gpg


SYNOPSIS
       gpg [--homedir dir] [--options file] [options] command [args]



DESCRIPTION
       gpg  is the OpenPGP part of the GNU Privacy Guard (GnuPG). It is a tool
       to provide digital encryption and signing services  using  the  OpenPGP
       standard.  gpg features complete key management and all bells and whis-
       tles you can expect from a decent OpenPGP implementation.

       This is the standalone version of gpg.  For desktop use you should con-
       sider  using gpg2  ([On some platforms gpg2 is installed under the name
       gpg]).








RETURN VALUE
       The program returns 0 if everything was fine, 1 if at least a signature
       was bad, and other error codes for fatal errors.


WARNINGS
       Use  a *good* password for your user account and a *good* passphrase to
       protect your secret key. This passphrase is the  weakest  part  of  the
       whole  system. Programs to do dictionary attacks on your secret keyring
       are very easy to write and  so  you  should  protect  your  "~/.gnupg/"
       directory very well.

       Keep  in mind that, if this program is used over a network (telnet), it
       is *very* easy to spy out your passphrase!

       If you are going to verify detached signatures, make sure that the pro-
       gram  knows about it; either give both filenames on the command line or
       use '-'' to specify STDIN.


INTEROPERABILITY
       GnuPG tries to be a very flexible implementation of the  OpenPGP  stan-
       dard. In particular, GnuPG implements many of the optional parts of the
       standard, such as the SHA-512 hash, and the ZLIB and BZIP2  compression
       algorithms.  It  is important to be aware that not all OpenPGP programs
       implement these optional algorithms and that by forcing their  use  via
       the  --cipher-algo,  --digest-algo,  --cert-digest-algo, or --compress-
       algo options in GnuPG, it is  possible  to  create  a  perfectly  valid
       OpenPGP message, but one that cannot be read by the intended recipient.

       There  are dozens of variations of OpenPGP programs available, and each
       they do not force any particular algorithms in  violation  of  OpenPGP,
       but rather reduce the available algorithms to a "PGP-safe" list.


COMMANDS
       Commands  are  not  distinguished from options except for the fact that
       only one command is allowed.

       gpg may be run with no commands, in which case it will perform  a  rea-
       sonable  action  depending on the type of file it is given as input (an
       encrypted message is decrypted, a signature is verified,  a  file  con-
       taining keys is listed).

       Please remember that option as well as command parsing stops as soon as
       a non-option is encountered, you can explicitly stop parsing  by  using
       the special option --.






   Commands not specific to the function



       --version
              Print  the program version and licensing information.  Note that
              you cannot abbreviate this command.


       --help

       -h     Print a usage message summarizing the most useful  command  line
              options.  Note that you cannot abbreviate this command.


       --warranty
              Print warranty information.


       --dump-options
              Print  a  list of all available options and commands.  Note that
              you cannot abbreviate this command.




   Commands to select the type of operation





              Make a clear text signature.  The content in a clear text signa-
              ture  is readable without any special software. OpenPGP software
              is only needed to verify the signature.  Clear  text  signatures
              may  modify end-of-line whitespace for platform independence and
              are not intended to be reversible.  The key to be used for sign-
              ing is chosen by default or can be set with the --local-user and
              --default-key options.



       --detach-sign

       -b     Make a detached signature.


       --encrypt

       -e     Encrypt data. This option may be combined  with  --sign  (for  a
              signed  and  encrypted message), --symmetric (for a message that
              may be decrypted via a secret key or a  passphrase),  or  --sign
              and  --symmetric  together  (for  a  signed  message that may be
              decrypted via a secret key or a passphrase).


       --symmetric

       -c     Encrypt with a symmetric cipher using a passphrase. The  default
              symmetric  cipher  used  is  CAST5,  but  may be chosen with the
              --cipher-algo option. This option may be  combined  with  --sign
              (for  a  signed  and symmetrically encrypted message), --encrypt
              (for a message that may be decrypted  via  a  secret  key  or  a
              passphrase), or --sign and --encrypt together (for a signed mes-
              sage that may be decrypted via a secret key or a passphrase).


       --store
              Store only (make a simple RFC1991 literal data packet).


       --decrypt

       -d     Decrypt the file given on the command line (or STDIN if no  file
              is specified) and write it to STDOUT (or the file specified with
              --output). If the decrypted file is  signed,  the  signature  is
              also  verified. This command differs from the default operation,
              as it never writes to the filename which is included in the file
              and  it  rejects  files which don't begin with an encrypted mes-
              sage.


       --verify
              Assume that the first argument is a signed file  or  a  detached
              signature  and  verify it without generating any output. With no
              arguments, the signature packet is read from STDIN.  If  only  a
              for  processing on the command line or read from STDIN with each
              filename on a separate line. This allows for many  files  to  be
              processed  at once. --multifile may currently be used along with
              --verify, --encrypt, and --decrypt. Note that --multifile --ver-
              ify may not be used with detached signatures.


       --verify-files
              Identical to --multifile --verify.


       --encrypt-files
              Identical to --multifile --encrypt.


       --decrypt-files
              Identical to --multifile --decrypt.


       --list-keys

       -k

       --list-public-keys
              List  all  keys from the public keyrings, or just the keys given
              on the command line.  -k is slightly different from  --list-keys
              in  that  it  allows  only for one argument and takes the second
              argument as the keyring to search.  This  is  for  command  line
              compatibility with PGP 2 and has been removed in gpg2.

              Avoid  using the output of this command in scripts or other pro-
              grams as it is likely to change as GnuPG  changes.  See  --with-
              colons  for  a  machine-parseable  key  listing  command that is
              appropriate for use in scripts and other programs.


       --list-secret-keys

       -K     List all keys from the secret keyrings, or just the  ones  given
              on  the  command  line. A # after the letters sec means that the
              secret key is not usable (for example, if  it  was  created  via
              --export-secret-subkeys).


       --list-sigs
              Same as --list-keys, but the signatures are listed too.

              For  each  signature  listed, there are several flags in between
              the "sig" tag and keyid. These flags give additional information
              about  each  signature. From left to right, they are the numbers
              1-3 for certificate check level (see --ask-cert-level), "L"  for
              a local or non-exportable signature (see --lsign-key), "R" for a
              nonRevocable signature (see the  --edit-key  command  "nrsign"),
              "P"  for a signature that contains a policy URL (see --cert-pol-
              following the "sig" tag (and thus  before  the  flags  described
              above  for --list-sigs).  A "!" indicates that the signature has
              been successfully verified, a "-" denotes a bad signature and  a
              "%"  is  used  if an error occurred while checking the signature
              (e.g. a non supported algorithm).




       --fingerprint
              List all keys (or the specified ones) along with  their  finger-
              prints.  This  is  the  same  output as --list-keys but with the
              additional output of a line with the fingerprint.  May  also  be
              combined  with  --list-sigs or --check-sigs.  If this command is
              given twice, the fingerprints of all secondary keys  are  listed
              too.


       --list-packets
              List  only  the  sequence  of packets. This is mainly useful for
              debugging.



       --card-edit
              Present a menu to work with a smartcard. The  subcommand  "help"
              provides  an  overview  on  available  commands.  For a detailed
              description,    please     see     the     Card     HOWTO     at
              http://www.gnupg.org/documentation/howtos.html#GnuPG-cardHOWTO .


       --card-status
              Show the content of the smart card.


       --change-pin
              Present  a  menu  to allow changing the PIN of a smartcard. This
              functionality is also available as the subcommand "passwd"  with
              the --card-edit command.


       --delete-key name
              Remove  key  from the public keyring. In batch mode either --yes
              is required or the key must be specified by fingerprint. This is
              a safeguard against accidental deletion of multiple keys.


       --delete-secret-key name
              Remove key from the secret and public keyring. In batch mode the
              key must be specified by fingerprint.


       --delete-secret-and-public-key name
              Same as --delete-key, but if a secret key  exists,  it  will  be

       --send-keys key IDs
              Similar to --export but sends the keys to a keyserver.   Finger-
              prints  may  be used instead of key IDs. Option --keyserver must
              be used to give the name of this keyserver. Don't send your com-
              plete  keyring  to  a keyserver --- select only those keys which
              are new or changed by you.  If no key IDs are  given,  gpg  does
              nothing.


       --export-secret-keys

       --export-secret-subkeys
              Same  as --export, but exports the secret keys instead.  This is
              normally not very useful and a security risk.  The  second  form
              of  the  command  has  the special property to render the secret
              part of the primary key useless; this  is  a  GNU  extension  to
              OpenPGP  and  other  implementations can not be expected to suc-
              cessfully import such a key.  See the option  --simple-sk-check-
              sum  if  you  want  to import such an exported key with an older
              OpenPGP implementation.


       --import

       --fast-import
              Import/merge keys. This adds the given keys to the keyring.  The
              fast version is currently just a synonym.

              There  are  a  few  other options which control how this command
              works.  Most notable here  is  the  --import-options  merge-only
              option  which does not insert new keys but does only the merging
              of new signatures, user-IDs and subkeys.


       --recv-keys key IDs
              Import the keys with the given key IDs from a keyserver.  Option
              --keyserver must be used to give the name of this keyserver.


       --refresh-keys
              Request  updates from a keyserver for keys that already exist on
              the local keyring. This is useful for updating a  key  with  the
              latest signatures, user IDs, etc. Calling this with no arguments
              will refresh the entire keyring. Option --keyserver must be used
              to  give the name of the keyserver for all keys that do not have
              preferred keyservers  set  (see  --keyserver-options  honor-key-
              server-url).


