lintian


SYNOPSIS
       lintian [action] [options] [packages] ...

DESCRIPTION
       Lintian dissects Debian packages and reports bugs and policy
       violations.  It contains automated checks for many aspects of Debian
       policy as well as some checks for common errors.

       It uses an archive directory, called laboratory, in which it stores
       information about the packages it examines.  It can keep this
       information between multiple invocations in order to avoid repeating
       expensive data-collection operations.

       There are three ways to specify binary, udeb or source packages for
       Lintian to process: by file name (the .deb file for a binary package or
       the .dsc file for a source package), by naming a .changes file, or by
       using a lab query (see "LAB QUERY" below).

       If you specify a .changes file, Lintian will process all packages
       listed in that file.  This is convenient when checking a new package
       before uploading it.

       If you specify packages to be checked or use one of the options --all
       or --packages-from-file, the packages requested will be processed.
       Otherwise, if debian/changelog exists, it is parsed to determine the
       name of the .changes file to look for in the parent directory (when
       using the actions --check or --unpack).  See "CHECKING LAST BUILD" for
       more information.

OPTIONS
       Actions of the lintian command: (Only one action can be specified per
       invocation)

       -c, --check
           Run all checks over the specified packages.  This is the default
           action.

       -C chk1,chk2,..., --check-part chk1,chk2,...
           Run only the specified checks.  You can either specify the name of
           the check script or the abbreviation.  For details, see the
           "CHECKS" section below.

       -F, --ftp-master-rejects
           Run only the checks that issue tags that result in automatic
           rejects from the Debian upload queue.  The list of such tags is
           refreshed with each Lintian release, so may be slightly out of date
           if it has changed recently.

           This is implemented via a profile and thus this option cannot be
           used together with --profile.

       -r, --remove
           Removed the specified packages from the lintian lab.  This is only
           not be issued.

           With this options all tags listed will be displayed regardless of
           the display settings.

       --tags-from-file filename
           Same functionality as --tags, but read the list of tags from a
           file.  Blank lines and lines beginning with # are ignored.  All
           other lines are taken to be tag names or comma-separated lists of
           tag names to (potentially) issue.

           With this options all tags listed will be displayed regardless of
           the display settings.

       -u, --unpack
           Unpacks the package will all collections.  See the "COLLECTION"
           section below.

           Note in this option will also run all collections.  See the
           "COLLECTION" section below.

       -X chk1,chk2,..., --dont-check-part chk1,chk2,...
           Run all but the the specified checks.  You can either specify the
           name of the check script or the abbreviation.  For details, see the
           "CHECKS" section below.

       General options:

       -d, --debug
           Display debugging messages. (Implies -v and overrules any -q).

           Can be used multiple times to increase the debug information.  If
           passed twice or more, Lintian will emit approximate run times for
           collections and checks (if Time::HiRes can be loaded).

           If passed 3 times (and if Devel::Size can be loaded), Lintian will
           display memory usage for (some of its) data structures.  With 4
           times, the memory usage will be more detailed.

           This option cannot be specified in the config file.  If used on the
           command line it will override the verbose and the quiet options in
           the config file.

       -h, --help
           Display usage information and exit.

       -q, --quiet
           Suppress all informational messages including override comments
           (normally shown with --show-overrides).

           This option is silently ignored if --debug is given.  Otherwise, if
           both --verbose and --quiet is used, the last of these two options
           take effect.

           This option overrides the quiet variable in the configuration file.
           In the configuration file, this option is enabled by using verbose
           variable.  The verbose and quiet variables may not both appear in
           the config file.

       -V, --version
           Display lintian version number and exit.

       --print-version
           Print unadorned version number and exit.

       Behaviour options for lintian.

       --allow-root
           Override lintian's warning when it is run with superuser
           privileges.

       --color (never|always|auto|html)
           Whether to colorize tags in lintian output based on their severity.
           The default is "never", which never uses color.  "always" will
           always use color, "auto" will use color only if the output is going
           to a terminal, and "html" will use HTML <span> tags with a color
           style attribute (instead of ANSI color escape sequences).

           This option overrides the color variable in the configuration file.

