dpkg-source [option...] command

       dpkg-source packs and unpacks Debian source archives.

       None  of these commands allow multiple options to be combined into one,
       and they do not allow the value for an option to be specified in a sep-
       arate argument.

       -x filename.dsc [output-directory]
              Extract  a  source package. One non-option argument must be sup-
              plied, the name of the Debian source control  file  (.dsc).   An
              optional  second  non-option argument may be supplied to specify
              the directory to extract the source package to,  this  must  not
              exist.  If  no output directory is specified, the source package
              is extracted into a directory  named  source-version  under  the
              current working directory.

              dpkg-source  will  read the names of the other file(s) making up
              the source package from the control file; they are assumed to be
              in the same directory as the .dsc.

              The  files  in the extracted package will have their permissions
              and ownerships set to those which would have  been  expected  if
              the  files and directories had simply been created - directories
              and executable files will be 0777 and plain files will be  0666,
              both  modified by the extractors' umask; if the parent directory
              is setgid then the extracted directories will be  too,  and  all
              the files and directories will inherit its group ownership.

              If the source package uses a non-standard format (currently this
              means all formats except "1.0"), its  name  will  be  stored  in
              debian/source/format  so that the following builds of the source
              package use the same format by default.

       -b directory [format-specific-parameters]
              Build a source package. The first non-option argument  is  taken
              as  the  name  of the directory containing the debianized source
              tree (i.e. with a debian sub-directory and maybe changes to  the
              original files).  Depending on the source package format used to
              build the package, additional parameters might be accepted.

              dpkg-source will build the source package with the first  format
              found in this ordered list: the format indicated with the --for-
              mat   command   line   option,   the   format    indicated    in
              debian/source/format, "1.0". The fallback to "1.0" is deprecated
              and will be removed at some point  in  the  future,  you  should
              always  document the desired source format in debian/source/for-
              mat.  See  section  SOURCE  PACKAGE  FORMATS  for  an  extensive
              description of the various source package formats.
              command is idempotent and can be called multiple times. Not  all
              source  formats implement something in this hook, and those that
              do usually prepare the source tree for the build for example  by
              ensuring that the Debian patches are applied.

       --after-build directory
              Run  the  corresponding  hook of the source package format. This
              hook is called after any build of the package (dpkg-buildpackage
              calls  it  last).  This  command is idempotent and can be called
              multiple times. Not all source formats  implement  something  in
              this  hook,  and  those  that  do  usually  use  it to undo what
              --before-build has done.

       --commit [directory] ...
              Record changes in the source tree unpacked  in  directory.  This
              command  can  take  supplementary  parameters  depending  on the
              source format.  It will error out for formats where this  opera-
              tion doesn't mean anything.

       -?, --help
              Show the usage message and exit.

              Show the version and exit.

   Generic build options
              Specifies the main source control file to read information from.
              The default is debian/control.  If given with relative  pathname
              this  is  interpreted  starting  at  the source tree's top level

              Specifies the changelog  file  to  read  information  from.  The
              default  is  debian/changelog.   If given with relative pathname
              this is interpreted starting at  the  source  tree's  top  level

              Specifies   the   format   of   the   changelog.  See  dpkg-par-
              sechangelog(1) for information about alternative formats.

              Use the given format for building the source  package.  It  does
              override any format given in debian/source/format.

              Set an output substitution variable.  See deb-substvars(5) for a
              discussion of output substitution.

              Specify the compression to use for created files  (tarballs  and
              diffs).   Note that this option will not cause existing tarballs
              to be recompressed, it only affects new files. Supported  values
              are:  gzip, bzip2, lzma and xz.  gzip is the default. xz is only
              supported since dpkg 1.15.5.

       -zlevel, --compression-level=level
              Compression level to use. As with -Z it only affects newly  cre-
              ated  files.  Supported values are: 1 to 9, best, and fast.  The
              default is 9 for gzip and bzip2, 6 for xz and lzma.

       -i[regex], --diff-ignore[=regex]
              You may specify a perl regular expression  to  match  files  you
              want  filtered out of the list of files for the diff. (This list
              is generated by a find command.) (If the source package is being
              built  as  a  version  3 source package using a VCS, this can be
              used to ignore uncommited changes on specific files. Using  -i.*
              will ignore all of them.)