       --search-keys names
              Search  the  keyserver for the given names. Multiple names given
              here will be joined together to create the search string for the
              keyserver.   Option --keyserver must be used to give the name of
              this keyserver.  Keyservers that support different search  meth-
              Do  trust  database  maintenance. This command iterates over all
              keys and builds the Web of Trust. This is an interactive command
              because it may have to ask for the "ownertrust" values for keys.
              The user has to give an estimation of how  far  she  trusts  the
              owner  of  the  displayed  key to correctly certify (sign) other
              keys. GnuPG only asks for the ownertrust value if it has not yet
              been  assigned to a key. Using the --edit-key menu, the assigned
              value can be changed at any time.


       --check-trustdb
              Do trust database maintenance  without  user  interaction.  From
              time  to time the trust database must be updated so that expired
              keys or signatures and the resulting changes in the Web of Trust
              can  be  tracked.  Normally,  GnuPG  will calculate when this is
              required and do it automatically unless  --no-auto-check-trustdb
              is set. This command can be used to force a trust database check
              at any time. The processing is identical to  that  of  --update-
              trustdb but it skips keys with a not yet defined "ownertrust".

              For  use  with cron jobs, this command can be used together with
              --batch in which case the trust database check is done only if a
              check  is  needed.  To  force  a  run even in batch mode add the
              option --yes.



       --export-ownertrust
              Send the ownertrust values to STDOUT. This is useful for  backup
              purposes  as  these  values are the only ones which can't be re-
              created from a corrupted trustdb.  Example:
                  gpg --export-ownertrust > otrust.txt



       --import-ownertrust
              Update the trustdb with the ownertrust values  stored  in  files
              (or  STDIN  if  not given); existing values will be overwritten.
              In case of a severely damaged trustdb and if you have  a  recent
              backup  of the ownertrust values (e.g. in the file `otrust.txt',
              you may re-create the trustdb using these commands:
                  cd ~/.gnupg
                  rm trustdb.gpg
                  gpg --import-ownertrust < otrust.txt



       --rebuild-keydb-caches
              When updating from version 1.0.6 to 1.0.7 this command should be
              used  to  create  signature  caches  in the keyring. It might be
              handy in other situations too.


       --print-md algo
              you are doing; it may remove precious entropy from the system!


       --gen-prime mode bits
              Use the source, Luke :-). The output format is still subject  to
              change.



       --enarmor

       --dearmor
              Pack  or  unpack  an  arbitrary input into/from an OpenPGP ASCII
              armor.  This is a GnuPG extension to OpenPGP and in general  not
              very useful.





   How to manage your keys


       This section explains the main commands for key management



       --gen-key
              Generate  a  new  key  pair.  This command is normally only used
              interactively.

              There is an experimental feature which allows you to create keys
              in  batch mode. See the file `doc/DETAILS' in the source distri-
              bution on how to use this.


       --gen-revoke name
              Generate a revocation  certificate  for  the  complete  key.  To
              revoke a subkey or a signature, use the --edit command.


       --desig-revoke name
              Generate  a  designated  revocation  certificate for a key. This
              allows a user (with the permission of the keyholder)  to  revoke
              someone else's key.



       --edit-key
              Present  a  menu which enables you to do most of the key manage-
              ment related tasks.  It expects the specification of  a  key  on
              the command line.


                     again, together with its fingerprint and asks whether  it
                     should be signed. This question is repeated for all users
                     specified with -u.


              lsign  Same as "sign"  but  the  signature  is  marked  as  non-
                     exportable  and  will  therefore never be used by others.
                     This may be used to make keys valid  only  in  the  local
                     environment.


              nrsign Same as "sign" but the signature is marked as non-revoca-
                     ble and can therefore never be revoked.


              tsign  Make a trust signature. This is a signature that combines
                     the  notions of certification (like a regular signature),
                     and trust (like the "trust"  command).  It  is  generally
                     only useful in distinct communities or groups.

              Note  that "l" (for local / non-exportable), "nr" (for non-revo-
              cable, and "t" (for trust) may be freely mixed and  prefixed  to
              "sign" to create a signature of any type desired.



              delsig Delete  a  signature.  Note  that  it  is not possible to
                     retract a signature, once it has been send to the  public
                     (i.e.  to  a  keyserver).   In  that  case you better use
                     revsig.


              revsig Revoke a signature. For every signature  which  has  been
                     generated by one of the secret keys, GnuPG asks whether a
                     revocation certificate should be generated.


              check  Check the signatures on all selected user IDs.


              adduid Create an additional user ID.


              addphoto
                     Create a photographic user ID. This  will  prompt  for  a
                     JPEG  file  that  will be embedded into the user ID. Note
                     that a very large JPEG will make for a  very  large  key.
                     Also  note  that  some  programs  will  display your JPEG
                     unchanged (GnuPG), and some programs will scale it to fit
                     in a dialog box (PGP).


              showphoto
                     Display the selected photographic user ID.
                     Flag the current user id as the primary one, removes  the
                     primary user id flag from all other user ids and sets the
                     timestamp of  all  affected  self-signatures  one  second
                     ahead. Note that setting a photo user ID as primary makes
                     it primary over other photo user IDs, and setting a regu-
                     lar  user ID as primary makes it primary over other regu-
                     lar user IDs.


              keyserver
                     Set a preferred keyserver for the specified  user  ID(s).
                     This allows other users to know where you prefer they get
                     your key from. See  --keyserver-options  honor-keyserver-
                     url  for  more  on  how  this  works.  Setting a value of
                     "none" removes an existing preferred keyserver.


              notation
                     Set a name=value notation for the specified  user  ID(s).
                     See --cert-notation for more on how this works. Setting a
                     value of "none" removes all notations, setting a notation
                     prefixed with a minus sign (-) removes that notation, and
                     setting a notation name  (without  the  =value)  prefixed
                     with a minus sign removes all notations with that name.


              pref   List  preferences  from  the selected user ID. This shows
                     the actual preferences,  without  including  any  implied
                     preferences.


              showpref
                     More  verbose  preferences  listing for the selected user
                     ID. This shows the preferences in effect by including the
                     implied preferences of 3DES (cipher), SHA-1 (digest), and
                     Uncompressed  (compression)  if  they  are  not   already
                     included  in  the  preference list. In addition, the pre-
                     ferred keyserver and signature  notations  (if  any)  are
                     shown.


              setpref string
                     Set the list of user ID preferences to string for all (or
                     just the selected) user  IDs.  Calling  setpref  with  no
                     arguments sets the preference list to the default (either
                     built-in or set via --default-preference-list), and call-
                     ing  setpref  with  "none"  as the argument sets an empty
                     preference list. Use gpg  --version  to  get  a  list  of
                     available  algorithms. Note that while you can change the
                     preferences on an attribute user  ID  (aka  "photo  ID"),
                     GnuPG  does  not  select  keys  via attribute user IDs so
                     these preferences will not be used by GnuPG.

                     When setting preferences, you should list the  algorithms

              addkey Add a subkey to this key.


              addcardkey
                     Generate a subkey on a card and add it to this key.


              keytocard
                     Transfer  the  selected secret subkey (or the primary key
                     if no subkey has  been  selected)  to  a  smartcard.  The
                     secret  key  in the keyring will be replaced by a stub if
                     the key could be stored successfully on the card and  you
                     use the save command later. Only certain key types may be
                     transferred to the card. A sub menu allows you to  select
                     on what card to store the key. Note that it is not possi-
                     ble to get that key back from the card - if the card gets
                     broken  your  secret  key  will be lost unless you have a
                     backup somewhere.


              bkuptocard file
                     Restore the given file to a card.  This  command  may  be
                     used  to  restore  a backup key (as generated during card
                     initialization) to a new card. In almost all  cases  this
                     will  be  the encryption key. You should use this command
                     only with the corresponding public key and make sure that
                     the  file  given  as  argument  is  indeed  the backup to
                     restore. You should then select 2 to restore  as  encryp-
                     tion   key.   You  will  first  be  asked  to  enter  the
                     passphrase of the backup key and then for the  Admin  PIN
                     of the card.


              delkey Remove a subkey (secondart key). Note that it is not pos-
                     sible to retract a subkey, once it has been send  to  the
                     public  (i.e.  to  a keyserver).  In that case you better
                     use revkey.


              revkey Revoke a subkey.


              expire Change the key or subkey expiration time. If a subkey  is
                     selected,  the  expiration  time  of  this subkey will be
                     changed. With no selection, the  key  expiration  of  the
                     primary key is changed.


              trust  Change  the  owner  trust value for the key. This updates
                     the trust-db immediately and no save is required.


              disable
              passwd Change the passphrase of the secret key.


              toggle Toggle between public and secret key listing.


              clean  Compact (by removing all signatures except  the  selfsig)
                     any  user  ID  that is no longer usable (e.g. revoked, or
                     expired). Then, remove any signatures that are not usable
                     by  the  trust  calculations.  Specifically, this removes
                     any signature that does not validate, any signature  that
                     is  superseded  by a later signature, revoked signatures,
                     and signatures issued by keys that are not present on the
                     keyring.


              minimize
                     Make  the key as small as possible. This removes all sig-
                     natures from each user ID  except  for  the  most  recent
                     self-signature.


              cross-certify
                     Add  cross-certification  signatures  to  signing subkeys
                     that may not  currently  have  them.  Cross-certification
                     signatures  protect against a subtle attack against sign-
                     ing subkeys. See --require-cross-certification.  All  new
                     keys  generated  have  this signature by default, so this
                     option is only useful to bring older keys up to date.


              save   Save all changes to the key rings and quit.


              quit   Quit the program without updating the key rings.


              The listing shows you the key with its secondary  keys  and  all
              user  ids.   The  primary  user  id  is  indicated by a dot, and
              selected keys or user ids are indicated  by  an  asterisk.   The
              trust  value is displayed with the primary key: the first is the
              assigned owner trust and the  second  is  the  calculated  trust
              value. Letters are used for the values:



              -      No ownertrust assigned / not yet calculated.


              e      Trust  calculation has failed; probably due to an expired
                     key.


              q      Not enough information for calculation.


