GITEVERYDAY(7)                    Git Manual                    GITEVERYDAY(7)

       giteveryday - A useful minimum set of commands for Everyday Git

       Everyday Git With 20 Commands Or So

       Git users can broadly be grouped into four categories for the purposes
       of describing here a small set of useful command for everyday Git.

       o   Individual Developer (Standalone) commands are essential for
           anybody who makes a commit, even for somebody who works alone.

       o   If you work with other people, you will need commands listed in the
           Individual Developer (Participant) section as well.

       o   People who play the Integrator role need to learn some more
           commands in addition to the above.

       o   Repository Administration commands are for system administrators
           who are responsible for the care and feeding of Git repositories.

       A standalone individual developer does not exchange patches with other
       people, and works alone in a single repository, using the following

       o   git-init(1) to create a new repository.

       o   git-log(1) to see what happened.

       o   git-switch(1) and git-branch(1) to switch branches.

       o   git-add(1) to manage the index file.

       o   git-diff(1) and git-status(1) to see what you are in the middle of

       o   git-commit(1) to advance the current branch.

       o   git-restore(1) to undo changes.

       o   git-merge(1) to merge between local branches.

       o   git-rebase(1) to maintain topic branches.

       o   git-tag(1) to mark a known point.

       Use a tarball as a starting point for a new repository.

               $ tar zxf frotz.tar.gz
               $ cd frotz
               $ git init
               $ git add . (1)
               $ git commit -m "import of frotz source tree."
               $ git tag v2.43 (2)

           1. add everything under the current directory.
           2. make a lightweight, unannotated tag.

       Create a topic branch and develop.

               $ git switch -c alsa-audio (1)
               $ edit/compile/test
               $ git restore curses/ux_audio_oss.c (2)
               $ git add curses/ux_audio_alsa.c (3)
               $ edit/compile/test
               $ git diff HEAD (4)
               $ git commit -a -s (5)
               $ edit/compile/test
               $ git diff HEAD^ (6)
               $ git commit -a --amend (7)
               $ git switch master (8)
               $ git merge alsa-audio (9)
               $ git log --since='3 days ago' (10)
               $ git log v2.43.. curses/ (11)

           1. create a new topic branch.
           2. revert your botched changes in curses/ux_audio_oss.c.
           3. you need to tell Git if you added a new file; removal and
           modification will be caught if you do git commit -a later.
           4. to see what changes you are committing.
           5. commit everything, as you have tested, with your sign-off.
           6. look at all your changes including the previous commit.
           7. amend the previous commit, adding all your new changes, using
           your original message.
           8. switch to the master branch.
           9. merge a topic branch into your master branch.
           10. review commit logs; other forms to limit output can be combined
           and include -10 (to show up to 10 commits), --until=2005-12-10,
           11. view only the changes that touch what's in curses/ directory,
           since v2.43 tag.

       A developer working as a participant in a group project needs to learn
       how to communicate with others, and uses these commands in addition to
       the ones needed by a standalone developer.

       o   git-clone(1) from the upstream to prime your local repository.

       o   git-pull(1) and git-fetch(1) from "origin" to keep up-to-date with
           the upstream.

       o   git-push(1) to shared repository, if you adopt CVS style shared
           repository workflow.

       o   git-format-patch(1) to prepare e-mail submission, if you adopt
           Linux kernel-style public forum workflow.

       o   git-send-email(1) to send your e-mail submission without corruption
           by your MUA.

       o   git-request-pull(1) to create a summary of changes for your
           upstream to pull.

       Clone the upstream and work on it. Feed changes to upstream.

               $ git clone git:// my2.6
               $ cd my2.6
               $ git switch -c mine master (1)
               $ edit/compile/test; git commit -a -s (2)
               $ git format-patch master (3)
               $ git send-email --to="person <>" 00*.patch (4)
               $ git switch master (5)
               $ git pull (6)
               $ git log -p ORIG_HEAD.. arch/i386 include/asm-i386 (7)
               $ git ls-remote --heads (8)
               $ git pull git:// ALL (9)
               $ git reset --hard ORIG_HEAD (10)
               $ git gc (11)

           1. checkout a new branch mine from master.
           2. repeat as needed.
           3. extract patches from your branch, relative to master,
           4. and email them.
           5. return to master, ready to see what's new
           6. git pull fetches from origin by default and merges into the
           current branch.
           7. immediately after pulling, look at the changes done upstream
           since last time we checked, only in the area we are interested in.
           8. check the branch names in an external repository (if not known).
           9. fetch from a specific branch ALL from a specific repository and
           merge it.
           10. revert the pull.
           11. garbage collect leftover objects from reverted pull.

