dpkg-buildpackage(1)              dpkg suite              dpkg-buildpackage(1)

       dpkg-buildpackage - build binary or source packages from sources

       dpkg-buildpackage [option...]

       dpkg-buildpackage is a program that automates the process of building a
       Debian package. It consists of the following steps:

       1. It prepares the build environment  by  setting  various  environment
          variables   (see   ENVIRONMENT),  runs  the  init  hook,  and  calls
          dpkg-source --before-build (unless -T or --target has been used).

       2. It  checks  that  the  build-dependencies  and  build-conflicts  are
          satisfied (unless -d or --no-check-builddeps is specified).

       3. If  one  or  more specific targets have been selected with the -T or
          --target option, it calls those targets and stops here. Otherwise it
          runs  the  preclean  hook  and  calls fakeroot debian/rules clean to
          clean the build-tree (unless -nc or --no-pre-clean is specified).

       4. It runs the source hook and calls dpkg-source  -b  to  generate  the
          source package (if a source build has been requested with --build or
          equivalent options).

       5. It runs the build hook and  calls  debian/rules  build-target,  then
          runs the binary hook followed by fakeroot debian/rules binary-target
          (unless a source-only build has been requested  with  --build=source
          or  equivalent  options).   Note that build-target and binary-target
          are either build and binary (default case, or  if  an  any  and  all
          build  has  been  requested  with --build or equivalent options), or
          build-arch and binary-arch (if an any and not  all  build  has  been
          requested  with  --build  or equivalent options), or build-indep and
          binary-indep (if an all and not any build has  been  requested  with
          --build or equivalent options).

       6. It runs the buildinfo hook and calls dpkg-genbuildinfo to generate a
          .buildinfo file.  Several dpkg-buildpackage options are forwarded to

       7. It  runs  the  changes  hook and calls dpkg-genchanges to generate a
          .changes file.  The name of the .changes file  will  depend  on  the
          type of build and will be as specific as necessary but not more; for
          a build that includes  any  the  name  will  be  source-name_binary-
          version_arch.changes, or otherwise for a build that includes all the
          name will be  source-name_binary-version_all.changes,  or  otherwise
          for   a  build  that  includes  source  the  name  will  be  source-
          name_source-version_source.changes.  Many dpkg-buildpackage  options
          are forwarded to dpkg-genchanges.

       8. It  runs the postclean hook and if -tc or --post-clean is specified,
          it will call fakeroot debian/rules clean again.

       9. It calls dpkg-source --after-build.

          It runs the check hook and calls a package checker for the  .changes
          file  (if  a  command  is  specified  in  DEB_CHECK_COMMAND  or with

          It runs the sign hook and calls gpg2 or gpg (as long as it is not an
          UNRELEASED  build,  or --no-sign is specified) to sign the .dsc file
          (if  any,  unless  -us  or  --unsigned-source  is  specified),   the
          .buildinfo   file   (unless   -ui,   --unsigned-buildinfo,   -uc  or
          --unsigned-changes is specified) and the .changes file  (unless  -uc
          or --unsigned-changes is specified).

          It runs the done hook.

       All  long  options can be specified both on the command line and in the
       dpkg-buildpackage system and user configuration files.   Each  line  in
       the  configuration  file  is  either an option (exactly the same as the
       command line option but without leading hyphens) or a  comment  (if  it
       starts with a '#').

              Specifies   the  build  type  from  a  comma-separated  list  of
              components (since dpkg 1.18.5).  Passed to dpkg-genchanges.

              The allowed values are:

              source Builds the source package.  Note: when using  this  value
                     standalone  and  if what you want is simply to (re-)build
                     the source package, using dpkg-source is always better as
                     it   does  not  require  any  build  dependencies  to  be
                     installed to be able to call the clean target.

              any    Builds the architecture specific binary packages.

              all    Builds the architecture independent binary packages.

              binary Builds the architecture specific and  independent  binary
                     packages.  This is an alias for any,all.

              full   Builds  everything.  This is an alias for source,any,all,
                     and the same as the default case when no build option  is

       -g     Equivalent to --build=source,all (since dpkg 1.17.11).

       -G     Equivalent to --build=source,any (since dpkg 1.17.11).