       --sign-key name
              Signs a public key with your secret key. This is a shortcut ver-
              sion of the subcommand "sign" from --edit.


       --lsign-key name
              Signs  a  public  key  with your secret key but marks it as non-
              exportable. This is a shortcut version of the subcommand "lsign"
              from --edit-key.






OPTIONS
       gpg  features  a bunch of options to control the exact behaviour and to
       change the default configuration.


       Long   options   can   be   put   in   an   options    file    (default
       "~/.gnupg/gpg.conf").  Short  option names will not work - for example,
       "armor" is a valid option for the options file, while "a"  is  not.  Do
       not  write  the  2  dashes,  but  simply the name of the option and any
       required arguments. Lines with a hash ('#')  as  the  first  non-white-
       space  character are ignored. Commands may be put in this file too, but
       that is not generally useful as the command will execute  automatically
       with every execution of gpg.

       Please  remember  that  option parsing stops as soon as a non-option is
       encountered, you can explicitly  stop  parsing  by  using  the  special
       option --.



   How to change the configuration


       These  options  are  used  to  change the configuration and are usually
       found in the option file.



       --default-key name
              Use name as the default key to sign with. If this option is  not
              used,  the  default  key  is  the  first key found in the secret
              keyring.  Note that -u or --local-user overrides this option.


       --default-recipient name
              Use name as default recipient if option --recipient is not  used
              and don't ask if this is a valid one. name must be non-empty.

       -v, --verbose
              Give more information during  processing.  If  used  twice,  the
              input data is listed in detail.


       --no-verbose
              Reset verbose level to 0.


       -q, --quiet
              Try to be as quiet as possible.


       --batch

       --no-batch
              Use  batch  mode.  Never ask, do not allow interactive commands.
              --no-batch disables this option.  Note that even with a filename
              given  on  the  command  line, gpg might still need to read from
              STDIN (in particular if gpg figures that the input is a detached
              signature  and no data file has been specified).  Thus if you do
              not want to feed data via STDIN, you  should  connect  STDIN  to
              `/dev/null'.


       --no-tty
              Make  sure that the TTY (terminal) is never used for any output.
              This option is needed in  some  cases  because  GnuPG  sometimes
              prints warnings to the TTY even if --batch is used.


       --yes  Assume "yes" on most questions.


       --no   Assume "no" on most questions.



       --list-options parameters
              This  is  a  space  or comma delimited string that gives options
              used when listing keys and  signatures  (that  is,  --list-keys,
              --list-sigs,  --list-public-keys,  --list-secret-keys,  and  the
              --edit-key functions).  Options can  be  prepended  with  a  no-
              (after  the  two  dashes)  to  give  the  opposite meaning.  The
              options are:



              show-photos
                     Causes --list-keys, --list-sigs, --list-public-keys,  and
                     --list-secret-keys  to  display any photo IDs attached to
                     the key.  Defaults to no. See also --photo-viewer.

                     tions  in  the  --list-sigs  or  --check-sigs   listings.
                     Defaults to no.


              show-keyserver-urls

                     Show  any  preferred  keyserver URL in the --list-sigs or
                     --check-sigs listings. Defaults to no.


              show-uid-validity
                     Display the calculated validity of user  IDs  during  key
                     listings.  Defaults to no.


              show-unusable-uids
                     Show  revoked  and  expired  user  IDs  in  key listings.
                     Defaults to no.


              show-unusable-subkeys
                     Show  revoked  and  expired  subkeys  in  key   listings.
                     Defaults to no.


              show-keyring
                     Display  the  keyring name at the head of key listings to
                     show which keyring a given key resides  on.  Defaults  to
                     no.


              show-sig-expire
                     Show  signature  expiration dates (if any) during --list-
                     sigs or --check-sigs listings. Defaults to no.


              show-sig-subpackets
                     Include signature subpackets in  the  key  listing.  This
                     option can take an optional argument list of the subpack-
                     ets to list. If no argument is passed, list all  subpack-
                     ets.  Defaults to no. This option is only meaningful when
                     using --with-colons along with  --list-sigs  or  --check-
                     sigs.


       --verify-options parameters
              This  is  a  space  or comma delimited string that gives options
              used when verifying signatures. Options can be prepended with  a
              `no-' to give the opposite meaning. The options are:



              show-photos
                     Display  any photo IDs present on the key that issued the

              show-user-notations
                     Show  all, IETF standard, or user-defined signature nota-
                     tions in the signature being verified. Defaults  to  IETF
                     standard.


              show-keyserver-urls
                     Show  any  preferred keyserver URL in the signature being
                     verified.  Defaults to no.


              show-uid-validity
                     Display the calculated validity of the user  IDs  on  the
                     key that issued the signature. Defaults to no.


              show-unusable-uids
                     Show  revoked and expired user IDs during signature veri-
                     fication.  Defaults to no.


              show-primary-uid-only
                     Show only the primary user ID during signature  verifica-
                     tion.  That is all the AKA lines as well as photo Ids are
                     not shown with the signature verification status.


              pka-lookups
                     Enable PKA lookups to verify sender addresses. Note  that
                     PKA is based on DNS, and so enabling this option may dis-
                     close information on when and what signatures  are  veri-
                     fied or to whom data is encrypted. This is similar to the
                     "web bug" described for the auto-key-retrieve feature.


              pka-trust-increase
                     Raise the trust in a signature to full if  the  signature
                     passes  PKA validation. This option is only meaningful if
                     pka-lookups is set.


       --enable-large-rsa

       --disable-large-rsa
              With --gen-key and --batch, enable the creation  of  larger  RSA
              secret  keys  than  is  generally recommended (up to 8192 bits).
              These large keys are more expensive to use, and their signatures
              and certifications are also larger.


       --enable-dsa2

       --disable-dsa2
              Enable hash truncation for all DSA keys even for old DSA Keys up
              the image (e.g. "image/jpeg"),  "%v"  for  the  single-character
              calculated  validity  of the image being viewed (e.g. "f"), "%V"
              for the calculated validity as a string (e.g.  "full"), and "%%"
              for  an  actual  percent  sign. If neither %i or %I are present,
              then the photo will be supplied to the viewer on standard input.

              The default viewer is "xloadimage  -fork  -quiet  -title  'KeyID
              0x%k'  STDIN".  Note  that  if  your image viewer program is not
              secure, then executing it from GnuPG does not make it secure.


       --exec-path string
              Sets a list of directories to search for photo viewers and  key-
              server  helpers. If not provided, keyserver helpers use the com-
              piled-in default directory, and  photo  viewers  use  the  $PATH
              environment  variable.   Note,  that on W32 system this value is
              ignored when searching for keyserver helpers.


       --keyring file
              Add file to the current list of keyrings. If file begins with  a
              tilde and a slash, these are replaced by the $HOME directory. If
              the filename does not contain a slash, it is assumed  to  be  in
              the  GnuPG home directory ("~/.gnupg" if --homedir or $GNUPGHOME
              is not used).

              Note that this adds a keyring to the current list. If the intent
              is  to use the specified keyring alone, use --keyring along with
              --no-default-keyring.


       --secret-keyring file
              Same as --keyring but for the secret keyrings.


       --primary-keyring file
              Designate file as the primary public keyring.  This  means  that
              newly imported keys (via --import or keyserver --recv-from) will
              go to this keyring.


       --trustdb-name file
              Use file instead of the default trustdb. If file begins  with  a
              tilde and a slash, these are replaced by the $HOME directory. If
              the filename does not contain a slash, it is assumed  to  be  in
              the  GnuPG home directory (`~/.gnupg' if --homedir or $GNUPGHOME
              is not used).



       --homedir dir
              Set the name of the home directory to dir. If this option is not
              used,  the  home  directory  defaults to `~/.gnupg'.  It is only
              recognized when given on the command line.   It  also  overrides


       --disable-ccid
              Disable the integrated support for CCID compliant readers.  This
              allows  to  fall  back  to  one of the other drivers even if the
              internal CCID driver can handle the reader. Note, that CCID sup-
              port is only available if libusb was available at build time.


       --reader-port number_or_string
              This  option  may be used to specify the port of the card termi-
              nal. A value of 0 refers to the first serial device;  add  32768
              to  access USB devices. The default is 32768 (first USB device).
              PC/SC or CCID readers might need a string here; run the  program
              in  verbose mode to get a list of available readers. The default
              is then the first reader found.


       --display-charset name
              Set the name of the native character set. This is used  to  con-
              vert  some  informational  strings  like  user IDs to the proper
              UTF-8 encoding.  Note that this has nothing to do with the char-
              acter  set  of  data  to  be encrypted or signed; GnuPG does not
              recode user-supplied data. If  this  option  is  not  used,  the
              default  character  set is determined from the current locale. A
              verbosity level of 3 shows the chosen  set.   Valid  values  for
              name are:



              iso-8859-1
                     This is the Latin 1 set.


              iso-8859-2
                     The Latin 2 set.


              iso-8859-15
                     This is currently an alias for the Latin 1 set.


              koi8-r The usual Russian set (rfc1489).


              utf-8  Bypass  all  translations  and  assume  that  the OS uses
                     native UTF-8 encoding.


       --utf8-strings

       --no-utf8-strings
              Assume that command line arguments are given  as  UTF8  strings.
              The  default (--no-utf8-strings) is to assume that arguments are

       --no-options
              Shortcut for --options /dev/null. This option is detected before
              an  attempt to open an option file.  Using this option will also
              prevent the creation of a `~/.gnupg' homedir.




