git-log

       git log [<options>] [<revision range>] [[--] <path>...]

DESCRIPTION
       Shows the commit logs.

       The command takes options applicable to the git rev-list command to
       control what is shown and how, and options applicable to the git diff-*
       commands to control how the changes each commit introduces are shown.

OPTIONS
       --follow
           Continue listing the history of a file beyond renames (works only
           for a single file).

       --no-decorate, --decorate[=short|full|no]
           Print out the ref names of any commits that are shown. If short is
           specified, the ref name prefixes refs/heads/, refs/tags/ and
           refs/remotes/ will not be printed. If full is specified, the full
           ref name (including prefix) will be printed. The default option is
           short.

       --source
           Print out the ref name given on the command line by which each
           commit was reached.

       --use-mailmap
           Use mailmap file to map author and committer names and email
           addresses to canonical real names and email addresses. See git-
           shortlog(1).

       --full-diff
           Without this flag, git log -p <path>...  shows commits that touch
           the specified paths, and diffs about the same specified paths. With
           this, the full diff is shown for commits that touch the specified
           paths; this means that "<path>..." limits only commits, and doesn't
           limit diff for those commits.

           Note that this affects all diff-based output types, e.g. those
           produced by --stat, etc.

       --log-size
           Include a line "log size <number>" in the output for each commit,
           where <number> is the length of that commit's message in bytes.
           Intended to speed up tools that read log messages from git log
           output by allowing them to allocate space in advance.

       -L <start>,<end>:<file>, -L :<funcname>:<file>
           Trace the evolution of the line range given by "<start>,<end>" (or
           the function name regex <funcname>) within the <file>. You may not
           give any pathspec limiters. This is currently limited to a walk
           starting from a single revision, i.e., you may only give zero or
           one positive revision arguments. You can specify this option more
           than once.

               file. If <start> is "^/regex/", it will search from the start
               of file. If <end> is a regex, it will search starting at the
               line given by <start>.

           o   +offset or -offset

               This is only valid for <end> and will specify a number of lines
               before or after the line given by <start>.

           If ":<funcname>" is given in place of <start> and <end>, it is a
           regular expression that denotes the range from the first funcname
           line that matches <funcname>, up to the next funcname line.
           ":<funcname>" searches from the end of the previous -L range, if
           any, otherwise from the start of file. "^:<funcname>" searches from
           the start of file.

       <revision range>
           Show only commits in the specified revision range. When no
           <revision range> is specified, it defaults to HEAD (i.e. the whole
           history leading to the current commit).  origin..HEAD specifies all
           the commits reachable from the current commit (i.e.  HEAD), but not
           from origin. For a complete list of ways to spell <revision range>,
           see the Specifying Ranges section of gitrevisions(7).

       [--] <path>...
           Show only commits that are enough to explain how the files that
           match the specified paths came to be. See History Simplification
           below for details and other simplification modes.

           Paths may need to be prefixed with '`-- '' to separate them from
           options or the revision range, when confusion arises.

   Commit Limiting
       Besides specifying a range of commits that should be listed using the
       special notations explained in the description, additional commit
       limiting may be applied.

       Using more options generally further limits the output (e.g.
       --since=<date1> limits to commits newer than <date1>, and using it with
       --grep=<pattern> further limits to commits whose log message has a line
       that matches <pattern>), unless otherwise noted.

       Note that these are applied before commit ordering and formatting
       options, such as --reverse.

       -<number>, -n <number>, --max-count=<number>
           Limit the number of commits to output.

       --skip=<number>
           Skip number commits before starting to show the commit output.

       --since=<date>, --after=<date>
           Show commits more recent than a specific date.

           specified pattern (regular expression). With more than one
           --grep-reflog, commits whose reflog message matches any of the
           given patterns are chosen. It is an error to use this option unless
           --walk-reflogs is in use.

       --grep=<pattern>
           Limit the commits output to ones with log message that matches the
           specified pattern (regular expression). With more than one
           --grep=<pattern>, commits whose message matches any of the given
           patterns are chosen (but see --all-match).

           When --show-notes is in effect, the message from the notes is
           matched as if it were part of the log message.

       --all-match
           Limit the commits output to ones that match all given --grep,
           instead of ones that match at least one.

       --invert-grep
           Limit the commits output to ones with log message that do not match
           the pattern specified with --grep=<pattern>.

       -i, --regexp-ignore-case
           Match the regular expression limiting patterns without regard to
           letter case.

       --basic-regexp
           Consider the limiting patterns to be basic regular expressions;
           this is the default.

       -E, --extended-regexp
           Consider the limiting patterns to be extended regular expressions
           instead of the default basic regular expressions.

       -F, --fixed-strings
           Consider the limiting patterns to be fixed strings (don't interpret
           pattern as a regular expression).

       --perl-regexp
           Consider the limiting patterns to be Perl-compatible regular
           expressions. Requires libpcre to be compiled in.

       --remove-empty
           Stop when a given path disappears from the tree.

       --merges
           Print only merge commits. This is exactly the same as
           --min-parents=2.

       --no-merges
           Do not print commits with more than one parent. This is exactly the
           same as --max-parents=1.

       --min-parents=<number>, --max-parents=<number>, --no-min-parents,
           Follow only the first parent commit upon seeing a merge commit.
           This option can give a better overview when viewing the evolution
           of a particular topic branch, because merges into a topic branch
           tend to be only about adjusting to updated upstream from time to
           time, and this option allows you to ignore the individual commits
           brought in to your history by such a merge. Cannot be combined with
           --bisect.

       --not
           Reverses the meaning of the ^ prefix (or lack thereof) for all
           following revision specifiers, up to the next --not.

       --all
           Pretend as if all the refs in refs/ are listed on the command line
           as <commit>.

       --branches[=<pattern>]
           Pretend as if all the refs in refs/heads are listed on the command
           line as <commit>. If <pattern> is given, limit branches to ones
           matching given shell glob. If pattern lacks ?, *, or [, /* at the
           end is implied.

       --tags[=<pattern>]
           Pretend as if all the refs in refs/tags are listed on the command
           line as <commit>. If <pattern> is given, limit tags to ones
           matching given shell glob. If pattern lacks ?, *, or [, /* at the
           end is implied.

