gpg2

GPG2(1)                      GNU Privacy Guard 2.1                     GPG2(1)

NAME
       gpg2 - OpenPGP encryption and signing tool

SYNOPSIS
       gpg2 [--homedir dir] [--options file] [options] command [args]

DESCRIPTION
       gpg2 is the OpenPGP part of the GNU Privacy Guard (GnuPG). It is a tool
       to provide digital encryption and signing services  using  the  OpenPGP
       standard. gpg2 features complete key management and all bells and whis-
       tles you can expect from a decent OpenPGP implementation.

       In contrast to the standalone command gpg  from  GnuPG  1.x,  which  is
       might  be better suited for server and embedded platforms, the 2.x ver-
       sion is commonly installed under the name  gpg2  and  targeted  to  the
       desktop as it requires several other modules to be installed.

RETURN VALUE
       The program returns 0 if everything was fine, 1 if at least a signature
       was bad, and other error codes for fatal errors.

WARNINGS
       Use a *good* password for your user account and a *good* passphrase  to
       protect  your  secret  key.  This passphrase is the weakest part of the
       whole system. Programs to do dictionary attacks on your secret  keyring
       are  very  easy  to  write  and  so you should protect your "~/.gnupg/"
       directory very well.

       Keep in mind that, if this program is used over a network (telnet),  it
       is *very* easy to spy out your passphrase!

       If you are going to verify detached signatures, make sure that the pro-
       gram knows about it; either give both filenames on the command line  or
       use '-' to specify STDIN.

INTEROPERABILITY
       GnuPG  tries  to be a very flexible implementation of the OpenPGP stan-
       dard. In particular, GnuPG implements many of the optional parts of the
       standard,  such as the SHA-512 hash, and the ZLIB and BZIP2 compression
       algorithms. It is important to be aware that not all  OpenPGP  programs
       implement  these  optional algorithms and that by forcing their use via
       the --cipher-algo, --digest-algo,  --cert-digest-algo,  or  --compress-
       algo  options  in  GnuPG,  it  is  possible to create a perfectly valid
       OpenPGP message, but one that cannot be read by the intended recipient.

       There are dozens of variations of OpenPGP programs available, and  each
       supports a slightly different subset of these optional algorithms.  For
       example, until recently, no (unhacked) version  of  PGP  supported  the
       BLOWFISH cipher algorithm. A message using BLOWFISH simply could not be
       read by a PGP user. By default, GnuPG uses the standard OpenPGP prefer-
       ences  system  that  will always do the right thing and create messages
       that are usable by all recipients, regardless of which OpenPGP  program
       they  use.  Only override this safe default if you really know what you
       are doing.

       If you absolutely must override the safe default, or if the preferences
       on  a  given  key  are  invalid for some reason, you are far better off
       using the --pgp6, --pgp7, or --pgp8 options. These options are safe  as
       they  do  not  force any particular algorithms in violation of OpenPGP,
       but rather reduce the available algorithms to a "PGP-safe" list.

COMMANDS
       Commands are not distinguished from options except for  the  fact  that
       only one command is allowed.

       gpg2  may be run with no commands, in which case it will perform a rea-
       sonable action depending on the type of file it is given as  input  (an
       encrypted  message  is  decrypted, a signature is verified, a file con-
       taining keys is listed).

       Please remember that option as well as command parsing stops as soon as
       a  non-option  is encountered, you can explicitly stop parsing by using
       the special option --.

   Commands not specific to the function

       --version
              Print the program version and licensing information.  Note  that
              you cannot abbreviate this command.

       --help

       -h     Print  a  usage message summarizing the most useful command line
              options.  Note that you cannot abbreviate this command.

       --warranty
              Print warranty information.

       --dump-options
              Print a list of all available options and commands.   Note  that
              you cannot abbreviate this command.

   Commands to select the type of operation

       --sign

       -s     Make  a  signature.  This command may be combined with --encrypt
              (for a signed and encrypted message), --symmetric (for a  signed
              and symmetrically encrypted message), or --encrypt and --symmet-
              ric together (for a signed message that may be decrypted  via  a
              secret  key or a passphrase).  The key to be used for signing is
              chosen by default or  can  be  set  with  the  --local-user  and
              --default-key options.

       --clearsign
              Make a clear text signature.  The content in a clear text signa-
              ture is readable without any special software. OpenPGP  software
              is  only  needed to verify the signature.  Clear text signatures
              may modify end-of-line whitespace for platform independence  and
              are not intended to be reversible.  The key to be used for sign-
              ing is chosen by default or can be set with the --local-user and
              --default-key options.

       --detach-sign

       -b     Make a detached signature.

       --encrypt

       -e     Encrypt  data.  This  option  may be combined with --sign (for a
              signed and encrypted message), --symmetric (for a  message  that
              may  be  decrypted  via a secret key or a passphrase), or --sign
              and --symmetric together (for  a  signed  message  that  may  be
              decrypted via a secret key or a passphrase).

       --symmetric

       -c     Encrypt  with a symmetric cipher using a passphrase. The default
              symmetric cipher used is AES-128, but may  be  chosen  with  the
              --cipher-algo  option.  This  option may be combined with --sign
              (for a signed and symmetrically  encrypted  message),  --encrypt
              (for  a  message  that  may  be  decrypted via a secret key or a
              passphrase), or --sign and --encrypt together (for a signed mes-
              sage that may be decrypted via a secret key or a passphrase).

       --store
              Store only (make a simple literal data packet).

       --decrypt

       -d     Decrypt  the file given on the command line (or STDIN if no file
              is specified) and write it to STDOUT (or the file specified with
              --output).  If  the  decrypted  file is signed, the signature is
              also verified. This command differs from the default  operation,
              as it never writes to the filename which is included in the file
              and it rejects files which don't begin with  an  encrypted  mes-
              sage.

       --verify
              Assume  that  the  first argument is a signed file and verify it
              without generating any output.  With no arguments, the signature
              packet  is read from STDIN.  If only a one argument is given, it
              is expected to be a complete signature.

              With more than 1 argument, the first should be a detached signa-
              ture and the remaining files ake up the the signed data. To read
              the signed data from STDIN, use '-' as the second filename.  For
              security  reasons  a  detached  signature cannot read the signed
              material from STDIN without denoting it in the above way.

              Note: If the option --batch is not used, gpg2 may assume that  a
              single  argument is a file with a detached signature and it will
              try to find a matching data file by stripping certain  suffixes.
              Using  this historical feature to verify a detached signature is
              strongly discouraged; always specify the data file too.

              Note: When verifying a cleartext signature,  gpg  verifies  only
              what  makes  up the cleartext signed data and not any extra data
              outside of the cleartext signature  or  header  lines  following
              directly  the dash marker line.  The option --output may be used
              to write out the actual signed data; but there  are  other  pit-
              falls with this format as well.  It is suggested to avoid clear-
              text signatures in favor of detached signatures.

       --multifile
              This modifies certain other commands to  accept  multiple  files
              for  processing on the command line or read from STDIN with each
              filename on a separate line. This allows for many  files  to  be
              processed  at once. --multifile may currently be used along with
              --verify, --encrypt, and --decrypt. Note that --multifile --ver-
              ify may not be used with detached signatures.

       --verify-files
              Identical to --multifile --verify.

       --encrypt-files
              Identical to --multifile --encrypt.

       --decrypt-files
              Identical to --multifile --decrypt.

       --list-keys

       -k

       --list-public-keys
              List  all  keys from the public keyrings, or just the keys given
              on the command line.

              Avoid using the output of this command in scripts or other  pro-
              grams  as  it  is likely to change as GnuPG changes. See --with-
              colons for a  machine-parseable  key  listing  command  that  is
              appropriate for use in scripts and other programs.

       --list-secret-keys

       -K     List  all  keys from the secret keyrings, or just the ones given
              on the command line. A # after the letters sec  means  that  the
              secret  key  is  not  usable (for example, if it was created via
              --export-secret-subkeys).

       --list-sigs
              Same as --list-keys, but the signatures are  listed  too.   This
              command  has  the  same effect as using --list-keys with --with-
              sig-list.

              For each signature listed, there are several  flags  in  between
              the "sig" tag and keyid. These flags give additional information
              about each signature. From left to right, they are  the  numbers
              1-3  for certificate check level (see --ask-cert-level), "L" for
              a local or non-exportable signature (see --lsign-key), "R" for a
              nonRevocable  signature  (see  the --edit-key command "nrsign"),
              "P" for a signature that contains a policy URL (see  --cert-pol-
              icy-url),  "N"  for  a  signature  that contains a notation (see
              --cert-notation), "X" for an eXpired signature (see  --ask-cert-
              expire), and the numbers 1-9 or "T" for 10 and above to indicate
              trust signature levels (see the --edit-key command "tsign").

       --check-sigs
              Same as --list-sigs, but the signatures are verified.  Note that
              for  performance  reasons the revocation status of a signing key
              is not shown.  This command has the same effect as using --list-
              keys with --with-sig-check.

              The  status  of the verification is indicated by a flag directly
              following the "sig" tag (and thus  before  the  flags  described
              above  for --list-sigs).  A "!" indicates that the signature has
              been successfully verified, a "-" denotes a bad signature and  a
              "%"  is  used  if an error occurred while checking the signature
              (e.g. a non supported algorithm).

       --locate-keys
              Locate the keys given as arguments.  This command basically uses
              the  same algorithm as used when locating keys for encryption or
              signing and may thus be used to see what keys  gpg2  might  use.
              In  particular  external methods as defined by --auto-key-locate
              may be used to locate a key.  Only public keys are listed.

       --fingerprint
              List all keys (or the specified ones) along with  their  finger-
              prints.  This  is  the  same  output as --list-keys but with the
              additional output of a line with the fingerprint.  May  also  be
              combined  with  --list-sigs or --check-sigs.  If this command is
              given twice, the fingerprints of all secondary keys  are  listed
              too.

       --list-packets
              List  only  the  sequence  of packets. This is mainly useful for
              debugging.  When used with option --verbose the actual MPI  val-
              ues are dumped and not only their lengths.

       --card-edit
              Present  a  menu to work with a smartcard. The subcommand "help"
              provides an overview  on  available  commands.  For  a  detailed
              description, please see the Card HOWTO at https://gnupg.org/doc-
              umentation/howtos.html#GnuPG-cardHOWTO .