       -z n

       --compress-level n

       --bzip2-compress-level n
              Set compression level to n for  the  ZIP  and  ZLIB  compression
              algorithms.  The default is to use the default compression level
              of zlib (normally 6). --bzip2-compress-level sets  the  compres-
              sion  level for the BZIP2 compression algorithm (defaulting to 6
              as well). This is a different option from --compress-level since
              BZIP2  uses  a  significant amount of memory for each additional
              compression level.  -z sets both. A value of 0  for  n  disables
              compression.


       --bzip2-decompress-lowmem
              Use a different decompression method for BZIP2 compressed files.
              This alternate method uses a bit more than half the memory,  but
              also  runs  at  half the speed. This is useful under extreme low
              memory circumstances when the file was originally compressed  at
              a high --bzip2-compress-level.



       --mangle-dos-filenames

       --no-mangle-dos-filenames
              Older  version of Windows cannot handle filenames with more than
              one dot. --mangle-dos-filenames causes GnuPG to replace  (rather
              than  add  to) the extension of an output filename to avoid this
              problem. This option is off by default and has no effect on non-
              Windows platforms.


       --ask-cert-level

       --no-ask-cert-level
              When  making  a key signature, prompt for a certification level.
              If this option is not specified, the certification level used is
              set   via  --default-cert-level.  See  --default-cert-level  for
              information on the specific levels and how they are used.  --no-
              ask-cert-level disables this option. This option defaults to no.


       --default-cert-level n
              The default to use for the check level when signing a key.

              3  means you did extensive verification of the key. For example,
              this could mean that you verified the key fingerprint  with  the
              owner  of the key in person, and that you checked, by means of a
              hard to forge document with a photo ID (such as a passport) that
              the name of the key owner matches the name in the user ID on the
              key, and finally that you verified (by exchange of  email)  that
              the email address on the key belongs to the key owner.

              Note  that  the examples given above for levels 2 and 3 are just
              that: examples. In the end, it is up to you to decide just  what
              "casual" and "extensive" mean to you.

              This option defaults to 0 (no particular claim).


       --min-cert-level
              When  building  the  trust database, treat any signatures with a
              certification level below this as invalid. Defaults to 2,  which
              disregards  level 1 signatures. Note that level 0 "no particular
              claim" signatures are always accepted.


       --trusted-key long key ID
              Assume that the specified key (which must be given as a  full  8
              byte  key  ID) is as trustworthy as one of your own secret keys.
              This option is useful if you don't want to keep your secret keys
              (or  one  of them) online but still want to be able to check the
              validity of a given recipient's or signator's key.


       --trust-model pgp|classic|direct|always|auto
              Set what trust model GnuPG should follow. The models are:



              pgp    This is the Web of Trust combined with  trust  signatures
                     as  used  in PGP 5.x and later. This is the default trust
                     model when creating a new trust database.


              classic
                     This is the standard Web of Trust as used in PGP 2.x  and
                     earlier.


              direct Key  validity  is set directly by the user and not calcu-
                     lated via the Web of Trust.


              always Skip key validation and assume that used keys are  always
                     fully  trusted.  You  generally won't use this unless you
                     are using some external validation  scheme.  This  option
                     also suppresses the "[uncertain]" tag printed with signa-

              GnuPG can automatically locate and retrieve keys as needed using
              this option. This happens when encrypting to  an  email  address
              (in  the  "user@example.com"  form), and there are no user@exam-
              ple.com keys on the local keyring.  This option takes any number
              of the following mechanisms, in the order they are to be tried:



              cert   Locate a key using DNS CERT, as specified in rfc4398.


              pka    Locate a key using DNS PKA.


              ldap   Using DNS Service Discovery, check the domain in question
                     for any LDAP keyservers to use.  If this  fails,  attempt
                     to  locate  the  key  using  the  PGP Universal method of
                     checking 'ldap://keys.(thedomain)''.


              keyserver
                     Locate a key using whatever keyserver  is  defined  using
                     the --keyserver option.


              keyserver-URL
                     In  addition,  a keyserver URL as used in the --keyserver
                     option may be used here to  query  that  particular  key-
                     server.


              local  Locate  the key using the local keyrings.  This mechanism
                     allows to select the order a local key  lookup  is  done.
                     Thus  using  '--auto-key-locate  local''  is identical to
                     --no-auto-key-locate.


              nodefault
                     This flag disables the standard local  key  lookup,  done
                     before  any  of the mechanisms defined by the --auto-key-
                     locate are tried.  The position of this mechanism in  the
                     list  does  not  matter.   It is not required if local is
                     also used.



       --keyid-format short|0xshort|long|0xlong
              Select how to  display  key  IDs.  "short"  is  the  traditional
              8-character key ID. "long" is the more accurate (but less conve-
              nient) 16-character key ID. Add an "0x" to either to include  an
              "0x" at the beginning of the key ID, as in 0x99242560.


       --keyserver name

              Most keyservers synchronize with each other, so there is  gener-
              ally no need to send keys to more than one server. The keyserver
              hkp://keys.gnupg.net uses round robin DNS to  give  a  different
              keyserver each time you use it.


       --keyserver-options name=value1
              This is a space or comma delimited string that gives options for
              the keyserver. Options can be prefixed with a `no-' to give  the
              opposite  meaning. Valid import-options or export-options may be
              used here as well to apply to importing (--recv-key) or  export-
              ing  (--send-key)  a key from a keyserver. While not all options
              are available for all keyserver types, some common options are:



              include-revoked
                     When searching for a key with --search-keys, include keys
                     that  are  marked  on the keyserver as revoked. Note that
                     not all  keyservers  differentiate  between  revoked  and
                     unrevoked  keys,  and  for such keyservers this option is
                     meaningless. Note also that most keyservers do  not  have
                     cryptographic  verification  of  key  revocations, and so
                     turning this option off may result in skipping keys  that
                     are incorrectly marked as revoked.


              include-disabled
                     When searching for a key with --search-keys, include keys
                     that are marked on the keyserver as disabled.  Note  that
                     this option is not used with HKP keyservers.


              auto-key-retrieve
                     This option enables the automatic retrieving of keys from
                     a keyserver when verifying signatures made by  keys  that
                     are not on the local keyring.

                     Note  that  this  option  makes a "web bug" like behavior
                     possible.  Keyserver operators can  see  which  keys  you
                     request,  so  by  sending you a message signed by a brand
                     new key (which you naturally will not have on your  local
                     keyring),  the operator can tell both your IP address and
                     the time when you verified the signature.


              honor-keyserver-url
                     When using --refresh-keys, if the key in question  has  a
                     preferred  keyserver  URL,  then  use that preferred key-
                     server to refresh the key from. In addition, if auto-key-
                     retrieve  is  set, and the signature being verified has a
                     preferred keyserver URL, then  use  that  preferred  key-
                     server to fetch the key from. Defaults to yes.
                     id.


              use-temp-files
                     On most Unix-like platforms, GnuPG communicates with  the
                     keyserver  helper  program  via  pipes, which is the most
                     efficient method. This option forces GnuPG to use  tempo-
                     rary  files  to  communicate.  On some platforms (such as
                     Win32 and RISC OS), this option is always enabled.


              keep-temp-files
                     If using `use-temp-files', do not delete the  temp  files
                     after using them. This option is useful to learn the key-
                     server communication protocol by  reading  the  temporary
                     files.


              verbose
                     Tell  the  keyserver  helper  program to be more verbose.
                     This option can be repeated multiple  times  to  increase
                     the verbosity level.


              timeout
                     Tell  the  keyserver helper program how long (in seconds)
                     to try and perform a keyserver action before  giving  up.
                     Note  that  performing  multiple actions at the same time
                     uses this timeout value per action.   For  example,  when
                     retrieving  multiple  keys  via  --recv-keys, the timeout
                     applies separately to each key retrieval, and not to  the
                     --recv-keys command as a whole. Defaults to 30 seconds.


              http-proxy=value
                     Set  the  proxy to use for HTTP and HKP keyservers.  This
                     overrides the "http_proxy" environment variable, if any.


              max-cert-size
                     When retrieving a key via DNS CERT, only accept  keys  up
                     to this size.  Defaults to 16384 bytes.


              debug  Turn  on  debug  output  in the keyserver helper program.
                     Note that the details of debug output  depends  on  which
                     keyserver  helper  program is being used, and in turn, on
                     any libraries that  the  keyserver  helper  program  uses
                     internally (libcurl, openldap, etc).


              check-cert
                     Enable certificate checking if the keyserver presents one
                     (for hkps or ldaps).  Defaults to on.

       --completes-needed n
              Number of completely trusted users to introduce a new key signer
              (defaults to 1).


       --marginals-needed n
              Number of marginally trusted users to introduce a new key signer
              (defaults to 3)


       --max-cert-depth n
              Maximum depth of a certification chain (default is 5).


       --simple-sk-checksum
              Secret  keys  are integrity protected by using a SHA-1 checksum.
              This method is part of the upcoming enhanced OpenPGP  specifica-
              tion  but GnuPG already uses it as a countermeasure against cer-
              tain attacks.  Old applications don't understand this  new  for-
              mat, so this option may be used to switch back to the old behav-
              iour. Using this option bears a security risk. Note  that  using
              this option only takes effect when the secret key is encrypted -
              the simplest way to make this happen is to change the passphrase
              on the key (even changing it to the same value is acceptable).


       --no-sig-cache
              Do not cache the verification status of key signatures.  Caching
              gives a much better performance in key listings. However, if you
              suspect that your public keyring is not save against write modi-
              fications, you can use this option to disable  the  caching.  It
              probably  does  not make sense to disable it because all kind of
              damage can be done if someone else has write access to your pub-
              lic keyring.


