gpg

       gpg [--homedir dir] [--options file] [options] command [args]

DESCRIPTION
       gpg is the OpenPGP only version of the GNU Privacy Guard (GnuPG). It is
       a tool to provide digital encryption and  signing  services  using  the
       OpenPGP  standard.  gpg  features complete key management and all bells
       and whistles you can expect from a decent OpenPGP implementation.

       This is the standalone version of gpg.  For desktop use you should con-
       sider using gpg2 from the GnuPG-2 package
        ([On some platforms gpg2 is installed under the name gpg]).

RETURN VALUE
       The program returns 0 if everything was fine, 1 if at least a signature
       was bad, and other error codes for fatal errors.

WARNINGS
       Use a *good* password for your user account and a *good* passphrase  to
       protect  your  secret  key.  This passphrase is the weakest part of the
       whole system. Programs to do dictionary attacks on your secret  keyring
       are  very  easy  to  write  and  so you should protect your "~/.gnupg/"
       directory very well.

       Keep in mind that, if this program is used over a network (telnet),  it
       is *very* easy to spy out your passphrase!

       If you are going to verify detached signatures, make sure that the pro-
       gram knows about it; either give both filenames on the command line  or
       use '-' to specify STDIN.

INTEROPERABILITY
       GnuPG  tries  to be a very flexible implementation of the OpenPGP stan-
       dard. In particular, GnuPG implements many of the optional parts of the
       standard,  such as the SHA-512 hash, and the ZLIB and BZIP2 compression
       algorithms. It is important to be aware that not all  OpenPGP  programs
       implement  these  optional algorithms and that by forcing their use via
       the --cipher-algo, --digest-algo,  --cert-digest-algo,  or  --compress-
       algo  options  in  GnuPG,  it  is  possible to create a perfectly valid
       OpenPGP message, but one that cannot be read by the intended recipient.

       There are dozens of variations of OpenPGP programs available, and  each
       supports a slightly different subset of these optional algorithms.  For
       example, until recently, no (unhacked) version  of  PGP  supported  the
       BLOWFISH cipher algorithm. A message using BLOWFISH simply could not be
       read by a PGP user. By default, GnuPG uses the standard OpenPGP prefer-
       ences  system  that  will always do the right thing and create messages
       that are usable by all recipients, regardless of which OpenPGP  program
       they  use.  Only override this safe default if you really know what you
       are doing.

       If you absolutely must override the safe default, or if the preferences
       on  a  given  key  are  invalid for some reason, you are far better off
       using the --pgp6, --pgp7, or --pgp8 options. These options are safe  as
       they  do  not  force any particular algorithms in violation of OpenPGP,
       a  non-option  is encountered, you can explicitly stop parsing by using
       the special option --.

   Commands not specific to the function

       --version
              Print the program version and licensing information.  Note  that
              you cannot abbreviate this command.

       --help

       -h     Print  a  usage message summarizing the most useful command line
              options.  Note that you cannot abbreviate this command.

       --warranty
              Print warranty information.

       --dump-options
              Print a list of all available options and commands.   Note  that
              you cannot abbreviate this command.

   Commands to select the type of operation

       --sign

       -s     Make  a  signature.  This command may be combined with --encrypt
              (for a signed and encrypted message), --symmetric (for a  signed
              and symmetrically encrypted message), or --encrypt and --symmet-
              ric together (for a signed message that may be decrypted  via  a
              secret  key or a passphrase).  The key to be used for signing is
              chosen by default or  can  be  set  with  the  --local-user  and
              --default-key options.

       --clearsign
              Make a clear text signature.  The content in a clear text signa-
              ture is readable without any special software. OpenPGP  software
              is  only  needed to verify the signature.  Clear text signatures
              may modify end-of-line whitespace for platform independence  and
              are not intended to be reversible.  The key to be used for sign-
              ing is chosen by default or can be set with the --local-user and
              --default-key options.

       --detach-sign

       -b     Make a detached signature.

       --encrypt

       -e     Encrypt  data.  This  option  may be combined with --sign (for a
              signed and encrypted message), --symmetric (for a  message  that
              may  be  decrypted  via a secret key or a passphrase), or --sign
              and --symmetric together (for  a  signed  message  that  may  be
              decrypted via a secret key or a passphrase).


       --decrypt

       -d     Decrypt  the file given on the command line (or STDIN if no file
              is specified) and write it to STDOUT (or the file specified with
              --output).  If  the  decrypted  file is signed, the signature is
              also verified. This command differs from the default  operation,
              as it never writes to the filename which is included in the file
              and it rejects files which don't begin with  an  encrypted  mes-
              sage.

       --verify
              Assume  that  the  first argument is a signed file and verify it
              without generating any output.  With no arguments, the signature
              packet  is read from STDIN.  If only a one argument is given, it
              is expected to be a complete signature.

              With more than 1 argument, the first should be a detached signa-
              ture and the remaining files ake up the the signed data. To read
              the signed data from STDIN, use '-' as the second filename.  For
              security  reasons  a  detached  signature cannot read the signed
              material from STDIN without denoting it in the above way.

              Note: If the option --batch is not used, gpg may assume  that  a
              single  argument is a file with a detached signature and it will
              try to find a matching data file by stripping certain  suffixes.
              Using  this historical feature to verify a detached signature is
              strongly discouraged; always specify the data file too.

              Note: When verifying a cleartext signature,  gpg  verifies  only
              what  makes  up the cleartext signed data and not any extra data
              outside of the cleartext signature  or  header  lines  following
              directly  the dash marker line.  The option --output may be used
              to write out the actual signed data; but there  are  other  pit-
              falls with this format as well.  It is suggested to avoid clear-
              text signatures in favor of detached signatures.

       --multifile
              This modifies certain other commands to  accept  multiple  files
              for  processing on the command line or read from STDIN with each
              filename on a separate line. This allows for many  files  to  be
              processed  at once. --multifile may currently be used along with
              --verify, --encrypt, and --decrypt. Note that --multifile --ver-
              ify may not be used with detached signatures.

       --verify-files
              Identical to --multifile --verify.

       --encrypt-files
              Identical to --multifile --encrypt.

       --decrypt-files
              Identical to --multifile --decrypt.


              Avoid  using the output of this command in scripts or other pro-
              grams as it is likely to change as GnuPG  changes.  See  --with-
              colons  for  a  machine-parseable  key  listing  command that is
              appropriate for use in scripts and other programs.

       --list-secret-keys

       -K     List all keys from the secret keyrings, or just the  ones  given
              on  the  command  line. A # after the letters sec means that the
              secret key is not usable (for example, if  it  was  created  via
              --export-secret-subkeys).

       --list-sigs
              Same as --list-keys, but the signatures are listed too.

              For  each  signature  listed, there are several flags in between
              the "sig" tag and keyid. These flags give additional information
              about  each  signature. From left to right, they are the numbers
              1-3 for certificate check level (see --ask-cert-level), "L"  for
              a local or non-exportable signature (see --lsign-key), "R" for a
              nonRevocable signature (see the  --edit-key  command  "nrsign"),
              "P"  for a signature that contains a policy URL (see --cert-pol-
              icy-url), "N" for a signature  that  contains  a  notation  (see
              --cert-notation),  "X" for an eXpired signature (see --ask-cert-
              expire), and the numbers 1-9 or "T" for 10 and above to indicate
              trust signature levels (see the --edit-key command "tsign").

       --check-sigs
              Same as --list-sigs, but the signatures are verified.  Note that
              for performance reasons the revocation status of a  signing  key
              is not shown.

              The  status  of the verification is indicated by a flag directly
              following the "sig" tag (and thus  before  the  flags  described
              above  for --list-sigs).  A "!" indicates that the signature has
              been successfully verified, a "-" denotes a bad signature and  a
              "%"  is  used  if an error occurred while checking the signature
              (e.g. a non supported algorithm).

       --fingerprint
              List all keys (or the specified ones) along with  their  finger-
              prints.  This  is  the  same  output as --list-keys but with the
              additional output of a line with the fingerprint.  May  also  be
              combined  with  --list-sigs or --check-sigs.  If this command is
              given twice, the fingerprints of all secondary keys  are  listed
              too.

       --list-packets
              List  only  the  sequence  of packets. This is mainly useful for
              debugging.

       --card-edit
              Present a menu to work with a smartcard. The  subcommand  "help"

       --delete-key name
              Remove  key  from the public keyring. In batch mode either --yes
              is required or the key must be specified by fingerprint. This is
              a safeguard against accidental deletion of multiple keys.

       --delete-secret-key name
              Remove  key  from the secret keyring. In batch mode the key must
              be specified by fingerprint.

       --delete-secret-and-public-key name
              Same as --delete-key, but if a secret key  exists,  it  will  be
              removed  first.  In batch mode the key must be specified by fin-
              gerprint.

       --export
              Either export all keys from all keyrings (default  keyrings  and
              those  registered via option --keyring), or if at least one name
              is given, those of the given name. The exported keys are written
              to  STDOUT  or  to  the  file  given  with option --output.  Use
              together with --armor to mail those keys.

       --send-keys key IDs
              Similar to --export but sends the keys to a keyserver.   Finger-
              prints  may  be used instead of key IDs. Option --keyserver must
              be used to give the name of this keyserver. Don't send your com-
              plete  keyring  to  a keyserver --- select only those keys which
              are new or changed by you.  If no key IDs are  given,  gpg  does
              nothing.

       --export-secret-keys

       --export-secret-subkeys
              Same  as  --export,  but  exports  the secret keys instead.  The
              exported keys are written to STDOUT or to the  file  given  with
              option  --output.   This  command  is  often used along with the
              option --armor to allow easy  printing  of  the  key  for  paper
              backup; however the external tool paperkey does a better job for
              creating backups on paper.  Note that exporting a secret key can
              be  a  security risk if the exported keys are send over an inse-
              cure channel.

              The second form of the command has the special property to  ren-
              der  the  secret  part of the primary key useless; this is a GNU
              extension to  OpenPGP  and  other  implementations  can  not  be
              expected to successfully import such a key.  Its intended use is
              to generated a full key with an additional signing subkey  on  a
              dedicated  machine and then using this command to export the key
              without the primary key to the main machine.

              See the option --simple-sk-checksum if you  want  to  import  an
              exported secret key into ancient OpenPGP implementations.