       --default-display-level
           Reset the current display level to the default.  This option
           behaves exactly like passing -L ">=important" -L
           "+>=normal/possible" -L "+minor/certain" to lintian.

           One use for this option is to override only the display settings in
           the config file.

       --display-source X
           Only display tags from the source X (e.g. the Policy Manual or the
           Developer Reference).  This option can be used multiple times to
           add additional sources.  Example sources are "policy" or "devref"
           being the Policy Manual and the Developer Reference (respectively).

           The entire list of sources can be found in
           $LINTIAN_ROOT/data/output/manual-references

       -E, --display-experimental, --no-display-experimental
           Control whether to display experimental ("X:") tags.  They are
           normally suppressed.

           If a tag is marked experimental, this means that the code that
           generates this message is not as well tested as the rest of
           Lintian, and might still give surprising results.  Feel free to
           ignore Experimental messages that do not seem to make sense, though
           of course bug reports are always welcome (particularly if they
           include fixes).

           Print explanatory information about each problem discovered in
           addition to the lintian error tags. To print a long tag description
           without running lintian, see lintian-info(1).

           This option overrides info variable in the configuration file.

       -I, --display-info
           Display informational ("I:") tags as well.  They are normally
           suppressed.  (This is equivalent to -L ">=wishlist").

           This option overrides the display-info variable in the
           configuration file.

           Note: display-level and display-info may not both appear in the
           configuration file.

       --keep-lab
           By default, temporary labs will be removed after lintian is
           finished.  Specifying this options will leave the lab behind, which
           might be useful for debugging purposes.  You can find out where the
           temporary lab is located by running lintian with the --verbose
           option.

           For static (non-temporary) labs this option causes Lintian to skip
           the automatic clean up of some collections.

       -L [+|-|=][>=|>|<|<=][S|C|S/C], --display-level
       [+|-|=][>=|>|<|<=][S|C|S/C]
           Fine-grained selection of tags to be displayed. It is possible to
           add, remove or set the levels to display, specifying a severity (S:
           serious, important, normal, minor, wishlist, pedantic), a certainty
           (C: certain, possible, wild-guess), or both (S/C).  The default
           settings are equivalent to -L ">=important" -L "+>=normal/possible"
           -L "+minor/certain").

           This option overrides the display-level variable in the
           configuration file.  The value of the display-level in
           configuration file should be space separated entries in the same
           format as passed via command-line.

           Note: display-level may not be used with display-info or pedantic
           in the configuration file.

       -o, --no-override
           Don't use the overrides file.

           This option overrides the override variable in the configuration
           file.

       --pedantic
           Display pedantic ("P:") tags as well.  They are normally
           suppressed.  (This is equivalent to -L "+=pedantic").

           Pedantic tags are Lintian at its most pickiest and include checks
           Use the profile from vendor (or the profile with that name).  If
           the profile name does not contain a slash, the default profile for
           than vendor is chosen.

           As an example, if you are on Ubuntu and want to use Lintian's
           Debian checks, you can use:

             --profile debian

           Likewise, on a Debian machine you can use this to request the
           Ubuntu checks.

           If the token {VENDOR} appears in the profile name, lintian will
           substitute the token with a vendor name to find the profile.
           lintian uses Dpkg::Vendor to determine the best vendor to use (the
           closer to the current vendor, the better).  This is mostly useful
           for people implementing their own checks on top of Lintian.

           If not specified, the default value is {VENDOR}/main.

           Please Refer to the Lintian User Manual for the full documentation
           of profiles.

       --show-overrides
           Output tags that have been overridden.  The related override
           comments will also be printed (unless --quiet is used).  Please
           refer to the Lintian User Manual for the documentation on how
           lintian relates comments to a given override.

           This option overrides the show-overrides variable in the
           configuration file.

       --suppress-tags tag1,tag2,...
           Suppress the listed tags.  They will not be reported if they occur
           and will not affect the exit status of Lintian.  This option can be
           given multiple times and can be mixed with
           --suppress-tags-from-file.

           This option can be used together with --dont-check-part ("Not those
           checks nor these tags") and --check-part ("Only those checks, but
           not these tags (from those checks)") to further reduce the
           selection of tags.

           When used with --tags, this option is mostly ignored.