       --no-sig-create-check
              GnuPG  normally  verifies each signature right after creation to
              protect against bugs and hardware malfunctions which could  leak
              out bits from the secret key. This extra verification needs some
              time (about 115% for DSA keys), and so this option can  be  used
              to disable it.  However, due to the fact that the signature cre-
              ation needs manual interaction, this  performance  penalty  does
              not matter in most settings.


       --auto-check-trustdb

       --no-auto-check-trustdb
              If  GnuPG  feels that its information about the Web of Trust has
              to be updated, it automatically runs the --check-trustdb command
              internally.   This  may  be a time consuming process. --no-auto-
              check-trustdb disables this option.
              'GPG_AGENT_INFO''.  This  is only used when --use-agent has been
              given.  Given that this option is not anymore used by  gpg2,  it
              should be avoided if possible.


       --lock-once
              Lock the databases the first time a lock is requested and do not
              release the lock until the process terminates.


       --lock-multiple
              Release the locks every time a lock is  no  longer  needed.  Use
              this to override a previous --lock-once from a config file.


       --lock-never
              Disable  locking  entirely.  This  option should be used only in
              very special environments, where it can be assured that only one
              process  is  accessing  those  files.  A  bootable floppy with a
              stand-alone encryption system will probably use  this.  Improper
              usage of this option may lead to data and key corruption.


       --exit-on-status-write-error
              This  option will cause write errors on the status FD to immedi-
              ately terminate the process. That should in fact be the  default
              but  it  never  worked  this  way  and thus we need an option to
              enable this, so that the change won't break  applications  which
              close  their  end of a status fd connected pipe too early. Using
              this option along with --enable-progress-filter may be  used  to
              cleanly cancel long running gpg operations.


       --limit-card-insert-tries n
              With  n  greater than 0 the number of prompts asking to insert a
              smartcard gets limited to N-1. Thus with a value of 1 gpg  won't
              at  all  ask  to  insert  a  card  if  none has been inserted at
              startup. This option is useful in the configuration file in case
              an  application  does  not  know about the smartcard support and
              waits ad infinitum for an inserted card.


       --no-random-seed-file
              GnuPG uses a file to store its internal random pool over invoca-
              tions.   This  makes random generation faster; however sometimes
              write operations are not desired. This option  can  be  used  to
              achieve that with the cost of slower random generation.


       --no-greeting
              Suppress the initial copyright message.


       --no-secmem-warning
              suppressed in the gpg.conf file, as this would allow an attacker
              to place an unsafe gpg.conf file in place, and use this file  to
              suppress  warnings about itself. The --homedir permissions warn-
              ing may only be suppressed on the command line.


       --no-mdc-warning
              Suppress the warning about missing MDC integrity protection.


       --require-secmem

       --no-require-secmem
              Refuse to run if GnuPG cannot get secure memory. Defaults to  no
              (i.e. run, but give a warning).



       --require-cross-certification

       --no-require-cross-certification
              When  verifying  a signature made from a subkey, ensure that the
              cross certification "back signature" on the  subkey  is  present
              and  valid.   This protects against a subtle attack against sub-
              keys that can sign.  Defaults  to  --require-cross-certification
              for gpg.


       --expert

       --no-expert
              Allow  the user to do certain nonsensical or "silly" things like
              signing an expired or revoked key, or certain potentially incom-
              patible things like generating unusual key types. This also dis-
              ables certain warning messages  about  potentially  incompatible
              actions.  As  the name implies, this option is for experts only.
              If you don't fully understand the implications of what it allows
              you to do, leave this off. --no-expert disables this option.








   Key related options




       --recipient name

       -r     Encrypt  for  user id name. If this option or --hidden-recipient

       --encrypt-to name
              Same  as  --recipient  but  this  one is intended for use in the
              options file and may  be  used  with  your  own  user-id  as  an
              "encrypt-to-self". These keys are only used when there are other
              recipients given either by use of --recipient or  by  the  asked
              user  id.  No trust checking is performed for these user ids and
              even disabled keys can be used.


       --hidden-encrypt-to name
              Same as --hidden-recipient but this one is intended for  use  in
              the options file and may be used with your own user-id as a hid-
              den "encrypt-to-self". These keys are only used when  there  are
              other  recipients  given  either by use of --recipient or by the
              asked user id.  No trust checking is performed  for  these  user
              ids and even disabled keys can be used.


       --no-encrypt-to
              Disable  the  use  of  all  --encrypt-to and --hidden-encrypt-to
              keys.


       --group name=value1
              Sets up a named group, which is similar to aliases in email pro-
              grams.   Any time the group name is a recipient (-r or --recipi-
              ent), it will be expanded  to  the  values  specified.  Multiple
              groups with the same name are automatically merged into a single
              group.

              The values are key IDs or fingerprints, but any key  description
              is accepted. Note that a value with spaces in it will be treated
              as two different values. Note also there is only  one  level  of
              expansion  ---  you  cannot make an group that points to another
              group. When used from the command line, it may be  necessary  to
              quote  the  argument  to  this  option to prevent the shell from
              treating it as multiple arguments.


       --ungroup name
              Remove a given entry from the --group list.


       --no-groups
              Remove all entries from the --group list.


       --local-user name

       -u     Use name as the key to sign with. Note that  this  option  over-
              rides --default-key.



       --try-all-secrets
              Don't look at the key ID as stored in the message  but  try  all
              secret  keys  in  turn  to  find  the right decryption key. This
              option forces the behaviour  as  used  by  anonymous  recipients
              (created  by  using  --throw-keyids  or  --hidden-recipient) and
              might come handy in case where an encrypted message  contains  a
              bogus key ID.


       --skip-hidden-recipients

       --no-skip-hidden-recipients
              During  decryption  skip  all anonymous recipients.  This option
              helps in the case that people use the hidden recipients  feature
              to  hide  there  own encrypt-to key from others.  If oneself has
              many secret keys this may lead to a major annoyance because  all
              keys are tried in turn to decrypt soemthing which was not really
              intended for it.  The drawback of this option is that it is cur-
              rently  not  possible  to  decrypt a message which includes real
              anonymous recipients.





   Input and Output




       --armor

       -a     Create ASCII armored output.   The  default  is  to  create  the
              binary OpenPGP format.


       --no-armor
              Assume the input data is not in ASCII armored format.


       --output file

       -o file
              Write output to file.


       --max-output n
              This  option  sets  a  limit on the number of bytes that will be
              generated when processing a file. Since OpenPGP supports various
              levels  of  compression,  it is possible that the plaintext of a
              given message may be  significantly  larger  than  the  original
              OpenPGP  message. While GnuPG works properly with such messages,
              there is often a desire to set a maximum file size that will  be
                     Allow importing key signatures marked as "local". This is
                     not  generally  useful  unless a shared keyring scheme is
                     being used.  Defaults to no.


              repair-pks-subkey-bug
                     During import, attempt to repair the damage caused by the
                     PKS  keyserver  bug (pre version 0.9.6) that mangles keys
                     with multiple subkeys. Note that this  cannot  completely
                     repair the damaged key as some crucial data is removed by
                     the keyserver, but it does at least  give  you  back  one
                     subkey.  Defaults  to  no for regular --import and to yes
                     for keyserver --recv-keys.


              merge-only
                     During import, allow key updates to existing keys, but do
                     not allow any new keys to be imported. Defaults to no.


              import-clean
                     After  import,  compact (remove all signatures except the
                     self-signature) any user IDs from the new  key  that  are
                     not usable.  Then, remove any signatures from the new key
                     that are not usable.  This includes signatures that  were
                     issued  by keys that are not present on the keyring. This
                     option is the same  as  running  the  --edit-key  command
                     "clean" after import. Defaults to no.


              import-minimal
                     Import the smallest key possible. This removes all signa-
                     tures except the most recent self-signature on each  user
                     ID.  This  option  is  the same as running the --edit-key
                     command "minimize" after import.  Defaults to no.


       --export-options parameters
              This is a space or comma delimited string that gives options for
              exporting  keys.  Options  can be prepended with a `no-' to give
              the opposite meaning. The options are:



              export-local-sigs
                     Allow exporting key signatures marked as "local". This is
                     not  generally  useful  unless a shared keyring scheme is
                     being used.  Defaults to no.


              export-attributes
                     Include attribute user IDs (photo IDs)  while  exporting.
                     This  is  useful  to  export keys if they are going to be
                     used by an OpenPGP program that does not accept attribute
                     used  on an unattended machine where a passphrase doesn't
                     necessarily make sense. Defaults to no.


              export-clean
                     Compact (remove all signatures from) user IDs on the  key
                     being  exported  if the user IDs are not usable. Also, do
                     not export any  signatures  that  are  not  usable.  This
                     includes signatures that were issued by keys that are not
                     present on the keyring. This option is the same  as  run-
                     ning  the --edit-key command "clean" before export except
                     that the local copy of the key is not modified.  Defaults
                     to no.


              export-minimal
                     Export the smallest key possible. This removes all signa-
                     tures except the most recent self-signature on each  user
                     ID.  This  option  is  the same as running the --edit-key
                     command "minimize" before export except  that  the  local
                     copy of the key is not modified. Defaults to no.


       --with-colons
              Print  key  listings  delimited  by colons. Note that the output
              will be encoded in UTF-8  regardless  of  any  --display-charset
              setting. This format is useful when GnuPG is called from scripts
              and other programs as it is easily machine parsed.  The  details
              of  this  format are documented in the file `doc/DETAILS', which
              is included in the GnuPG source distribution.


       --fixed-list-mode
              Do not merge primary user ID and  primary  key  in  --with-colon
              listing   mode   and  print  all  timestamps  as  seconds  since
              1970-01-01.


       --with-fingerprint
              Same as the command --fingerprint but changes only the format of
              the output and may be used together with another command.


       --with-keygrip
              Include the keygrip in the key listings.




   OpenPGP protocol specific options.