       --import


       --refresh-keys
              Request updates from a keyserver for keys that already exist  on
              the  local  keyring.  This is useful for updating a key with the
              latest signatures, user IDs, etc. Calling this with no arguments
              will refresh the entire keyring. Option --keyserver must be used
              to give the name of the keyserver for all keys that do not  have
              preferred  keyservers  set  (see  --keyserver-options honor-key-
              server-url).

       --search-keys names
              Search the keyserver for the given names. Multiple  names  given
              here will be joined together to create the search string for the
              keyserver.  Option --keyserver must be used to give the name  of
              this  keyserver.  Keyservers that support different search meth-
              ods allow using the syntax specified in "How to specify  a  user
              ID" below. Note that different keyserver types support different
              search methods. Currently only LDAP supports them all.

       --fetch-keys URIs
              Retrieve keys located at the specified URIs. Note that different
              installations  of  GnuPG  may support different protocols (HTTP,
              FTP, LDAP, etc.)

       --update-trustdb
              Do trust database maintenance. This command  iterates  over  all
              keys and builds the Web of Trust. This is an interactive command
              because it may have to ask for the "ownertrust" values for keys.
              The  user  has  to  give an estimation of how far she trusts the
              owner of the displayed key to  correctly  certify  (sign)  other
              keys. GnuPG only asks for the ownertrust value if it has not yet
              been assigned to a key. Using the --edit-key menu, the  assigned
              value can be changed at any time.

       --check-trustdb
              Do  trust  database  maintenance  without user interaction. From
              time to time the trust database must be updated so that  expired
              keys or signatures and the resulting changes in the Web of Trust
              can be tracked. Normally, GnuPG  will  calculate  when  this  is
              required  and do it automatically unless --no-auto-check-trustdb
              is set. This command can be used to force a trust database check
              at  any  time.  The processing is identical to that of --update-
              trustdb but it skips keys with a not yet defined "ownertrust".

              For use with cron jobs, this command can be used  together  with
              --batch in which case the trust database check is done only if a
              check is needed. To force a run  even  in  batch  mode  add  the
              option --yes.

       --export-ownertrust
              Send  the ownertrust values to STDOUT. This is useful for backup
              purposes as these values are the only ones which  can't  be  re-
              created from a corrupted trustdb.  Example:
                  gpg --export-ownertrust > otrust.txt

              When updating from version 1.0.6 to 1.0.7 this command should be
              used to create signature caches in  the  keyring.  It  might  be
              handy in other situations too.

       --print-md algo

       --print-mds
              Print  message  digest  of algorithm ALGO for all given files or
              STDIN.  With the second form  (or  a  deprecated  "*"  as  algo)
              digests for all available algorithms are printed.

       --gen-random 0|1|2 count
              Emit count random bytes of the given quality level 0, 1 or 2. If
              count is not given or zero, an endless sequence of random  bytes
              will be emitted.  If used with --armor the output will be base64
              encoded.  PLEASE, don't use this command unless  you  know  what
              you are doing; it may remove precious entropy from the system!

       --gen-prime mode bits
              Use  the source, Luke :-). The output format is still subject to
              change.

       --enarmor

       --dearmor
              Pack or unpack an arbitrary input  into/from  an  OpenPGP  ASCII
              armor.   This is a GnuPG extension to OpenPGP and in general not
              very useful.

   How to manage your keys

       This section explains the main commands for key management

       --gen-key
              Generate a new key pair using the  current  default  parameters.
              This is the standard command to create a new key.

              There is also a feature which allows you to create keys in batch
              mode. See the the manual section ``Unattended  key  generation''
              on how to use this.

       --gen-revoke name
              Generate  a  revocation  certificate  for  the  complete key. To
              revoke a subkey or a signature, use the --edit command.

       --desig-revoke name
              Generate a designated revocation certificate  for  a  key.  This
              allows  a  user (with the permission of the keyholder) to revoke
              someone else's key.

       --edit-key
              Present a menu which enables you to do most of the  key  manage-
              ment  related  tasks.   It expects the specification of a key on
              the command line.
                     specified with -u.

              lsign  Same  as  "sign"  but  the  signature  is  marked as non-
                     exportable and will therefore never be  used  by  others.
                     This  may  be  used  to make keys valid only in the local
                     environment.

              nrsign Same as "sign" but the signature is marked as non-revoca-
                     ble and can therefore never be revoked.

              tsign  Make a trust signature. This is a signature that combines
                     the notions of certification (like a regular  signature),
                     and  trust  (like  the  "trust" command). It is generally
                     only useful in distinct communities or groups.

              Note that "l" (for local / non-exportable), "nr" (for  non-revo-
              cable,  and  "t" (for trust) may be freely mixed and prefixed to
              "sign" to create a signature of any type desired.

              delsig Delete a signature. Note  that  it  is  not  possible  to
                     retract  a signature, once it has been send to the public
                     (i.e. to a keyserver).   In  that  case  you  better  use
                     revsig.

              revsig Revoke  a  signature.  For every signature which has been
                     generated by one of the secret keys, GnuPG asks whether a
                     revocation certificate should be generated.

              check  Check the signatures on all selected user IDs.

              adduid Create an additional user ID.

              addphoto
                     Create  a  photographic  user  ID. This will prompt for a
                     JPEG file that will be embedded into the  user  ID.  Note
                     that  a  very  large JPEG will make for a very large key.
                     Also note that  some  programs  will  display  your  JPEG
                     unchanged (GnuPG), and some programs will scale it to fit
                     in a dialog box (PGP).

              showphoto
                     Display the selected photographic user ID.

              deluid Delete a user ID or photographic user ID.  Note  that  it
                     is  not  possible  to retract a user id, once it has been
                     send to the public (i.e. to a keyserver).  In  that  case
                     you better use revuid.

              revuid Revoke a user ID or photographic user ID.

              primary
                     Flag  the current user id as the primary one, removes the
                     primary user id flag from all other user ids and sets the
                     timestamp  of  all  affected  self-signatures  one second

              notation
                     Set  a  name=value notation for the specified user ID(s).
                     See --cert-notation for more on how this works. Setting a
                     value of "none" removes all notations, setting a notation
                     prefixed with a minus sign (-) removes that notation, and
                     setting  a  notation  name  (without the =value) prefixed
                     with a minus sign removes all notations with that name.

              pref   List preferences from the selected user  ID.  This  shows
                     the  actual  preferences,  without  including any implied
                     preferences.

              showpref
                     More verbose preferences listing for  the  selected  user
                     ID. This shows the preferences in effect by including the
                     implied preferences of 3DES (cipher), SHA-1 (digest), and
                     Uncompressed   (compression)  if  they  are  not  already
                     included in the preference list. In  addition,  the  pre-
                     ferred  keyserver  and  signature  notations (if any) are
                     shown.

              setpref string
                     Set the list of user ID preferences to string for all (or
                     just  the  selected)  user  IDs.  Calling setpref with no
                     arguments sets the preference list to the default (either
                     built-in or set via --default-preference-list), and call-
                     ing setpref with "none" as the  argument  sets  an  empty
                     preference  list.  Use  gpg  --version  to  get a list of
                     available algorithms. Note that while you can change  the
                     preferences  on  an  attribute  user ID (aka "photo ID"),
                     GnuPG does not select keys  via  attribute  user  IDs  so
                     these preferences will not be used by GnuPG.

                     When  setting preferences, you should list the algorithms
                     in the order which you'd like to see them used by someone
                     else when encrypting a message to your key.  If you don't
                     include 3DES, it will be automatically added at the  end.
                     Note that there are many factors that go into choosing an
                     algorithm (for example, your key  may  not  be  the  only
                     recipient),  and  so the remote OpenPGP application being
                     used to send to you may or may not follow your exact cho-
                     sen  order  for  a given message.  It will, however, only
                     choose an algorithm that is  present  on  the  preference
                     list of every recipient key.  See also the INTEROPERABIL-
                     ITY WITH OTHER OPENPGP PROGRAMS section below.

              addkey Add a subkey to this key.

              addcardkey
                     Generate a subkey on a card and add it to this key.

              keytocard
                     Transfer the selected secret subkey (or the  primary  key
                     if  no  subkey  has  been  selected)  to a smartcard. The
                     initialization)  to  a new card. In almost all cases this
                     will be the encryption key. You should use  this  command
                     only with the corresponding public key and make sure that
                     the file given  as  argument  is  indeed  the  backup  to
                     restore.  You  should then select 2 to restore as encryp-
                     tion  key.   You  will  first  be  asked  to  enter   the
                     passphrase  of  the backup key and then for the Admin PIN
                     of the card.

              delkey Remove a subkey (secondart key). Note that it is not pos-
                     sible  to  retract a subkey, once it has been send to the
                     public (i.e. to a keyserver).  In that  case  you  better
                     use revkey.

              revkey Revoke a subkey.

              expire Change  the key or subkey expiration time. If a subkey is
                     selected, the expiration time  of  this  subkey  will  be
                     changed.  With  no  selection,  the key expiration of the
                     primary key is changed.

              trust  Change the owner trust value for the  key.  This  updates
                     the trust-db immediately and no save is required.

              disable

              enable Disable  or  enable an entire key. A disabled key can not
                     normally be used for encryption.

              addrevoker
                     Add a designated revoker  to  the  key.  This  takes  one
                     optional  argument:  "sensitive". If a designated revoker
                     is marked as  sensitive,  it  will  not  be  exported  by
                     default (see export-options).

              passwd Change the passphrase of the secret key.

              toggle Toggle between public and secret key listing.

              clean  Compact  (by  removing all signatures except the selfsig)
                     any user ID that is no longer usable  (e.g.  revoked,  or
                     expired). Then, remove any signatures that are not usable
                     by the trust calculations.   Specifically,  this  removes
                     any  signature that does not validate, any signature that
                     is superseded by a later signature,  revoked  signatures,
                     and signatures issued by keys that are not present on the
                     keyring.

              minimize
                     Make the key as small as possible. This removes all  sig-
                     natures  from  each  user  ID  except for the most recent
                     self-signature.

              cross-certify
              user ids.  The primary user  id  is  indicated  by  a  dot,  and
              selected  keys  or  user  ids are indicated by an asterisk.  The
              trust value is displayed with the primary key: the first is  the
              assigned  owner  trust  and  the  second is the calculated trust
              value. Letters are used for the values:

              -      No ownertrust assigned / not yet calculated.

              e      Trust calculation has failed; probably due to an  expired
                     key.

              q      Not enough information for calculation.

              n      Never trust this key.

              m      Marginally trusted.

              f      Fully trusted.

              u      Ultimately trusted.