       --suppress-tags-from-file file
           Suppress all tags listed in the given file.  Blank lines and lines
           beginning with # are ignored.  All other lines are taken to be tag
           names or comma-separated lists of tag names to suppress.  The
           suppressed tags will not be reported if they occur and will not
           affect the exit status of Lintian.

           Tags parsed from the file will be handled as if they had been given
           to the --suppress-tags option (e.g. ignored if --tags is used).
            -U info1 -U info2
            -U info1,info2

       Configuration options:

       --cfg configfile
           Read the configuration from configfile rather than the default
           locations.  This option overrides the LINTIAN_CFG environment
           variable.

       --no-cfg
           Do not read any configuration file.  This option overrides the
           --cfg above.

       --ignore-lintian-env
           Ignore all environment variables starting with LINTIAN_.

           This option is mostly useful for applications running lintian for
           checking packages and do not want the invoking user to affect the
           result (by setting LINTIAN_PROFILE etc.).

           Note it does not cause lintian to ignore the entire environment
           like TMPDIR or DEB_VENDOR.  The latter can affect the default
           profile (or "{VENDOR}" token for --profile).

           Should usually be combined with --no-user-dirs (or unsetting $HOME
           and all XDG_ variables).

       --include-dir dir
           Use dir as an additional "LINTIAN_ROOT".  The directory is expected
           have a similar layout to the LINTIAN_ROOT (if it exists), but does
           not need to be a full self-contained root.

           lintian will check this directory for (additional) profiles, data
           files, support libraries and checks.  The latter two implies that
           Lintian may attempt to load and execute code from this directory.

           This option may appear more than once; each time adding an
           additional directory.  Directories are searched in the order they
           appear on the command line.

           The additional directories will be checked after the user
           directories (though see --no-user-dirs) and before the core
           LINTIAN_ROOT.

           Note: This option should be the very first if given.

       -j [X], --jobs[=X]
           Set the limit for how many unpacking jobs Lintian will run in
           parallel.  If X is not given, Lintian will not limit the number of
           unpacking jobs run that can run in parallel.

           This option overrides the jobs variable in the configuration file.

           This option used to control what directory was used as the
           LINTIAN_ROOT.  It's primary purpose was to use Lintian directly
           from a source tree.  However, since 2.5.18 Lintian has logic for
           automatically configuring itself without any assistance making this
           option largely obsolete.  Note if passed, then the chosen root dir
           must match the actual LINTIAN_ROOT used by Lintian.

           This option implies --no-user-dirs for backwards compatbility with
           previous versions of Lintian.

       --user-dirs, --no-user-dirs
           By default, lintian will check $HOME and /etc for files supplied by
           the user or the local sysadmin (e.g. config files and profiles).
           This default can be disabled (and re-enabled) by using
           --no-user-dirs (and --user-dirs, respectively).

           These options will not affect the inclusion of LINTIAN_ROOT, which
           is always included.

           These option can appear multiple times, in which case the last of
           them to appear determines the result.

           Note that if the intention is only to disable the user's $HOME,
           then unsetting $HOME and XDG_*_HOME may suffice.  Alternatively,
           /etc can be "re-added" by using --include-dir (caveat:
           /etc/lintianrc will be ignored by this).

           If the intention is to avoid (unintentional) side-effects from the
           calling user, then this option could be combined with
           --ignore-lintian-env.

           If for some reason --no-user-dirs cannot be used, then consider
           unsetting $HOME and all the $XDG_* variables (not just the
           $XDG_*_HOME ones).

           Note: This option should be the very first if given.

       Package selection options:

       -a, --all
           Check all packages in the laboratory.

           Note: If --binary, --udeb or --source is specified, then only
           packages of that type is considered.

       -b, --binary
           The lab-queries listed on the command line are by default binary
           packages.

           With --all this means check all binary packages in the lab.

       --packages-from-file X
           Process the packages listed in X.  If the line starts with
           "!query:", then the rest of that line is processed as a lab query

           The following packages listed on the command line are source
           packages.

       --udeb
           The lab-queries listed on the command line are by default udeb
           packages.

           With --all this means check all udeb packages in the lab.