              If -t (but not --textmode) is used together  with  armoring  and
              signing,  this  enables  clearsigned  messages.  This  kludge is
              needed for command-line compatibility with command-line versions
              of  PGP;  normally you would use --sign or --clearsign to select
              the type of the signature.


       --force-v3-sigs

       --no-force-v3-sigs
              OpenPGP states that an implementation should generate v4  signa-
              tures  but PGP versions 5 through 7 only recognize v4 signatures
              on key material. This option forces v3 signatures for signatures
              on data.  Note that this option implies --no-ask-sig-expire, and
              unsets --sig-policy-url,  --sig-notation,  and  --sig-keyserver-
              url, as these features cannot be used with v3 signatures.  --no-
              force-v3-sigs disables this option.  Defaults to no.


       --force-v4-certs

       --no-force-v4-certs
              Always use v4 key signatures even on v3 keys. This  option  also
              changes  the  default hash algorithm for v3 RSA keys from MD5 to
              SHA-1.  --no-force-v4-certs disables this option.


       --force-mdc
              Force the use of encryption with a modification detection  code.
              This  is always used with the newer ciphers (those with a block-
              size greater than 64 bits), or if  all  of  the  recipient  keys
              indicate MDC support in their feature flags.


       --disable-mdc
              Disable the use of the modification detection code. Note that by
              using this option, the encrypted message becomes vulnerable to a
              message modification attack.


       --personal-cipher-preferences string
              Set  the list of personal cipher preferences to string.  Use gpg
              --version to get a list of available algorithms, and use none to
              set  no preference at all.  This allows the user to safely over-
              ride the algorithm chosen by the recipient key  preferences,  as
              GPG  will only select an algorithm that is usable by all recipi-
              ents.  The most highly ranked cipher in this list is  also  used
              for the --symmetric encryption command.


       --personal-digest-preferences string
              Set  the list of personal digest preferences to string.  Use gpg
              --version to get a list of available algorithms, and use none to
              set  no preference at all.  This allows the user to safely over-
              erences, as GPG will only select an algorithm that is usable  by
              all recipients.  The most highly ranked compression algorithm in
              this list is also used when there are no recipient keys to  con-
              sider (e.g. --symmetric).


       --s2k-cipher-algo name
              Use  name  as  the cipher algorithm used to protect secret keys.
              The default cipher is CAST5. This cipher is also used  for  con-
              ventional   encryption   if   --personal-cipher-preferences  and
              --cipher-algo is not given.


       --s2k-digest-algo name
              Use name as the digest algorithm used to mangle the passphrases.
              The default algorithm is SHA-1.


       --s2k-mode n
              Selects  how  passphrases  are  mangled.  If  n  is  0  a  plain
              passphrase (which is not recommended) will be used, a 1  adds  a
              salt  to the passphrase and a 3 (the default) iterates the whole
              process a number of times (see --s2k-count).   Unless  --rfc1991
              is used, this mode is also used for conventional encryption.


       --s2k-count n
              Specify  how  many  times  the  passphrase mangling is repeated.
              This value may range between 1024 and  65011712  inclusive,  and
              the  default  is  65536.   Note  that  not  all  values  in  the
              1024-65011712 range  are  legal  and  if  an  illegal  value  is
              selected,  GnuPG will round up to the nearest legal value.  This
              option is only meaningful if --s2k-mode is 3.





   Compliance options


       These options control what GnuPG is compliant to.  Only  one  of  these
       options  may be active at a time. Note that the default setting of this
       is nearly always the correct one. See the INTEROPERABILITY  WITH  OTHER
       OPENPGP PROGRAMS section below before using one of these options.



       --gnupg
              Use  standard GnuPG behavior. This is essentially OpenPGP behav-
              ior (see --openpgp), but with some  additional  workarounds  for
              common compatibility problems in different versions of PGP. This
              is the default option, so it is not generally needed, but it may
              be  useful  to  override  a  different  compliance option in the
              behavior.  Note  that  this  is  currently  the  same  thing  as
              --openpgp.


       --rfc2440
              Reset  all  packet, cipher and digest options to strict RFC-2440
              behavior.


       --rfc1991
              Try to be more RFC-1991 (PGP 2.x) compliant.


       --pgp2 Set up all options to be as PGP 2.x compliant as  possible,  and
              warn  if  an  action is taken (e.g. encrypting to a non-RSA key)
              that will create a message that PGP 2.x will not be able to han-
              dle.  Note  that `PGP 2.x' here means `MIT PGP 2.6.2'. There are
              other versions of PGP 2.x available, but the MIT  release  is  a
              good common baseline.

              This  option implies --rfc1991 --disable-mdc --no-force-v4-certs
              --escape-from-lines --force-v3-sigs --cipher-algo IDEA --digest-
              algo  MD5  --compress-algo ZIP. It also disables --textmode when
              encrypting.


       --pgp6 Set up all options to be as PGP 6 compliant  as  possible.  This
              restricts  you  to  the  ciphers  IDEA  (if  the  IDEA plugin is
              installed), 3DES, and CAST5, the hashes MD5, SHA1 and RIPEMD160,
              and  the compression algorithms none and ZIP. This also disables
              --throw-keyids, and making signatures with  signing  subkeys  as
              PGP 6 does not understand signatures made by signing subkeys.

              This  option  implies --disable-mdc --escape-from-lines --force-
              v3-sigs.


       --pgp7 Set up all options to be as PGP 7 compliant as possible. This is
              identical  to  --pgp6 except that MDCs are not disabled, and the
              list of allowable ciphers is expanded  to  add  AES128,  AES192,
              AES256, and TWOFISH.


       --pgp8 Set  up  all options to be as PGP 8 compliant as possible. PGP 8
              is a lot closer to the OpenPGP standard than  previous  versions
              of  PGP,  so  all  this  does  is disable --throw-keyids and set
              --escape-from-lines.  All algorithms are allowed except for  the
              SHA224, SHA384, and SHA512 digests.





   Doing things one usually doesn't want to do.
              but different in some cases. The semantic of this command may be
              extended  in  the  future.  Currently  it  only skips the actual
              decryption pass and therefore enables  a  fast  listing  of  the
              encryption keys.


       -i

       --interactive
              Prompt before overwriting any files.


       --debug-level level
              Select  the debug level for investigating problems. level may be
              a numeric value or by a keyword:


              none   No debugging at all.  A value of less than 1 may be  used
                     instead of the keyword.

              basic  Some  basic  debug messages.  A value between 1 and 2 may
                     be used instead of the keyword.

              advanced
                     More verbose debug messages.  A value between 3 and 5 may
                     be used instead of the keyword.

              expert Even more detailed messages.  A value between 6 and 8 may
                     be used instead of the keyword.

              guru   All of the debug messages you can get.  A  value  greater
                     than  8 may be used instead of the keyword.  The creation
                     of hash tracing files is only enabled if the  keyword  is
                     used.

       How  these  messages  are  mapped  to the actual debugging flags is not
       specified and may change with newer releases of this program. They  are
       however carefully selected to best aid in debugging.


       --debug flags
              Set  debugging flags. All flags are or-ed and flags may be given
              in C syntax (e.g. 0x0042).


       --debug-all
              Set all useful debugging flags.


       --debug-ccid-driver
              Enable debug output from the included  CCID  driver  for  smart-
              cards.  Note that this option is only available on some system.



       --status-fd n
              Write special status strings to the file descriptor n.  See  the
              file DETAILS in the documentation for a listing of them.


       --status-file file
              Same  as  --status-fd, except the status data is written to file
              file.


       --logger-fd n
              Write log output to file descriptor n and not to STDERR.


       --log-file file

       --logger-file file
              Same as --logger-fd, except the logger data is written  to  file
              file.  Note that --log-file is only implemented for GnuPG-2.


       --attribute-fd n
              Write  attribute  subpackets  to  the file descriptor n. This is
              most useful for use with --status-fd, since the status  messages
              are  needed  to  separate  out  the  various subpackets from the
              stream delivered to the file descriptor.


       --attribute-file file
              Same as --attribute-fd, except the attribute data is written  to
              file file.


       --comment string

       --no-comments
              Use  string  as  a  comment  string in clear text signatures and
              ASCII armored messages or keys (see --armor). The default behav-
              ior  is  not  to use a comment string. --comment may be repeated
              multiple times to get multiple  comment  strings.  --no-comments
              removes all comments.  It is a good idea to keep the length of a
              single comment below 60 characters to avoid problems  with  mail
              programs wrapping such lines.  Note that comment lines, like all
              other header lines, are not protected by the signature.


       --emit-version

       --no-emit-version
              Force inclusion of the version string in ASCII  armored  output.
              --no-emit-version disables this option.


              UTF8, so you should check that  your  --display-charset  is  set
              correctly.  If you prefix name with an exclamation mark (!), the
              notation data will be flagged  as  critical  (rfc2440:5.2.3.15).
              --sig-notation sets a notation for data signatures. --cert-nota-
              tion sets a notation for key signatures (certifications). --set-
              notation sets both.

              There are special codes that may be used in notation names. "%k"
              will be expanded into the key ID of the key being  signed,  "%K"
              into the long key ID of the key being signed, "%f" into the fin-
              gerprint of the key being signed, "%s" into the key  ID  of  the
              key  making  the signature, "%S" into the long key ID of the key
              making the signature, "%g" into the fingerprint of the key  mak-
              ing  the signature (which might be a subkey), "%p" into the fin-
              gerprint of the primary key of the  key  making  the  signature,
              "%c"  into  the  signature count from the OpenPGP smartcard, and
              "%%" results in a single "%". %k, %K, and %f are only meaningful
              when  making  a  key  signature  (certification), and %c is only
              meaningful when using the OpenPGP smartcard.