       --card-status
              Show the content of the smart card.

       --change-pin
              Present a menu to allow changing the PIN of  a  smartcard.  This
              functionality  is also available as the subcommand "passwd" with
              the --card-edit command.

       --delete-keys name

       --delete-keys name
              Remove key from the public keyring. In batch mode  either  --yes
              is required or the key must be specified by fingerprint. This is
              a safeguard against accidental deletion of multiple keys.

       --delete-secret-keys name
              Remove key from the secret keyring. In batch mode the  key  must
              be specified by fingerprint.

       --delete-secret-and-public-key name
              Same  as  --delete-key,  but  if a secret key exists, it will be
              removed first. In batch mode the key must be specified  by  fin-
              gerprint.

       --export
              Either  export  all keys from all keyrings (default keyrings and
              those registered via option --keyring), or if at least one  name
              is given, those of the given name. The exported keys are written
              to STDOUT or to  the  file  given  with  option  --output.   Use
              together with --armor to mail those keys.

       --send-keys key IDs
              Similar  to --export but sends the keys to a keyserver.  Finger-
              prints may be used instead of key IDs. Option  --keyserver  must
              be used to give the name of this keyserver. Don't send your com-
              plete keyring to a keyserver --- select only  those  keys  which
              are  new  or  changed by you.  If no key IDs are given, gpg does
              nothing.

       --export-secret-keys

       --export-secret-subkeys
              Same as --export, but exports  the  secret  keys  instead.   The
              exported  keys  are  written to STDOUT or to the file given with
              option --output.  This command is  often  used  along  with  the
              option  --armor  to  allow  easy  printing  of the key for paper
              backup; however the external tool paperkey does a better job for
              creating backups on paper.  Note that exporting a secret key can
              be a security risk if the exported keys are send over  an  inse-
              cure channel.

              The  second form of the command has the special property to ren-
              der the secret part of the primary key useless; this  is  a  GNU
              extension  to  OpenPGP  and  other  implementations  can  not be
              expected to successfully import such a key.  Its intended use is
              to  generated  a full key with an additional signing subkey on a
              dedicated machine and then using this command to export the  key
              without the primary key to the main machine.

              GnuPG  may ask you to enter the passphrase for the key.  This is
              required because the internal protection method  of  the  secret
              key is different from the one specified by the OpenPGP protocol.

       --export-ssh-key
              This  command  is used to export a key in the OpenSSH public key
              format.  It requires the specification of one key by  the  usual
              means and exports the latest valid subkey which has an authenti-
              cation capability to STDOUT or to the  file  given  with  option
              --output.   That  output  can directly be added to ssh's 'autho-
              rized_key' file.

              By specifying the key to export using a key ID or a  fingerprint
              suffixed  with an exclamation mark (!), a specific subkey or the
              primary key can be exported.  This does not  even  require  that
              the key has the authentication capability flag set.

       --import

       --fast-import
              Import/merge  keys. This adds the given keys to the keyring. The
              fast version is currently just a synonym.

              There are a few other options which  control  how  this  command
              works.   Most  notable  here  is the --import-options merge-only
              option which does not insert new keys but does only the  merging
              of new signatures, user-IDs and subkeys.

       --recv-keys key IDs
              Import  the keys with the given key IDs from a keyserver. Option
              --keyserver must be used to give the name of this keyserver.

       --refresh-keys
              Request updates from a keyserver for keys that already exist  on
              the  local  keyring.  This is useful for updating a key with the
              latest signatures, user IDs, etc. Calling this with no arguments
              will refresh the entire keyring. Option --keyserver must be used
              to give the name of the keyserver for all keys that do not  have
              preferred  keyservers  set  (see  --keyserver-options honor-key-
              server-url).

       --search-keys names
              Search the keyserver for the given names. Multiple  names  given
              here will be joined together to create the search string for the
              keyserver.  Option --keyserver must be used to give the name  of
              this  keyserver.  Keyservers that support different search meth-
              ods allow using the syntax specified in "How to specify  a  user
              ID" below. Note that different keyserver types support different
              search methods. Currently only LDAP supports them all.

       --fetch-keys URIs
              Retrieve keys located at the specified URIs. Note that different
              installations  of  GnuPG  may support different protocols (HTTP,
              FTP, LDAP, etc.)

       --update-trustdb
              Do trust database maintenance. This command  iterates  over  all
              keys and builds the Web of Trust. This is an interactive command
              because it may have to ask for the "ownertrust" values for keys.
              The  user  has  to  give an estimation of how far she trusts the
              owner of the displayed key to  correctly  certify  (sign)  other
              keys. GnuPG only asks for the ownertrust value if it has not yet
              been assigned to a key. Using the --edit-key menu, the  assigned
              value can be changed at any time.

       --check-trustdb
              Do  trust  database  maintenance  without user interaction. From
              time to time the trust database must be updated so that  expired
              keys or signatures and the resulting changes in the Web of Trust
              can be tracked. Normally, GnuPG  will  calculate  when  this  is
              required  and do it automatically unless --no-auto-check-trustdb
              is set. This command can be used to force a trust database check
              at  any  time.  The processing is identical to that of --update-
              trustdb but it skips keys with a not yet defined "ownertrust".

              For use with cron jobs, this command can be used  together  with
              --batch in which case the trust database check is done only if a
              check is needed. To force a run  even  in  batch  mode  add  the
              option --yes.

       --export-ownertrust
              Send  the ownertrust values to STDOUT. This is useful for backup
              purposes as these values are the only ones which  can't  be  re-
              created from a corrupted trustdb.  Example:
                  gpg2 --export-ownertrust > otrust.txt

       --import-ownertrust
              Update  the  trustdb  with the ownertrust values stored in files
              (or STDIN if not given); existing values  will  be  overwritten.
              In  case  of a severely damaged trustdb and if you have a recent
              backup of the ownertrust values (e.g. in the file  'otrust.txt',
              you may re-create the trustdb using these commands:
                  cd ~/.gnupg
                  rm trustdb.gpg
                  gpg2 --import-ownertrust < otrust.txt

       --rebuild-keydb-caches
              When updating from version 1.0.6 to 1.0.7 this command should be
              used to create signature caches in  the  keyring.  It  might  be
              handy in other situations too.

       --print-md algo

       --print-mds
              Print  message  digest  of algorithm ALGO for all given files or
              STDIN.  With the second form  (or  a  deprecated  "*"  as  algo)
              digests for all available algorithms are printed.

       --gen-random 0|1|2 count
              Emit count random bytes of the given quality level 0, 1 or 2. If
              count is not given or zero, an endless sequence of random  bytes
              will be emitted.  If used with --armor the output will be base64
              encoded.  PLEASE, don't use this command unless  you  know  what
              you are doing; it may remove precious entropy from the system!

       --gen-prime mode bits
              Use  the source, Luke :-). The output format is still subject to
              change.

       --enarmor

       --dearmor
              Pack or unpack an arbitrary input  into/from  an  OpenPGP  ASCII
              armor.   This is a GnuPG extension to OpenPGP and in general not
              very useful.

       --tofu-set-policy auto|good|unknown|bad|ask key...
              Set the TOFU policy for all the  bindings  associated  with  the
              specified  keys.   For more information about the meaning of the
              policies, see: [trust-model-tofu].  The keys  may  be  specified
              either by their fingerprint (preferred) or their keyid.

   How to manage your keys

       This section explains the main commands for key management

       --quick-gen-key user-id
              This  is  a  simple  command to generate a standard key with one
              user id.  In contrast to --gen-key the key is generated directly
              without  the  need  to  answer  a  bunch of prompts.  Unless the
              option --yes is given, the key creation will be canceled if  the
              given user id already exists in the key ring.

              If  invoked  directly on the console without any special options
              an answer  to  a  ``Continue?''  style  confirmation  prompt  is
              required.   In case the user id already exists in the key ring a
              second prompt to force the creation of the key will show up.

              If this command is used with --batch, --pinentry-mode  has  been
              set   to   loopback,   and   one   of   the  passphrase  options
              (--passphrase, --passphrase-fd, or passphrase-file) is used, the
              supplied  passphrase  is used for the new key and the agent does
              not ask  for  it.   To  create  a  key  without  any  protection
              --passphrase '' may be used.

       --gen-key
              Generate  a  new  key pair using the current default parameters.
              This is the standard command to create a new key.   In  addition
              to the key a revocation certificate is created and stored in the
              'openpgp-revocs.d' directory below the GnuPG home directory.

       --full-gen-key
              Generate a new key pair with dialogs for all options.   This  is
              an extended version of --gen-key.

              There is also a feature which allows you to create keys in batch
              mode. See the manual section ``Unattended  key  generation''  on
              how to use this.

       --gen-revoke name
              Generate a revocation certificate for the complete key.  To only
              revoke a subkey or a key signature, use the --edit command.

              This command merely creates the revocation certificate  so  that
              it  can  be  used  to revoke the key if that is ever needed.  To
              actually revoke a key the created revocation  certificate  needs
              to  be merged with the key to revoke.  This is done by importing
              the revocation certificate using the --import command.  Then the
              revoked key needs to be published, which is best done by sending
              the key to a keyserver (command  --send-key)  and  by  exporting
              (--export)  it to a file which is then send to frequent communi-
              cation partners.

       --desig-revoke name
              Generate a designated revocation certificate  for  a  key.  This
              allows  a  user (with the permission of the keyholder) to revoke
              someone else's key.

       --edit-key
              Present a menu which enables you to do most of the  key  manage-
              ment  related  tasks.   It expects the specification of a key on
              the command line.

              uid n  Toggle selection of user ID or photographic user ID  with
                     index n.  Use * to select all and 0 to deselect all.

              key n  Toggle selection of subkey with index n or key ID n.  Use
                     * to select all and 0 to deselect all.

              sign   Make a signature on key of user name If the  key  is  not
                     yet  signed  by the default user (or the users given with
                     -u), the program displays  the  information  of  the  key
                     again,  together with its fingerprint and asks whether it
                     should be signed. This question is repeated for all users
                     specified with -u.

              lsign  Same  as  "sign"  but  the  signature  is  marked as non-
                     exportable and will therefore never be  used  by  others.
                     This  may  be  used  to make keys valid only in the local
                     environment.

              nrsign Same as "sign" but the signature is marked as non-revoca-
                     ble and can therefore never be revoked.

              tsign  Make a trust signature. This is a signature that combines
                     the notions of certification (like a regular  signature),
                     and  trust  (like  the  "trust" command). It is generally
                     only useful in distinct communities or groups.