CHECKS
       apache2 (apache2)
           Checks various build mistakes in Apache2 reverse dependencies

       automake (autom)
           Checks for erroneous, missing or deprecated automake files

       binaries (bin)
           This script checks binaries and object files for bugs.

       changelog-file (chg)
           This script checks if a binary package conforms to policy with
           regards to changelog files.

           Each binary package with a /usr/share/doc/<foo> directory must have
           a Debian changelog file in changelog.Debian.gz unless the Debian
           changelog and the upstream one is the same file; in this case, it
           must be in changelog.gz.

           If there is an upstream changelog file, it must be named
           "changelog.gz".

           Both changelog files should be compressed using "gzip -9".  Even if
           they start out small, they will become large with time.

       changes-file (chng)
           This script checks for various problems with .changes files

       conffiles (cnf)
           This script checks if the conffiles control file of a binary
           package is correct.

       control-file (dctl)
           This script checks debian/control files in source packages

       control-files (ctl)
           Check for unknown control files in the binary package.

       copyright-file (cpy)
           This script checks if a binary package conforms to policy with
           regard to copyright files.

           Each binary package must either have a
           /usr/share/doc/<foo>/copyright file or must have a symlink

       debhelper (dh)
           This looks for common mistakes in debhelper source packages.

       debian-readme (drm)
           This script checks the README.Debian file for various problems.

       debian-source-dir (dsd)
           This script looks for mistakes in debian/source/* files.

       description (des)
           Check if the Description control field of a binary package conforms
           to the rules in the Policy Manual (section 3.4).

       duplicate-files (dupf)
           This script checks for duplicate files using checksums

       fields (fld)
           This script checks the syntax of the fields in package control
           files, as described in the Policy Manual.

       filename-length (flen)
           This script checks for long package file names

       files (fil)
           This script checks if a binary package conforms to policy WRT to
           files and directories.

       group-checks (gchck)
           This script checks for some issues that may appear in packages
           built from the same source.  This includes intra-source circular
           dependencies and intra-source priority checks.

       huge-usr-share (hus)
           This script checks whether an architecture-dependent package has
           large amounts of data in /usr/share.

       infofiles (info)
           This script checks if a binary package conforms to info document
           policy.

       init.d (ini)
           Check if a binary package conforms to policy with respect to
           scripts in /etc/init.d.

       java (java)
           This script checks if the packages comply with various aspects of
           the debian Java policy.

       manpages (man)
           This script checks if a binary package conforms to manual page
           policy.

       md5sums (md5)
           This script checks if md5sum control files are valid, if they are

       ocaml (ocaml)
           This looks for common mistakes in OCaml binary packages.

       patch-systems (pat)
           This script checks for various possible problems when using patch
           systems

       phppear (phppear)
           This script checks if the packages comply with various aspects of
           the debian PHP policy.

       po-debconf (pd)
           This looks for common mistakes in packages using po-debconf(7).

       rules (rul)
           Check targets and actions in debian/rules.

       scripts (scr)
           This script checks the #! lines of scripts in a package.

       shared-libs (shl)
           This script checks if a binary package conforms to shared library
           policy.

       source-copyright (scpy)
           This script checks if a source package conforms to policy with
           regard to copyright files.

           Each source package should have a debian/copyright file.

       standards-version (std)
           This script checks if a source package contains a valid Standards-
           Version field.

       symlinks (sym)
           This script checks for broken symlinks.

       systemd
           Checks various systemd policy things

       testsuite
           This script checks the Testsuite field in package dsc files, and
           debian/tests/control if any.

       version-substvars (v-s)
           This script checks for correct use of the various *Version
           substvars, e.g. deprecated substvars, or usage that can cause un-
           binNMUability

       watch-file (watch)
           Check debian/watch files in source packages.

COLLECTION

       copyright-file
           This script copies the copyright file of a package into the lintian
           directory.

       debfiles
           This script collects files shipped in the source of the package.

           This collection is auto-removed by default in static labs.

       debian-readme
           This script copies the README.Debian file of a package into the
           lintian directory.