       --remotes[=<pattern>]
           Pretend as if all the refs in refs/remotes are listed on the
           command line as <commit>. If <pattern> is given, limit
           remote-tracking branches to ones matching given shell glob. If
           pattern lacks ?, *, or [, /* at the end is implied.

       --glob=<glob-pattern>
           Pretend as if all the refs matching shell glob <glob-pattern> are
           listed on the command line as <commit>. Leading refs/, is
           automatically prepended if missing. If pattern lacks ?, *, or [, /*
           at the end is implied.

       --exclude=<glob-pattern>
           Do not include refs matching <glob-pattern> that the next --all,
           --branches, --tags, --remotes, or --glob would otherwise consider.
           Repetitions of this option accumulate exclusion patterns up to the
           next --all, --branches, --tags, --remotes, or --glob option (other
           options or arguments do not clear accumulated patterns).

           The patterns given should not begin with refs/heads, refs/tags, or
           refs/remotes when applied to --branches, --tags, or --remotes,
           respectively, and they must begin with refs/ when applied to --glob
           or --all. If a trailing /* is intended, it must be given
           explicitly.

       --reflog

       --stdin
           In addition to the <commit> listed on the command line, read them
           from the standard input. If a -- separator is seen, stop reading
           commits and start reading paths to limit the result.

       --cherry-mark
           Like --cherry-pick (see below) but mark equivalent commits with =
           rather than omitting them, and inequivalent ones with +.

       --cherry-pick
           Omit any commit that introduces the same change as another commit
           on the "other side" when the set of commits are limited with
           symmetric difference.

           For example, if you have two branches, A and B, a usual way to list
           all commits on only one side of them is with --left-right (see the
           example below in the description of the --left-right option).
           However, it shows the commits that were cherry-picked from the
           other branch (for example, "3rd on b" may be cherry-picked from
           branch A). With this option, such pairs of commits are excluded
           from the output.

       --left-only, --right-only
           List only commits on the respective side of a symmetric range, i.e.
           only those which would be marked < resp.  > by --left-right.

           For example, --cherry-pick --right-only A...B omits those commits
           from B which are in A or are patch-equivalent to a commit in A. In
           other words, this lists the + commits from git cherry A B. More
           precisely, --cherry-pick --right-only --no-merges gives the exact
           list.

       --cherry
           A synonym for --right-only --cherry-mark --no-merges; useful to
           limit the output to the commits on our side and mark those that
           have been applied to the other side of a forked history with git
           log --cherry upstream...mybranch, similar to git cherry upstream
           mybranch.

       -g, --walk-reflogs
           Instead of walking the commit ancestry chain, walk reflog entries
           from the most recent one to older ones. When this option is used
           you cannot specify commits to exclude (that is, ^commit,
           commit1..commit2, and commit1...commit2 notations cannot be used).

           With --pretty format other than oneline (for obvious reasons), this
           causes the output to have two extra lines of information taken from
           the reflog. By default, commit@{Nth} notation is used in the
           output. When the starting commit is specified as commit@{now},
           output also uses commit@{timestamp} notation instead. Under
           --pretty=oneline, the commit message is prefixed with this
           information on the same line. This option cannot be combined with
           --reverse. See also git-reflog(1).

       History Simplification, one part is selecting the commits and the other
       is how to do it, as there are various strategies to simplify the
       history.

       The following options select the commits to be shown:

       <paths>
           Commits modifying the given <paths> are selected.

       --simplify-by-decoration
           Commits that are referred by some branch or tag are selected.

       Note that extra commits can be shown to give a meaningful history.

       The following options affect the way the simplification is performed:

       Default mode
           Simplifies the history to the simplest history explaining the final
           state of the tree. Simplest because it prunes some side branches if
           the end result is the same (i.e. merging branches with the same
           content)

       --full-history
           Same as the default mode, but does not prune some history.

       --dense
           Only the selected commits are shown, plus some to have a meaningful
           history.

       --sparse
           All commits in the simplified history are shown.

       --simplify-merges
           Additional option to --full-history to remove some needless merges
           from the resulting history, as there are no selected commits
           contributing to this merge.

       --ancestry-path
           When given a range of commits to display (e.g.  commit1..commit2 or
           commit2 ^commit1), only display commits that exist directly on the
           ancestry chain between the commit1 and commit2, i.e. commits that
           are both descendants of commit1, and ancestors of commit2.

       A more detailed explanation follows.

       Suppose you specified foo as the <paths>. We shall call commits that
       modify foo !TREESAME, and the rest TREESAME. (In a diff filtered for
       foo, they look different and equal, respectively.)

       In the following, we will always refer to the same example history to
       illustrate the differences between simplification settings. We assume
       that you are filtering for a file foo in this commit graph:

                     .-A---M---N---O---P---Q

       o   In A, foo contains just "foo".

       o   B contains the same change as A. Its merge M is trivial and hence
           TREESAME to all parents.

       o   C does not change foo, but its merge N changes it to "foobar", so
           it is not TREESAME to any parent.

       o   D sets foo to "baz". Its merge O combines the strings from N and D
           to "foobarbaz"; i.e., it is not TREESAME to any parent.

       o   E changes quux to "xyzzy", and its merge P combines the strings to
           "quux xyzzy".  P is TREESAME to O, but not to E.

       o   X is an independent root commit that added a new file side, and Y
           modified it.  Y is TREESAME to X. Its merge Q added side to P, and
           Q is TREESAME to P, but not to Y.

       rev-list walks backwards through history, including or excluding
       commits based on whether --full-history and/or parent rewriting (via
       --parents or --children) are used. The following settings are
       available.

       Default mode
           Commits are included if they are not TREESAME to any parent (though
           this can be changed, see --sparse below). If the commit was a
           merge, and it was TREESAME to one parent, follow only that parent.
           (Even if there are several TREESAME parents, follow only one of
           them.) Otherwise, follow all parents.

           This results in:

                         .-A---N---O
                        /     /   /
                       I---------D

           Note how the rule to only follow the TREESAME parent, if one is
           available, removed B from consideration entirely.  C was considered
           via N, but is TREESAME. Root commits are compared to an empty tree,
           so I is !TREESAME.

           Parent/child relations are only visible with --parents, but that
           does not affect the commits selected in default mode, so we have
           shown the parent lines.