              Note that "l" (for local / non-exportable), "nr" (for  non-revo-
              cable,  and  "t" (for trust) may be freely mixed and prefixed to
              "sign" to create a signature of any type desired.

       If the option --only-sign-text-ids  is  specified,  then  any  non-text
       based user ids (e.g., photo IDs) will not be selected for signing.

              delsig Delete  a  signature.  Note  that  it  is not possible to
                     retract a signature, once it has been send to the  public
                     (i.e.  to  a  keyserver).   In  that  case you better use
                     revsig.

              revsig Revoke a signature. For every signature  which  has  been
                     generated by one of the secret keys, GnuPG asks whether a
                     revocation certificate should be generated.

              check  Check the signatures on all selected user IDs.  With  the
                     extra option selfsig only self-signatures are shown.

              adduid Create an additional user ID.

              addphoto
                     Create  a  photographic  user  ID. This will prompt for a
                     JPEG file that will be embedded into the  user  ID.  Note
                     that  a  very  large JPEG will make for a very large key.
                     Also note that  some  programs  will  display  your  JPEG
                     unchanged (GnuPG), and some programs will scale it to fit
                     in a dialog box (PGP).

              showphoto
                     Display the selected photographic user ID.

              deluid Delete a user ID or photographic user ID.  Note  that  it
                     is  not  possible  to retract a user id, once it has been
                     send to the public (i.e. to a keyserver).  In  that  case
                     you better use revuid.

              revuid Revoke a user ID or photographic user ID.

              primary
                     Flag  the current user id as the primary one, removes the
                     primary user id flag from all other user ids and sets the
                     timestamp  of  all  affected  self-signatures  one second
                     ahead. Note that setting a photo user ID as primary makes
                     it primary over other photo user IDs, and setting a regu-
                     lar user ID as primary makes it primary over other  regu-
                     lar user IDs.

              keyserver
                     Set  a  preferred keyserver for the specified user ID(s).
                     This allows other users to know where you prefer they get
                     your  key  from. See --keyserver-options honor-keyserver-
                     url for more on how  this  works.   Setting  a  value  of
                     "none" removes an existing preferred keyserver.

              notation
                     Set  a  name=value notation for the specified user ID(s).
                     See --cert-notation for more on how this works. Setting a
                     value of "none" removes all notations, setting a notation
                     prefixed with a minus sign (-) removes that notation, and
                     setting  a  notation  name  (without the =value) prefixed
                     with a minus sign removes all notations with that name.

              pref   List preferences from the selected user  ID.  This  shows
                     the  actual  preferences,  without  including any implied
                     preferences.

              showpref
                     More verbose preferences listing for  the  selected  user
                     ID. This shows the preferences in effect by including the
                     implied preferences of 3DES (cipher), SHA-1 (digest), and
                     Uncompressed   (compression)  if  they  are  not  already
                     included in the preference list. In  addition,  the  pre-
                     ferred  keyserver  and  signature  notations (if any) are
                     shown.

              setpref string
                     Set the list of user ID preferences to string for all (or
                     just  the  selected)  user  IDs.  Calling setpref with no
                     arguments sets the preference list to the default (either
                     built-in or set via --default-preference-list), and call-
                     ing setpref with "none" as the  argument  sets  an  empty
                     preference  list.  Use  gpg2  --version  to get a list of
                     available algorithms. Note that while you can change  the
                     preferences  on  an  attribute  user ID (aka "photo ID"),
                     GnuPG does not select keys  via  attribute  user  IDs  so
                     these preferences will not be used by GnuPG.

                     When  setting preferences, you should list the algorithms
                     in the order which you'd like to see them used by someone
                     else when encrypting a message to your key.  If you don't
                     include 3DES, it will be automatically added at the  end.
                     Note that there are many factors that go into choosing an
                     algorithm (for example, your key  may  not  be  the  only
                     recipient),  and  so the remote OpenPGP application being
                     used to send to you may or may not follow your exact cho-
                     sen  order  for  a given message.  It will, however, only
                     choose an algorithm that is  present  on  the  preference
                     list of every recipient key.  See also the INTEROPERABIL-
                     ITY WITH OTHER OPENPGP PROGRAMS section below.

              addkey Add a subkey to this key.

              addcardkey
                     Generate a subkey on a card and add it to this key.

              keytocard
                     Transfer the selected secret subkey (or the  primary  key
                     if  no  subkey  has  been  selected)  to a smartcard. The
                     secret key in the keyring will be replaced by a  stub  if
                     the  key could be stored successfully on the card and you
                     use the save command later. Only certain key types may be
                     transferred  to the card. A sub menu allows you to select
                     on what card to store the key. Note that it is not possi-
                     ble to get that key back from the card - if the card gets
                     broken your secret key will be lost  unless  you  have  a
                     backup somewhere.

              bkuptocard file
                     Restore  the  given  file  to a card. This command may be
                     used to restore a backup key (as  generated  during  card
                     initialization)  to  a new card. In almost all cases this
                     will be the encryption key. You should use  this  command
                     only with the corresponding public key and make sure that
                     the file given  as  argument  is  indeed  the  backup  to
                     restore.  You  should then select 2 to restore as encryp-
                     tion  key.   You  will  first  be  asked  to  enter   the
                     passphrase  of  the backup key and then for the Admin PIN
                     of the card.

              delkey Remove a subkey (secondary key). Note that it is not pos-
                     sible  to  retract a subkey, once it has been send to the
                     public (i.e. to a keyserver).  In that  case  you  better
                     use revkey.

              revkey Revoke a subkey.

              expire Change  the key or subkey expiration time. If a subkey is
                     selected, the expiration time  of  this  subkey  will  be
                     changed.  With  no  selection,  the key expiration of the
                     primary key is changed.

              trust  Change the owner trust value for the  key.  This  updates
                     the trust-db immediately and no save is required.

              disable

              enable Disable  or  enable an entire key. A disabled key can not
                     normally be used for encryption.

              addrevoker
                     Add a designated revoker  to  the  key.  This  takes  one
                     optional  argument:  "sensitive". If a designated revoker
                     is marked as  sensitive,  it  will  not  be  exported  by
                     default (see export-options).

              passwd Change the passphrase of the secret key.

              toggle This is dummy command which exists only for backward com-
                     patibility.

              clean  Compact (by removing all signatures except  the  selfsig)
                     any  user  ID  that is no longer usable (e.g. revoked, or
                     expired). Then, remove any signatures that are not usable
                     by  the  trust  calculations.  Specifically, this removes
                     any signature that does not validate, any signature  that
                     is  superseded  by a later signature, revoked signatures,
                     and signatures issued by keys that are not present on the
                     keyring.

              minimize
                     Make  the key as small as possible. This removes all sig-
                     natures from each user ID  except  for  the  most  recent
                     self-signature.

              cross-certify
                     Add  cross-certification  signatures  to  signing subkeys
                     that may not  currently  have  them.  Cross-certification
                     signatures  protect against a subtle attack against sign-
                     ing subkeys. See --require-cross-certification.  All  new
                     keys  generated  have  this signature by default, so this
                     option is only useful to bring older keys up to date.

              save   Save all changes to the key rings and quit.

              quit   Quit the program without updating the key rings.

              The listing shows you the key with its secondary  keys  and  all
              user  ids.   The  primary  user  id  is  indicated by a dot, and
              selected keys or user ids are indicated  by  an  asterisk.   The
              trust  value is displayed with the primary key: the first is the
              assigned owner trust and the  second  is  the  calculated  trust
              value. Letters are used for the values:

              -      No ownertrust assigned / not yet calculated.

              e      Trust  calculation has failed; probably due to an expired
                     key.

              q      Not enough information for calculation.

              n      Never trust this key.

              m      Marginally trusted.

              f      Fully trusted.

              u      Ultimately trusted.

       --sign-key name
              Signs a public key with your secret key. This is a shortcut ver-
              sion of the subcommand "sign" from --edit.

       --lsign-key name
              Signs  a  public  key  with your secret key but marks it as non-
              exportable. This is a shortcut version of the subcommand "lsign"
              from --edit-key.

       --quick-sign-key fpr [names]

       --quick-lsign-key fpr [names]
              Directly sign a key from the passphrase without any further user
              interaction.  The fpr must be the verified  primary  fingerprint
              of a key in the local keyring. If no names are given, all useful
              user ids are signed; with given [names]  only  useful  user  ids
              matching  one  of theses names are signed.  The command --quick-
              lsign-key marks the signatures as  non-exportable.   If  such  a
              non-exportable  signature  already  exists  the --quick-sign-key
              turns it into a exportable signature.

              This command uses reasonable defaults and thus does not  provide
              the  full  flexibility of the "sign" subcommand from --edit-key.
              Its intended use is to help unattended key signing by  utilizing
              a list of verified fingerprints.

       --quick-adduid user-id new-user-id
              This command adds a new user id to an existing key.  In contrast
              to the interactive sub-command adduid  of  --edit-key  the  new-
              user-id  is  added verbatim with only leading and trailing white
              space removed, it is expected to be UTF-8 encoded, and no checks
              on its form are applied.

       --passwd user_id
              Change  the  passphrase  of the secret key belonging to the cer-
              tificate specified as user_id.  This is a shortcut for the  sub-
              command passwd of the edit key menu.

OPTIONS
       gpg2  features a bunch of options to control the exact behaviour and to
       change the default configuration.

       Long   options   can   be   put   in   an   options    file    (default
       "~/.gnupg/gpg.conf").  Short  option names will not work - for example,
       "armor" is a valid option for the options file, while "a"  is  not.  Do
       not  write  the  2  dashes,  but  simply the name of the option and any
       required arguments. Lines with a hash ('#')  as  the  first  non-white-
       space  character are ignored. Commands may be put in this file too, but
       that is not generally useful as the command will execute  automatically
       with every execution of gpg.

       Please  remember  that  option parsing stops as soon as a non-option is
       encountered, you can explicitly  stop  parsing  by  using  the  special
       option --.