       -b     Equivalent to --build=binary or --build=any,all.

       -B     Equivalent to --build=any.

       -A     Equivalent to --build=all.

       -S     Equivalent to --build=source.

       -F     Equivalent    to    --build=full,    --build=source,binary    or
              --build=source,any,all (since dpkg 1.15.8).

       --target target[,...]
       -T, --rules-target=target[,...]
              Calls debian/rules  target  once  per  target  specified,  after
              having   setup   the   build  environment  (except  for  calling
              dpkg-source --before-build), and stops the package build process
              here  (since  dpkg 1.15.0, long option since dpkg 1.18.8, multi-
              target support since dpkg 1.18.16).  If --as-root is also given,
              then the command is executed as root (see --root-command).  Note
              that known targets that are required to be run as  root  do  not
              need  this  option  (i.e.  the  clean,  binary,  binary-arch and
              binary-indep targets).

              Only meaningful together  with  --target  (since  dpkg  1.15.0).
              Requires that the target be run with root rights.

       -m, --release-by=maintainer-address
       -e, --build-by=maintainer-address
              Passed unchanged to dpkg-genchanges. See its manual page.

       -a, --host-arch architecture
              Specify  the Debian architecture we build for (long option since
              dpkg 1.17.17).  The architecture of the machine we build  on  is
              determined  automatically,  and is also the default for the host

       -t, --host-type gnu-system-type
              Specify the GNU system type we build for (long option since dpkg
              1.17.17).   It  can  be  used  in  place  of --host-arch or as a
              complement to override the default GNU system type of  the  host
              Debian architecture.

       --target-arch architecture
              Specify  the  Debian  architecture the binaries built will build
              for (since  dpkg  1.17.17).   The  default  value  is  the  host

       --target-type gnu-system-type
              Specify  the  GNU  system type the binaries built will build for
              (since dpkg 1.17.17).  It can be used in place of  --target-arch
              or  as  a  complement to override the default GNU system type of
              the target Debian architecture.

       -P, --build-profiles=profile[,...]
              Specify the profile(s)  we  build,  as  a  comma-separated  list
              (since dpkg 1.17.2, long option since dpkg 1.18.8).  The default
              behavior is to build for no specific profile. Also sets them (as
              a  space  separated  list) as the DEB_BUILD_PROFILES environment
              variable which allows, for example, debian/rules  files  to  use
              this information for conditional builds.

       -j, --jobs[=jobs|auto]
              Number  of jobs allowed to be run simultaneously, number of jobs
              matching the number of online processors if  auto  is  specified
              (since  dpkg  1.17.10),  or  unlimited  number  if  jobs  is not
              specified, equivalent to the make(1) option  of  the  same  name
              (since  dpkg  1.14.7,  long option since dpkg 1.18.8).  Will add
              itself to the MAKEFLAGS environment variable, which should cause
              all  subsequent  make  invocations  to  inherit the option, thus
              forcing the parallel setting on the packaging (and possibly  the
              upstream  build  system  if  that uses make) regardless of their
              support for parallel builds, which might cause  build  failures.
              Also  adds  parallel=jobs  or  parallel to the DEB_BUILD_OPTIONS
              environment variable which allows debian/rules files to use this
              information  for their own purposes.  The -j value will override
              the parallel=jobs or parallel option  in  the  DEB_BUILD_OPTIONS
              environment  variable.   Note  that  the  auto  value  will  get
              replaced by the actual number of  currently  active  processors,
              and as such will not get propagated to any child process. If the
              number of online processors cannot be  inferred  then  the  code
              will  fallback  to  using serial execution (since dpkg 1.18.15),
              although this should  only  happen  on  exotic  and  unsupported

       -J, --jobs-try[=jobs|auto]
              This  option  (since dpkg 1.18.2, long option since dpkg 1.18.8)
              is equivalent to the -j option except that it does not  set  the
              MAKEFLAGS  environment  variable, and as such it is safer to use
              with any package including those  that  are  not  parallel-build

              auto  is  the default behavior (since dpkg 1.18.11). Setting the
              number of jobs to 1 will restore a serial behavior.

       -D, --check-builddeps
              Check build dependencies and  conflicts;  abort  if  unsatisfied
              (long option since dpkg 1.18.8).  This is the default behavior.