       --sign-key name
              Signs a public key with your secret key. This is a shortcut ver-
              sion of the subcommand "sign" from --edit.

       --lsign-key name
              Signs a public key with your secret key but  marks  it  as  non-
              exportable. This is a shortcut version of the subcommand "lsign"
              from --edit-key.

OPTIONS
       gpg features a bunch of options to control the exact behaviour  and  to
       change the default configuration.

       Long    options    can   be   put   in   an   options   file   (default
       "~/.gnupg/gpg.conf"). Short option names will not work -  for  example,
       "armor"  is  a  valid option for the options file, while "a" is not. Do
       not write the 2 dashes, but simply the  name  of  the  option  and  any
       required  arguments.  Lines  with  a hash ('#') as the first non-white-
       space character are ignored. Commands may be put in this file too,  but
       that  is not generally useful as the command will execute automatically
       with every execution of gpg.

       Please remember that option parsing stops as soon as  a  non-option  is
       encountered,  you  can  explicitly  stop  parsing  by using the special
       option --.

   How to change the configuration

       These options are used to change  the  configuration  and  are  usually
       found in the option file.

       --default-key name
              Use  name as the default key to sign with. If this option is not

       --no-default-recipient
              Reset --default-recipient and --default-recipient-self.

       -v, --verbose
              Give  more  information  during  processing.  If used twice, the
              input data is listed in detail.

       --no-verbose
              Reset verbose level to 0.

       -q, --quiet
              Try to be as quiet as possible.

       --batch

       --no-batch
              Use batch mode.  Never ask, do not allow  interactive  commands.
              --no-batch  disables  this option.  This option is commonly used
              for unattended operations.

              WARNING: Unattended operation  bears  a  higher  risk  of  being
              exposed  to  security attacks.  In particular any unattended use
              of GnuPG which involves the use of secret keys should take  care
              not to provide an decryption oracle.  There are several standard
              pre-cautions against being used as an oracle.  For example never
              return  detailed  error  messages  or any diagnostics printed by
              your software to the remote site.  Consult  with  an  expert  in
              case of doubt.

              Note  that  even  with a filename given on the command line, gpg
              might still need to read from STDIN (in particular if  gpg  fig-
              ures that the input is a detached signature and no data file has
              been specified).  Thus if you do  not  want  to  feed  data  via
              STDIN, you should connect STDIN to '/dev/null'.

       --no-tty
              Make  sure that the TTY (terminal) is never used for any output.
              This option is needed in  some  cases  because  GnuPG  sometimes
              prints warnings to the TTY even if --batch is used.

       --yes  Assume "yes" on most questions.

       --no   Assume "no" on most questions.

       --list-options parameters
              This  is  a  space  or comma delimited string that gives options
              used when listing keys and  signatures  (that  is,  --list-keys,
              --list-sigs,  --list-public-keys,  --list-secret-keys,  and  the
              --edit-key functions).  Options can  be  prepended  with  a  no-
              (after  the  two  dashes)  to  give  the  opposite meaning.  The
              options are:

              show-photos

              show-policy-urls
                     Show policy URLs in the --list-sigs or --check-sigs list-
                     ings.  Defaults to no.

              show-notations

              show-std-notations

              show-user-notations
                     Show  all, IETF standard, or user-defined signature nota-
                     tions  in  the  --list-sigs  or  --check-sigs   listings.
                     Defaults to no.

              show-keyserver-urls
                     Show  any  preferred  keyserver URL in the --list-sigs or
                     --check-sigs listings. Defaults to no.

              show-uid-validity
                     Display the calculated validity of user  IDs  during  key
                     listings.  Defaults to no.

              show-unusable-uids
                     Show  revoked  and  expired  user  IDs  in  key listings.
                     Defaults to no.

              show-unusable-subkeys
                     Show  revoked  and  expired  subkeys  in  key   listings.
                     Defaults to no.

              show-keyring
                     Display  the  keyring name at the head of key listings to
                     show which keyring a given key resides  on.  Defaults  to
                     no.

              show-sig-expire
                     Show  signature  expiration dates (if any) during --list-
                     sigs or --check-sigs listings. Defaults to no.

              show-sig-subpackets
                     Include signature subpackets in  the  key  listing.  This
                     option can take an optional argument list of the subpack-
                     ets to list. If no argument is passed, list all  subpack-
                     ets.  Defaults to no. This option is only meaningful when
                     using --with-colons along with  --list-sigs  or  --check-
                     sigs.

       --verify-options parameters
              This  is  a  space  or comma delimited string that gives options
              used when verifying signatures. Options can be prepended with  a
              `no-' to give the opposite meaning. The options are:

              show-photos
                     Display  any photo IDs present on the key that issued the
                     tions in the signature being verified. Defaults  to  IETF
                     standard.

              show-keyserver-urls
                     Show  any  preferred keyserver URL in the signature being
                     verified.  Defaults to no.

              show-uid-validity
                     Display the calculated validity of the user  IDs  on  the
                     key that issued the signature. Defaults to no.

              show-unusable-uids
                     Show  revoked and expired user IDs during signature veri-
                     fication.  Defaults to no.

              show-primary-uid-only
                     Show only the primary user ID during signature  verifica-
                     tion.  That is all the AKA lines as well as photo Ids are
                     not shown with the signature verification status.

              pka-lookups
                     Enable PKA lookups to verify sender addresses. Note  that
                     PKA is based on DNS, and so enabling this option may dis-
                     close information on when and what signatures  are  veri-
                     fied or to whom data is encrypted. This is similar to the
                     "web bug" described for the auto-key-retrieve feature.

              pka-trust-increase
                     Raise the trust in a signature to full if  the  signature
                     passes  PKA validation. This option is only meaningful if
                     pka-lookups is set.

       --enable-large-rsa

       --disable-large-rsa
              With --gen-key and --batch, enable the creation  of  larger  RSA
              secret  keys  than  is  generally recommended (up to 8192 bits).
              These large keys are more expensive to use, and their signatures
              and certifications are also larger.

       --enable-dsa2

       --disable-dsa2
              Enable hash truncation for all DSA keys even for old DSA Keys up
              to 1024 bit.  This is also the  default  with  --openpgp.   Note
              that  older  versions  of GnuPG also required this flag to allow
              the generation of DSA larger than 1024 bit.

       --photo-viewer string
              This is the command line that should be run to view a photo  ID.
              "%i"  will  be expanded to a filename containing the photo. "%I"
              does the same, except the file will  not  be  deleted  once  the
              viewer exits.  Other flags are "%k" for the key ID, "%K" for the
              long key ID, "%f" for the key fingerprint, "%t" for  the  exten-

       --exec-path string
              Sets  a list of directories to search for photo viewers and key-
              server helpers. If not provided, keyserver helpers use the  com-
              piled-in  default  directory,  and  photo  viewers use the $PATH
              environment variable.  Note, that on W32 system  this  value  is
              ignored when searching for keyserver helpers.

       --keyring file
              Add  file to the current list of keyrings. If file begins with a
              tilde and a slash, these are replaced by the $HOME directory. If
              the  filename  does  not contain a slash, it is assumed to be in
              the GnuPG home directory ("~/.gnupg" if --homedir or  $GNUPGHOME
              is not used).

              Note that this adds a keyring to the current list. If the intent
              is to use the specified keyring alone, use --keyring along  with
              --no-default-keyring.

       --secret-keyring file
              Same as --keyring but for the secret keyrings.

       --primary-keyring file
              Designate  file  as  the primary public keyring. This means that
              newly imported keys (via --import or keyserver --recv-from) will
              go to this keyring.

       --trustdb-name file
              Use  file  instead of the default trustdb. If file begins with a
              tilde and a slash, these are replaced by the $HOME directory. If
              the  filename  does  not contain a slash, it is assumed to be in
              the GnuPG home directory ('~/.gnupg' if --homedir or  $GNUPGHOME
              is not used).

       --homedir dir
              Set the name of the home directory to dir. If this option is not
              used, the home directory defaults to  '~/.gnupg'.   It  is  only
              recognized  when  given  on the command line.  It also overrides
              any home  directory  stated  through  the  environment  variable
              'GNUPGHOME'  or  (on  Windows  systems) by means of the Registry
              entry HKCU\Software\GNU\GnuPG:HomeDir.

              On Windows systems it is possible to install GnuPG as a portable
              application.  In this case only this command line option is con-
              sidered, all other ways to set a home directory are ignored.

              To install GnuPG as a portable application under Windows, create
              an  empty  file  name 'gpgconf.ctl' in the same directory as the
              tool 'gpgconf.exe'.  The root of the installation is  than  that
              directory;  or,  if  'gpgconf.exe'  has  been installed directly
              below a directory named 'bin', its parent directory.   You  also
              need  to  make sure that the following directories exist and are
              writable:    'ROOT/home'    for    the    GnuPG     home     and
              'ROOT/var/cache/gnupg' for internal cache files.

       --reader-port number_or_string
              This  option  may be used to specify the port of the card termi-
              nal. A value of 0 refers to the first serial device;  add  32768
              to  access USB devices. The default is 32768 (first USB device).
              PC/SC or CCID readers might need a string here; run the  program
              in  verbose mode to get a list of available readers. The default
              is then the first reader found.

       --display-charset name
              Set the name of the native character set. This is used  to  con-
              vert  some  informational  strings  like  user IDs to the proper
              UTF-8 encoding.  Note that this has nothing to do with the char-
              acter  set  of  data  to  be encrypted or signed; GnuPG does not
              recode user-supplied data. If  this  option  is  not  used,  the
              default  character  set is determined from the current locale. A
              verbosity level of 3 shows the chosen  set.   Valid  values  for
              name are:

              iso-8859-1
                     This is the Latin 1 set.

              iso-8859-2
                     The Latin 2 set.

              iso-8859-15
                     This is currently an alias for the Latin 1 set.

              koi8-r The usual Russian set (rfc1489).

              utf-8  Bypass  all  translations  and  assume  that  the OS uses
                     native UTF-8 encoding.