   How to change the configuration

       These  options  are  used  to  change the configuration and are usually
       found in the option file.

       --default-key name
              Use name as the default key to sign with. If this option is  not
              used,  the  default  key  is  the  first key found in the secret
              keyring.  Note that -u or --local-user  overrides  this  option.
              This option may be given multiple times.  In this case, the last
              key for which a secret key is available is used.  If there is no
              secret key available for any of the specified values, GnuPG will
              not emit an error message but continue as if this option  wasn't
              given.

       --default-recipient name
              Use  name as default recipient if option --recipient is not used
              and don't ask if this is a valid one. name must be non-empty.

       --default-recipient-self
              Use the default key as default recipient if  option  --recipient
              is  not  used  and don't ask if this is a valid one. The default
              key is the first one from the secret keyring or the one set with
              --default-key.

       --no-default-recipient
              Reset --default-recipient and --default-recipient-self.

       -v, --verbose
              Give  more  information  during  processing.  If used twice, the
              input data is listed in detail.

       --no-verbose
              Reset verbose level to 0.

       -q, --quiet
              Try to be as quiet as possible.

       --batch

       --no-batch
              Use batch mode.  Never ask, do not allow  interactive  commands.
              --no-batch disables this option.  Note that even with a filename
              given on the command line, gpg might still  need  to  read  from
              STDIN (in particular if gpg figures that the input is a detached
              signature and no data file has been specified).  Thus if you  do
              not  want  to  feed  data via STDIN, you should connect STDIN to
              '/dev/null'.

       --no-tty
              Make sure that the TTY (terminal) is never used for any  output.
              This  option  is  needed  in  some cases because GnuPG sometimes
              prints warnings to the TTY even if --batch is used.

       --yes  Assume "yes" on most questions.

       --no   Assume "no" on most questions.

       --list-options parameters
              This is a space or comma delimited  string  that  gives  options
              used  when  listing  keys  and signatures (that is, --list-keys,
              --list-sigs,  --list-public-keys,  --list-secret-keys,  and  the
              --edit-key  functions).   Options  can  be  prepended with a no-
              (after the two  dashes)  to  give  the  opposite  meaning.   The
              options are:

              show-photos
                     Causes  --list-keys, --list-sigs, --list-public-keys, and
                     --list-secret-keys to display any photo IDs  attached  to
                     the  key.  Defaults to no. See also --photo-viewer.  Does
                     not work with --with-colons: see --attribute-fd  for  the
                     appropriate  way  to get photo data for scripts and other
                     frontends.

              show-usage
                     Show usage information for keys and subkeys in the  stan-
                     dard  key  listing.  This is a list of letters indicating
                     the allowed usage for  a  key  (E=encryption,  S=signing,
                     C=certification, A=authentication).  Defaults to yes.

              show-policy-urls
                     Show policy URLs in the --list-sigs or --check-sigs list-
                     ings.  Defaults to no.

              show-notations

              show-std-notations

              show-user-notations
                     Show all, IETF standard, or user-defined signature  nota-
                     tions   in  the  --list-sigs  or  --check-sigs  listings.
                     Defaults to no.

              show-keyserver-urls
                     Show any preferred keyserver URL in  the  --list-sigs  or
                     --check-sigs listings. Defaults to no.

              show-uid-validity
                     Display  the  calculated  validity of user IDs during key
                     listings.  Defaults to yes.

              show-unusable-uids
                     Show revoked  and  expired  user  IDs  in  key  listings.
                     Defaults to no.

              show-unusable-subkeys
                     Show   revoked  and  expired  subkeys  in  key  listings.
                     Defaults to no.

              show-keyring
                     Display the keyring name at the head of key  listings  to
                     show  which  keyring  a given key resides on. Defaults to
                     no.

              show-sig-expire
                     Show signature expiration dates (if any)  during  --list-
                     sigs or --check-sigs listings. Defaults to no.

              show-sig-subpackets
                     Include  signature  subpackets  in  the key listing. This
                     option can take an optional argument list of the subpack-
                     ets  to list. If no argument is passed, list all subpack-
                     ets. Defaults to no. This option is only meaningful  when
                     using  --with-colons  along  with --list-sigs or --check-
                     sigs.

       --verify-options parameters
              This is a space or comma delimited  string  that  gives  options
              used  when verifying signatures. Options can be prepended with a
              `no-' to give the opposite meaning. The options are:

              show-photos
                     Display any photo IDs present on the key that issued  the
                     signature.  Defaults to no. See also --photo-viewer.

              show-policy-urls
                     Show   policy  URLs  in  the  signature  being  verified.
                     Defaults to yes.

              show-notations

              show-std-notations

              show-user-notations
                     Show all, IETF standard, or user-defined signature  nota-
                     tions  in  the signature being verified. Defaults to IETF
                     standard.

              show-keyserver-urls
                     Show any preferred keyserver URL in the  signature  being
                     verified.  Defaults to yes.

              show-uid-validity
                     Display  the  calculated  validity of the user IDs on the
                     key that issued the signature. Defaults to yes.

              show-unusable-uids
                     Show revoked and expired user IDs during signature  veri-
                     fication.  Defaults to no.

              show-primary-uid-only
                     Show  only the primary user ID during signature verifica-
                     tion.  That is all the AKA lines as well as photo Ids are
                     not shown with the signature verification status.

              pka-lookups
                     Enable  PKA lookups to verify sender addresses. Note that
                     PKA is based on DNS, and so enabling this option may dis-
                     close  information  on when and what signatures are veri-
                     fied or to whom data is encrypted. This is similar to the
                     "web bug" described for the auto-key-retrieve feature.

              pka-trust-increase
                     Raise  the  trust in a signature to full if the signature
                     passes PKA validation. This option is only meaningful  if
                     pka-lookups is set.

       --enable-large-rsa

       --disable-large-rsa
              With  --gen-key  and  --batch, enable the creation of larger RSA
              secret keys than is generally recommended  (up  to  8192  bits).
              These large keys are more expensive to use, and their signatures
              and certifications are also larger.

       --enable-dsa2

       --disable-dsa2
              Enable hash truncation for all DSA keys even for old DSA Keys up
              to  1024  bit.   This  is also the default with --openpgp.  Note
              that older versions of GnuPG also required this  flag  to  allow
              the generation of DSA larger than 1024 bit.

       --photo-viewer string
              This  is the command line that should be run to view a photo ID.
              "%i" will be expanded to a filename containing the  photo.  "%I"
              does  the  same,  except  the  file will not be deleted once the
              viewer exits.  Other flags are "%k" for the key ID, "%K" for the
              long  key  ID, "%f" for the key fingerprint, "%t" for the exten-
              sion of the image type (e.g. "jpg"), "%T" for the MIME  type  of
              the  image  (e.g.  "image/jpeg"),  "%v" for the single-character
              calculated validity of the image being viewed (e.g.  "f"),  "%V"
              for the calculated validity as a string (e.g.  "full"), "%U" for
              a base32 encoded hash of the user ID, and  "%%"  for  an  actual
              percent  sign.  If  neither %i or %I are present, then the photo
              will be supplied to the viewer on standard input.

              The default viewer is "xloadimage  -fork  -quiet  -title  'KeyID
              0x%k'  STDIN".  Note  that  if  your image viewer program is not
              secure, then executing it from GnuPG does not make it secure.

       --exec-path string
              Sets a list of directories to search for photo viewers and  key-
              server  helpers. If not provided, keyserver helpers use the com-
              piled-in default directory, and  photo  viewers  use  the  $PATH
              environment  variable.   Note,  that on W32 system this value is
              ignored when searching for keyserver helpers.

       --keyring file
              Add file to the current list of keyrings. If file begins with  a
              tilde and a slash, these are replaced by the $HOME directory. If
              the filename does not contain a slash, it is assumed  to  be  in
              the  GnuPG home directory ("~/.gnupg" if --homedir or $GNUPGHOME
              is not used).

              Note that this adds a keyring to the current list. If the intent
              is  to use the specified keyring alone, use --keyring along with
              --no-default-keyring.

       --secret-keyring file
              This is an obsolete option and ignored.   All  secret  keys  are
              stored in the 'private-keys-v1.d' directory below the GnuPG home
              directory.

       --primary-keyring file
              Designate file as the primary public keyring.  This  means  that
              newly imported keys (via --import or keyserver --recv-from) will
              go to this keyring.

       --trustdb-name file
              Use file instead of the default trustdb. If file begins  with  a
              tilde and a slash, these are replaced by the $HOME directory. If
              the filename does not contain a slash, it is assumed  to  be  in
              the  GnuPG home directory ('~/.gnupg' if --homedir or $GNUPGHOME
              is not used).

       --homedir dir
              Set the name of the home directory to dir. If this option is not
              used,  the  home  directory  defaults to '~/.gnupg'.  It is only
              recognized when given on the command line.   It  also  overrides
              any  home  directory  stated  through  the  environment variable
              'GNUPGHOME' or (on Windows systems) by  means  of  the  Registry
              entry HKCU\Software\GNU\GnuPG:HomeDir.

              On Windows systems it is possible to install GnuPG as a portable
              application.  In this case only this command line option is con-
              sidered, all other ways to set a home directory are ignored.

              To install GnuPG as a portable application under Windows, create
              an empty file name 'gpgconf.ctl' in the same  directory  as  the
              tool  'gpgconf.exe'.   The root of the installation is than that
              directory; or, if  'gpgconf.exe'  has  been  installed  directly
              below  a  directory named 'bin', its parent directory.  You also
              need to make sure that the following directories exist  and  are
              writable:     'ROOT/home'     for    the    GnuPG    home    and
              'ROOT/var/cache/gnupg2' for internal cache files.

       --display-charset name
              Set the name of the native character set. This is used  to  con-
              vert  some  informational  strings  like  user IDs to the proper
              UTF-8 encoding.  Note that this has nothing to do with the char-
              acter  set  of  data  to  be encrypted or signed; GnuPG does not
              recode user-supplied data. If  this  option  is  not  used,  the
              default  character  set is determined from the current locale. A
              verbosity level of 3 shows the chosen  set.   Valid  values  for
              name are:

              iso-8859-1
                     This is the Latin 1 set.

              iso-8859-2
                     The Latin 2 set.

              iso-8859-15
                     This is currently an alias for the Latin 1 set.

              koi8-r The usual Russian set (rfc1489).

              utf-8  Bypass  all  translations  and  assume  that  the OS uses
                     native UTF-8 encoding.