       -d, --no-check-builddeps
              Do not check build dependencies and conflicts (long option since
              dpkg 1.18.8).

              Do not check built-in build dependencies  and  conflicts  (since
              dpkg  1.18.2).   These  are  the  distribution specific implicit
              build dependencies usually required in a build environment,  the
              so called Build-Essential package set.

       -nc, --no-pre-clean
              Do  not  clean  the source tree (long option since dpkg 1.18.8).
              Implies -b if nothing else has been selected among -F,  -g,  -G,
              -B, -A or -S.  Implies -d with -S (since dpkg 1.18.0).

              Clean the source tree before building (since dpkg 1.18.8).

       -tc, --post-clean
              Clean  the  source  tree  (using  gain-root-command debian/rules
              clean) after the package has been built (long option since  dpkg

       -r, --root-command=gain-root-command
              When  dpkg-buildpackage  needs  to  execute  part  of  the build
              process as root, it prefixes the command it executes with  gain-
              root-command  if  one has been specified (long option since dpkg
              1.18.8).  Otherwise, if none has been specified,  fakeroot  will
              be  used  by  default,  if  the  command is present.  gain-root-
              command should start with the name of a program on the PATH  and
              will  get  as  arguments the name of the real command to run and
              the arguments it should  take.   gain-root-command  can  include
              parameters   (they   must   be  space-separated)  but  no  shell
              metacharacters.  gain-root-command might typically be  fakeroot,
              sudo,  super  or  really.  su is not suitable, since it can only
              invoke the user's shell with -c  instead  of  passing  arguments
              individually to the command to be run.

       -R, --rules-file=rules-file
              Building a Debian package usually involves invoking debian/rules
              as a  command  with  several  standard  parameters  (since  dpkg
              1.14.17,  long option since dpkg 1.18.8).  With this option it's
              possible to use another program invocation to build the  package
              (it  can  include space separated parameters).  Alternatively it
              can be used to execute the standard rules file with another make
              program   (for   example   by   using   /usr/local/bin/make   -f
              debian/rules as rules-file).

              Command used to check the .changes file itself and any  artifact
              built  referenced  in the file (since dpkg 1.17.6).  The command
              should take the .changes pathname as an argument.  This  command
              will usually be lintian.

              Pass   option   opt   to   the   check-command   specified  with
              DEB_CHECK_COMMAND or --check-command (since dpkg  1.17.6).   Can
              be used multiple times.

              Set the specified shell code hook-command as the hook hook-name,
              which will run at the times specified in the  run  steps  (since
              dpkg  1.17.6).   The  hooks  will always be executed even if the
              following action is not performed (except for the binary  hook).
              All the hooks will run in the unpacked source directory.

              Note:  Hooks  can  affect  the  build  process,  and cause build
              failures if their commands fail, so  watch  out  for  unintended

              The current hook-name supported are:

              init  preclean  source  build binary buildinfo changes postclean
              check sign done

              The hook-command  supports  the  following  substitution  format
              string, which will get applied to it before execution:

              %%     A single % character.

              %a     A  boolean  value  (0  or  1),  representing  whether the
                     following action is being performed.

              %p     The source package name.

              %v     The source package version.

              %s     The source package version (without the epoch).

              %u     The upstream version.

              Pass option opt to dpkg-genbuildinfo (since dpkg 1.18.11).   Can
              be used multiple times.

       -p, --sign-command=sign-command
              When  dpkg-buildpackage  needs  to  execute GPG to sign a source
              control (.dsc) file or a .changes file it will run  sign-command
              (searching  the  PATH if necessary) instead of gpg2 or gpg (long
              option since  dpkg  1.18.8).   sign-command  will  get  all  the
              arguments  that  gpg2  or  gpg  would  have gotten. sign-command
              should not contain spaces or any other shell metacharacters.

       -k, --sign-key=key-id
              Specify a key-ID to use when signing packages (long option since
              dpkg 1.18.8).

       -us, --unsigned-source
              Do not sign the source package (long option since dpkg 1.18.8).

       -ui, --unsigned-buildinfo
              Do not sign the .buildinfo file (since dpkg 1.18.19).