       --utf8-strings

       --no-utf8-strings
              Assume that command line arguments are given  as  UTF8  strings.
              The  default (--no-utf8-strings) is to assume that arguments are
              encoded in the character set as specified by  --display-charset.
              These  options  affect all following arguments. Both options may
              be used multiple times.

       --options file
              Read options from file and do not try  to  read  them  from  the
              default options file in the homedir (see --homedir). This option
              is ignored if used in an options file.

       --no-options
              Shortcut for --options /dev/null. This option is detected before
              an  attempt to open an option file.  Using this option will also
              prevent the creation of a '~/.gnupg' homedir.

       -z n

       --compress-level n
              Use a different decompression method for BZIP2 compressed files.
              This alternate method uses a bit more than half the memory,  but
              also  runs  at  half the speed. This is useful under extreme low
              memory circumstances when the file was originally compressed  at
              a high --bzip2-compress-level.

       --mangle-dos-filenames

       --no-mangle-dos-filenames
              Older  version of Windows cannot handle filenames with more than
              one dot. --mangle-dos-filenames causes GnuPG to replace  (rather
              than  add  to) the extension of an output filename to avoid this
              problem. This option is off by default and has no effect on non-
              Windows platforms.

       --ask-cert-level

       --no-ask-cert-level
              When  making  a key signature, prompt for a certification level.
              If this option is not specified, the certification level used is
              set   via  --default-cert-level.  See  --default-cert-level  for
              information on the specific levels and how they are used.  --no-
              ask-cert-level disables this option. This option defaults to no.

       --default-cert-level n
              The default to use for the check level when signing a key.

              0  means  you  make  no particular claim as to how carefully you
              verified the key.

              1 means you believe the key is owned by the person who claims to
              own it but you could not, or did not verify the key at all. This
              is useful for a "persona" verification, where you sign  the  key
              of a pseudonymous user.

              2  means  you  did  casual verification of the key. For example,
              this could mean  that  you  verified  the  key  fingerprint  and
              checked the user ID on the key against a photo ID.

              3  means you did extensive verification of the key. For example,
              this could mean that you verified the key fingerprint  with  the
              owner  of the key in person, and that you checked, by means of a
              hard to forge document with a photo ID (such as a passport) that
              the name of the key owner matches the name in the user ID on the
              key, and finally that you verified (by exchange of  email)  that
              the email address on the key belongs to the key owner.

              Note  that  the examples given above for levels 2 and 3 are just
              that: examples. In the end, it is up to you to decide just  what
              "casual" and "extensive" mean to you.

              This option defaults to 0 (no particular claim).

       --min-cert-level
       --trust-model pgp|classic|direct|always|auto
              Set what trust model GnuPG should follow. The models are:

              pgp    This is the Web of Trust combined with  trust  signatures
                     as  used  in PGP 5.x and later. This is the default trust
                     model when creating a new trust database.

              classic
                     This is the standard Web of Trust as introduced by PGP 2.

              direct Key validity is set directly by the user and  not  calcu-
                     lated via the Web of Trust.

              always Skip  key validation and assume that used keys are always
                     fully valid. You generally won't use this unless you  are
                     using  some  external validation scheme. This option also
                     suppresses the "[uncertain]" tag printed  with  signature
                     checks  when  there  is  no  evidence that the user ID is
                     bound to the key.  Note that this trust model still  does
                     not allow the use of expired, revoked, or disabled keys.

              auto   Select the trust model depending on whatever the internal
                     trust database says. This is the default model if such  a
                     database already exists.

       --auto-key-locate parameters

       --no-auto-key-locate
              GnuPG can automatically locate and retrieve keys as needed using
              this option. This happens when encrypting to  an  email  address
              (in  the  "user@example.com"  form), and there are no user@exam-
              ple.com keys on the local keyring.  This option takes any number
              of the following mechanisms, in the order they are to be tried:

              cert   Locate a key using DNS CERT, as specified in rfc4398.

              pka    Locate a key using DNS PKA.

              ldap   Using DNS Service Discovery, check the domain in question
                     for any LDAP keyservers to use.  If this  fails,  attempt
                     to  locate  the  key  using  the  PGP Universal method of
                     checking 'ldap://keys.(thedomain)'.

              keyserver
                     Locate a key using whatever keyserver  is  defined  using
                     the --keyserver option.

              keyserver-URL
                     In  addition,  a keyserver URL as used in the --keyserver
                     option may be used here to  query  that  particular  key-
                     server.

              local  Locate  the key using the local keyrings.  This mechanism
                     allows to select the order a local key  lookup  is  done.

       --keyid-format short|0xshort|long|0xlong
              Select  how  to  display  key  IDs.  "short"  is the traditional
              8-character key ID. "long" is the more accurate (but less conve-
              nient)  16-character key ID. Add an "0x" to either to include an
              "0x" at the beginning of the key ID,  as  in  0x99242560.   Note
              that this option is ignored if the option --with-colons is used.

       --keyserver name
              Use name as your keyserver. This is the server that --recv-keys,
              --send-keys, and --search-keys will communicate with to  receive
              keys  from,  send keys to, and search for keys on. The format of
              the name is a URI: `scheme:[//]keyservername[:port]' The  scheme
              is  the  type  of  keyserver: "hkp" for the HTTP (or compatible)
              keyservers, "ldap" for the LDAP keyservers, or "mailto" for  the
              Graff email keyserver. Note that your particular installation of
              GnuPG may have other keyserver types  available  as  well.  Key-
              server  schemes  are case-insensitive. After the keyserver name,
              optional keyserver configuration options may be provided.  These
              are  the  same as the global --keyserver-options from below, but
              apply only to this particular keyserver.

              Most keyservers synchronize with each other, so there is  gener-
              ally no need to send keys to more than one server. The keyserver
              hkp://keys.gnupg.net uses round robin DNS to  give  a  different
              keyserver each time you use it.

       --keyserver-options name=value1
              This is a space or comma delimited string that gives options for
              the keyserver. Options can be prefixed with a `no-' to give  the
              opposite  meaning. Valid import-options or export-options may be
              used here as well to apply to importing (--recv-key) or  export-
              ing  (--send-key)  a key from a keyserver. While not all options
              are available for all keyserver types, some common options are:

              include-revoked
                     When searching for a key with --search-keys, include keys
                     that  are  marked  on the keyserver as revoked. Note that
                     not all  keyservers  differentiate  between  revoked  and
                     unrevoked  keys,  and  for such keyservers this option is
                     meaningless. Note also that most keyservers do  not  have
                     cryptographic  verification  of  key  revocations, and so
                     turning this option off may result in skipping keys  that
                     are incorrectly marked as revoked.

              include-disabled
                     When searching for a key with --search-keys, include keys
                     that are marked on the keyserver as disabled.  Note  that
                     this option is not used with HKP keyservers.

              auto-key-retrieve
                     This option enables the automatic retrieving of keys from
                     a keyserver when verifying signatures made by  keys  that
                     are not on the local keyring.
                     retrieve  is  set, and the signature being verified has a
                     preferred keyserver URL, then  use  that  preferred  key-
                     server to fetch the key from. Defaults to yes.

              honor-pka-record
                     If auto-key-retrieve is set, and the signature being ver-
                     ified has a PKA record, then use the PKA  information  to
                     fetch the key. Defaults to yes.

              include-subkeys
                     When  receiving  a key, include subkeys as potential tar-
                     gets. Note that this option is not  used  with  HKP  key-
                     servers, as they do not support retrieving keys by subkey
                     id.

              use-temp-files
                     On most Unix-like platforms, GnuPG communicates with  the
                     keyserver  helper  program  via  pipes, which is the most
                     efficient method. This option forces GnuPG to use  tempo-
                     rary  files  to  communicate.  On some platforms (such as
                     Win32 and RISC OS), this option is always enabled.

              keep-temp-files
                     If using `use-temp-files', do not delete the  temp  files
                     after using them. This option is useful to learn the key-
                     server communication protocol by  reading  the  temporary
                     files.

              verbose
                     Tell  the  keyserver  helper  program to be more verbose.
                     This option can be repeated multiple  times  to  increase
                     the verbosity level.

              timeout
                     Tell  the  keyserver helper program how long (in seconds)
                     to try and perform a keyserver action before  giving  up.
                     Note  that  performing  multiple actions at the same time
                     uses this timeout value per action.   For  example,  when
                     retrieving  multiple  keys  via  --recv-keys, the timeout
                     applies separately to each key retrieval, and not to  the
                     --recv-keys command as a whole. Defaults to 30 seconds.

              http-proxy=value
                     Set  the  proxy to use for HTTP and HKP keyservers.  This
                     overrides the "http_proxy" environment variable, if any.

              max-cert-size
                     When retrieving a key via DNS CERT, only accept  keys  up
                     to this size.  Defaults to 16384 bytes.

              debug  Turn  on  debug  output  in the keyserver helper program.
                     Note that the details of debug output  depends  on  which
                     keyserver  helper  program is being used, and in turn, on
                     any libraries that  the  keyserver  helper  program  uses
                     Note that depending on the SSL library that the keyserver
                     helper is built with, this may actually be a directory or
                     a file.

       --completes-needed n
              Number of completely trusted users to introduce a new key signer
              (defaults to 1).

       --marginals-needed n
              Number of marginally trusted users to introduce a new key signer
              (defaults to 3)

       --max-cert-depth n
              Maximum depth of a certification chain (default is 5).

       --simple-sk-checksum
              Secret  keys  are integrity protected by using a SHA-1 checksum.
              This method is part of the upcoming enhanced OpenPGP  specifica-
              tion  but GnuPG already uses it as a countermeasure against cer-
              tain attacks.  Old applications don't understand this  new  for-
              mat, so this option may be used to switch back to the old behav-
              iour. Using this option bears a security risk. Note  that  using
              this option only takes effect when the secret key is encrypted -
              the simplest way to make this happen is to change the passphrase
              on the key (even changing it to the same value is acceptable).

       --no-sig-cache
              Do not cache the verification status of key signatures.  Caching
              gives a much better performance in key listings. However, if you
              suspect that your public keyring is not save against write modi-
              fications, you can use this option to disable  the  caching.  It
              probably  does  not make sense to disable it because all kind of
              damage can be done if someone else has write access to your pub-
              lic keyring.