              The  -i  option  by  itself  enables this setting with a default
              regex (preserving any modification to the default regex done  by
              a  previous  use  of  --extend-diff-ignore) that will filter out
              control files and directories of the most common  revision  con-
              trol  systems,  backup  and  swap files and Libtool build output
              directories. There can only be one active regex, of multiple  -i
              options only the last one will take effect.

              This  is  very  helpful in cutting out extraneous files that get
              included in the diff, e.g. if you  maintain  your  source  in  a
              revision  control  system  and want to use a checkout to build a
              source package without including the additional files and direc-
              tories  that  it  will  usually  contain (e.g. CVS/, .cvsignore,
              .svn/). The default regex is already very exhaustive, but if you
              need to replace it, please note that by default it can match any
              part of a path, so if you want to match the begin of a  filename
              or  only  full filenames, you will need to provide the necessary
              anchors (e.g. '(^|/)', '($|/)') yourself.

              The perl regular expression specified will  extend  the  default
              value  used  by --diff-ignore and its current value (if set). It
              does this by concatenating "|regex" to the existing value.  This
              option  is convenient to use in debian/source/options to exclude
              some auto-generated files from the automatic patch generation.

       -I[file-pattern], --tar-ignore[=file-pattern]
              If this option is specified,  the  pattern  will  be  passed  to
              tar(1)'s  --exclude  option  when  it  is  called  to generate a
              .orig.tar or .tar file. For example, -ICVS will  make  tar  skip
              over  CVS directories when generating a .tar.gz file. The option
              may be repeated multiple times  to  list  multiple  patterns  to

              -I by itself adds default --exclude options that will filter out


       The default regex and patterns for both options can be seen in the out-
       put of the --help command.

   Generic extract options
              Do not copy original tarballs near the extracted source package.

              Do not check signatures and checksums before unpacking.

              Refuse  to  unpack  the  source package if it doesn't contain an
              OpenPGP signature that can be verified either  with  the  user's
              trustedkeys.gpg keyring, one of the vendor-specific keyrings, or
              one      of       the       official       Debian       keyrings
              (/usr/share/keyrings/debian-keyring.gpg                      and

       If you don't know what source format to use, you should  probably  pick
       either      "3.0      (quilt)"      or      "3.0     (native)".     See
       https://wiki.debian.org/Projects/DebSrc3.0  for  information   on   the
       deployment of those formats within Debian.

   Format: 1.0
       A source package in this format consists either of a .orig.tar.gz asso-
       ciated to a .diff.gz or a single .tar.gz (in that case the  package  is
       said to be native).


       Extracting  a  native package is a simple extraction of the single tar-
       ball in the target directory. Extracting a non-native package  is  done
       by  first  unpacking  the .orig.tar.gz and then applying the patch con-
       tained in the .diff.gz file. The timestamp  of  all  patched  files  is
       reset  to  the extraction time of the source package (this avoids time-
       stamp skews leading to problems when autogenerated files are  patched).
       The  diff  can  create new files (the whole debian directory is created
       that way) but can't remove files (empty files will be left over).


       Building a native package is just creating a single  tarball  with  the
       source directory. Building a non-native package involves extracting the
       original tarball in a separate ".orig" directory and  regenerating  the
       .diff.gz  by  comparing  the  source  package  directory with the .orig

       Build options (with -b):

              package_upstream-version.orig.tar.extension.  It will leave this
              original source in place as a tarfile, or copy it to the current
              directory if  it  isn't  already  there.  The  tarball  will  be
              unpacked into directory.orig for the generation of the diff.

       -sp    Like -sk but will remove the directory again afterwards.

       -su    Specifies  that  the original source is expected as a directory,
              by default package-upstream-version.orig  and  dpkg-source  will
              create a new original source archive from it.

       -sr    Like -su but will remove that directory after it has been used.

       -ss    Specifies that the original source is available both as a direc-
              tory and as a tarfile. dpkg-source will  use  the  directory  to
              create  the  diff,  but  the  tarfile  to create the .dsc.  This
              option must be used with care - if the directory and tarfile  do
              not match a bad source archive will be generated.

       -sn    Specifies to not look for any original source, and to not gener-
              ate a diff.  The second argument, if supplied, must be the empty
              string.  This  is used for Debian-specific packages which do not
              have a separate upstream source and therefore have no debianisa-
              tion diffs.