       --sig-policy-url string

       --cert-policy-url string

       --set-policy-url string
              Use string as a Policy URL  for  signatures  (rfc2440:5.2.3.19).
              If  you  prefix  it with an exclamation mark (!), the policy URL
              packet will be flagged as critical. --sig-policy-url sets a pol-
              icy url for data signatures. --cert-policy-url sets a policy url
              for key signatures (certifications). --set-policy-url sets both.

              The same %-expandos used for notation data are available here as
              well.


       --sig-keyserver-url string
              Use  string as a preferred keyserver URL for data signatures. If
              you prefix it with an exclamation mark (!),  the  keyserver  URL
              packet will be flagged as critical.

              The same %-expandos used for notation data are available here as
              well.


       --set-filename string
              Use string as the filename  which  is  stored  inside  messages.
              This  overrides the default, which is to use the actual filename
              of the file being encrypted.


       --for-your-eyes-only

       --no-for-your-eyes-only
              Defaults to no.


       --cipher-algo name
              Use name as cipher algorithm. Running the program with the  com-
              mand --version yields a list of supported algorithms. If this is
              not used the cipher algorithm is selected from  the  preferences
              stored  with  the  key.  In general, you do not want to use this
              option as it allows you to violate the OpenPGP standard.  --per-
              sonal-cipher-preferences  is the safe way to accomplish the same
              thing.


       --digest-algo name
              Use name as the message digest algorithm.  Running  the  program
              with  the  command  --version  yields  a list of supported algo-
              rithms. In general, you do not want to use  this  option  as  it
              allows  you  to violate the OpenPGP standard. --personal-digest-
              preferences is the safe way to accomplish the same thing.


       --compress-algo name
              Use compression algorithm name. "zlib" is RFC-1950 ZLIB compres-
              sion.  "zip"  is  RFC-1951 ZIP compression which is used by PGP.
              "bzip2" is a more modern compression scheme  that  can  compress
              some  things  better  than  zip or zlib, but at the cost of more
              memory used during compression and decompression. "uncompressed"
              or  "none" disables compression. If this option is not used, the
              default behavior is to examine the recipient key preferences  to
              see  which algorithms the recipient supports. If all else fails,
              ZIP is used for maximum compatibility.

              ZLIB may give better compression results than ZIP, as  the  com-
              pression  window  size is not limited to 8k. BZIP2 may give even
              better compression results than that, but will  use  a  signifi-
              cantly larger amount of memory while compressing and decompress-
              ing. This may be significant in  low  memory  situations.  Note,
              however,  that PGP (all versions) only supports ZIP compression.
              Using any algorithm other than ZIP or "none" will make the  mes-
              sage  unreadable  with  PGP.  In general, you do not want to use
              this option as it allows you to violate  the  OpenPGP  standard.
              --personal-compress-preferences  is  the  safe way to accomplish
              the same thing.


       --cert-digest-algo name
              Use name as the message digest algorithm  used  when  signing  a
              key.  Running  the  program  with the command --version yields a
              list of supported algorithms. Be aware that  if  you  choose  an
              algorithm  that GnuPG supports but other OpenPGP implementations
              do not, then some users will not be able to use the  key  signa-
              tures you make, or quite possibly your entire key.


       --throw-keyids

       --no-throw-keyids
              Do  not  put the recipient key IDs into encrypted messages. This
              helps to hide the receivers of the  message  and  is  a  limited
              countermeasure against traffic analysis. ([Using a little social
              engineering anyone who is able to decrypt the message can  check
              whether  one  of  the other recipients is the one he suspects.])
              On the receiving side, it may slow down the  decryption  process
              because  all  available  secret keys must be tried.  --no-throw-
              keyids disables this option. This option is essentially the same
              as using --hidden-recipient for all recipients.


       --not-dash-escaped
              This option changes the behavior of cleartext signatures so that
              they can be used for patch files. You should not  send  such  an
              armored  file  via email because all spaces and line endings are
              hashed too. You can not use this option for  data  which  has  5
              dashes  at the beginning of a line, patch files don't have this.
              A special armor header line tells  GnuPG  about  this  cleartext
              signature option.


       --escape-from-lines

       --no-escape-from-lines
              Because  some  mailers  change  lines  starting  with "From " to
              ">From " it is good to handle such lines in a special  way  when
              creating  cleartext  signatures  to prevent the mail system from
              breaking the signature. Note that all other PGP versions  do  it
              this  way  too.  Enabled by default. --no-escape-from-lines dis-
              ables this option.


       --passphrase-repeat n
              Specify how many times gpg will  request  a  new  passphrase  be
              repeated.   This  is  useful  for helping memorize a passphrase.
              Defaults to 1 repetition.


       --passphrase-fd n
              Read the passphrase from file descriptor n. Only the first  line
              will  be  read  from  file descriptor n. If you use 0 for n, the
              passphrase will be read from STDIN. This can  only  be  used  if
              only one passphrase is supplied.


       --passphrase-file file
              Read  the passphrase from file file. Only the first line will be
              read from  file  file.  This  can  only  be  used  if  only  one
              passphrase is supplied. Obviously, a passphrase stored in a file
              is of questionable security if other users can read  this  file.
              Don't use this option if you can avoid it.
              expected from the TTY but from the  given  file  descriptor.  It
              should   be   used  together  with  --status-fd.  See  the  file
              doc/DETAILS in the source distribution for details on how to use
              it.


       --command-file file
              Same  as  --command-fd, except the commands are read out of file
              file


       --allow-non-selfsigned-uid

       --no-allow-non-selfsigned-uid
              Allow the import and use of keys with user  IDs  which  are  not
              self-signed.  This is not recommended, as a non self-signed user
              ID is trivial to forge. --no-allow-non-selfsigned-uid disables.


       --allow-freeform-uid
              Disable all checks on the form of the user ID while generating a
              new  one.  This option should only be used in very special envi-
              ronments as it does not ensure the de-facto standard  format  of
              user IDs.


       --ignore-time-conflict
              GnuPG  normally  checks that the timestamps associated with keys
              and signatures have plausible values. However, sometimes a  sig-
              nature  seems  to  be  older than the key due to clock problems.
              This  option  makes  these  checks  just  a  warning.  See  also
              --ignore-valid-from for timestamp issues on subkeys.


       --ignore-valid-from
              GnuPG  normally  does  not select and use subkeys created in the
              future.  This option allows  the  use  of  such  keys  and  thus
              exhibits the pre-1.0.7 behaviour. You should not use this option
              unless you there is some clock problem. See also  --ignore-time-
              conflict for timestamp issues with signatures.


       --ignore-crc-error
              The  ASCII  armor used by OpenPGP is protected by a CRC checksum
              against transmission errors. Occasionally the CRC  gets  mangled
              somewhere  on  the  transmission  channel but the actual content
              (which is protected by the OpenPGP  protocol  anyway)  is  still
              okay. This option allows GnuPG to ignore CRC errors.


       --ignore-mdc-error
              This  option  changes  a MDC integrity protection failure into a
              warning.  This can be useful if a message is partially  corrupt,
              but  it  is necessary to get as much data as possible out of the

       --skip-verify
              Skip the signature verification step. This may be used  to  make
              the  decryption  faster  if  the  signature  verification is not
              needed.


       --with-key-data
              Print key listings delimited by colons (like --with-colons)  and
              print the public key data.


       --fast-list-mode
              Changes  the output of the list commands to work faster; this is
              achieved by leaving some parts empty.  Some  applications  don't
              need  the  user  ID and the trust information given in the list-
              ings. By using this options they can get a faster  listing.  The
              exact  behaviour  of  this option may change in future versions.
              If you are missing some information, don't use this option.


       --no-literal
              This is not for normal use. Use the source to see  for  what  it
              might be useful.


       --set-filesize
              This  is  not  for normal use. Use the source to see for what it
              might be useful.


       --show-session-key
              Display the session key used for one  message.  See  --override-
              session-key for the counterpart of this option.

              We think that Key Escrow is a Bad Thing; however the user should
              have the freedom to decide whether to go to prison or to  reveal
              the  content  of  one  specific message without compromising all
              messages ever encrypted for one secret key. DON'T USE IT  UNLESS
              YOU ARE REALLY FORCED TO DO SO.


       --override-session-key string
              Don't  use the public key but the session key string. The format
              of this string is the same as the one printed by --show-session-
              key.  This  option  is normally not used but comes handy in case
              someone forces you to reveal the content of  an  encrypted  mes-
              sage;  using this option you can do this without handing out the
              secret key.


       --ask-sig-expire

       --no-ask-sig-expire
              "0".


       --ask-cert-expire

       --no-ask-cert-expire
              When making a key signature, prompt for an expiration  time.  If
              this  option  is  not  specified,  the  expiration  time set via
              --default-cert-expire  is  used.  --no-ask-cert-expire  disables
              this option.


       --default-cert-expire
              The default expiration time to use for key signature expiration.
              Valid values are "0" for no expiration, a number followed by the
              letter  d  (for  days), w (for weeks), m (for months), or y (for
              years) (for example "2m"  for  two  months,  or  "5y"  for  five
              years),  or an absolute date in the form YYYY-MM-DD. Defaults to
              "0".


       --allow-secret-key-import
              This is an obsolete option and is not used anywhere.


       --allow-multiple-messages

       --no-allow-multiple-messages
              Allow processing of multiple OpenPGP  messages  contained  in  a
              single file or stream.  Some programs that call GPG are not pre-
              pared to deal with multiple messages being  processed  together,
              so  this option defaults to no.  Note that versions of GPG prior
              to 1.4.7 always allowed multiple messages.

              Warning: Do not use this option unless you need it as  a  tempo-
              rary workaround!



       --enable-special-filenames
              This  options  enables  a  mode  in  which filenames of the form
              `-&n', where n is a non-negative decimal number,  refer  to  the
              file descriptor n and not to a file with that name.