       --no-sig-create-check
              This options is obsolete.  It has no function.

       --auto-check-trustdb

       --no-auto-check-trustdb
              If  GnuPG  feels that its information about the Web of Trust has
              to be updated, it automatically runs the --check-trustdb command
              internally.   This  may  be a time consuming process. --no-auto-
              check-trustdb disables this option.

       --use-agent

       --no-use-agent
              Try to use the GnuPG-Agent.  With this option, GnuPG first tries
              to  connect  to the agent before it asks for a passphrase. --no-
              use-agent disables this option.

       --gpg-agent-info

       --lock-never
              Disable  locking  entirely.  This  option should be used only in
              very special environments, where it can be assured that only one
              process  is  accessing  those  files.  A  bootable floppy with a
              stand-alone encryption system will probably use  this.  Improper
              usage of this option may lead to data and key corruption.

       --exit-on-status-write-error
              This  option will cause write errors on the status FD to immedi-
              ately terminate the process. That should in fact be the  default
              but  it  never  worked  this  way  and thus we need an option to
              enable this, so that the change won't break  applications  which
              close  their  end of a status fd connected pipe too early. Using
              this option along with --enable-progress-filter may be  used  to
              cleanly cancel long running gpg operations.

       --limit-card-insert-tries n
              With  n  greater than 0 the number of prompts asking to insert a
              smartcard gets limited to N-1. Thus with a value of 1 gpg  won't
              at  all  ask  to  insert  a  card  if  none has been inserted at
              startup. This option is useful in the configuration file in case
              an  application  does  not  know about the smartcard support and
              waits ad infinitum for an inserted card.

       --no-random-seed-file
              GnuPG uses a file to store its internal random pool over invoca-
              tions.   This  makes random generation faster; however sometimes
              write operations are not desired. This option  can  be  used  to
              achieve that with the cost of slower random generation.

       --no-greeting
              Suppress the initial copyright message.

       --no-secmem-warning
              Suppress the warning about "using insecure memory".

       --no-permission-warning
              Suppress  the  warning  about  unsafe  file  and  home directory
              (--homedir) permissions. Note that the  permission  checks  that
              GnuPG  performs are not intended to be authoritative, but rather
              they simply warn about certain common  permission  problems.  Do
              not  assume that the lack of a warning means that your system is
              secure.

              Note that the warning for unsafe --homedir permissions cannot be
              suppressed in the gpg.conf file, as this would allow an attacker
              to place an unsafe gpg.conf file in place, and use this file  to
              suppress  warnings about itself. The --homedir permissions warn-
              ing may only be suppressed on the command line.

       --no-mdc-warning
              Suppress the warning about missing MDC integrity protection.

              keys that can sign.  Defaults  to  --require-cross-certification
              for gpg.

       --expert

       --no-expert
              Allow  the user to do certain nonsensical or "silly" things like
              signing an expired or revoked key, or certain potentially incom-
              patible things like generating unusual key types. This also dis-
              ables certain warning messages  about  potentially  incompatible
              actions.  As  the name implies, this option is for experts only.
              If you don't fully understand the implications of what it allows
              you to do, leave this off. --no-expert disables this option.

   Key related options

       --recipient name

       -r     Encrypt  for  user id name. If this option or --hidden-recipient
              is not specified, GnuPG asks for the user-id  unless  --default-
              recipient is given.

       --hidden-recipient name

       -R     Encrypt  for  user  ID  name, but hide the key ID of this user's
              key. This option helps to hide the receiver of the  message  and
              is  a  limited  countermeasure against traffic analysis. If this
              option or --recipient is not specified, GnuPG asks for the  user
              ID unless --default-recipient is given.

       --encrypt-to name
              Same  as  --recipient  but  this  one is intended for use in the
              options file and may  be  used  with  your  own  user-id  as  an
              "encrypt-to-self". These keys are only used when there are other
              recipients given either by use of --recipient or  by  the  asked
              user  id.  No trust checking is performed for these user ids and
              even disabled keys can be used.

       --hidden-encrypt-to name
              Same as --hidden-recipient but this one is intended for  use  in
              the options file and may be used with your own user-id as a hid-
              den "encrypt-to-self". These keys are only used when  there  are
              other  recipients  given  either by use of --recipient or by the
              asked user id.  No trust checking is performed  for  these  user
              ids and even disabled keys can be used.

       --no-encrypt-to
              Disable  the  use  of  all  --encrypt-to and --hidden-encrypt-to
              keys.

       --group name=value1
              Sets up a named group, which is similar to aliases in email pro-
              grams.   Any time the group name is a recipient (-r or --recipi-
              ent), it will be expanded  to  the  values  specified.  Multiple
              Remove a given entry from the --group list.

       --no-groups
              Remove all entries from the --group list.

       --local-user name

       -u     Use name as the key to sign with. Note that  this  option  over-
              rides --default-key.

       --try-all-secrets
              Don't  look  at  the key ID as stored in the message but try all
              secret keys in turn to  find  the  right  decryption  key.  This
              option  forces  the  behaviour  as  used by anonymous recipients
              (created by  using  --throw-keyids  or  --hidden-recipient)  and
              might  come  handy in case where an encrypted message contains a
              bogus key ID.

       --skip-hidden-recipients

       --no-skip-hidden-recipients
              During decryption skip all anonymous  recipients.   This  option
              helps  in the case that people use the hidden recipients feature
              to hide there own encrypt-to key from others.   If  oneself  has
              many  secret keys this may lead to a major annoyance because all
              keys are tried in turn to decrypt soemthing which was not really
              intended for it.  The drawback of this option is that it is cur-
              rently not possible to decrypt a  message  which  includes  real
              anonymous recipients.

   Input and Output

       --armor

       -a     Create  ASCII  armored  output.   The  default  is to create the
              binary OpenPGP format.

       --no-armor
              Assume the input data is not in ASCII armored format.

       --output file

       -o file
              Write output to file.

       --max-output n
              This option sets a limit on the number of  bytes  that  will  be
              generated when processing a file. Since OpenPGP supports various
              levels of compression, it is possible that the  plaintext  of  a
              given  message  may  be  significantly  larger than the original
              OpenPGP message. While GnuPG works properly with such  messages,
              there  is often a desire to set a maximum file size that will be
              generated before processing is forced to stop by the OS  limits.
              Defaults to 0, which means "no limit".
                     Normally  possible  still existing ownertrust values of a
                     key are cleared if a key is imported.  This is in general
                     desirable  so  that a formerly deleted key does not auto-
                     matically gain an ownertrust values merely due to import.
                     On  the other hand it is sometimes necessary to re-import
                     a trusted set of keys again but keeping already  assigned
                     ownertrust  values.   This  can  be achived by using this
                     option.

              repair-pks-subkey-bug
                     During import, attempt to repair the damage caused by the
                     PKS  keyserver  bug (pre version 0.9.6) that mangles keys
                     with multiple subkeys. Note that this  cannot  completely
                     repair the damaged key as some crucial data is removed by
                     the keyserver, but it does at least  give  you  back  one
                     subkey.  Defaults  to  no for regular --import and to yes
                     for keyserver --recv-keys.

              merge-only
                     During import, allow key updates to existing keys, but do
                     not allow any new keys to be imported. Defaults to no.

              import-clean
                     After  import,  compact (remove all signatures except the
                     self-signature) any user IDs from the new  key  that  are
                     not usable.  Then, remove any signatures from the new key
                     that are not usable.  This includes signatures that  were
                     issued  by keys that are not present on the keyring. This
                     option is the same  as  running  the  --edit-key  command
                     "clean" after import. Defaults to no.

              import-minimal
                     Import the smallest key possible. This removes all signa-
                     tures except the most recent self-signature on each  user
                     ID.  This  option  is  the same as running the --edit-key
                     command "minimize" after import.  Defaults to no.

       --export-options parameters
              This is a space or comma delimited string that gives options for
              exporting  keys.  Options  can be prepended with a `no-' to give
              the opposite meaning. The options are:

              export-local-sigs
                     Allow exporting key signatures marked as "local". This is
                     not  generally  useful  unless a shared keyring scheme is
                     being used.  Defaults to no.

              export-attributes
                     Include attribute user IDs (photo IDs)  while  exporting.
                     This  is  useful  to  export keys if they are going to be
                     used by an OpenPGP program that does not accept attribute
                     user IDs. Defaults to yes.

              export-sensitive-revkeys
                     being  exported  if the user IDs are not usable. Also, do
                     not export any  signatures  that  are  not  usable.  This
                     includes signatures that were issued by keys that are not
                     present on the keyring. This option is the same  as  run-
                     ning  the --edit-key command "clean" before export except
                     that the local copy of the key is not modified.  Defaults
                     to no.

              export-minimal
                     Export the smallest key possible. This removes all signa-
                     tures except the most recent self-signature on each  user
                     ID.  This  option  is  the same as running the --edit-key
                     command "minimize" before export except  that  the  local
                     copy of the key is not modified. Defaults to no.

       --with-colons
              Print  key  listings  delimited  by colons. Note that the output
              will be encoded in UTF-8  regardless  of  any  --display-charset
              setting. This format is useful when GnuPG is called from scripts
              and other programs as it is easily machine parsed.  The  details
              of  this  format are documented in the file 'doc/DETAILS', which
              is included in the GnuPG source distribution.

       --fixed-list-mode
              Do not merge primary user ID and  primary  key  in  --with-colon
              listing   mode   and  print  all  timestamps  as  seconds  since
              1970-01-01.

       --with-fingerprint
              Same as the command --fingerprint but changes only the format of
              the output and may be used together with another command.

   OpenPGP protocol specific options.

       -t, --textmode

       --no-textmode
              Treat  input files as text and store them in the OpenPGP canoni-
              cal text form with standard "CRLF" line endings. This also  sets
              the  necessary  flags to inform the recipient that the encrypted
              or signed data is text and may need its line  endings  converted
              back  to  whatever  the local system uses. This option is useful
              when communicating between two  platforms  that  have  different
              line ending conventions (UNIX-like to Mac, Mac to Windows, etc).
              --no-textmode disables this option, and is the default.