       --full-history without parent rewriting
           This mode differs from the default in one point: always follow all
           parents of a merge, even if it is TREESAME to one of them. Even if
           more than one side of the merge has commits that are included, this
           does not imply that the merge itself is! In the example, we get

                       I  A  B  N  D  O  P  Q

           M was excluded because it is TREESAME to both parents.  E, C and B
           rewritten: Along each parent, prune away commits that are not
           included themselves. This results in

                         .-A---M---N---O---P---Q
                        /     /   /   /   /
                       I     B   /   D   /
                        \   /   /   /   /
                         `-------------'

           Compare to --full-history without rewriting above. Note that E was
           pruned away because it is TREESAME, but the parent list of P was
           rewritten to contain E's parent I. The same happened for C and N,
           and X, Y and Q.

       In addition to the above settings, you can change whether TREESAME
       affects inclusion:

       --dense
           Commits that are walked are included if they are not TREESAME to
           any parent.

       --sparse
           All commits that are walked are included.

           Note that without --full-history, this still simplifies merges: if
           one of the parents is TREESAME, we follow only that one, so the
           other sides of the merge are never walked.

       --simplify-merges
           First, build a history graph in the same way that --full-history
           with parent rewriting does (see above).

           Then simplify each commit C to its replacement C' in the final
           history according to the following rules:

           o   Set C' to C.

           o   Replace each parent P of C' with its simplification P'. In the
               process, drop parents that are ancestors of other parents or
               that are root commits TREESAME to an empty tree, and remove
               duplicates, but take care to never drop all parents that we are
               TREESAME to.

           o   If after this parent rewriting, C' is a root or merge commit
               (has zero or >1 parents), a boundary commit, or !TREESAME, it
               remains. Otherwise, it is replaced with its only parent.

           The effect of this is best shown by way of comparing to
           --full-history with parent rewriting. The example turns into:

                         .-A---M---N---O
                        /     /       /
                       I     B       D
                        \   /       /

               because it had one parent and is TREESAME.

       Finally, there is a fifth simplification mode available:

       --ancestry-path
           Limit the displayed commits to those directly on the ancestry chain
           between the "from" and "to" commits in the given commit range. I.e.
           only display commits that are ancestor of the "to" commit and
           descendants of the "from" commit.

           As an example use case, consider the following commit history:

                           D---E-------F
                          /     \       \
                         B---C---G---H---I---J
                        /                     \
                       A-------K---------------L--M

           A regular D..M computes the set of commits that are ancestors of M,
           but excludes the ones that are ancestors of D. This is useful to
           see what happened to the history leading to M since D, in the sense
           that "what does M have that did not exist in D". The result in this
           example would be all the commits, except A and B (and D itself, of
           course).

           When we want to find out what commits in M are contaminated with
           the bug introduced by D and need fixing, however, we might want to
           view only the subset of D..M that are actually descendants of D,
           i.e. excluding C and K. This is exactly what the --ancestry-path
           option does. Applied to the D..M range, it results in:

                               E-------F
                                \       \
                                 G---H---I---J
                                              \
                                               L--M

       The --simplify-by-decoration option allows you to view only the big
       picture of the topology of the history, by omitting commits that are
       not referenced by tags. Commits are marked as !TREESAME (in other
       words, kept after history simplification rules described above) if (1)
       they are referenced by tags, or (2) they change the contents of the
       paths given on the command line. All other commits are marked as
       TREESAME (subject to be simplified away).

   Commit Ordering
       By default, the commits are shown in reverse chronological order.

       --date-order
           Show no parents before all of its children are shown, but otherwise
           show commits in the commit timestamp order.

       --author-date-order
           Show no parents before all of its children are shown, but otherwise
           where the numbers denote the order of commit timestamps, git
           rev-list and friends with --date-order show the commits in the
           timestamp order: 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1.

           With --topo-order, they would show 8 6 5 3 7 4 2 1 (or 8 7 4 2 6 5
           3 1); some older commits are shown before newer ones in order to
           avoid showing the commits from two parallel development track mixed
           together.

       --reverse
           Output the commits in reverse order. Cannot be combined with
           --walk-reflogs.

   Object Traversal
       These options are mostly targeted for packing of Git repositories.

       --no-walk[=(sorted|unsorted)]
           Only show the given commits, but do not traverse their ancestors.
           This has no effect if a range is specified. If the argument
           unsorted is given, the commits are shown in the order they were
           given on the command line. Otherwise (if sorted or no argument was
           given), the commits are shown in reverse chronological order by
           commit time. Cannot be combined with --graph.

       --do-walk
           Overrides a previous --no-walk.

   Commit Formatting
       --pretty[=<format>], --format=<format>
           Pretty-print the contents of the commit logs in a given format,
           where <format> can be one of oneline, short, medium, full, fuller,
           email, raw, format:<string> and tformat:<string>. When <format> is
           none of the above, and has %placeholder in it, it acts as if
           --pretty=tformat:<format> were given.

           See the "PRETTY FORMATS" section for some additional details for
           each format. When =<format> part is omitted, it defaults to medium.

           Note: you can specify the default pretty format in the repository
           configuration (see git-config(1)).

       --abbrev-commit
           Instead of showing the full 40-byte hexadecimal commit object name,
           show only a partial prefix. Non default number of digits can be
           specified with "--abbrev=<n>" (which also modifies diff output, if
           it is displayed).

           This should make "--pretty=oneline" a whole lot more readable for
           people using 80-column terminals.

       --no-abbrev-commit
           Show the full 40-byte hexadecimal commit object name. This negates
           --abbrev-commit and those options which imply it such as
           "--oneline". It also overrides the log.abbrevCommit variable.
           sequences in the original commit may be copied to the output.

       --notes[=<ref>]
           Show the notes (see git-notes(1)) that annotate the commit, when
           showing the commit log message. This is the default for git log,
           git show and git whatchanged commands when there is no --pretty,
           --format, or --oneline option given on the command line.

           By default, the notes shown are from the notes refs listed in the
           core.notesRef and notes.displayRef variables (or corresponding
           environment overrides). See git-config(1) for more details.