       Push into another repository.

               satellite$ git clone mothership:frotz frotz (1)
               satellite$ cd frotz
               satellite$ git config --get-regexp '^(remote|branch)\.' (2)
               remote.origin.url mothership:frotz
               remote.origin.fetch refs/heads/*:refs/remotes/origin/*
               branch.master.remote origin
               branch.master.merge refs/heads/master
               satellite$ git config remote.origin.push \
                          +refs/heads/*:refs/remotes/satellite/* (3)
               satellite$ edit/compile/test/commit
               satellite$ git push origin (4)

               mothership$ cd frotz
               mothership$ git switch master
               mothership$ git merge satellite/master (5)

           1. mothership machine has a frotz repository under your home
           directory; clone from it to start a repository on the satellite
           2. clone sets these configuration variables by default. It arranges
           git pull to fetch and store the branches of mothership machine to
           local remotes/origin/* remote-tracking branches.
           3. arrange git push to push all local branches to their
           corresponding branch of the mothership machine.
           4. push will stash all our work away on remotes/satellite/*
           remote-tracking branches on the mothership machine. You could use
           this as a back-up method. Likewise, you can pretend that mothership
           "fetched" from you (useful when access is one sided).
           5. on mothership machine, merge the work done on the satellite
           machine into the master branch.

       Branch off of a specific tag.

               $ git switch -c private2.6.14 v2.6.14 (1)
               $ edit/compile/test; git commit -a
               $ git checkout master
               $ git cherry-pick v2.6.14..private2.6.14 (2)

           1. create a private branch based on a well known (but somewhat
           behind) tag.
           2. forward port all changes in private2.6.14 branch to master
           branch without a formal "merging". Or longhand

           git format-patch -k -m --stdout v2.6.14..private2.6.14 | git am -3

       An alternate participant submission mechanism is using the git
       request-pull or pull-request mechanisms (e.g as used on GitHub
       ( to notify your upstream of your contribution.

       A fairly central person acting as the integrator in a group project
       receives changes made by others, reviews and integrates them and
       publishes the result for others to use, using these commands in
       addition to the ones needed by participants.

       This section can also be used by those who respond to git request-pull
       or pull-request on GitHub ( to integrate the work of
       others into their history. A sub-area lieutenant for a repository will
       act both as a participant and as an integrator.

       o   git-am(1) to apply patches e-mailed in from your contributors.

       o   git-pull(1) to merge from your trusted lieutenants.

       o   git-format-patch(1) to prepare and send suggested alternative to

       o   git-revert(1) to undo botched commits.

       o   git-push(1) to publish the bleeding edge.

       A typical integrator's Git day.

               $ git status (1)
               $ git branch --no-merged master (2)
               $ mailx (3)
               & s 2 3 4 5 ./+to-apply
               & s 7 8 ./+hold-linus
               & q
               $ git switch -c topic/one master
               $ git am -3 -i -s ./+to-apply (4)
               $ compile/test
               $ git switch -c hold/linus && git am -3 -i -s ./+hold-linus (5)
               $ git switch topic/one && git rebase master (6)
               $ git switch -C pu next (7)
               $ git merge topic/one topic/two && git merge hold/linus (8)
               $ git switch maint
               $ git cherry-pick master~4 (9)
               $ compile/test
               $ git tag -s -m "GIT 0.99.9x" v0.99.9x (10)
               $ git fetch ko && for branch in master maint next pu (11)
                       git show-branch ko/$branch $branch (12)
               $ git push --follow-tags ko (13)

           1. see what you were in the middle of doing, if anything.
           2. see which branches haven't been merged into master yet. Likewise
           for any other integration branches e.g.  maint, next and pu
           (potential updates).
           3. read mails, save ones that are applicable, and save others that
           are not quite ready (other mail readers are available).
           4. apply them, interactively, with your sign-offs.
           5. create topic branch as needed and apply, again with sign-offs.
           6. rebase internal topic branch that has not been merged to the
           master or exposed as a part of a stable branch.
           7. restart pu every time from the next.
           8. and bundle topic branches still cooking.
           9. backport a critical fix.
           10. create a signed tag.
           11. make sure master was not accidentally rewound beyond that
           already pushed out.
           12. In the output from git show-branch, master should have
           everything ko/master has, and next should have everything ko/next
           has, etc.
           13. push out the bleeding edge, together with new tags that point
           into the pushed history.