       -uc, --unsigned-changes
              Do not sign the .buildinfo and .changes files (long option since
              dpkg 1.18.8).

              Do not sign any file, this  includes  the  source  package,  the
              .buildinfo file and the .changes file (since dpkg 1.18.20).

              Force  the  signing  of the resulting files (since dpkg 1.17.0),
              regardless of -us, --unsigned-source, -ui, --unsigned-buildinfo,
              -uc, --unsigned-changes or other internal heuristics.

       -i, --diff-ignore[=regex]
       -I, --tar-ignore[=pattern]
       -z, --compression-level=level
       -Z, --compression=compressor
              Passed unchanged to dpkg-source. See its manual page.

              Pass option opt to dpkg-source (since dpkg 1.15.6).  Can be used
              multiple times.

              Pass option opt to dpkg-genchanges (since dpkg 1.15.6).  Can  be
              used multiple times.

       --admindir dir
              Change  the  location  of the dpkg database (since dpkg 1.14.0).
              The default location is /var/lib/dpkg.

       -?, --help
              Show the usage message and exit.

              Show the version and exit.

   External environment
              If set, it will be used as the command  to  check  the  .changes
              file  (since  dpkg  1.17.6).   Overridden by the --check-command

              If set, it will be used to sign  the  .changes  and  .dsc  files
              (since dpkg 1.17.2).  Overridden by the --sign-key option.

              If  set,  it will contain a space-separated list of options that
              might affect the build process in debian/rules, and the behavior
              of some dpkg commands.

              With  nocheck  the  DEB_CHECK_COMMAND  variable will be ignored.
              With parallel=N the parallel jobs will be set to  N,  overridden
              by the --jobs-try option.

              If  set,  it will be used as the active build profile(s) for the
              package  being  built  (since  dpkg  1.17.2).   It  is  a  space
              separated list of profile names.  Overridden by the -P option.

              Sets the color mode (since dpkg 1.18.5).  The currently accepted
              values are: auto (default), always and never.

   Internal environment
       Even if dpkg-buildpackage exports some variables,  debian/rules  should
       not  rely  on  their  presence  and  should  instead use the respective
       interface to retrieve the needed values, because that file is the  main
       entry  point  to  build  packages  and  running it standalone should be

              dpkg-architecture is  called  with  the  -a  and  -t  parameters
              forwarded.  Any  variable  that  is  output  by its -s option is
              integrated in the build environment.

              This  variable  is  set  to  the   value   obtained   from   the
              Rules-Requires-Root  field  or from the command-line.  When set,
              it will be a valid value for the Rules-Requires-Root field.   It
              is  used  to notify debian/rules whether the rootless-builds.txt
              specification is supported.

              This  variable  is  set  to  gain-root-command  when  the  field
              Rules-Requires-Root  is  set  to  a  value  different  to no and

              This variable is set to the Unix timestamp since  the  epoch  of
              the  latest  entry  in  debian/changelog,  if  it is not already

              System wide configuration file

       $XDG_CONFIG_HOME/dpkg/buildpackage.conf or
              User configuration file.

   Compiler flags are no longer exported
       Between dpkg 1.14.17 and 1.16.1,  dpkg-buildpackage  exported  compiler
       flags  (CFLAGS,  CXXFLAGS, FFLAGS, CPPFLAGS and LDFLAGS) with values as
       returned by dpkg-buildflags. This is no longer the case.

   Default build targets
       dpkg-buildpackage is using the build-arch and build-indep targets since
       dpkg  1.16.2.  Those targets are thus mandatory. But to avoid breakages
       of existing packages, and ease the transition, if  the  source  package
       does  not  build  both  architecture  independent  and dependent binary
       packages (since dpkg 1.18.8) it will fallback to use the  build  target
       if make -f debian/rules -qn build-target returns 2 as exit code.

       It  should  be  possible to specify spaces and shell metacharacters and
       initial arguments for gain-root-command and sign-command.

       dpkg-source(1), dpkg-architecture(1), dpkg-buildflags(1),
       dpkg-genbuildinfo(1), dpkg-genchanges(1), fakeroot(1), lintian(1),
       gpg2(1), gpg(1).                          2019-09-05              dpkg-buildpackage(1)
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