           This collection is auto-removed by default in static labs.

       diffstat
           This script extracts the Debian diff of a source package, and runs
           diffstat on it, leaving the result in the diffstat output file

       doc-base-files
           This script copies the contents of /usr/share/doc-base into the
           lintian doc-base/ directory.

       file-info
           This script runs the file(1) command over all files of any kind of
           package.

       hardening-info
           This script runs hardening-check(1) over all ELF binaries of a
           binary package.

       index
           This script create an index file of the contents of a package.

       init.d
           This script copies the etc/init.d directory into the lintian
           directory.

       java-info
           This script extracts information from manifests of JAR files

       md5sums
           This script runs the md5sums(1) over all files in a binary package.

       menu-files
           This script copies the contents of /usr/lib/menu into the lintian
           menu/ directory.

           This collection is auto-removed by default in static labs.

       objdump-info
           This script runs objdump(1) over all binaries and object files of a
           binary package.
           Note that the filename might contain spaces, but the scriptpath
           will not, because linux only looks at the first word when executing
           a script.

       src-orig-index
           This script create an index file of the contents of the orig
           tarballs.

       strings
           This script runs the strings(1) command over all files of a binary
           package.

           This collection is auto-removed by default in static labs.

       unpacked
           This script unpacks the package under the unpacked/ directory

           This collection is auto-removed by default in static labs.

FILES
       Lintian looks for its configuration file in the following locations:

       o   The argument given to --cfg

       o   $LINTIAN_CFG

       o   $XDG_CONFIG_HOME/lintian/lintianrc

       o   $HOME/.lintianrc

           Deprecated in Lintian/2.5.12 and newer (use the XDG based variant
           above)

       o   XGD_DIR/lintian/lintianrc

           Where XGD_DIR is a directories listed in $XDG_CONFIG_DIRS (or
           /etc/xdg if $XDG_CONFIG_DIRS is unset).

       o   /etc/lintianrc

           Deprecated in Lintian/2.5.12 and newer (use the XDG based variant
           above)

       Lintian uses the following directories:

       /tmp
           If no lab location is specified via the LINTIAN_LAB environment
           variable, configuration, or the --lab command-line option, lintian
           defaults to creating a temporary lab directory in /tmp.  To change
           the directory used, set the TMPDIR environment variable to a
           suitable directory.  TMPDIR can be set in the configuration file.

       /usr/share/lintian/checks
           Scripts that check aspects of a package.

       usr/share/lintian/overrides/<package> inside the binary package, where
       <package> is the name of the binary package.  For source packages,
       Lintian looks for overrides in debian/source/lintian-overrides and then
       in debian/source.lintian-overrides if the first file is not found.  The
       first path is preferred.  See the Lintian User's Manual for the syntax
       of overrides.

CONFIGURATION FILE
       The configuration file can be used to specify default values for some
       options.  The general format is:

        option = value

       All whitespace adjacent to the "=" sign as well as leading and trailing
       whitespace is ignored.  However whitespace within the value is
       respected, as demonstrated by this example:

        # Parsed as "opt1" with value "val1"
           opt1    =   val1
        # Parsed as "opt2" with value "val2.1  val2.2     val2.3"
        opt2 = val2.1  val2.2     val2.3

       Unless otherwise specified, no option may appear more than once.
       Lintian will ignore empty lines or lines starting with the #-character.

       Generally options will be the long form of the command-line option
       without the leading dashes.  There some exceptions (such as --profile),
       where Lintian uses the same name as the environment variable.

       Lintian only allows a subset of the options specified in the
       configuration file; please refer to the individual options in
       "OPTIONS".

       In the configuration file, all options listed must have a value, even
       if they do not accept a value on command line (e.g. --pedantic).  The
       values "yes", "y", "1", or "true" will enable such a option and "no",
       "n", "0" or "false" will disable it.  Prior to the 2.5.2 release, these
       values were case sensitive.

       For other options, they generally take the same values as they do on
       the command line.  Though some options allow a slightly different
       format (e.g. --display-level).  These exceptions are explained for the
       relevant options in "OPTIONS".

       Beyond command line options, it is also allowed to specify the
       environment variable "TMPDIR" in the configuration file.

       A sample configuration file could look like:

        # Sample configuration file for lintian
        #
        # Set the default profile (--profile)
        LINTIAN_PROFILE = debian


        # Automatically determine if color should be used
        color = auto

EXIT STATUS
       0   No policy violations or major errors detected.  (There may have
           been warnings, though.)