              If -t (but not --textmode) is used together  with  armoring  and
              signing,  this  enables  clearsigned  messages.  This  kludge is
              needed for command-line compatibility with command-line versions
              of  PGP;  normally you would use --sign or --clearsign to select
              the type of the signature.

       --force-v3-sigs

              Always use v4 key signatures even on v3 keys. This  option  also
              changes  the  default hash algorithm for v3 RSA keys from MD5 to
              SHA-1.  --no-force-v4-certs disables this option.

       --force-mdc
              Force the use of encryption with a modification detection  code.
              This  is always used with the newer ciphers (those with a block-
              size greater than 64 bits), or if  all  of  the  recipient  keys
              indicate MDC support in their feature flags.

       --disable-mdc
              Disable the use of the modification detection code. Note that by
              using this option, the encrypted message becomes vulnerable to a
              message modification attack.

       --personal-cipher-preferences string
              Set  the list of personal cipher preferences to string.  Use gpg
              --version to get a list of available algorithms, and use none to
              set  no preference at all.  This allows the user to safely over-
              ride the algorithm chosen by the recipient key  preferences,  as
              GPG  will only select an algorithm that is usable by all recipi-
              ents.  The most highly ranked cipher in this list is  also  used
              for the --symmetric encryption command.

       --personal-digest-preferences string
              Set  the list of personal digest preferences to string.  Use gpg
              --version to get a list of available algorithms, and use none to
              set  no preference at all.  This allows the user to safely over-
              ride the algorithm chosen by the recipient key  preferences,  as
              GPG  will only select an algorithm that is usable by all recipi-
              ents.  The most highly ranked digest algorithm in this  list  is
              also  used  when signing without encryption (e.g. --clearsign or
              --sign).

       --personal-compress-preferences string
              Set the list of personal compression preferences to string.  Use
              gpg  --version  to  get  a list of available algorithms, and use
              none to set no preference at  all.   This  allows  the  user  to
              safely  override the algorithm chosen by the recipient key pref-
              erences, as GPG will only select an algorithm that is usable  by
              all recipients.  The most highly ranked compression algorithm in
              this list is also used when there are no recipient keys to  con-
              sider (e.g. --symmetric).

       --s2k-cipher-algo name
              Use  name  as  the cipher algorithm used to protect secret keys.
              The default cipher is AES128. This cipher is also used for  con-
              ventional   encryption   if   --personal-cipher-preferences  and
              --cipher-algo is not given.

       --s2k-digest-algo name
              Use name as the digest algorithm used to mangle the passphrases.
              The default algorithm is SHA-1.

              selected,  GnuPG will round up to the nearest legal value.  This
              option is only meaningful if --s2k-mode is 3.

   Compliance options

       These options control what GnuPG is compliant to.  Only  one  of  these
       options  may be active at a time. Note that the default setting of this
       is nearly always the correct one. See the INTEROPERABILITY  WITH  OTHER
       OPENPGP PROGRAMS section below before using one of these options.

       --gnupg
              Use  standard GnuPG behavior. This is essentially OpenPGP behav-
              ior (see --openpgp), but with some  additional  workarounds  for
              common compatibility problems in different versions of PGP. This
              is the default option, so it is not generally needed, but it may
              be  useful  to  override  a  different  compliance option in the
              gpg.conf file.

       --openpgp
              Reset all packet, cipher and digest options  to  strict  OpenPGP
              behavior.  Use  this  option  to reset all previous options like
              --s2k-*, --cipher-algo,  --digest-algo  and  --compress-algo  to
              OpenPGP compliant values. All PGP workarounds are disabled.

       --rfc4880
              Reset  all  packet, cipher and digest options to strict RFC-4880
              behavior.  Note  that  this  is  currently  the  same  thing  as
              --openpgp.

       --rfc2440
              Reset  all  packet, cipher and digest options to strict RFC-2440
              behavior.

       --rfc1991
              Try to be more RFC-1991 (PGP 2.x)  compliant.   This  option  is
              deprecated will be removed in GnuPG 2.1.

       --pgp2 Set  up  all options to be as PGP 2.x compliant as possible, and
              warn if an action is taken (e.g. encrypting to  a  non-RSA  key)
              that will create a message that PGP 2.x will not be able to han-
              dle. Note that `PGP 2.x' here means `MIT PGP 2.6.2'.  There  are
              other  versions  of  PGP 2.x available, but the MIT release is a
              good common baseline.

              This option implies --rfc1991 --disable-mdc --no-force-v4-certs
               --escape-from-lines  --force-v3-sigs --allow-weak-digest-algos
               --cipher-algo IDEA --digest-algo MD5 --compress-algo  ZIP.   It
              also disables --textmode when encrypting.

              This  option  is  deprecated  will be removed in GnuPG 2.1.  The
              reason for dropping PGP-2 support is that the PGP  2  format  is
              not  anymore  considered safe (for example due to the use of the
              broken MD5 algorithm).  Note that the decryption of  PGP-2  cre-
              ated messages will continue to work.
              identical to --pgp6 except that MDCs are not disabled,  and  the
              list  of  allowable  ciphers  is expanded to add AES128, AES192,
              AES256, and TWOFISH.

       --pgp8 Set up all options to be as PGP 8 compliant as possible.  PGP  8
              is  a  lot closer to the OpenPGP standard than previous versions
              of PGP, so all this  does  is  disable  --throw-keyids  and  set
              --escape-from-lines.   All algorithms are allowed except for the
              SHA224, SHA384, and SHA512 digests.

   Doing things one usually doesn't want to do.

       -n

       --dry-run
              Don't make any changes (this is not completely implemented).

       --list-only
              Changes the behaviour of some commands. This is  like  --dry-run
              but different in some cases. The semantic of this command may be
              extended in the future.  Currently  it  only  skips  the  actual
              decryption  pass  and  therefore  enables  a fast listing of the
              encryption keys.

       -i

       --interactive
              Prompt before overwriting any files.

       --debug-level level
              Select the debug level for investigating problems. level may  be
              a numeric value or by a keyword:

              none   No  debugging at all.  A value of less than 1 may be used
                     instead of the keyword.

              basic  Some basic debug messages.  A value between 1 and  2  may
                     be used instead of the keyword.

              advanced
                     More verbose debug messages.  A value between 3 and 5 may
                     be used instead of the keyword.

              expert Even more detailed messages.  A value between 6 and 8 may
                     be used instead of the keyword.

              guru   All  of  the  debug messages you can get. A value greater
                     than 8 may be used instead of the keyword.  The  creation
                     of  hash  tracing files is only enabled if the keyword is
                     used.

       How these messages are mapped to the  actual  debugging  flags  is  not
       specified  and may change with newer releases of this program. They are
       however carefully selected to best aid in debugging.
       --faked-system-time epoch
              This option is only useful for testing; it sets the system  time
              back  or  forth  to epoch which is the number of seconds elapsed
              since the year 1970.  Alternatively epoch may be given as a full
              ISO time string (e.g. "20070924T154812").

       --enable-progress-filter
              Enable certain PROGRESS status outputs. This option allows fron-
              tends to display a progress indicator while  gpg  is  processing
              larger files.  There is a slight performance overhead using it.

       --status-fd n
              Write  special status strings to the file descriptor n.  See the
              file DETAILS in the documentation for a listing of them.

       --status-file file
              Same as --status-fd, except the status data is written  to  file
              file.

       --logger-fd n
              Write log output to file descriptor n and not to STDERR.

       --log-file file

       --logger-file file
              Same  as  --logger-fd, except the logger data is written to file
              file.  Note that --log-file is only implemented for GnuPG-2.

       --attribute-fd n
              Write attribute subpackets to the file  descriptor  n.  This  is
              most  useful for use with --status-fd, since the status messages
              are needed to separate  out  the  various  subpackets  from  the
              stream delivered to the file descriptor.

       --attribute-file file
              Same  as --attribute-fd, except the attribute data is written to
              file file.

       --comment string

       --no-comments
              Use string as a comment string  in  clear  text  signatures  and
              ASCII armored messages or keys (see --armor). The default behav-
              ior is not to use a comment string. --comment  may  be  repeated
              multiple  times  to  get multiple comment strings. --no-comments
              removes all comments.  It is a good idea to keep the length of a
              single  comment  below 60 characters to avoid problems with mail
              programs wrapping such lines.  Note that comment lines, like all
              other header lines, are not protected by the signature.

       --emit-version

       --no-emit-version
              Force  inclusion  of the version string in ASCII armored output.
              name  must  consist  only of printable characters or spaces, and
              must contain a '@' character in  the  form  keyname@domain.exam-
              ple.com  (substituting  the appropriate keyname and domain name,
              of course).  This is to  help  prevent  pollution  of  the  IETF
              reserved notation namespace. The --expert flag overrides the '@'
              check. value may be any printable string; it will be encoded  in
              UTF8,  so  you  should  check that your --display-charset is set
              correctly. If you prefix name with an exclamation mark (!),  the
              notation  data  will  be flagged as critical (rfc4880:5.2.3.16).
              --sig-notation sets a notation for data signatures. --cert-nota-
              tion sets a notation for key signatures (certifications). --set-
              notation sets both.

              There are special codes that may be used in notation names. "%k"
              will  be  expanded into the key ID of the key being signed, "%K"
              into the long key ID of the key being signed, "%f" into the fin-
              gerprint  of  the  key being signed, "%s" into the key ID of the
              key making the signature, "%S" into the long key ID of  the  key
              making  the signature, "%g" into the fingerprint of the key mak-
              ing the signature (which might be a subkey), "%p" into the  fin-
              gerprint  of  the  primary  key of the key making the signature,
              "%c" into the signature count from the  OpenPGP  smartcard,  and
              "%%" results in a single "%". %k, %K, and %f are only meaningful
              when making a key signature  (certification),  and  %c  is  only
              meaningful when using the OpenPGP smartcard.

       --sig-policy-url string

       --cert-policy-url string

       --set-policy-url string
              Use  string  as  a Policy URL for signatures (rfc4880:5.2.3.20).
              If you prefix it with an exclamation mark (!),  the  policy  URL
              packet will be flagged as critical. --sig-policy-url sets a pol-
              icy url for data signatures. --cert-policy-url sets a policy url
              for key signatures (certifications). --set-policy-url sets both.

              The same %-expandos used for notation data are available here as
              well.