           With an optional <ref> argument, show this notes ref instead of the
           default notes ref(s). The ref specifies the full refname when it
           begins with refs/notes/; when it begins with notes/, refs/ and
           otherwise refs/notes/ is prefixed to form a full name of the ref.

           Multiple --notes options can be combined to control which notes are
           being displayed. Examples: "--notes=foo" will show only notes from
           "refs/notes/foo"; "--notes=foo --notes" will show both notes from
           "refs/notes/foo" and from the default notes ref(s).

       --no-notes
           Do not show notes. This negates the above --notes option, by
           resetting the list of notes refs from which notes are shown.
           Options are parsed in the order given on the command line, so e.g.
           "--notes --notes=foo --no-notes --notes=bar" will only show notes
           from "refs/notes/bar".

       --show-notes[=<ref>], --[no-]standard-notes
           These options are deprecated. Use the above --notes/--no-notes
           options instead.

       --show-signature
           Check the validity of a signed commit object by passing the
           signature to gpg --verify and show the output.

       --relative-date
           Synonym for --date=relative.

       --date=<format>
           Only takes effect for dates shown in human-readable format, such as
           when using --pretty.  log.date config variable sets a default value
           for the log command's --date option. By default, dates are shown in
           the original time zone (either committer's or author's). If -local
           is appended to the format (e.g., iso-local), the user's local time
           zone is used instead.

           --date=relative shows dates relative to the current time, e.g. "2
           hours ago". The -local option cannot be used with --raw or
           --relative.

           --date=local is an alias for --date=default-local.

           --date=rfc (or --date=rfc2822) shows timestamps in RFC 2822 format,
           often found in email messages.

           --date=short shows only the date, but not the time, in YYYY-MM-DD
           format.

           --date=raw shows the date in the internal raw Git format %s %z
           format.

           --date=format:...  feeds the format ...  to your system strftime.
           Use --date=format:%c to show the date in your system locale's
           preferred format. See the strftime manual for a complete list of
           format placeholders. When using -local, the correct syntax is
           --date=format-local:....

           --date=default is the default format, and is similar to
           --date=rfc2822, with a few exceptions:

           o   there is no comma after the day-of-week

           o   the time zone is omitted when the local time zone is used

       --parents
           Print also the parents of the commit (in the form "commit
           parent..."). Also enables parent rewriting, see History
           Simplification below.

       --children
           Print also the children of the commit (in the form "commit
           child..."). Also enables parent rewriting, see History
           Simplification below.

       --left-right
           Mark which side of a symmetric diff a commit is reachable from.
           Commits from the left side are prefixed with < and those from the
           right with >. If combined with --boundary, those commits are
           prefixed with -.

           For example, if you have this topology:

                            y---b---b  branch B
                           / \ /
                          /   .
                         /   / \
                        o---x---a---a  branch A

           you would get an output like this:

                       $ git rev-list --left-right --boundary --pretty=oneline A...B

                       >bbbbbbb... 3rd on b
                       >bbbbbbb... 2nd on b
                       <aaaaaaa... 3rd on a
                       <aaaaaaa... 2nd on a

           --date-order option may also be specified.

       --show-linear-break[=<barrier>]
           When --graph is not used, all history branches are flattened which
           can make it hard to see that the two consecutive commits do not
           belong to a linear branch. This option puts a barrier in between
           them in that case. If <barrier> is specified, it is the string that
           will be shown instead of the default one.

   Diff Formatting
       Listed below are options that control the formatting of diff output.
       Some of them are specific to git-rev-list(1), however other diff
       options may be given. See git-diff-files(1) for more options.

       -c
           With this option, diff output for a merge commit shows the
           differences from each of the parents to the merge result
           simultaneously instead of showing pairwise diff between a parent
           and the result one at a time. Furthermore, it lists only files
           which were modified from all parents.

       --cc
           This flag implies the -c option and further compresses the patch
           output by omitting uninteresting hunks whose contents in the
           parents have only two variants and the merge result picks one of
           them without modification.

       -m
           This flag makes the merge commits show the full diff like regular
           commits; for each merge parent, a separate log entry and diff is
           generated. An exception is that only diff against the first parent
           is shown when --first-parent option is given; in that case, the
           output represents the changes the merge brought into the
           then-current branch.

       -r
           Show recursive diffs.

       -t
           Show the tree objects in the diff output. This implies -r.

PRETTY FORMATS
       If the commit is a merge, and if the pretty-format is not oneline,
       email or raw, an additional line is inserted before the Author: line.
       This line begins with "Merge: " and the sha1s of ancestral commits are
       printed, separated by spaces. Note that the listed commits may not
       necessarily be the list of the direct parent commits if you have
       limited your view of history: for example, if you are only interested
       in changes related to a certain directory or file.

       There are several built-in formats, and you can define additional
       formats by setting a pretty.<name> config option to either another
       format name, or a format: string, as described below (see git-
       config(1)). Here are the details of the built-in formats:
               <title line>

       o   medium

               commit <sha1>
               Author: <author>
               Date:   <author date>

               <title line>

               <full commit message>

       o   full

               commit <sha1>
               Author: <author>
               Commit: <committer>

               <title line>

               <full commit message>

       o   fuller

               commit <sha1>
               Author:     <author>
               AuthorDate: <author date>
               Commit:     <committer>
               CommitDate: <committer date>

               <title line>

               <full commit message>

       o   email

               From <sha1> <date>
               From: <author>
               Date: <author date>
               Subject: [PATCH] <title line>

               <full commit message>

       o   raw

           The raw format shows the entire commit exactly as stored in the
           commit object. Notably, the SHA-1s are displayed in full,
           regardless of whether --abbrev or --no-abbrev are used, and parents
           information show the true parent commits, without taking grafts or
           history simplification into account. Note that this format affects
           the way commits are displayed, but not the way the diff is shown
           e.g. with git log --raw. To get full object names in a raw diff
           format, use --no-abbrev.