       --utf8-strings

       --no-utf8-strings
              Assume that command line arguments are given  as  UTF8  strings.
              The  default (--no-utf8-strings) is to assume that arguments are
              encoded in the character set as specified by  --display-charset.
              These  options  affect all following arguments. Both options may
              be used multiple times.

       --options file
              Read options from file and do not try  to  read  them  from  the
              default options file in the homedir (see --homedir). This option
              is ignored if used in an options file.

       --no-options
              Shortcut for --options /dev/null. This option is detected before
              an  attempt to open an option file.  Using this option will also
              prevent the creation of a '~/.gnupg' homedir.

       -z n

       --compress-level n

       --bzip2-compress-level n
              Set compression level to n for  the  ZIP  and  ZLIB  compression
              algorithms.  The default is to use the default compression level
              of zlib (normally 6). --bzip2-compress-level sets  the  compres-
              sion  level for the BZIP2 compression algorithm (defaulting to 6
              as well). This is a different option from --compress-level since
              BZIP2  uses  a  significant amount of memory for each additional
              compression level.  -z sets both. A value of 0  for  n  disables
              compression.

       --bzip2-decompress-lowmem
              Use a different decompression method for BZIP2 compressed files.
              This alternate method uses a bit more than half the memory,  but
              also  runs  at  half the speed. This is useful under extreme low
              memory circumstances when the file was originally compressed  at
              a high --bzip2-compress-level.

       --mangle-dos-filenames

       --no-mangle-dos-filenames
              Older  version of Windows cannot handle filenames with more than
              one dot. --mangle-dos-filenames causes GnuPG to replace  (rather
              than  add  to) the extension of an output filename to avoid this
              problem. This option is off by default and has no effect on non-
              Windows platforms.

       --ask-cert-level

       --no-ask-cert-level
              When  making  a key signature, prompt for a certification level.
              If this option is not specified, the certification level used is
              set   via  --default-cert-level.  See  --default-cert-level  for
              information on the specific levels and how they are used.  --no-
              ask-cert-level disables this option. This option defaults to no.

       --default-cert-level n
              The default to use for the check level when signing a key.

              0  means  you  make  no particular claim as to how carefully you
              verified the key.

              1 means you believe the key is owned by the person who claims to
              own it but you could not, or did not verify the key at all. This
              is useful for a "persona" verification, where you sign  the  key
              of a pseudonymous user.

              2  means  you  did  casual verification of the key. For example,
              this could mean  that  you  verified  the  key  fingerprint  and
              checked the user ID on the key against a photo ID.

              3  means you did extensive verification of the key. For example,
              this could mean that you verified the key fingerprint  with  the
              owner  of the key in person, and that you checked, by means of a
              hard to forge document with a photo ID (such as a passport) that
              the name of the key owner matches the name in the user ID on the
              key, and finally that you verified (by exchange of  email)  that
              the email address on the key belongs to the key owner.

              Note  that  the examples given above for levels 2 and 3 are just
              that: examples. In the end, it is up to you to decide just  what
              "casual" and "extensive" mean to you.

              This option defaults to 0 (no particular claim).

       --min-cert-level
              When  building  the  trust database, treat any signatures with a
              certification level below this as invalid. Defaults to 2,  which
              disregards  level 1 signatures. Note that level 0 "no particular
              claim" signatures are always accepted.

       --trusted-key long key ID
              Assume that the specified key (which must be given as a  full  8
              byte  key  ID) is as trustworthy as one of your own secret keys.
              This option is useful if you don't want to keep your secret keys
              (or  one  of them) online but still want to be able to check the
              validity of a given recipient's or signator's key.

       --trust-model pgp|classic|tofu|tofu+pgp|direct|always|auto
              Set what trust model GnuPG should follow. The models are:

              pgp    This is the Web of Trust combined with  trust  signatures
                     as  used  in PGP 5.x and later. This is the default trust
                     model when creating a new trust database.

              classic
                     This is the standard Web of Trust as introduced by PGP 2.

              tofu

                     TOFU stands for Trust On First Use.  In this trust model,
                     the  first time a key is seen, it is memorized.  If later
                     another key is seen with a user id with  the  same  email
                     address,  a warning is displayed indicating that there is
                     a conflict and that the key might be  a  forgery  and  an
                     attempt at a man-in-the-middle attack.

                     Because a potential attacker is able to control the email
                     address and thereby  circumvent  the  conflict  detection
                     algorithm  by  using  an email address that is similar in
                     appearance to a trusted email address, whenever a message
                     is  verified,  statistics  about  the  number of messages
                     signed with the key are shown.  In this way, a  user  can
                     easily  identify attacks using fake keys for regular cor-
                     respondents.

                     When compared with the Web of Trust, TOFU offers signifi-
                     cantly  weaker  security guarantees.  In particular, TOFU
                     only helps ensure consistency (that is, that the  binding
                     between a key and email address doesn't change).  A major
                     advantage of TOFU is that it requires little  maintenance
                     to  use correctly.  To use the web of trust properly, you
                     need to actively sign keys  and  mark  users  as  trusted
                     introducers.   This is a time-consuming process and anec-
                     dotal  evidence  suggests  that  even  security-conscious
                     users  rarely  take  the  time  to do this thoroughly and
                     instead rely on an ad-hoc TOFU process.

                     In the TOFU model, policies are associated with  bindings
                     between  keys  and  email  addresses (which are extracted
                     from user ids and normalized).  There are five  policies,
                     which can be set manually using the --tofu-policy option.
                     The default policy can be set using  the  --tofu-default-
                     policy policy.

                     The  TOFU policies are: auto, good, unknown, bad and ask.
                     The auto policy is used by default (unless overridden  by
                     --tofu-default-policy)  and marks a binding as marginally
                     trusted.  The good, unknown and bad policies mark a bind-
                     ing  as fully trusted, as having unknown trust or as hav-
                     ing trust never, respectively.   The  unknown  policy  is
                     useful  for  just  using TOFU to detect conflicts, but to
                     never assign positive trust to a binding.  The final pol-
                     icy,  ask  prompts  the  user  to  indicate the binding's
                     trust.  If batch mode is enabled (or input is inappropri-
                     ate  in  the  context), then the user is not prompted and
                     the undefined trust level is returned.

              tofu+pgp
                     This trust model combines TOFU with  the  Web  of  Trust.
                     This  is done by computing the trust level for each model
                     and then taking the maximum trust level where  the  trust
                     levels are ordered as follows: unknown < undefined < mar-
                     ginal < fully < ultimate < expired < never.

                     By setting --tofu-default-policy=unknown, this model  can
                     be  used  to  implement the web of trust with TOFU's con-
                     flict detection algorithm, but without its assignment  of
                     positive  trust  values,  which  some  security-conscious
                     users don't like.

              direct Key validity is set directly by the user and  not  calcu-
                     lated via the Web of Trust.

              always Skip  key validation and assume that used keys are always
                     fully valid. You generally won't use this unless you  are
                     using  some  external validation scheme. This option also
                     suppresses the "[uncertain]" tag printed  with  signature
                     checks  when  there  is  no  evidence that the user ID is
                     bound to the key.  Note that this trust model still  does
                     not allow the use of expired, revoked, or disabled keys.

              auto   Select the trust model depending on whatever the internal
                     trust database says. This is the default model if such  a
                     database already exists.

       --auto-key-locate parameters

       --no-auto-key-locate
              GnuPG can automatically locate and retrieve keys as needed using
              this option. This happens when encrypting to  an  email  address
              (in  the  "user@example.com"  form), and there are no user@exam-
              ple.com keys on the local keyring.  This option takes any number
              of the following mechanisms, in the order they are to be tried:

              cert   Locate a key using DNS CERT, as specified in rfc4398.

              pka    Locate a key using DNS PKA.

              dane   Locate a key using DANE, as specified in draft-ietf-dane-
                     openpgpkey-05.txt.

              ldap   Using DNS Service Discovery, check the domain in question
                     for  any  LDAP keyservers to use.  If this fails, attempt
                     to locate the key  using  the  PGP  Universal  method  of
                     checking 'ldap://keys.(thedomain)'.

              keyserver
                     Locate  a  key  using whatever keyserver is defined using
                     the --keyserver option.

              keyserver-URL
                     In addition, a keyserver URL as used in  the  --keyserver
                     option  may  be  used  here to query that particular key-
                     server.

              local  Locate the key using the local keyrings.  This  mechanism
                     allows  to  select  the order a local key lookup is done.
                     Thus using  '--auto-key-locate  local'  is  identical  to
                     --no-auto-key-locate.

              nodefault
                     This  flag  disables  the standard local key lookup, done
                     before any of the mechanisms defined by  the  --auto-key-
                     locate  are tried.  The position of this mechanism in the
                     list does not matter.  It is not  required  if  local  is
                     also used.

              clear  Clear all defined mechanisms.  This is useful to override
                     mechanisms given in a config file.

       --keyid-format short|0xshort|long|0xlong
              Select how to  display  key  IDs.  "short"  is  the  traditional
              8-character key ID. "long" is the more accurate (but less conve-
              nient) 16-character key ID. Add an "0x" to either to include  an
              "0x"  at  the  beginning  of the key ID, as in 0x99242560.  Note
              that this option is ignored if the option --with-colons is used.

       --keyserver name
              This option is deprecated - please use the --keyserver in 'dirm-
              ngr.conf' instead.

              Use name as your keyserver. This is the server that --recv-keys,
              --send-keys, and --search-keys will communicate with to  receive
              keys  from,  send keys to, and search for keys on. The format of
              the name is a URI: `scheme:[//]keyservername[:port]' The  scheme
              is  the  type  of  keyserver: "hkp" for the HTTP (or compatible)
              keyservers, "ldap" for the LDAP keyservers, or "mailto" for  the
              Graff email keyserver. Note that your particular installation of
              GnuPG may have other keyserver types  available  as  well.  Key-
              server  schemes  are case-insensitive. After the keyserver name,
              optional keyserver configuration options may be provided.  These
              are  the  same as the global --keyserver-options from below, but
              apply only to this particular keyserver.