       --no-expensive-trust-checks
              Experimental use only.


       --preserve-permissions
              Don't  change  the  permissions of a secret keyring back to user
              read/write only. Use this option only if you  really  know  what
              you are doing.


       --list-config
              Display various internal configuration parameters of GnuPG. This
              option is intended for external programs that call GnuPG to per-
              form  tasks,  and  is  thus  not  generally useful. See the file
              `doc/DETAILS' in the source  distribution  for  the  details  of
              which  configuration  items may be listed. --list-config is only
              usable with --with-colons set.


       --gpgconf-list
              This command is similar to --list-config  but  in  general  only
              internally used by the gpgconf tool.


       --gpgconf-test
              This  is  more or less dummy action.  However it parses the con-
              figuration file and returns with failure  if  the  configuration
              file would prevent gpg from startup.  Thus it may be used to run
              a syntax check on the configuration file.




   Deprecated options




       --load-extension name
              Load an extension module. If name does not contain a slash it is
              searched  for  in  the directory configured when GnuPG was built
              (generally "/usr/local/lib/gnupg"). Extensions are not generally
              useful anymore, and the use of this option is deprecated.


       --show-photos

       --no-show-photos
              Causes  --list-keys,  --list-sigs,  --list-public-keys,  --list-
              secret-keys, and verifying a signature to also display the photo
              ID  attached  to the key, if any. See also --photo-viewer. These
              options  are  deprecated.  Use  --list-options  [no-]show-photos
              and/or --verify-options [no-]show-photos instead.


       --show-keyring
              Display  the  keyring  name  at the head of key listings to show
              which keyring a given key resides on. This option is deprecated:
              use --list-options [no-]show-keyring instead.


       --ctapi-driver file
              Use  file to access the smartcard reader. The current default is
              listings as well as when verifying a signature with  a  notation
              in   it.   These  options  are  deprecated.  Use  --list-options
              [no-]show-notation  and/or  --verify-options  [no-]show-notation
              instead.


       --show-policy-url

       --no-show-policy-url
              Show  policy URLs in the --list-sigs or --check-sigs listings as
              well as when verifying a signature with  a  policy  URL  in  it.
              These  options are deprecated. Use --list-options [no-]show-pol-
              icy-url and/or --verify-options [no-]show-policy-url instead.






EXAMPLES
       gpg -se -r Bob file
              sign and encrypt for user Bob


       gpg --clearsign file
              make a clear text signature


       gpg -sb file
              make a detached signature


       gpg -u 0x12345678 -sb file
              make a detached signature with the key 0x12345678


       gpg --list-keys user_ID
              show keys


       gpg --fingerprint user_ID
              show fingerprint


       gpg --verify pgpfile

       gpg --verify sigfile
              Verify the signature of the file but do not output the data. The
              second  form  is  used for detached signatures, where sigfile is
              the detached signature (either ASCII armored or binary) and  are
              the  signed  data;  if  this  is not given, the name of the file
              holding the signed data is constructed by cutting off the exten-
              sion (".asc" or ".sig") of sigfile or by asking the user for the
              filename.
              This format is deduced from the length of  the  string  and  its
              content or 0x prefix. The key Id of an X.509 certificate are the
              low 64 bits of its SHA-1 fingerprint.  The use  of  key  Ids  is
              just  a  shortcut,  for all automated processing the fingerprint
              should be used.

              When using gpg an exclamation mark (!) may be appended to  force
              using  the specified primary or secondary key and not to try and
              calculate which primary or secondary key to use.

              The last four lines of the example give the key ID in their long
              form as internally used by the OpenPGP protocol. You can see the
              long key ID using the option --with-colons.

         234567C4
         0F34E556E
         01347A56A
         0xAB123456

         234AABBCC34567C4
         0F323456784E56EAB
         01AB3FED1347A5612
         0x234AABBCC34567C4




       By fingerprint.
              This format is deduced from the length of  the  string  and  its
              content  or  the 0x prefix.  Note, that only the 20 byte version
              fingerprint is available with gpgsm (i.e. the SHA-1 hash of  the
              certificate).

              When  using gpg an exclamation mark (!) may be appended to force
              using the specified primary or secondary key and not to try  and
              calculate which primary or secondary key to use.

              The  best  way  to specify a key Id is by using the fingerprint.
              This avoids any ambiguities in case that  there  are  duplicated
              key IDs.

         1234343434343434C434343434343434
         123434343434343C3434343434343734349A3434
         0E12343434343434343434EAB3484343434343434
         0xE12343434343434343434EAB3484343434343434


       (gpgsm  also  accepts  colons  between  each pair of hexadecimal digits
       because this is the de-facto standard on how to present  X.509  finger-
       prints.)


       By exact match on OpenPGP user ID.
              This  is denoted by a leading equal sign. It does not make sense

       By word match.
              All words must match exactly (not case sensitive) but can appear
              in any order in the user ID or a subjects name.  Words  are  any
              sequences  of letters, digits, the underscore and all characters
              with bit 7 set.

         +Heinrich Heine duesseldorf


       By exact match on the subject's DN.
              This is indicated by a leading slash, directly followed  by  the
              RFC-2253 encoded DN of the subject.  Note that you can't use the
              string printed by "gpgsm --list-keys" because that one  as  been
              reordered and modified for better readability; use --with-colons
              to print the raw (but standard escaped) RFC-2253 string

         /CN=Heinrich Heine,O=Poets,L=Paris,C=FR


       By exact match on the issuer's DN.
              This is indicated by a leading hash mark, directly followed by a
              slash  and  then  directly followed by the rfc2253 encoded DN of
              the issuer.  This should return the Root  cert  of  the  issuer.
              See note above.

         #/CN=Root Cert,O=Poets,L=Paris,C=FR



       By exact match on serial number and issuer's DN.
              This  is  indicated  by a hash mark, followed by the hexadecimal
              representation of the serial number, then followed  by  a  slash
              and the RFC-2253 encoded DN of the issuer. See note above.

         #4F03/CN=Root Cert,O=Poets,L=Paris,C=FR


       By keygrip
              This  is indicated by an ampersand followed by the 40 hex digits
              of a keygrip.  gpgsm prints the keygrip when using  the  command
              --dump-cert.  It does not yet work for OpenPGP keys.

         &D75F22C3F86E355877348498CDC92BD21010A480



       By substring match.
              This is the default mode but applications may want to explicitly
              indicate this by putting the asterisk in front.   Match  is  not
              case sensitive.

         Heine
         *Heine




FILES
       There are a few configuration files to control certain aspects of gpg's
       operation.  Unless  noted, they are expected in the current home direc-
       tory (see: [option --homedir]).



       gpg.conf
              This is the standard configuration file read by gpg on  startup.
              It may contain any valid long option; the leading two dashes may
              not be entered and the option  may  not  be  abbreviated.   This
              default  name  may  be changed on the command line (see: [option
              --options]).  You should backup this file.


       Note that on larger installations, it is useful to put predefined files
       into  the  directory  `/etc/skel/.gnupg/'  so  that newly created users
       start up with a working configuration.

       For internal purposes gpg creates and maintains a few other files; They
       all  live  in  in the current home directory (see: [option --homedir]).
       Only the gpg may modify these files.



       ~/.gnupg/secring.gpg
              The secret keyring.  You should backup this file.


       ~/.gnupg/secring.gpg.lock
              The lock file for the secret keyring.


       ~/.gnupg/pubring.gpg
              The public keyring.  You should backup this file.


       ~/.gnupg/pubring.gpg.lock
              The lock file for the public keyring.


       ~/.gnupg/trustdb.gpg
              The trust database.  There is no need to backup this file; it is
              better  to  backup the ownertrust values (see: [option --export-
              ownertrust]).


       ~/.gnupg/trustdb.gpg.lock
              The lock file for the trust database.


       Operation is further controlled by a few environment variables:



       HOME   Used to locate the default home directory.


       GNUPGHOME
              If set directory used instead of "~/.gnupg".


       GPG_AGENT_INFO
              Used to locate the gpg-agent.  This is only honored when  --use-
              agent  is  set.  The value consists of 3 colon delimited fields:
              The first is the path to the Unix Domain Socket, the second  the
              PID  of  the  gpg-agent and the protocol version which should be
              set to 1. When starting the gpg-agent as described in its  docu-
              mentation, this variable is set to the correct value. The option
              --gpg-agent-info can be used to override it.


       PINENTRY_USER_DATA
              This value is passed via gpg-agent to pinentry.  It is useful to
              convey extra information to a custom pinentry.


       COLUMNS

       LINES  Used to size some displays to the full size of the screen.



       LANGUAGE
              Apart  from  its  use  by  GNU, it is used in the W32 version to
              override the language selection done through the  Registry.   If
              used  and  set  to a valid and available language name (langid),
              the   file    with    the    translation    is    loaded    from
              gpgdir/gnupg.nls/langid.mo.  Here gpgdir is the directory out of
              which the gpg binary has been loaded.  If it can't be loaded the
              Registry  is  tried and as last resort the native Windows locale
              system is used.





BUGS
       On older systems this program should be installed as setuid(root). This
       is  necessary  to  lock memory pages. Locking memory pages prevents the
       operating  system  from  writing  memory  pages  (which   may   contain
       passphrases or other sensitive material) to disk. If you get no warning
       message about insecure memory your operating  system  supports  locking
       without being root. The program drops root privileges as soon as locked


SEE ALSO
       gpgv(1),

       The full documentation for this tool is maintained as a Texinfo manual.
       If GnuPG and the info program are properly installed at your site,  the
       command

         info gnupg

       should  give  you access to the complete manual including a menu struc-
       ture and an index.



GnuPG 1.4.11                      2016-08-18                            GPG(1)
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