           The placeholders are:

           o   %H: commit hash

           o   %h: abbreviated commit hash

           o   %T: tree hash

           o   %t: abbreviated tree hash

           o   %P: parent hashes

           o   %p: abbreviated parent hashes

           o   %an: author name

           o   %aN: author name (respecting .mailmap, see git-shortlog(1) or
               git-blame(1))

           o   %ae: author email

           o   %aE: author email (respecting .mailmap, see git-shortlog(1) or
               git-blame(1))

           o   %ad: author date (format respects --date= option)

           o   %aD: author date, RFC2822 style

           o   %ar: author date, relative

           o   %at: author date, UNIX timestamp

           o   %ai: author date, ISO 8601-like format

           o   %aI: author date, strict ISO 8601 format

           o   %cn: committer name

           o   %cN: committer name (respecting .mailmap, see git-shortlog(1)
               or git-blame(1))

           o   %ce: committer email

           o   %cE: committer email (respecting .mailmap, see git-shortlog(1)
               or git-blame(1))

           o   %cd: committer date (format respects --date= option)

           o   %cD: committer date, RFC2822 style

           o   %cr: committer date, relative

           o   %ct: committer date, UNIX timestamp

           o   %f: sanitized subject line, suitable for a filename

           o   %b: body

           o   %B: raw body (unwrapped subject and body)

           o   %N: commit notes

           o   %GG: raw verification message from GPG for a signed commit

           o   %G?: show "G" for a Good signature, "B" for a Bad signature,
               "U" for a good, untrusted signature and "N" for no signature

           o   %GS: show the name of the signer for a signed commit

           o   %GK: show the key used to sign a signed commit

           o   %gD: reflog selector, e.g., refs/stash@{1}

           o   %gd: shortened reflog selector, e.g., stash@{1}

           o   %gn: reflog identity name

           o   %gN: reflog identity name (respecting .mailmap, see git-
               shortlog(1) or git-blame(1))

           o   %ge: reflog identity email

           o   %gE: reflog identity email (respecting .mailmap, see git-
               shortlog(1) or git-blame(1))

           o   %gs: reflog subject

           o   %Cred: switch color to red

           o   %Cgreen: switch color to green

           o   %Cblue: switch color to blue

           o   %Creset: reset color

           o   %C(...): color specification, as described in color.branch.*
               config option; adding auto, at the beginning will emit color
               only when colors are enabled for log output (by color.diff,
               color.ui, or --color, and respecting the auto settings of the
               former if we are going to a terminal).  auto alone (i.e.
               %C(auto)) will turn on auto coloring on the next placeholders
               until the color is switched again.

           o   %m: left, right or boundary mark

           o   %n: newline

           o   %%: a raw %
           o   %<|(<N>): make the next placeholder take at least until Nth
               columns, padding spaces on the right if necessary

           o   %>(<N>), %>|(<N>): similar to %<(git-diff(1). This is
           different from showing the log itself in raw format, which you can
           achieve with --format=raw.

       --patch-with-raw
           Synonym for -p --raw.

       --minimal
           Spend extra time to make sure the smallest possible diff is
           produced.

       --patience
           Generate a diff using the "patience diff" algorithm.

       --histogram
           Generate a diff using the "histogram diff" algorithm.

       --diff-algorithm={patience|minimal|histogram|myers}
           Choose a diff algorithm. The variants are as follows:

           default, myers
               The basic greedy diff algorithm. Currently, this is the
               default.

           minimal
               Spend extra time to make sure the smallest possible diff is
               produced.

           patience
               Use "patience diff" algorithm when generating patches.

           histogram
               This algorithm extends the patience algorithm to "support
               low-occurrence common elements".

           For instance, if you configured diff.algorithm variable to a
           non-default value and want to use the default one, then you have to
           use --diff-algorithm=default option.

       --stat[=<width>[,<name-width>[,<count>]]]
           Generate a diffstat. By default, as much space as necessary will be
           used for the filename part, and the rest for the graph part.
           Maximum width defaults to terminal width, or 80 columns if not
           connected to a terminal, and can be overridden by <width>. The
           width of the filename part can be limited by giving another width
           Similar to --stat, but shows number of added and deleted lines in
           decimal notation and pathname without abbreviation, to make it more
           machine friendly. For binary files, outputs two - instead of saying
           0 0.

       --shortstat
           Output only the last line of the --stat format containing total
           number of modified files, as well as number of added and deleted
           lines.

       --dirstat[=<param1,param2,...>]
           Output the distribution of relative amount of changes for each
           sub-directory. The behavior of --dirstat can be customized by
           passing it a comma separated list of parameters. The defaults are
           controlled by the diff.dirstat configuration variable (see git-
           config(1)). The following parameters are available:

           changes
               Compute the dirstat numbers by counting the lines that have
               been removed from the source, or added to the destination. This
               ignores the amount of pure code movements within a file. In
               other words, rearranging lines in a file is not counted as much
               as other changes. This is the default behavior when no
               parameter is given.

           lines
               Compute the dirstat numbers by doing the regular line-based
               diff analysis, and summing the removed/added line counts. (For
               binary files, count 64-byte chunks instead, since binary files
               have no natural concept of lines). This is a more expensive
               --dirstat behavior than the changes behavior, but it does count
               rearranged lines within a file as much as other changes. The
               resulting output is consistent with what you get from the other
               --*stat options.

           files
               Compute the dirstat numbers by counting the number of files
               changed. Each changed file counts equally in the dirstat
               analysis. This is the computationally cheapest --dirstat
               behavior, since it does not have to look at the file contents
               at all.

           cumulative
               Count changes in a child directory for the parent directory as
               well. Note that when using cumulative, the sum of the
               percentages reported may exceed 100%. The default
               (non-cumulative) behavior can be specified with the
               noncumulative parameter.

           <limit>
               An integer parameter specifies a cut-off percent (3% by
               default). Directories contributing less than this percentage of
               the changes are not shown in the output.

       -z
           Separate the commits with NULs instead of with new newlines.

           Also, when --raw or --numstat has been given, do not munge
           pathnames and use NULs as output field terminators.

           Without this option, each pathname output will have TAB, LF, double
           quotes, and backslash characters replaced with \t, \n, \", and \\,
           respectively, and the pathname will be enclosed in double quotes if
           any of those replacements occurred.

       --name-only
           Show only names of changed files.

       --name-status
           Show only names and status of changed files. See the description of
           the --diff-filter option on what the status letters mean.