       --sig-keyserver-url string
              Use string as a preferred keyserver URL for data signatures.  If
              you  prefix  it  with an exclamation mark (!), the keyserver URL
              packet will be flagged as critical.

              The same %-expandos used for notation data are available here as
              well.

       --set-filename string
              Use  string  as  the  filename  which is stored inside messages.
              This overrides the default, which is to use the actual  filename
              of the file being encrypted.

       --for-your-eyes-only
              can be a dangerous option  as  it  allows  to  overwrite  files.
              Defaults to no.

       --cipher-algo name
              Use  name as cipher algorithm. Running the program with the com-
              mand --version yields a list of supported algorithms. If this is
              not  used  the cipher algorithm is selected from the preferences
              stored with the key. In general, you do not  want  to  use  this
              option as it allows you to violate the OpenPGP standard.  --per-
              sonal-cipher-preferences is the safe way to accomplish the  same
              thing.

       --digest-algo name
              Use  name  as  the message digest algorithm. Running the program
              with the command --version yields  a  list  of  supported  algo-
              rithms.  In  general,  you  do not want to use this option as it
              allows you to violate the OpenPGP  standard.  --personal-digest-
              preferences is the safe way to accomplish the same thing.

       --compress-algo name
              Use compression algorithm name. "zlib" is RFC-1950 ZLIB compres-
              sion. "zip" is RFC-1951 ZIP compression which is  used  by  PGP.
              "bzip2"  is  a  more modern compression scheme that can compress
              some things better than zip or zlib, but at  the  cost  of  more
              memory used during compression and decompression. "uncompressed"
              or "none" disables compression. If this option is not used,  the
              default  behavior is to examine the recipient key preferences to
              see which algorithms the recipient supports. If all else  fails,
              ZIP is used for maximum compatibility.

              ZLIB  may  give better compression results than ZIP, as the com-
              pression window size is not limited to 8k. BZIP2 may  give  even
              better  compression  results  than that, but will use a signifi-
              cantly larger amount of memory while compressing and decompress-
              ing.  This  may  be  significant in low memory situations. Note,
              however, that PGP (all versions) only supports ZIP  compression.
              Using  any algorithm other than ZIP or "none" will make the mes-
              sage unreadable with PGP. In general, you do  not  want  to  use
              this  option  as  it allows you to violate the OpenPGP standard.
              --personal-compress-preferences is the safe  way  to  accomplish
              the same thing.

       --cert-digest-algo name
              Use  name  as  the  message digest algorithm used when signing a
              key. Running the program with the  command  --version  yields  a
              list  of  supported  algorithms.  Be aware that if you choose an
              algorithm that GnuPG supports but other OpenPGP  implementations
              do  not,  then some users will not be able to use the key signa-
              tures you make, or quite possibly your entire key.

       --disable-cipher-algo name
              Never allow the use of name as cipher algorithm.  The given name
              will  not be checked so that a later loaded algorithm will still
              get disabled.
              engineering  anyone who is able to decrypt the message can check
              whether one of the other recipients is the  one  he  suspects.])
              On  the  receiving side, it may slow down the decryption process
              because all available secret keys must  be  tried.   --no-throw-
              keyids disables this option. This option is essentially the same
              as using --hidden-recipient for all recipients.

       --not-dash-escaped
              This option changes the behavior of cleartext signatures so that
              they  can  be  used for patch files. You should not send such an
              armored file via email because all spaces and line  endings  are
              hashed  too.  You  can  not use this option for data which has 5
              dashes at the beginning of a line, patch files don't have  this.
              A  special  armor  header  line tells GnuPG about this cleartext
              signature option.

       --escape-from-lines

       --no-escape-from-lines
              Because some mailers change  lines  starting  with  "From  "  to
              ">From  "  it is good to handle such lines in a special way when
              creating cleartext signatures to prevent the  mail  system  from
              breaking  the  signature. Note that all other PGP versions do it
              this way too.  Enabled by default.  --no-escape-from-lines  dis-
              ables this option.

       --passphrase-repeat n
              Specify  how  many  times  gpg  will request a new passphrase be
              repeated.  This is useful for  helping  memorize  a  passphrase.
              Defaults to 1 repetition.

       --passphrase-fd n
              Read  the passphrase from file descriptor n. Only the first line
              will be read from file descriptor n. If you use  0  for  n,  the
              passphrase  will  be  read  from STDIN. This can only be used if
              only one passphrase is supplied.

       --passphrase-file file
              Read the passphrase from file file. Only the first line will  be
              read  from  file  file.  This  can  only  be  used  if  only one
              passphrase is supplied. Obviously, a passphrase stored in a file
              is  of  questionable security if other users can read this file.
              Don't use this option if you can avoid it.

       --passphrase string
              Use string as the passphrase. This can only be used if only  one
              passphrase  is supplied. Obviously, this is of very questionable
              security on a multi-user system. Don't use this  option  if  you
              can avoid it.

       --command-fd n
              This is a replacement for the deprecated shared-memory IPC mode.
              If this option is  enabled,  user  input  on  questions  is  not
              expected  from  the  TTY  but from the given file descriptor. It
              self-signed. This is not recommended, as a non self-signed  user
              ID is trivial to forge. --no-allow-non-selfsigned-uid disables.

       --allow-freeform-uid
              Disable all checks on the form of the user ID while generating a
              new one. This option should only be used in very  special  envi-
              ronments  as  it does not ensure the de-facto standard format of
              user IDs.

       --ignore-time-conflict
              GnuPG normally checks that the timestamps associated  with  keys
              and  signatures have plausible values. However, sometimes a sig-
              nature seems to be older than the key  due  to  clock  problems.
              This  option  makes  these  checks  just  a  warning.  See  also
              --ignore-valid-from for timestamp issues on subkeys.

       --ignore-valid-from
              GnuPG normally does not select and use subkeys  created  in  the
              future.   This  option  allows  the  use  of  such keys and thus
              exhibits the pre-1.0.7 behaviour. You should not use this option
              unless  there is some clock problem. See also --ignore-time-con-
              flict for timestamp issues with signatures.

       --ignore-crc-error
              The ASCII armor used by OpenPGP is protected by a  CRC  checksum
              against  transmission  errors. Occasionally the CRC gets mangled
              somewhere on the transmission channel  but  the  actual  content
              (which  is  protected  by  the OpenPGP protocol anyway) is still
              okay. This option allows GnuPG to ignore CRC errors.

       --ignore-mdc-error
              This option changes a MDC integrity protection  failure  into  a
              warning.   This can be useful if a message is partially corrupt,
              but it is necessary to get as much data as possible out  of  the
              corrupt  message.  However, be aware that a MDC protection fail-
              ure may also mean that the message was tampered with  intention-
              ally by an attacker.

       --allow-weak-digest-algos
              Signatures  made  with known-weak digest algorithms are normally
              rejected with an ``invalid  digest  algorithm''  message.   This
              option allows the verification of signatures made with such weak
              algorithms.  MD5 is the only digest algorithm considered weak by
              default.   See  also  --weak-digest to reject other digest algo-
              rithms.

       --weak-digest name
              Treat the specified digest algorithm as weak.   Signatures  made
              over  weak digests algorithms are normally rejected. This option
              can be supplied multiple times if multiple algorithms should  be
              considered  weak.  See also --allow-weak-digest-algos to disable
              rejection of weak digests.  MD5 is always considered  weak,  and
              does not need to be listed explicitly.

       --with-key-data
              Print  key listings delimited by colons (like --with-colons) and
              print the public key data.

       --fast-list-mode
              Changes the output of the list commands to work faster; this  is
              achieved  by  leaving  some parts empty. Some applications don't
              need the user ID and the trust information given  in  the  list-
              ings.  By  using this options they can get a faster listing. The
              exact behaviour of this option may change  in  future  versions.
              If you are missing some information, don't use this option.

       --no-literal
              This  is  not  for normal use. Use the source to see for what it
              might be useful.

       --set-filesize
              This is not for normal use. Use the source to see  for  what  it
              might be useful.

       --show-session-key
              Display  the  session  key used for one message. See --override-
              session-key for the counterpart of this option.

              We think that Key Escrow is a Bad Thing; however the user should
              have  the freedom to decide whether to go to prison or to reveal
              the content of one specific  message  without  compromising  all
              messages  ever encrypted for one secret key. DON'T USE IT UNLESS
              YOU ARE REALLY FORCED TO DO SO.

       --override-session-key string
              Don't use the public key but the session key string. The  format
              of this string is the same as the one printed by --show-session-
              key. This option is normally not used but comes  handy  in  case
              someone  forces  you  to reveal the content of an encrypted mes-
              sage; using this option you can do this without handing out  the
              secret key.

       --ask-sig-expire

       --no-ask-sig-expire
              When  making a data signature, prompt for an expiration time. If
              this option is  not  specified,  the  expiration  time  set  via
              --default-sig-expire  is used. --no-ask-sig-expire disables this
              option.

       --default-sig-expire
              The default expiration time to  use  for  signature  expiration.
              Valid values are "0" for no expiration, a number followed by the
              letter d (for days), w (for weeks), m (for months),  or  y  (for
              years)  (for  example  "2m"  for  two  months,  or "5y" for five
              years), or an absolute date in the form YYYY-MM-DD. Defaults  to
              "0".

              years)  (for  example  "2m"  for  two  months,  or "5y" for five
              years), or an absolute date in the form YYYY-MM-DD. Defaults  to
              "0".

       --allow-secret-key-import
              This is an obsolete option and is not used anywhere.

       --allow-multiple-messages

       --no-allow-multiple-messages
              Allow  processing  of  multiple  OpenPGP messages contained in a
              single file or stream.  Some programs that call GPG are not pre-
              pared  to  deal with multiple messages being processed together,
              so this option defaults to no.  Note that versions of GPG  prior
              to 1.4.7 always allowed multiple messages.

              Warning:  Do  not use this option unless you need it as a tempo-
              rary workaround!

       --enable-special-filenames
              This options enables a mode  in  which  filenames  of  the  form
              '-&n',  where  n  is a non-negative decimal number, refer to the
              file descriptor n and not to a file with that name.

       --no-expensive-trust-checks
              Experimental use only.

       --preserve-permissions
              Don't change the permissions of a secret keyring  back  to  user
              read/write  only.  Use  this option only if you really know what
              you are doing.