       1   Policy violations or major errors detected.

       2   Lintian run-time error. An error message is sent to stderr.

LAB QUERY
       A lab query can be used to refer to a (set of) package(s) in the
       Lintian Laboratory.  The general format of a query is:

        [type:]package[/version[/arch]]

       Where:

       type
           This is the type of the package and (if present) must be one of
           "ALL", "GROUP", "binary", "udeb", "source" or "changes".  This is
           case sensitive.

           If omitted this defaults to "ALL" unless another default has been
           specified (see --binary, --udeb or --source).  The pseudo type
           "ALL" acts as a wildcard for any real package type.

           The special type "GROUP" can be used to match all packages related
           to a given source package.  For more info, please see "Group query"
           below.

       package
           This is the name of the package.  This is mandatory and must match
           exactly.

       version
           This is the version of the package, if left out (or if it is "_")
           then any version will do.  Otherwise the version must match
           exactly.

       arch
           This is the architecture of the package, if left out (or it is "_")
           then any architecture will do.  Otherwise the architecture must
           match exactly.

           Note: This is completely ignored when matching against source
           packages or when type is "GROUP".

           Note: For changes packages, this must match the contents of the
           architecture field in the changes.  This field may contain a space
           (e.g. "source all") and therefore may also need proper shell
           escape.

       Lintian will (in order) search the following directories:

       ..  Used by dpkg-buildpackage(1).

       ../build-area
           Used by svn-buildpackage(1).

       /var/cache/pbuilder/result
           Used by pbuilder(1) and cowbuilder(1).

       In each directory, Lintian will attempt to find a .changes file using
       the following values as architecture (in order):

       $DEB_BUILD_ARCH (or dpkg --print-architecture)
           The environment variable DEB_BUILD_ARCH (if not set, "dpkg
           --print-architecture" will be used instead)

       $DEB_HOST_ARCH
           The environment variable DEB_HOST_ARCH.

       dpkg --print-foreign-architectures
           If dpkg(1) appears to support multi-arch, then any architecture
           listed by "dpkg --print-foreign-architectures" will be used (in the
           order returned by dpkg).

       multi
           Pseudo architecture used by mergechanges(1).

       all Used when building architecture indep packages only (e.g dpkg-
           buildpackage -A).

       source
           Used for "source only" builds (e.g. dpkg-buildpackage -S).

       If a .changes file matches any combination above exists, Lintian will
       process the first match as if you had passed it per command line.  If
       no .changes file can be found, Lintian will print a list of attempted
       locations on STDERR and exit 0.

EXAMPLES
       $ lintian foo.changes
           Check the changes file itself and any (binary, udeb or source)
           package listed in it.

       $ lintian foo.deb
           Check binary package foo given by foo.deb.

       $ lintian foo.dsc
           Check source package foo given by foo.dsc.

       $ lintian foo.dsc -L +minor/possible
           Check source package foo given by foo.dsc, including minor/possible
           tags.

       $ lintian -u foo -U unpacked
           Unpack all packages named foo in the Lintian laboratory.

       $ lintian -r foo
           Remove all packages named foo from the Lintian laboratory.

       $ lintian
           Assuming debian/changelog exists, look for a changes file for the
           source in the parent dir.  Otherwise, print usage information and
           exit.

BUGS
       Lintian does not have any locking mechanisms yet.  (Running several
       Lintian processes on the same laboratory simultaneously is likely to
       fail or corrupt the laboratory.)

       If you discover any other bugs in lintian, please contact the authors.

SEE ALSO
       lintian-info(1), Lintian User Manual
       (file:/usr/share/doc/lintian/lintian.html/index.html)

       Packaging tools: debhelper(7), dh_make(8), dpkg-buildpackage(1).

AUTHORS
       Niels Thykier <niels@thykier.net>

       Richard Braakman <dark@xs4all.nl>

       Christian Schwarz <schwarz@monet.m.isar.de>

       Please use the email address <lintian-maint@debian.org> for Lintian
       related comments.



perl v5.18.2                      2014-03-29                        lintian(1)
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