              Most keyservers synchronize with each other, so there is  gener-
              ally no need to send keys to more than one server. The keyserver
              hkp://keys.gnupg.net uses round robin DNS to  give  a  different
              keyserver each time you use it.

       --keyserver-options name=value
              This is a space or comma delimited string that gives options for
              the keyserver. Options can be prefixed with a `no-' to give  the
              opposite  meaning. Valid import-options or export-options may be
              used here as well to apply to importing (--recv-key) or  export-
              ing  (--send-key)  a key from a keyserver. While not all options
              are available for all keyserver types, some common options are:

              include-revoked
                     When searching for a key with --search-keys, include keys
                     that  are  marked  on the keyserver as revoked. Note that
                     not all  keyservers  differentiate  between  revoked  and
                     unrevoked  keys,  and  for such keyservers this option is
                     meaningless. Note also that most keyservers do  not  have
                     cryptographic  verification  of  key  revocations, and so
                     turning this option off may result in skipping keys  that
                     are incorrectly marked as revoked.

              include-disabled
                     When searching for a key with --search-keys, include keys
                     that are marked on the keyserver as disabled.  Note  that
                     this option is not used with HKP keyservers.

              auto-key-retrieve
                     This option enables the automatic retrieving of keys from
                     a keyserver when verifying signatures made by  keys  that
                     are not on the local keyring.

                     Note  that  this  option  makes a "web bug" like behavior
                     possible.  Keyserver operators can  see  which  keys  you
                     request,  so  by  sending you a message signed by a brand
                     new key (which you naturally will not have on your  local
                     keyring),  the operator can tell both your IP address and
                     the time when you verified the signature.

              honor-keyserver-url
                     When using --refresh-keys, if the key in question  has  a
                     preferred  keyserver  URL,  then  use that preferred key-
                     server to refresh the key from. In addition, if auto-key-
                     retrieve  is  set, and the signature being verified has a
                     preferred keyserver URL, then  use  that  preferred  key-
                     server  to  fetch  the  key  from.  Note that this option
                     introduces a "web bug": The creator of the  key  can  see
                     when  the  keys  is  refreshed.   Thus this option is not
                     enabled by default.

              honor-pka-record
                     If auto-key-retrieve is set, and the signature being ver-
                     ified  has  a PKA record, then use the PKA information to
                     fetch the key. Defaults to "yes".

              include-subkeys
                     When receiving a key, include subkeys as  potential  tar-
                     gets.  Note  that  this  option is not used with HKP key-
                     servers, as they do not support retrieving keys by subkey
                     id.

              timeout
                     Tell  the  keyserver helper program how long (in seconds)
                     to try and perform a keyserver action before  giving  up.
                     Note  that  performing  multiple actions at the same time
                     uses this timeout value per action.   For  example,  when
                     retrieving  multiple  keys  via  --recv-keys, the timeout
                     applies separately to each key retrieval, and not to  the
                     --recv-keys command as a whole. Defaults to 30 seconds.

              http-proxy=value
                     This  options  is  deprecated.   Set the proxy to use for
                     HTTP  and  HKP  keyservers.   This  overrides  any  proxy
                     defined in 'dirmngr.conf'.

              verbose
                     This  option  has  no more function since GnuPG 2.1.  Use
                     the dirmngr configuration options instead.

              debug  This option has no more function since  GnuPG  2.1.   Use
                     the dirmngr configuration options instead.

              check-cert
                     This  option  has  no more function since GnuPG 2.1.  Use
                     the dirmngr configuration options instead.

              ca-cert-file
                     This option has no more function since  GnuPG  2.1.   Use
                     the dirmngr configuration options instead.

       --completes-needed n
              Number of completely trusted users to introduce a new key signer
              (defaults to 1).

       --marginals-needed n
              Number of marginally trusted users to introduce a new key signer
              (defaults to 3)

       --tofu-default-policy auto|good|unknown|bad|ask
              The  default  TOFU policy (defaults to auto).  For more informa-
              tion about the meaning of this option, see: [trust-model-tofu].

       --tofu-db-format auto|split|flat
              The format for the TOFU DB.

              The split file format splits the data across many DBs under  the
              tofu.d  directory (one per email address and one per key).  This
              makes it easier to automatically synchronize the  data  using  a
              tool  such  as  Unison (https://www.cis.upenn.edu/~bcpierce/uni-
              son/), since the individual files change rarely.

              The flat file format keeps all of the data in  the  single  file
              tofu.db.  This format results in better performance.

              If  set  to  auto (which is the default), GnuPG will first check
              for the existence of  tofu.d  and  tofu.db.   If  one  of  these
              exists, the corresponding format is used.  If neither or both of
              these exist, then GnuPG defaults to the split  format.   In  the
              latter case, a warning is emitted.

       --max-cert-depth n
              Maximum depth of a certification chain (default is 5).

       --no-sig-cache
              Do not cache the verification status of key signatures.  Caching
              gives a much better performance in key listings. However, if you
              suspect that your public keyring is not save against write modi-
              fications, you can use this option to disable  the  caching.  It
              probably  does  not make sense to disable it because all kind of
              damage can be done if someone else has write access to your pub-
              lic keyring.

       --auto-check-trustdb

       --no-auto-check-trustdb
              If  GnuPG  feels that its information about the Web of Trust has
              to be updated, it automatically runs the --check-trustdb command
              internally.   This  may  be a time consuming process. --no-auto-
              check-trustdb disables this option.

       --use-agent

       --no-use-agent
              This is dummy option. gpg2 always requires the agent.

       --gpg-agent-info
              This is dummy option. It has no effect when used with gpg2.

       --agent-program file
              Specify an agent program to be used for secret  key  operations.
              The  default  value  is  determined  by running gpgconf with the
              option --list-dirs.  Note that the pipe symbol (|) is used for a
              regression  test suite hack and may thus not be used in the file
              name.

       --dirmngr-program file
              Specify a dirmngr program to be used for keyserver access.   The
              default  value  is  '/usr/bin/dirmngr'.   This is only used as a
              fallback when the environment variable DIRMNGR_INFO is  not  set
              or a running dirmngr cannot be connected.

       --no-autostart
              Do not start the gpg-agent or the dirmngr if it has not yet been
              started and its service is required.  This option is mostly use-
              ful on machines where the connection to gpg-agent has been redi-
              rected to another machines.   If  dirmngr  is  required  on  the
              remote  machine,  it  may  be  started  manually  using  gpgconf
              --launch dirmngr.

       --lock-once
              Lock the databases the first time a lock is requested and do not
              release the lock until the process terminates.

       --lock-multiple
              Release  the  locks  every  time a lock is no longer needed. Use
              this to override a previous --lock-once from a config file.

       --lock-never
              Disable locking entirely. This option should  be  used  only  in
              very special environments, where it can be assured that only one
              process is accessing those  files.  A  bootable  floppy  with  a
              stand-alone  encryption  system will probably use this. Improper
              usage of this option may lead to data and key corruption.

       --exit-on-status-write-error
              This option will cause write errors on the status FD to  immedi-
              ately  terminate the process. That should in fact be the default
              but it never worked this way and  thus  we  need  an  option  to
              enable  this,  so that the change won't break applications which
              close their end of a status fd connected pipe too  early.  Using
              this  option  along with --enable-progress-filter may be used to
              cleanly cancel long running gpg operations.

       --limit-card-insert-tries n
              With n greater than 0 the number of prompts asking to  insert  a
              smartcard  gets limited to N-1. Thus with a value of 1 gpg won't
              at all ask to insert  a  card  if  none  has  been  inserted  at
              startup. This option is useful in the configuration file in case
              an application does not know about  the  smartcard  support  and
              waits ad infinitum for an inserted card.

       --no-random-seed-file
              GnuPG uses a file to store its internal random pool over invoca-
              tions.  This makes random generation faster;  however  sometimes
              write  operations  are  not  desired. This option can be used to
              achieve that with the cost of slower random generation.

       --no-greeting
              Suppress the initial copyright message.

       --no-secmem-warning
              Suppress the warning about "using insecure memory".

       --no-permission-warning
              Suppress the  warning  about  unsafe  file  and  home  directory
              (--homedir)  permissions.  Note  that the permission checks that
              GnuPG performs are not intended to be authoritative, but  rather
              they  simply  warn  about certain common permission problems. Do
              not assume that the lack of a warning means that your system  is
              secure.

              Note that the warning for unsafe --homedir permissions cannot be
              suppressed in the gpg.conf file, as this would allow an attacker
              to  place an unsafe gpg.conf file in place, and use this file to
              suppress warnings about itself. The --homedir permissions  warn-
              ing may only be suppressed on the command line.

       --no-mdc-warning
              Suppress the warning about missing MDC integrity protection.

       --require-secmem

       --no-require-secmem
              Refuse  to run if GnuPG cannot get secure memory. Defaults to no
              (i.e. run, but give a warning).

       --require-cross-certification

       --no-require-cross-certification
              When verifying a signature made from a subkey, ensure  that  the
              cross  certification  "back  signature" on the subkey is present
              and valid.  This protects against a subtle attack  against  sub-
              keys  that  can sign.  Defaults to --require-cross-certification
              for gpg2.

       --expert

       --no-expert
              Allow the user to do certain nonsensical or "silly" things  like
              signing an expired or revoked key, or certain potentially incom-
              patible things like generating unusual key types. This also dis-
              ables  certain  warning  messages about potentially incompatible
              actions. As the name implies, this option is for  experts  only.
              If you don't fully understand the implications of what it allows
              you to do, leave this off. --no-expert disables this option.

   Key related options

       --recipient name

       -r     Encrypt for user id name. If this option  or  --hidden-recipient
              is  not  specified, GnuPG asks for the user-id unless --default-
              recipient is given.

       --hidden-recipient name

       -R     Encrypt for user ID name, but hide the key  ID  of  this  user's
              key.  This  option helps to hide the receiver of the message and
              is a limited countermeasure against traffic  analysis.  If  this
              option  or --recipient is not specified, GnuPG asks for the user
              ID unless --default-recipient is given.

       --encrypt-to name
              Same as --recipient but this one is  intended  for  use  in  the
              options  file  and  may  be  used  with  your  own user-id as an
              "encrypt-to-self". These keys are only used when there are other
              recipients  given  either  by use of --recipient or by the asked
              user id.  No trust checking is performed for these user ids  and
              even disabled keys can be used.