       --submodule[=<format>]
           Specify how differences in submodules are shown. When --submodule
           or --submodule=log is given, the log format is used. This format
           lists the commits in the range like git-submodule(1) summary does.
           Omitting the --submodule option or specifying --submodule=short,
           uses the short format. This format just shows the names of the
           commits at the beginning and end of the range. Can be tweaked via
           the diff.submodule configuration variable.

       --color[=<when>]
           Show colored diff.  --color (i.e. without =<when>) is the same as
           --color=always.  <when> can be one of always, never, or auto.

       --no-color
           Turn off colored diff. It is the same as --color=never.

       --word-diff[=<mode>]
           Show a word diff, using the <mode> to delimit changed words. By
           default, words are delimited by whitespace; see --word-diff-regex
           below. The <mode> defaults to plain, and must be one of:

           color
               Highlight changed words using only colors. Implies --color.

           plain
               Show words as [-removed-] and {+added+}. Makes no attempts to
               escape the delimiters if they appear in the input, so the
               output may be ambiguous.

           porcelain
               Use a special line-based format intended for script
               consumption. Added/removed/unchanged runs are printed in the
               usual unified diff format, starting with a +/-/` ` character at
               the beginning of the line and extending to the end of the line.
               Newlines in the input are represented by a tilde ~ on a line of
               its own.

           Every non-overlapping match of the <regex> is considered a word.
           Anything between these matches is considered whitespace and
           ignored(!) for the purposes of finding differences. You may want to
           append |[^[:space:]] to your regular expression to make sure that
           it matches all non-whitespace characters. A match that contains a
           newline is silently truncated(!) at the newline.

           For example, --word-diff-regex=.  will treat each character as a
           word and, correspondingly, show differences character by character.

           The regex can also be set via a diff driver or configuration
           option, see gitattributes(1) or git-config(1). Giving it explicitly
           overrides any diff driver or configuration setting. Diff drivers
           override configuration settings.

       --color-words[=<regex>]
           Equivalent to --word-diff=color plus (if a regex was specified)
           --word-diff-regex=<regex>.

       --no-renames
           Turn off rename detection, even when the configuration file gives
           the default to do so.

       --check
           Warn if changes introduce whitespace errors. What are considered
           whitespace errors is controlled by core.whitespace configuration.
           By default, trailing whitespaces (including lines that solely
           consist of whitespaces) and a space character that is immediately
           followed by a tab character inside the initial indent of the line
           are considered whitespace errors. Exits with non-zero status if
           problems are found. Not compatible with --exit-code.

       --ws-error-highlight=<kind>
           Highlight whitespace errors on lines specified by <kind> in the
           color specified by color.diff.whitespace. <kind> is a comma
           separated list of old, new, context. When this option is not given,
           only whitespace errors in new lines are highlighted. E.g.
           --ws-error-highlight=new,old highlights whitespace errors on both
           deleted and added lines.  all can be used as a short-hand for
           old,new,context.

       --full-index
           Instead of the first handful of characters, show the full pre- and
           post-image blob object names on the "index" line when generating
           patch format output.

       --binary
           In addition to --full-index, output a binary diff that can be
           applied with git-apply.

       --abbrev[=<n>]
           Instead of showing the full 40-byte hexadecimal object name in
           diff-raw format output and diff-tree header lines, show only a
           partial prefix. This is independent of the --full-index option
           of the -B option (defaults to 60%).  -B/70% specifies that less
           than 30% of the original should remain in the result for Git to
           consider it a total rewrite (i.e. otherwise the resulting patch
           will be a series of deletion and insertion mixed together with
           context lines).

           When used with -M, a totally-rewritten file is also considered as
           the source of a rename (usually -M only considers a file that
           disappeared as the source of a rename), and the number n controls
           this aspect of the -B option (defaults to 50%).  -B20% specifies
           that a change with addition and deletion compared to 20% or more of
           the file's size are eligible for being picked up as a possible
           source of a rename to another file.

       -M[<n>], --find-renames[=<n>]
           If generating diffs, detect and report renames for each commit. For
           following files across renames while traversing history, see
           --follow. If n is specified, it is a threshold on the similarity
           index (i.e. amount of addition/deletions compared to the file's
           size). For example, -M90% means Git should consider a delete/add
           pair to be a rename if more than 90% of the file hasn't changed.
           Without a % sign, the number is to be read as a fraction, with a
           decimal point before it. I.e., -M5 becomes 0.5, and is thus the
           same as -M50%. Similarly, -M05 is the same as -M5%. To limit
           detection to exact renames, use -M100%. The default similarity
           index is 50%.

       -C[<n>], --find-copies[=<n>]
           Detect copies as well as renames. See also --find-copies-harder. If
           n is specified, it has the same meaning as for -M<n>.

       --find-copies-harder
           For performance reasons, by default, -C option finds copies only if
           the original file of the copy was modified in the same changeset.
           This flag makes the command inspect unmodified files as candidates
           for the source of copy. This is a very expensive operation for
           large projects, so use it with caution. Giving more than one -C
           option has the same effect.

       -D, --irreversible-delete
           Omit the preimage for deletes, i.e. print only the header but not
           the diff between the preimage and /dev/null. The resulting patch is
           not meant to be applied with patch or git apply; this is solely for
           people who want to just concentrate on reviewing the text after the
           change. In addition, the output obviously lack enough information
           to apply such a patch in reverse, even manually, hence the name of
           the option.

           When used together with -B, omit also the preimage in the deletion
           part of a delete/create pair.

       -l<num>
           The -M and -C options require O(n^2) processing time where n is the
           number of potential rename/copy targets. This option prevents
           selected.

       -S<string>
           Look for differences that change the number of occurrences of the
           specified string (i.e. addition/deletion) in a file. Intended for
           the scripter's use.

           It is useful when you're looking for an exact block of code (like a
           struct), and want to know the history of that block since it first
           came into being: use the feature iteratively to feed the
           interesting block in the preimage back into -S, and keep going
           until you get the very first version of the block.

       -G<regex>
           Look for differences whose patch text contains added/removed lines
           that match <regex>.

           To illustrate the difference between -S<regex> --pickaxe-regex and
           -G<regex>, consider a commit with the following diff in the same
           file:

               +    return !regexec(regexp, two->ptr, 1, &regmatch, 0);
               ...
               -    hit = !regexec(regexp, mf2.ptr, 1, &regmatch, 0);

           While git log -G"regexec\(regexp" will show this commit, git log
           -S"regexec\(regexp" --pickaxe-regex will not (because the number of
           occurrences of that string did not change).