       --default-preference-list string
              Set the list of default preferences to string.  This  preference
              list  is used for new keys and becomes the default for "setpref"
              in the edit menu.

       --default-keyserver-url name
              Set the default keyserver URL to name. This  keyserver  will  be
              used as the keyserver URL when writing a new self-signature on a
              key, which includes key generation and changing preferences.

       --list-config
              Display various internal configuration parameters of GnuPG. This
              option is intended for external programs that call GnuPG to per-
              form tasks, and is thus  not  generally  useful.  See  the  file
              'doc/DETAILS'  in  the  source  distribution  for the details of
              which configuration items may be listed. --list-config  is  only
              usable with --with-colons set.

       --gpgconf-list
              This  command  is  similar  to --list-config but in general only
              internally used by the gpgconf tool.

              useful anymore, and the use of this option is deprecated.

       --show-photos

       --no-show-photos
              Causes  --list-keys,  --list-sigs,  --list-public-keys,  --list-
              secret-keys, and verifying a signature to also display the photo
              ID attached to the key, if any. See also  --photo-viewer.  These
              options  are  deprecated.  Use  --list-options  [no-]show-photos
              and/or --verify-options [no-]show-photos instead.

       --show-keyring
              Display the keyring name at the head of  key  listings  to  show
              which keyring a given key resides on. This option is deprecated:
              use --list-options [no-]show-keyring instead.

       --ctapi-driver file
              Use file to access the smartcard reader. The current default  is
              `libtowitoko.so'.  Note that the use of this interface is depre-
              cated; it may be removed in future releases.

       --always-trust
              Identical to --trust-model always. This option is deprecated.

       --show-notation

       --no-show-notation
              Show signature notations  in  the  --list-sigs  or  --check-sigs
              listings  as  well as when verifying a signature with a notation
              in  it.  These  options  are  deprecated.   Use   --list-options
              [no-]show-notation  and/or  --verify-options  [no-]show-notation
              instead.

       --show-policy-url

       --no-show-policy-url
              Show policy URLs in the --list-sigs or --check-sigs listings  as
              well  as  when  verifying  a  signature with a policy URL in it.
              These options are deprecated. Use --list-options  [no-]show-pol-
              icy-url and/or --verify-options [no-]show-policy-url instead.

EXAMPLES
       gpg -se -r Bob file
              sign and encrypt for user Bob

       gpg --clearsign file
              make a clear text signature

       gpg -sb file
              make a detached signature

       gpg -u 0x12345678 -sb file
              make a detached signature with the key 0x12345678

              the signed data; if this is not given,  the  name  of  the  file
              holding the signed data is constructed by cutting off the exten-
              sion (".asc" or ".sig") of sigfile or by asking the user for the
              filename.

HOW TO SPECIFY A USER ID
       There  are  different ways to specify a user ID to GnuPG.  Some of them
       are only valid for gpg others are only good for  gpgsm.   Here  is  the
       entire list of ways to specify a key:

       By key Id.
              This  format  is  deduced  from the length of the string and its
              content or 0x prefix. The key Id of an X.509 certificate are the
              low  64  bits  of  its SHA-1 fingerprint.  The use of key Ids is
              just a shortcut, for all automated  processing  the  fingerprint
              should be used.

              When  using gpg an exclamation mark (!) may be appended to force
              using the specified primary or secondary key and not to try  and
              calculate which primary or secondary key to use.

              The last four lines of the example give the key ID in their long
              form as internally used by the OpenPGP protocol. You can see the
              long key ID using the option --with-colons.

         234567C4
         0F34E556E
         01347A56A
         0xAB123456

         234AABBCC34567C4
         0F323456784E56EAB
         01AB3FED1347A5612
         0x234AABBCC34567C4

       By fingerprint.
              This  format  is  deduced  from the length of the string and its
              content or the 0x prefix.  Note, that only the 20  byte  version
              fingerprint  is available with gpgsm (i.e. the SHA-1 hash of the
              certificate).

              When using gpg an exclamation mark (!) may be appended to  force
              using  the specified primary or secondary key and not to try and
              calculate which primary or secondary key to use.

              The best way to specify a key Id is by  using  the  fingerprint.
              This  avoids  any  ambiguities in case that there are duplicated
              key IDs.

         1234343434343434C434343434343434
         123434343434343C3434343434343734349A3434
         0E12343434343434343434EAB3484343434343434
         0xE12343434343434343434EAB3484343434343434

              This is indicated by enclosing the email address  in  the  usual
              way with left and right angles.

         <heinrichh@uni-duesseldorf.de>

       By word match.
              All words must match exactly (not case sensitive) but can appear
              in any order in the user ID or a subjects name.  Words  are  any
              sequences  of letters, digits, the underscore and all characters
              with bit 7 set.

         +Heinrich Heine duesseldorf

       By exact match on the subject's DN.
              This is indicated by a leading slash, directly followed  by  the
              RFC-2253 encoded DN of the subject.  Note that you can't use the
              string printed by "gpgsm --list-keys" because that one  as  been
              reordered and modified for better readability; use --with-colons
              to print the raw (but standard escaped) RFC-2253 string

         /CN=Heinrich Heine,O=Poets,L=Paris,C=FR

       By exact match on the issuer's DN.
              This is indicated by a leading hash mark, directly followed by a
              slash  and  then  directly followed by the rfc2253 encoded DN of
              the issuer.  This should return the Root  cert  of  the  issuer.
              See note above.

         #/CN=Root Cert,O=Poets,L=Paris,C=FR

       By exact match on serial number and issuer's DN.
              This  is  indicated  by a hash mark, followed by the hexadecimal
              representation of the serial number, then followed  by  a  slash
              and the RFC-2253 encoded DN of the issuer. See note above.

         #4F03/CN=Root Cert,O=Poets,L=Paris,C=FR

       By keygrip
              This  is indicated by an ampersand followed by the 40 hex digits
              of a keygrip.  gpgsm prints the keygrip when using  the  command
              --dump-cert.  It does not yet work for OpenPGP keys.

         &D75F22C3F86E355877348498CDC92BD21010A480

       By substring match.
              This is the default mode but applications may want to explicitly
              indicate this by putting the asterisk in front.   Match  is  not
              case sensitive.

         Heine
         *Heine

       Please note that we have reused the hash mark identifier which was used
       in old GnuPG versions to indicate the so called local-id.   It  is  not
       gpg.conf
              This is the standard configuration file read by gpg on  startup.
              It may contain any valid long option; the leading two dashes may
              not be entered and the option  may  not  be  abbreviated.   This
              default  name  may  be  changed  on the command line (see: [gpg-
              option --options]).  You should backup this file.

       Note that on larger installations, it is useful to put predefined files
       into  the  directory  '/etc/skel/.gnupg/'  so  that newly created users
       start up with a working configuration.

       For internal purposes gpg creates and maintains a few other files; They
       all  live  in  in the current home directory (see: [option --homedir]).
       Only the gpg may modify these files.

       ~/.gnupg/pubring.gpg
              The public keyring.  You should backup this file.

       ~/.gnupg/pubring.gpg.lock
              The lock file for the public keyring.

       ~/.gnupg/pubring.kbx

       ~/.gnupg/pubring.kbx.lock
              A public keyring and its lock file used by GnuPG versions >=  2.
              It is ignored by GnuPG 1.x

       ~/.gnupg/secring.gpg
              The secret keyring.  You should backup this file.

       ~/.gnupg/trustdb.gpg
              The trust database.  There is no need to backup this file; it is
              better to backup the ownertrust values (see:  [option  --export-
              ownertrust]).

       ~/.gnupg/trustdb.gpg.lock
              The lock file for the trust database.

       ~/.gnupg/random_seed
              A file used to preserve the state of the internal random pool.

       ~/.gnupg/secring.gpg.lock
              The lock file for the secret keyring.

       ~/.gnupg/openpgp-revocs.d/
              This  is the directory where gpg stores pre-generated revocation
              certificates.  The file name corresponds to the OpenPGP  finger-
              print  of  the  respective key.  It is suggested to backup those
              certificates and if the primary private key is not stored on the
              disk to move them to an external storage device.  Anyone who can
              access theses files is able to  revoke  the  corresponding  key.
              You  may want to print them out.  You should backup all files in
              this directory and take care to keep this backup closed away.


       GPG_AGENT_INFO
              Used to locate the gpg-agent.  This is only honored when  --use-
              agent is set.

              The value consists of 3 colon delimited fields: The first is the
              path to the Unix Domain Socket, the second the PID of  the  gpg-
              agent  and  the  protocol version which should be set to 1. When
              starting the gpg-agent as described in its  documentation,  this
              variable  is  set  to the correct value. The option --gpg-agent-
              info can be used to override it.

       PINENTRY_USER_DATA
              This value is passed via gpg-agent to pinentry.  It is useful to
              convey extra information to a custom pinentry.

       COLUMNS

       LINES  Used to size some displays to the full size of the screen.

       LANGUAGE
              Apart  from  its  use  by  GNU, it is used in the W32 version to
              override the language selection done through the  Registry.   If
              used  and  set  to a valid and available language name (langid),
              the file with the translation is loaded from

              gpgdir/gnupg.nls/langid.mo.  Here gpgdir is the directory out of
              which the gpg binary has been loaded.  If it can't be loaded the
              Registry is tried and as last resort the native  Windows  locale
              system is used.

BUGS
       On older systems this program should be installed as setuid(root). This
       is necessary to lock memory pages. Locking memory  pages  prevents  the
       operating   system   from  writing  memory  pages  (which  may  contain
       passphrases or other sensitive material) to disk. If you get no warning
       message  about  insecure  memory your operating system supports locking
       without being root. The program drops root privileges as soon as locked
       memory is allocated.

       Note  also  that  some systems (especially laptops) have the ability to
       ``suspend to disk'' (also known as ``safe  sleep''  or  ``hibernate'').
       This  writes  all  memory to disk before going into a low power or even
       powered off mode.  Unless measures are taken in the operating system to
       protect  the  saved memory, passphrases or other sensitive material may
       be recoverable from it later.

       Before you report a bug you should first search the  mailing  list  ar-
       chives  for  similar  problems  and second check whether such a bug has
       already been reported to our bug tracker at http://bugs.gnupg.org .

SEE ALSO
       gpgv(1),
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