       -sa or -sA
              Specifies  to  look for the original source archive as a tarfile
              or as a directory - the second argument, if any, may be  either,
              or  the  empty  string  (this is equivalent to using -sn).  If a
              tarfile is found it will unpack it to create the diff and remove
              it  afterwards  (this  is  equivalent to -sp); if a directory is
              found it will pack it to create the original source  and  remove
              it  afterwards  (this is equivalent to -sr); if neither is found
              it will assume that the package has no debianisation diffs, only
              a  straightforward  source  archive (this is equivalent to -sn).
              If both are found then dpkg-source will  ignore  the  directory,
              overwriting it, if -sA was specified (this is equivalent to -sP)
              or raise an error if -sa was specified.  -sA is the default.

              The process fails if the  generated  diff  contains  changes  to
              files  outside  of  the debian sub-directory. This option is not
              allowed  in   debian/source/options   but   can   be   used   in

              Extract options (with -x):

              In all cases any existing original source tree will be removed.

       -sp    Used  when  extracting then the original source (if any) will be
              left as a tarfile. If it is not already located in  the  current
              directory  or if an existing but different file is there it will
              be copied there.  (This is the default).

   Format: 2.0
       Also known as wig&pen. This format is not recommended  for  wide-spread
       usage,  the  format  "3.0  (quilt)"  replaces it. Wig&pen was the first
       specification of a new-generation source package format.

       The behaviour of this format is the same as the  "3.0  (quilt)"  format
       except  that  it  doesn't use an explicit list of patches. All files in
       debian/patches/ matching the perl regular  expression  [\w-]+  must  be
       valid patches: they are applied at extraction time.

       When  building  a new source package, any change to the upstream source
       is stored in a patch named zz_debian-diff-auto.

   Format: 3.0 (native)
       This format is an extension of the native package format as defined  in
       the  1.0 format. It supports all compression methods and will ignore by
       default any VCS specific files and directories as well as  many  tempo-
       rary  files  (see  default  value associated to -I option in the --help

   Format: 3.0 (quilt)
       A source package in this format contains at least an  original  tarball
       (.orig.tar.ext where ext can be gz, bz2, lzma and xz) and a debian tar-
       ball (.debian.tar.ext). It can also contain  additional  original  tar-
       balls  (.orig-component.tar.ext).   component can only contain alphanu-
       meric characters and hyphens ("-").


       The main original tarball is extracted first, then all additional orig-
       inal tarballs are extracted in subdirectories named after the component
       part of their filename (any pre-existing directory  is  replaced).  The
       debian  tarball is extracted on top of the source directory after prior
       removal of any pre-existing debian directory. Note that the debian tar-
       ball must contain a debian sub-directory but it can also contain binary
       files outside of that directory (see --include-binaries option).

       All    patches    listed     in     debian/patches/debian.series     or
       debian/patches/series are then applied.  If the former file is used and
       the latter one doesn't exist (or is a  symlink),  then  the  latter  is
       replaced  with a symlink to the former. This is meant to simplify usage
       of quilt to  manage  the  set  of  patches.  Note  however  that  while
       dpkg-source  parses  correctly  series files with explicit options used
       for patch application (stored on each line after the patch filename and
       one  or  more  spaces),  it does ignore those options and always expect
       patches that can be applied with the -p1 option of patch. It will  thus
       emit a warning when it encounters such options, and the build is likely
       to fail.

       Contrary to quilt's default behaviour, patches are  expected  to  apply
       without  any  fuzz.  When that is not the case, you should refresh such
       patches with quilt, or dpkg-source will error out while trying to apply
       patches  except  the   automatic   patch   (debian-changes-version   or
       debian-changes,  depending  on  --single-debian-patch) are applied. The
       temporary directory is compared to the source package  directory.  When
       the  diff is non-empty, the build fails unless --single-debian-patch or
       --auto-commit has been used, in which case the diff is  stored  in  the
       automatic  patch.   If  the  automatic  patch  is created/deleted, it's
       added/removed from the series file and from the quilt metadata.

       Any change on a binary file is not representable in  a  diff  and  will
       thus  lead  to  a failure unless the maintainer deliberately decided to
       include that modified binary file in the debian tarball (by listing  it
       in  debian/source/include-binaries).  The  build  will  also fail if it
       finds binary files in the debian sub-directory unless  they  have  been
       whitelisted through debian/source/include-binaries.

       The  updated debian directory and the list of modified binaries is then
       used to generate the debian tarball.

       The automatically generated diff doesn't include changes  on  VCS  spe-
       cific  files as well as many temporary files (see default value associ-
       ated to -i option in the --help output). In particular, the .pc  direc-
       tory used by quilt is ignored during generation of the automatic patch.

