           o   %%: a raw %

           o   %x00: print a byte from a hex code

           o   %w([<w>[,<i1>[,<i2>]]]): switch line wrapping, like the -w
               option of git-shortlog(1).

           o   %<(git-diff(1) or git-show(1). Note also that you can
       give the -m option to any of these commands to force generation of
       diffs with individual parents of a merge.

       A combined diff format looks like this:

           diff --combined describe.c
           index fabadb8,cc95eb0..4866510
           --- a/describe.c
           +++ b/describe.c
           @@@ -98,20 -98,12 +98,20 @@@
                   return (a_date > b_date) ? -1 : (a_date == b_date) ? 0 : 1;
             }

           - static void describe(char *arg)
            -static void describe(struct commit *cmit, int last_one)
           ++static void describe(char *arg, int last_one)
             {
            +      unsigned char sha1[20];
            +      struct commit *cmit;
                   struct commit_list *list;
                   static int initialized = 0;
                   struct commit_name *n;

            +      if (get_sha1(arg, sha1) < 0)
            +              usage(describe_usage);
            +      cmit = lookup_commit_reference(sha1);
            +      if (!cmit)
            +              usage(describe_usage);
            +
                   if (!initialized) {

        2. It is followed by one or more extended header lines (this example
           shows a merge with two parents):

               index <hash>,<hash>..<hash>
               mode <mode>,<mode>..<mode>
               new file mode <mode>
               deleted file mode <mode>,<mode>

           The mode <mode>,<mode>..<mode> line appears only if at least one of
           the <mode> is different from the rest. Extended headers with
           information about detected contents movement (renames and copying
           detection) are designed to work with diff of two <tree-ish> and are
           not used by combined diff format.

        3. It is followed by two-line from-file/to-file header

               --- a/file
               +++ b/file

           Similar to two-line header for traditional unified diff format,
           /dev/null is used to signal created or deleted files.

        4. Chunk header format is modified to prevent people from accidentally
           feeding it to patch -p1. Combined diff format was created for
           review of merge commit changes, and was not meant for apply. The
           change is similar to the change in the extended index header:

               @@@ <from-file-range> <from-file-range> <to-file-range> @@@

           There are (number of parents + 1) @ characters in the chunk header
           for combined diff format.

       Unlike the traditional unified diff format, which shows two files A and
       B with a single column that has - (minus -- appears in A but removed in
       B), + (plus -- missing in A but added to B), or " " (space --
       unchanged) prefix, this format compares two or more files file1,
       file2,... with one file X, and shows how X differs from each of fileN.
       One column for each of fileN is prepended to the output line to note
       how X's line is different from it.

       A - character in the column N means that the line appears in fileN but
       it does not appear in the result. A + character in the column N means
       that the line appears in the result, and fileN does not have that line
       (in other words, the line was added, from the point of view of that
       parent).

       In the above example output, the function signature was changed from
       both files (hence two - removals from both file1 and file2, plus ++ to
       mean one line that was added does not appear in either file1 or file2).
       Also eight other lines are the same from file1 but do not appear in
       file2 (hence prefixed with +).

       When shown by git diff-tree -c, it compares the parents of a merge
       commit with the merge result (i.e. file1..fileN are the parents). When
       of the pathnames. For example, a change that moves arch/i386/Makefile
       to arch/x86/Makefile while modifying 4 lines will be shown like this:

           arch/{i386 => x86}/Makefile    |   4 +--

       The --numstat option gives the diffstat(1) information but is designed
       for easier machine consumption. An entry in --numstat output looks like
       this:

           1       2       README
           3       1       arch/{i386 => x86}/Makefile

       That is, from left to right:

        1. the number of added lines;

        2. a tab;

        3. the number of deleted lines;

        4. a tab;

        5. pathname (possibly with rename/copy information);

        6. a newline.

       When -z output option is in effect, the output is formatted this way:

           1       2       README NUL
           3       1       NUL arch/i386/Makefile NUL arch/x86/Makefile NUL

       That is:

        1. the number of added lines;

        2. a tab;

        3. the number of deleted lines;

        4. a tab;

        5. a NUL (only exists if renamed/copied);

        6. pathname in preimage;

        7. a NUL (only exists if renamed/copied);

        8. pathname in postimage (only exists if renamed/copied);

        9. a NUL.

       The extra NUL before the preimage path in renamed case is to allow
       scripts that read the output to tell if the current record being read
       is a single-path record or a rename/copy record without reading ahead.
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