       --hidden-encrypt-to name
              Same  as  --hidden-recipient but this one is intended for use in
              the options file and may be used with your own user-id as a hid-
              den  "encrypt-to-self".  These keys are only used when there are
              other recipients given either by use of --recipient  or  by  the
              asked  user  id.   No trust checking is performed for these user
              ids and even disabled keys can be used.

       --encrypt-to-default-key
              If the default secret key is taken from --default-key, then also
              encrypt to that key.

       --no-encrypt-to
              Disable  the  use  of  all  --encrypt-to and --hidden-encrypt-to
              keys.

       --group name=value1
              Sets up a named group, which is similar to aliases in email pro-
              grams.   Any time the group name is a recipient (-r or --recipi-
              ent), it will be expanded  to  the  values  specified.  Multiple
              groups with the same name are automatically merged into a single
              group.

              The values are key IDs or fingerprints, but any key  description
              is accepted. Note that a value with spaces in it will be treated
              as two different values. Note also there is only  one  level  of
              expansion  ---  you  cannot make an group that points to another
              group. When used from the command line, it may be  necessary  to
              quote  the  argument  to  this  option to prevent the shell from
              treating it as multiple arguments.

       --ungroup name
              Remove a given entry from the --group list.

       --no-groups
              Remove all entries from the --group list.

       --local-user name

       -u     Use name as the key to sign with. Note that  this  option  over-
              rides --default-key.

       --try-secret-key name
              For  hidden  recipients  GPG  needs  to know the keys to use for
              trial decryption.  The key  set  with  --default-key  is  always
              tried  first,  but  this  is  often not sufficient.  This option
              allows to set  more  keys  to  be  used  for  trial  decryption.
              Although any valid user-id specification may be used for name it
              makes sense to use at least the long keyid to avoid ambiguities.
              Note that gpg-agent might pop up a pinentry for a lot keys to do
              the trial decryption.  If you want to  stop  all  further  trial
              decryption you may use close-window button instead of the cancel
              button.

       --try-all-secrets
              Don't look at the key ID as stored in the message  but  try  all
              secret  keys  in  turn  to  find  the right decryption key. This
              option forces the behaviour  as  used  by  anonymous  recipients
              (created  by  using  --throw-keyids  or  --hidden-recipient) and
              might come handy in case where an encrypted message  contains  a
              bogus key ID.

       --skip-hidden-recipients

       --no-skip-hidden-recipients
              During  decryption  skip  all anonymous recipients.  This option
              helps in the case that people use the hidden recipients  feature
              to  hide  there  own encrypt-to key from others.  If oneself has
              many secret keys this may lead to a major annoyance because  all
              keys are tried in turn to decrypt something which was not really
              intended for it.  The drawback of this option is that it is cur-
              rently  not  possible  to  decrypt a message which includes real
              anonymous recipients.

   Input and Output

       --armor

       -a     Create ASCII armored output.   The  default  is  to  create  the
              binary OpenPGP format.

       --no-armor
              Assume the input data is not in ASCII armored format.

       --output file

       -o file
              Write output to file.

       --max-output n
              This  option  sets  a  limit on the number of bytes that will be
              generated when processing a file. Since OpenPGP supports various
              levels  of  compression,  it is possible that the plaintext of a
              given message may be  significantly  larger  than  the  original
              OpenPGP  message. While GnuPG works properly with such messages,
              there is often a desire to set a maximum file size that will  be
              generated  before processing is forced to stop by the OS limits.
              Defaults to 0, which means "no limit".

       --import-options parameters
              This is a space or comma delimited string that gives options for
              importing  keys.  Options  can be prepended with a `no-' to give
              the opposite meaning. The options are:

              import-local-sigs
                     Allow importing key signatures marked as "local". This is
                     not  generally  useful  unless a shared keyring scheme is
                     being used.  Defaults to no.

              keep-ownertrust
                     Normally possible still existing ownertrust values  of  a
                     key are cleared if a key is imported.  This is in general
                     desirable so that a formerly deleted key does  not  auto-
                     matically gain an ownertrust values merely due to import.
                     On the other hand it is sometimes necessary to  re-import
                     a  trusted set of keys again but keeping already assigned
                     ownertrust values.  This can be  achived  by  using  this
                     option.

              repair-pks-subkey-bug
                     During import, attempt to repair the damage caused by the
                     PKS keyserver bug (pre version 0.9.6) that  mangles  keys
                     with  multiple  subkeys. Note that this cannot completely
                     repair the damaged key as some crucial data is removed by
                     the  keyserver,  but  it  does at least give you back one
                     subkey. Defaults to no for regular --import  and  to  yes
                     for keyserver --recv-keys.

              merge-only
                     During import, allow key updates to existing keys, but do
                     not allow any new keys to be imported. Defaults to no.

              import-clean
                     After import, compact (remove all signatures  except  the
                     self-signature)  any  user  IDs from the new key that are
                     not usable.  Then, remove any signatures from the new key
                     that  are not usable.  This includes signatures that were
                     issued by keys that are not present on the keyring.  This
                     option  is  the  same  as  running the --edit-key command
                     "clean" after import. Defaults to no.

              import-minimal
                     Import the smallest key possible. This removes all signa-
                     tures  except the most recent self-signature on each user
                     ID. This option is the same  as  running  the  --edit-key
                     command "minimize" after import.  Defaults to no.

       --export-options parameters
              This is a space or comma delimited string that gives options for
              exporting keys. Options can be prepended with a  `no-'  to  give
              the opposite meaning. The options are:

              export-local-sigs
                     Allow exporting key signatures marked as "local". This is
                     not generally useful unless a shared  keyring  scheme  is
                     being used.  Defaults to no.

              export-attributes
                     Include  attribute  user IDs (photo IDs) while exporting.
                     This is useful to export keys if they  are  going  to  be
                     used by an OpenPGP program that does not accept attribute
                     user IDs. Defaults to yes.

              export-sensitive-revkeys
                     Include designated revoker information that was marked as
                     "sensitive". Defaults to no.

              export-clean
                     Compact  (remove all signatures from) user IDs on the key
                     being exported if the user IDs are not usable.  Also,  do
                     not  export  any  signatures  that  are  not usable. This
                     includes signatures that were issued by keys that are not
                     present  on  the keyring. This option is the same as run-
                     ning the --edit-key command "clean" before export  except
                     that  the local copy of the key is not modified. Defaults
                     to no.

              export-minimal
                     Export the smallest key possible. This removes all signa-
                     tures  except the most recent self-signature on each user
                     ID. This option is the same  as  running  the  --edit-key
                     command  "minimize"  before  export except that the local
                     copy of the key is not modified. Defaults to no.

       --with-colons
              Print key listings delimited by colons.  Note  that  the  output
              will  be  encoded  in  UTF-8 regardless of any --display-charset
              setting. This format is useful when GnuPG is called from scripts
              and  other  programs as it is easily machine parsed. The details
              of this format are documented in the file  'doc/DETAILS',  which
              is included in the GnuPG source distribution.

       --print-pka-records
              Modify  the  output  of  the  list commands to print PKA records
              suitable to put into DNS zone files.  An ORIGIN line is  printed
              before  each record to allow diverting the records to the corre-
              sponding zone file.

       --print-dane-records
              Modify the output of the list commands  to  print  OpenPGP  DANE
              records  suitable to put into DNS zone files.  An ORIGIN line is
              printed before each record to allow diverting the records to the
              corresponding zone file.

       --fixed-list-mode
              Do  not  merge  primary  user ID and primary key in --with-colon
              listing  mode  and  print  all  timestamps  as   seconds   since
              1970-01-01.   Since  GnuPG  2.0.10, this mode is always used and
              thus this option is obsolete; it does not harm to use it though.

       --legacy-list-mode
              Revert to the pre-2.1 public key list mode.  This  only  affects
              the  human  readable  output and not the machine interface (i.e.
              --with-colons).  Note that the legacy format does not  allow  to
              convey suitable information for elliptic curves.

       --with-fingerprint
              Same as the command --fingerprint but changes only the format of
              the output and may be used together with another command.

       --with-icao-spelling
              Print the ICAO spelling of the fingerprint in  addition  to  the
              hex digits.

       --with-keygrip
              Include the keygrip in the key listings.

       --with-secret
              Include  info  about  the presence of a secret key in public key
              listings done with --with-colons.

   OpenPGP protocol specific options.

       -t, --textmode

       --no-textmode
              Treat input files as text and store them in the OpenPGP  canoni-
              cal  text form with standard "CRLF" line endings. This also sets
              the necessary flags to inform the recipient that  the  encrypted
              or  signed  data is text and may need its line endings converted
              back to whatever the local system uses. This  option  is  useful
              when  communicating  between  two  platforms that have different
              line ending conventions (UNIX-like to Mac, Mac to Windows, etc).
              --no-textmode disables this option, and is the default.

       --force-v3-sigs

       --no-force-v3-sigs

       --force-v4-certs

       --no-force-v4-certs
              These options are obsolete and have no effect since GnuPG 2.1.

       --force-mdc
              Force  the use of encryption with a modification detection code.
              This is always used with the newer ciphers (those with a  block-
              size  greater  than  64  bits),  or if all of the recipient keys
              indicate MDC support in their feature flags.

       --disable-mdc
              Disable the use of the modification detection code. Note that by
              using this option, the encrypted message becomes vulnerable to a
              message modification attack.

       --personal-cipher-preferences string
              Set the list of personal cipher preferences to string.  Use gpg2
              --version to get a list of available algorithms, and use none to
              set no preference at all.  This allows the user to safely  over-
              ride  the  algorithm chosen by the recipient key preferences, as
              GPG will only select an algorithm that is usable by all  recipi-
              ents.   The  most highly ranked cipher in this list is also used
              for the --symmetric encryption command.

       --personal-digest-preferences string
              Set the list of personal digest preferences to string.  Use gpg2
              --version to get a list of available algorithms, and use none to
              set no preference at all.  This allows the user to safely  over-
              ride  the  algorithm chosen by the recipient key preferences, as
              GPG will only select an algorithm that is usable by all  recipi-
              ents.   The  most highly ranked digest algorithm in this list is
              also used when signing without encryption (e.g.  --clearsign  or
              --sign).