       Note:  dpkg-source --before-build (and -b) will ensure that all patches
       listed in the series file are applied so that a  package  build  always
       has  all  patches  applied.  It  does this by finding unapplied patches
       (they are listed in the series file but  not  in  .pc/applied-patches),
       and  if  the  first patch in that set can be applied without errors, it
       will apply them all. The option --no-preparation can be used to disable
       this behavior.

       Recording changes

       --commit [directory] [patch-name] [patch-file]
              Generates  a  patch  corresponding to the local changes that are
              not managed by the quilt patch system and integrates it  in  the
              patch  system under the name patch-name. If the name is missing,
              it will be asked interactively. If patch-file is  given,  it  is
              used  as  the  patch corresponding to the local changes to inte-
              grate. Once integrated, an editor is launched so  that  you  can
              edit the meta-information in the patch header.

              Passing  patch-file  is mainly useful after a build failure that
              pre-generated this file, and on this ground the  given  file  is
              removed  after integration. Note also that the changes contained
              in the patch file must already be applied on the tree  and  that
              the  files  modified  by  the  patch must not have supplementary
              unrecorded changes.

              If the patch generation detects modified binary files, they will
              be automatically added to debian/source/include-binaries so that
              they end up in the  debian  tarball  (exactly  like  dpkg-source
              --include-binaries -b would do).
              Do not ignore removed files and include them  in  the  automati-
              cally generated patch.

              Include timestamp in the automatically generated patch.

              Add  all  modified binaries in the debian tarball. Also add them
              to debian/source/include-binaries: they will be added by default
              in subsequent builds and this option is thus no more needed.

              Do  not  try to prepare the build tree by applying patches which
              are apparently unapplied.

              Use       debian/patches/debian-changes        instead        of
              debian/patches/debian-changes-version  for the name of the auto-
              matic patch generated during build. This option is  particularly
              useful  when  the package is maintained in a VCS and a patch set
              can't reliably be  generated.  Instead  the  current  diff  with
              upstream should be stored in a single patch. The option would be
              put in debian/source/local-options and would be accompanied by a
              debian/source/local-patch-header  file explaining how the Debian
              changes can be best reviewed, for example in  the  VCS  that  is

              Automatically  create the main original tarball as empty if it's
              missing and if there are supplementary original  tarballs.  This
              option  is  meant  to  be used when the source package is just a
              bundle of multiple upstream software and where there's no "main"

       --no-unapply-patches, --unapply-patches
              By  default,  dpkg-source will automatically unapply the patches
              in  the  --after-build  hook  if  it  did  apply   them   during
              --before-build. Those options allow you to forcefully disable or
              enable the patch unapplication process. Those options  are  only
              allowed  in  debian/source/local-options  so  that all generated
              source packages have the same behavior by default.

              The process fails if an automatic patch has been generated. This
              option  can  be  used  to  ensure that all changes were properly
              recorded in separate quilt patches prior to the  source  package
              build.  This  option is not allowed in debian/source/options but
              can be used in debian/source/local-options.

              The process doesn't fail if an automatic patch has  been  gener-
              ated, instead it's immediately recorded in the quilt series.

       Build options

       All  non-option arguments are taken as files to integrate in the gener-
       ated source package. They must exist and are preferably in the  current
       directory. At least one file must be given.

              Required.  Defines the real format of the generated source pack-
              age.  The generated .dsc file will contain  this  value  in  its
              Format field and not "3.0 (custom)".

   Format: 3.0 (git)
       This format is experimental.

       A  source  package  in this format consists of a single bundle of a git
       repository .git to hold the source of a package.  There may also  be  a
       .gitshallow file listing revisions for a shallow git clone.


       The  bundle  is cloned as a git repository to the target directory.  If
       there is a gitshallow file, it is installed  as  `.git/shallow`  inside
       the cloned git repository.

       Note  that  by  default  the  new  repository will have the same branch
       checked out that was checked out in  the  original  source.  (Typically
       "master",  but it could be anything.) Any other branches will be avail-
       able under `remotes/origin/`.