           See the pickaxe entry in gitdiffcore(7) for more information.

       --pickaxe-all
           When -S or -G finds a change, show all the changes in that
           changeset, not just the files that contain the change in <string>.

       --pickaxe-regex
           Treat the <string> given to -S as an extended POSIX regular
           expression to match.

       -O<orderfile>
           Output the patch in the order specified in the <orderfile>, which
           has one shell glob pattern per line. This overrides the
           diff.orderFile configuration variable (see git-config(1)). To
           cancel diff.orderFile, use -O/dev/null.

       -R
           Swap two inputs; that is, show differences from index or on-disk
           file to tree contents.

       --relative[=<path>]
           When run from a subdirectory of the project, it can be told to
           exclude changes outside the directory and show pathnames relative
           to it with this option. When you are not in a subdirectory (e.g. in
           a bare repository), you can name which subdirectory to make the

       -w, --ignore-all-space
           Ignore whitespace when comparing lines. This ignores differences
           even if one line has whitespace where the other line has none.

       --ignore-blank-lines
           Ignore changes whose lines are all blank.

       --inter-hunk-context=<lines>
           Show the context between diff hunks, up to the specified number of
           lines, thereby fusing hunks that are close to each other.

       -W, --function-context
           Show whole surrounding functions of changes.

       --ext-diff
           Allow an external diff helper to be executed. If you set an
           external diff driver with gitattributes(5), you need to use this
           option with git-log(1) and friends.

       --no-ext-diff
           Disallow external diff drivers.

       --textconv, --no-textconv
           Allow (or disallow) external text conversion filters to be run when
           comparing binary files. See gitattributes(5) for details. Because
           textconv filters are typically a one-way conversion, the resulting
           diff is suitable for human consumption, but cannot be applied. For
           this reason, textconv filters are enabled by default only for git-
           diff(1) and git-log(1), but not for git-format-patch(1) or diff
           plumbing commands.

       --ignore-submodules[=<when>]
           Ignore changes to submodules in the diff generation. <when> can be
           either "none", "untracked", "dirty" or "all", which is the default.
           Using "none" will consider the submodule modified when it either
           contains untracked or modified files or its HEAD differs from the
           commit recorded in the superproject and can be used to override any
           settings of the ignore option in git-config(1) or gitmodules(5).
           When "untracked" is used submodules are not considered dirty when
           they only contain untracked content (but they are still scanned for
           modified content). Using "dirty" ignores all changes to the work
           tree of submodules, only changes to the commits stored in the
           superproject are shown (this was the behavior until 1.7.0). Using
           "all" hides all changes to submodules.

       --src-prefix=<prefix>
           Show the given source prefix instead of "a/".

       --dst-prefix=<prefix>
           Show the given destination prefix instead of "b/".

       --no-prefix
           Do not show any source or destination prefix.

       What the -p option produces is slightly different from the traditional
       diff format:

        1. It is preceded with a "git diff" header that looks like this:

               diff --git a/file1 b/file2

           The a/ and b/ filenames are the same unless rename/copy is
           involved. Especially, even for a creation or a deletion, /dev/null
           is not used in place of the a/ or b/ filenames.

           When rename/copy is involved, file1 and file2 show the name of the
           source file of the rename/copy and the name of the file that
           rename/copy produces, respectively.

        2. It is followed by one or more extended header lines:

               old mode <mode>
               new mode <mode>
               deleted file mode <mode>
               new file mode <mode>
               copy from <path>
               copy to <path>
               rename from <path>
               rename to <path>
               similarity index <number>
               dissimilarity index <number>
               index <hash>..<hash> <mode>

           File modes are printed as 6-digit octal numbers including the file
           type and file permission bits.

           Path names in extended headers do not include the a/ and b/
           prefixes.

           The similarity index is the percentage of unchanged lines, and the
           dissimilarity index is the percentage of changed lines. It is a
           rounded down integer, followed by a percent sign. The similarity
           index value of 100% is thus reserved for two equal files, while
           100% dissimilarity means that no line from the old file made it
           into the new one.

           The index line includes the SHA-1 checksum before and after the
           change. The <mode> is included if the file mode does not change;
           otherwise, separate lines indicate the old and the new mode.

        3. TAB, LF, double quote and backslash characters in pathnames are
           represented as \t, \n, \" and \\, respectively. If there is need
           for such substitution then the whole pathname is put in double
           quotes.

        4. All the file1 files in the output refer to files before the commit,
           and all the file2 files refer to files after the commit. It is
           incorrect to apply each change to each file sequentially. For

       showing merges with git-diff(1) or git-show(1). Note also that you can
       give the -m option to any of these commands to force generation of
       diffs with individual parents of a merge.

       A combined diff format looks like this:

           diff --combined describe.c
           index fabadb8,cc95eb0..4866510
           --- a/describe.c
           +++ b/describe.c
           @@@ -98,20 -98,12 +98,20 @@@
                   return (a_date > b_date) ? -1 : (a_date == b_date) ? 0 : 1;
             }

           - static void describe(char *arg)
            -static void describe(struct commit *cmit, int last_one)
           ++static void describe(char *arg, int last_one)
             {
            +      unsigned char sha1[20];
            +      struct commit *cmit;
                   struct commit_list *list;
                   static int initialized = 0;
                   struct commit_name *n;

            +      if (get_sha1(arg, sha1) < 0)
            +              usage(describe_usage);
            +      cmit = lookup_commit_reference(sha1);
            +      if (!cmit)
            +              usage(describe_usage);
            +
                   if (!initialized) {
                           initialized = 1;
                           for_each_ref(get_name);

        1. It is preceded with a "git diff" header, that looks like this (when
           -c option is used):

               diff --combined file

           or like this (when --cc option is used):

               diff --cc file

        2. It is followed by one or more extended header lines (this example
           shows a merge with two parents):

               index <hash>,<hash>..<hash>
               mode <mode>,<mode>..<mode>
               new file mode <mode>
               deleted file mode <mode>,<mode>

           The mode <mode>,<mode>..<mode> line appears only if at least one of
           the <mode> is different from the rest. Extended headers with
           information about detected contents movement (renames and copying
           feeding it to patch -p1. Combined diff format was created for
           review of merge commit changes, and was not meant for apply. The
           change is similar to the change in the extended index header:

               @@@ <from-file-range> <from-file-range> <to-file-range> @@@

           There are (number of parents + 1) @ characters in the chunk header
           for combined diff format.