       In this example, the ko shorthand points at the Git maintainer's
       repository at, and looks like this:

           (in .git/config)
           [remote "ko"]
                   url =
                   fetch = refs/heads/*:refs/remotes/ko/*
                   push = refs/heads/master
                   push = refs/heads/next
                   push = +refs/heads/pu
                   push = refs/heads/maint

       A repository administrator uses the following tools to set up and
       maintain access to the repository by developers.

       o   git-daemon(1) to allow anonymous download from repository.

       o   git-shell(1) can be used as a restricted login shell for shared
           central repository users.

       o   git-http-backend(1) provides a server side implementation of
           Git-over-HTTP ("Smart http") allowing both fetch and push services.

       o   gitweb(1) provides a web front-end to Git repositories, which can
           be set-up using the git-instaweb(1) script.

       update hook howto[1] has a good example of managing a shared central

       In addition there are a number of other widely deployed hosting,
       browsing and reviewing solutions such as:

       o   gitolite, gerrit code review, cgit and others.

       We assume the following in /etc/services

               $ grep 9418 /etc/services
               git             9418/tcp                # Git Version Control System

       Run git-daemon to serve /pub/scm from inetd.

               $ grep git /etc/inetd.conf
               git     stream  tcp     nowait  nobody \
                 /usr/bin/git-daemon git-daemon --inetd --export-all /pub/scm

           The actual configuration line should be on one line.

       Run git-daemon to serve /pub/scm from xinetd.

               $ cat /etc/xinetd.d/git-daemon
               # default: off
               # description: The Git server offers access to Git repositories
               service git
                       disable = no
                       type            = UNLISTED
                       port            = 9418
                       socket_type     = stream
                       wait            = no
                       user            = nobody
                       server          = /usr/bin/git-daemon
                       server_args     = --inetd --export-all --base-path=/pub/scm
                       log_on_failure  += USERID

           Check your xinetd(8) documentation and setup, this is from a Fedora
           system. Others might be different.

       Give push/pull only access to developers using git-over-ssh.
           e.g. those using: $ git push/pull ssh://host.xz/pub/scm/project

               $ grep git /etc/passwd (1)
               $ grep git /etc/shells (2)

           1. log-in shell is set to /usr/bin/git-shell, which does not allow
           anything but git push and git pull. The users require ssh access to
           the machine.
           2. in many distributions /etc/shells needs to list what is used as
           the login shell.

       CVS-style shared repository.

               $ grep git /etc/group (1)
               $ cd /home/devo.git
               $ ls -l (2)
                 lrwxrwxrwx   1 david git    17 Dec  4 22:40 HEAD -> refs/heads/master
                 drwxrwsr-x   2 david git  4096 Dec  4 22:40 branches
                 -rw-rw-r--   1 david git    84 Dec  4 22:40 config
                 -rw-rw-r--   1 david git    58 Dec  4 22:40 description
                 drwxrwsr-x   2 david git  4096 Dec  4 22:40 hooks
                 -rw-rw-r--   1 david git 37504 Dec  4 22:40 index
                 drwxrwsr-x   2 david git  4096 Dec  4 22:40 info
                 drwxrwsr-x   4 david git  4096 Dec  4 22:40 objects
                 drwxrwsr-x   4 david git  4096 Nov  7 14:58 refs
                 drwxrwsr-x   2 david git  4096 Dec  4 22:40 remotes
               $ ls -l hooks/update (3)
                 -r-xr-xr-x   1 david git  3536 Dec  4 22:40 update
               $ cat info/allowed-users (4)
               refs/heads/master       alice\|cindy
               refs/heads/doc-update   bob
               refs/tags/v[0-9]*       david

           1. place the developers into the same git group.
           2. and make the shared repository writable by the group.
           3. use update-hook example by Carl from Documentation/howto/ for
           branch policy control.
           4. alice and cindy can push into master, only bob can push into
           doc-update. david is the release manager and is the only person who
           can create and push version tags.

       Part of the git(1) suite

        1. update hook howto

Git 2.25.1                        04/26/2023                    GITEVERYDAY(7)
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