       Before going any further, some checks are done to ensure that we  don't
       have any non-ignored uncommitted changes.

       git-bundle(1)  is  used to generate a bundle of the git repository.  By
       default, all branches and tags in the repository are  included  in  the

       Build options

              Allows  specifying  a  git ref to include in the git bundle. Use
              disables the default behavior  of  including  all  branches  and
              tags.  May  be specified multiple times. The ref can be the name
              of a branch or tag to include. It may also be any parameter that
              can  be  passed to git-rev-list(1). For example, to include only
              the master branch, use --git-ref=master. To include all tags and
              branches,  except  for  the  private branch, use --git-ref=--all

              Creates a shallow clone with a history truncated to  the  speci-
              fied number of revisions.

       Before  going any further, some checks are done to ensure that we don't
       have any non-ignored uncommitted changes.

       Then the VCS specific part of the source directory is copied over to  a
       temporary  directory.  Before  this  temporary directory is packed in a
       tarball, various cleanup are done to save space.

   no source format specified in debian/source/format
       The file debian/source/format should  always  exist  and  indicate  the
       desired  source  format.  For  backwards compatibility, format "1.0" is
       assumed when the file doesn't exist but you should not rely on this: at
       some point in the future dpkg-source will be modified to fail when that
       file doesn't exist.

       The rationale is that format "1.0" is no longer the recommended format,
       you  should  usually pick one of the newer formats ("3.0 (quilt)", "3.0
       (native)") but dpkg-source will not do this automatically for you.   If
       you want to continue using the old format, you should be explicit about
       it and put "1.0" in debian/source/format.

   the diff modifies the following upstream files
       When using source format "1.0" it is  usually  a  bad  idea  to  modify
       upstream files directly as the changes end up hidden and mostly undocu-
       mented in the .diff.gz file. Instead you should store your  changes  as
       patches  in the debian directory and apply them at build-time. To avoid
       this complexity you can also use the format "3.0 (quilt)"  that  offers
       this natively.

   cannot represent change to file
       Changes  to  upstream  sources are usually stored with patch files, but
       not all changes can be represented with patches: they  can  only  alter
       the content of plain text files. If you try replacing a file with some-
       thing of a different type (for example replacing a plain  file  with  a
       symlink or a directory), you will get this error message.

   newly created empty file file will not be represented in diff
       Empty  files can't be created with patch files. Thus this change is not
       recorded in the source package and you are warned about it.

   executable mode perms of file will not be represented in diff
       Patch files do not record permissions of files and thus executable per-
       missions are not stored in the source package. This warning reminds you
       of that fact.

   special mode perms of file will not be represented in diff
       Patch files do not record permissions of files and thus  modified  per-
       missions are not stored in the source package. This warning reminds you
       of that fact.

       This file contains on a single line the format that should be  used  to
       build  the  source  package  (possible formats are described above). No
       pression-level are well suited for this file.

       Each option should be put on a separate line.  Empty  lines  and  lines
       starting  with "#" are ignored. The leading "--" should be stripped and
       short options are not allowed. Optional spaces are allowed  around  the
       "=" symbol and optional quotes are allowed around the value.  Here's an
       example of such a file:

         # let dpkg-source create a debian.tar.bz2 with maximal compression
         compression = "bzip2"
         compression-level = 9
         # use debian/patches/debian-changes as automatic patch
         # ignore changes on config.{sub,guess}
         extend-diff-ignore = "(^|/)(config.sub|config.guess)$"

       Note: format options are not accepted in  this  file,  you  should  use
       debian/source/format instead.

       Exactly like debian/source/options except that the file is not included
       in the generated source package. It can be useful to store a preference
       tied  to the maintainer or to the VCS repository where the source pack-
       age is maintained.

   debian/source/local-patch-header and debian/source/patch-header
       Free form text that is put on top of the automatic patch  generated  in
       formats  "2.0"  or "3.0 (quilt)". local-patch-header is not included in
       the generated source package while patch-header is.

       This file lists all patches that have  to  be  applied  (in  the  given
       order) on top of the upstream source package. Leading and trailing spa-
       ces are stripped. Lines starting with "#" are comments and are skipped.
       Empty  lines  are  ignored. Remaining lines start with a patch filename
       (relative to the debian/patches/ directory) up to the first space char-
       acter  or  the end of line. Optional quilt options can follow up to the
       end of line or the first "#" preceded by  one  or  more  spaces  (which
       marks the start of a comment up to the end of line).

       The point at which field overriding occurs compared to certain standard
       output field settings is rather confused.

       dpkg-deb(1), dpkg(1), dselect(1).

Debian Project                    2013-12-05                    dpkg-source(1)
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