       Unlike the traditional unified diff format, which shows two files A and
       B with a single column that has - (minus -- appears in A but removed in
       B), + (plus -- missing in A but added to B), or " " (space --
       unchanged) prefix, this format compares two or more files file1,
       file2,... with one file X, and shows how X differs from each of fileN.
       One column for each of fileN is prepended to the output line to note
       how X's line is different from it.

       A - character in the column N means that the line appears in fileN but
       it does not appear in the result. A + character in the column N means
       that the line appears in the result, and fileN does not have that line
       (in other words, the line was added, from the point of view of that
       parent).

       In the above example output, the function signature was changed from
       both files (hence two - removals from both file1 and file2, plus ++ to
       mean one line that was added does not appear in either file1 or file2).
       Also eight other lines are the same from file1 but do not appear in
       file2 (hence prefixed with +).

       When shown by git diff-tree -c, it compares the parents of a merge
       commit with the merge result (i.e. file1..fileN are the parents). When
       shown by git diff-files -c, it compares the two unresolved merge
       parents with the working tree file (i.e. file1 is stage 2 aka "our
       version", file2 is stage 3 aka "their version").

EXAMPLES
       git log --no-merges
           Show the whole commit history, but skip any merges

       git log v2.6.12.. include/scsi drivers/scsi
           Show all commits since version v2.6.12 that changed any file in the
           include/scsi or drivers/scsi subdirectories

       git log --since="2 weeks ago" -- gitk
           Show the changes during the last two weeks to the file gitk. The
           "--" is necessary to avoid confusion with the branch named gitk

       git log --name-status release..test
           Show the commits that are in the "test" branch but not yet in the
           "release" branch, along with the list of paths each commit
           modifies.

       git log --follow builtin/rev-list.c
           Shows the commits that changed builtin/rev-list.c, including those
           Shows the history including change diffs, but only from the "main
           branch" perspective, skipping commits that come from merged
           branches, and showing full diffs of changes introduced by the
           merges. This makes sense only when following a strict policy of
           merging all topic branches when staying on a single integration
           branch.

       git log -L '/int main/',/^}/:main.c
           Shows how the function main() in the file main.c evolved over time.

       git log -3
           Limits the number of commits to show to 3.

DISCUSSION
       Git is to some extent character encoding agnostic.

       o   The contents of the blob objects are uninterpreted sequences of
           bytes. There is no encoding translation at the core level.

       o   Path names are encoded in UTF-8 normalization form C. This applies
           to tree objects, the index file, ref names, as well as path names
           in command line arguments, environment variables and config files
           (.git/config (see git-config(1)), gitignore(5), gitattributes(5)
           and gitmodules(5)).

           Note that Git at the core level treats path names simply as
           sequences of non-NUL bytes, there are no path name encoding
           conversions (except on Mac and Windows). Therefore, using non-ASCII
           path names will mostly work even on platforms and file systems that
           use legacy extended ASCII encodings. However, repositories created
           on such systems will not work properly on UTF-8-based systems (e.g.
           Linux, Mac, Windows) and vice versa. Additionally, many Git-based
           tools simply assume path names to be UTF-8 and will fail to display
           other encodings correctly.

       o   Commit log messages are typically encoded in UTF-8, but other
           extended ASCII encodings are also supported. This includes
           ISO-8859-x, CP125x and many others, but not UTF-16/32, EBCDIC and
           CJK multi-byte encodings (GBK, Shift-JIS, Big5, EUC-x, CP9xx etc.).

       Although we encourage that the commit log messages are encoded in
       UTF-8, both the core and Git Porcelain are designed not to force UTF-8
       on projects. If all participants of a particular project find it more
       convenient to use legacy encodings, Git does not forbid it. However,
       there are a few things to keep in mind.

        1. git commit and git commit-tree issues a warning if the commit log
           message given to it does not look like a valid UTF-8 string, unless
           you explicitly say your project uses a legacy encoding. The way to
           say this is to have i18n.commitencoding in .git/config file, like
           this:

               [i18n]
                       commitencoding = ISO-8859-1

               [i18n]
                       logoutputencoding = ISO-8859-1

           If you do not have this configuration variable, the value of
           i18n.commitencoding is used instead.

       Note that we deliberately chose not to re-code the commit log message
       when a commit is made to force UTF-8 at the commit object level,
       because re-coding to UTF-8 is not necessarily a reversible operation.

CONFIGURATION
       See git-config(1) for core variables and git-diff(1) for settings
       related to diff generation.

       format.pretty
           Default for the --format option. (See Pretty Formats above.)
           Defaults to medium.

       i18n.logOutputEncoding
           Encoding to use when displaying logs. (See Discussion above.)
           Defaults to the value of i18n.commitEncoding if set, and UTF-8
           otherwise.

       log.date
           Default format for human-readable dates. (Compare the --date
           option.) Defaults to "default", which means to write dates like Sat
           May 8 19:35:34 2010 -0500.

       log.follow
           If true, git log will act as if the --follow option was used when a
           single <path> is given. This has the same limitations as --follow,
           i.e. it cannot be used to follow multiple files and does not work
           well on non-linear history.

       log.showRoot
           If false, git log and related commands will not treat the initial
           commit as a big creation event. Any root commits in git log -p
           output would be shown without a diff attached. The default is true.

       mailmap.*
           See git-shortlog(1).

       notes.displayRef
           Which refs, in addition to the default set by core.notesRef or
           GIT_NOTES_REF, to read notes from when showing commit messages with
           the log family of commands. See git-notes(1).

           May be an unabbreviated ref name or a glob and may be specified
           multiple times. A warning will be issued for refs that do not
           exist, but a glob that does not match any refs is silently ignored.

           This setting can be disabled by the --no-notes option, overridden
           by the GIT_NOTES_DISPLAY_REF environment variable, and overridden
           by the --notes=<ref> option.
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