       --personal-compress-preferences string
              Set the list of personal compression preferences to string.  Use
              gpg2 --version to get a list of available  algorithms,  and  use
              none  to  set  no  preference  at  all.  This allows the user to
              safely override the algorithm chosen by the recipient key  pref-
              erences,  as GPG will only select an algorithm that is usable by
              all recipients.  The most highly ranked compression algorithm in
              this  list is also used when there are no recipient keys to con-
              sider (e.g. --symmetric).

       --s2k-cipher-algo name
              Use name as the cipher algorithm for symmetric encryption with a
              passphrase  if  --personal-cipher-preferences  and --cipher-algo
              are not given.  The default is AES-128.

       --s2k-digest-algo name
              Use name as the digest algorithm used to mangle the  passphrases
              for symmetric encryption.  The default is SHA-1.

       --s2k-mode n
              Selects how passphrases for symmetric encryption are mangled. If
              n is 0 a plain passphrase (which is in general not  recommended)
              will  be used, a 1 adds a salt (which should not be used) to the
              passphrase and a 3 (the default) iterates the  whole  process  a
              number of times (see --s2k-count).

       --s2k-count n
              Specify  how  many  times the passphrases mangling for symmetric
              encryption is repeated.  This value may range between  1024  and
              65011712  inclusive.   The  default  is inquired from gpg-agent.
              Note that not all values in the 1024-65011712  range  are  legal
              and  if an illegal value is selected, GnuPG will round up to the
              nearest legal value.  This option is only meaningful  if  --s2k-
              mode is set to the default of 3.

   Compliance options

       These  options  control  what  GnuPG is compliant to. Only one of these
       options may be active at a time. Note that the default setting of  this
       is  nearly  always the correct one. See the INTEROPERABILITY WITH OTHER
       OPENPGP PROGRAMS section below before using one of these options.

       --gnupg
              Use standard GnuPG behavior. This is essentially OpenPGP  behav-
              ior  (see  --openpgp),  but with some additional workarounds for
              common compatibility problems in different versions of PGP. This
              is the default option, so it is not generally needed, but it may
              be useful to override  a  different  compliance  option  in  the
              gpg.conf file.

       --openpgp
              Reset  all  packet,  cipher and digest options to strict OpenPGP
              behavior. Use this option to reset  all  previous  options  like
              --s2k-*,  --cipher-algo,  --digest-algo  and  --compress-algo to
              OpenPGP compliant values. All PGP workarounds are disabled.

       --rfc4880
              Reset all packet, cipher and digest options to  strict  RFC-4880
              behavior.  Note  that  this  is  currently  the  same  thing  as
              --openpgp.

       --rfc2440
              Reset all packet, cipher and digest options to  strict  RFC-2440
              behavior.

       --pgp6 Set  up  all  options to be as PGP 6 compliant as possible. This
              restricts you to  the  ciphers  IDEA  (if  the  IDEA  plugin  is
              installed), 3DES, and CAST5, the hashes MD5, SHA1 and RIPEMD160,
              and the compression algorithms none and ZIP. This also  disables
              --throw-keyids,  and  making  signatures with signing subkeys as
              PGP 6 does not understand signatures made by signing subkeys.

              This option implies --disable-mdc --escape-from-lines.

       --pgp7 Set up all options to be as PGP 7 compliant as possible. This is
              identical  to  --pgp6 except that MDCs are not disabled, and the
              list of allowable ciphers is expanded  to  add  AES128,  AES192,
              AES256, and TWOFISH.

       --pgp8 Set  up  all options to be as PGP 8 compliant as possible. PGP 8
              is a lot closer to the OpenPGP standard than  previous  versions
              of  PGP,  so  all  this  does  is disable --throw-keyids and set
              --escape-from-lines.  All algorithms are allowed except for  the
              SHA224, SHA384, and SHA512 digests.

   Doing things one usually doesn't want to do.

       -n

       --dry-run
              Don't make any changes (this is not completely implemented).

       --list-only
              Changes  the  behaviour of some commands. This is like --dry-run
              but different in some cases. The semantic of this command may be
              extended  in  the  future.  Currently  it  only skips the actual
              decryption pass and therefore enables  a  fast  listing  of  the
              encryption keys.

       -i

       --interactive
              Prompt before overwriting any files.

       --debug-level level
              Select  the debug level for investigating problems. level may be
              a numeric value or by a keyword:

              none   No debugging at all.  A value of less than 1 may be  used
                     instead of the keyword.

              basic  Some  basic  debug messages.  A value between 1 and 2 may
                     be used instead of the keyword.

              advanced
                     More verbose debug messages.  A value between 3 and 5 may
                     be used instead of the keyword.

              expert Even more detailed messages.  A value between 6 and 8 may
                     be used instead of the keyword.

              guru   All of the debug messages you can get.  A  value  greater
                     than  8 may be used instead of the keyword.  The creation
                     of hash tracing files is only enabled if the  keyword  is
                     used.

       How  these  messages  are  mapped  to the actual debugging flags is not
       specified and may change with newer releases of this program. They  are
       however carefully selected to best aid in debugging.

       --debug flags
              Set  debugging flags. All flags are or-ed and flags may be given
              in C syntax (e.g. 0x0042) or as a comma separated list  of  flag
              names.   To  get  a  list of all supported flags the single word
              "help" can be used.

       --debug-all
              Set all useful debugging flags.

       --debug-iolbf
              Set stdout into line buffered mode.  This option is only honored
              when given on the command line.

       --faked-system-time epoch
              This  option is only useful for testing; it sets the system time
              back or forth to epoch which is the number  of  seconds  elapsed
              since the year 1970.  Alternatively epoch may be given as a full
              ISO time string (e.g. "20070924T154812").

       --enable-progress-filter
              Enable certain PROGRESS status outputs. This option allows fron-
              tends  to  display  a progress indicator while gpg is processing
              larger files.  There is a slight performance overhead using it.

       --status-fd n
              Write special status strings to the file descriptor n.  See  the
              file DETAILS in the documentation for a listing of them.

       --status-file file
              Same  as  --status-fd, except the status data is written to file
              file.

       --logger-fd n
              Write log output to file descriptor n and not to STDERR.

       --log-file file

       --logger-file file
              Same as --logger-fd, except the logger data is written  to  file
              file.  Note that --log-file is only implemented for GnuPG-2.

       --attribute-fd n
              Write  attribute  subpackets  to  the file descriptor n. This is
              most useful for use with --status-fd, since the status  messages
              are  needed  to  separate  out  the  various subpackets from the
              stream delivered to the file descriptor.

       --attribute-file file
              Same as --attribute-fd, except the attribute data is written  to
              file file.

       --comment string

       --no-comments
              Use  string  as  a  comment  string in clear text signatures and
              ASCII armored messages or keys (see --armor). The default behav-
              ior  is  not  to use a comment string. --comment may be repeated
              multiple times to get multiple  comment  strings.  --no-comments
              removes all comments.  It is a good idea to keep the length of a
              single comment below 60 characters to avoid problems  with  mail
              programs wrapping such lines.  Note that comment lines, like all
              other header lines, are not protected by the signature.

       --emit-version

       --no-emit-version
              Force inclusion of the version string in ASCII  armored  output.
              If  given once only the name of the program and the major number
              is emitted (default), given twice the  minor  is  also  emitted,
              given  triple  the  micro  is added, and given quad an operating
              system identification is also emitted.   --no-emit-version  dis-
              ables the version line.

       --sig-notation name=value

       --cert-notation name=value

       -N, --set-notation name=value
              Put  the  name  value  pair into the signature as notation data.
              name must consist only of printable characters  or  spaces,  and
              must  contain  a  '@' character in the form keyname@domain.exam-
              ple.com (substituting the appropriate keyname and  domain  name,
              of  course).   This  is  to  help  prevent pollution of the IETF
              reserved notation namespace. The --expert flag overrides the '@'
              check.  value may be any printable string; it will be encoded in
              UTF8, so you should check that  your  --display-charset  is  set
              correctly.  If you prefix name with an exclamation mark (!), the
              notation data will be flagged  as  critical  (rfc4880:5.2.3.16).
              --sig-notation sets a notation for data signatures. --cert-nota-
              tion sets a notation for key signatures (certifications). --set-
              notation sets both.

              There are special codes that may be used in notation names. "%k"
              will be expanded into the key ID of the key being  signed,  "%K"
              into the long key ID of the key being signed, "%f" into the fin-
              gerprint of the key being signed, "%s" into the key  ID  of  the
              key  making  the signature, "%S" into the long key ID of the key
              making the signature, "%g" into the fingerprint of the key  mak-
              ing  the signature (which might be a subkey), "%p" into the fin-
              gerprint of the primary key of the  key  making  the  signature,
              "%c"  into  the  signature count from the OpenPGP smartcard, and
              "%%" results in a single "%". %k, %K, and %f are only meaningful
              when  making  a  key  signature  (certification), and %c is only
              meaningful when using the OpenPGP smartcard.

       --sig-policy-url string

       --cert-policy-url string

       --set-policy-url string
              Use string as a Policy URL  for  signatures  (rfc4880:5.2.3.20).
              If  you  prefix  it with an exclamation mark (!), the policy URL
              packet will be flagged as critical. --sig-policy-url sets a pol-
              icy url for data signatures. --cert-policy-url sets a policy url
              for key signatures (certifications). --set-policy-url sets both.

              The same %-expandos used for notation data are available here as
              well.

       --sig-keyserver-url string
              Use  string as a preferred keyserver URL for data signatures. If
              you prefix it with an exclamation mark (!),  the  keyserver  URL
              packet will be flagged as critical.

              The same %-expandos used for notation data are available here as
              well.

       --set-filename string
              Use string as the filename  which  is  stored  inside  messages.
              This  overrides the default, which is to use the actual filename
              of the file being encrypted.  Using the empty string for  string
              effectively removes the filename from the output.

       --for-your-eyes-only

       --no-for-your-eyes-only
              Set  the  `for  your eyes only' flag in the message. This causes
              GnuPG to refuse to save the file unless the --output  option  is
              given,  and PGP to use a "secure viewer" with a claimed Tempest-
              resistant font to display the  message.  This  option  overrides
              --set-filename.  --no-for-your-eyes-only disables this option.

       --use-embedded-filename

       --no-use-embedded-filename
              Try  to  create a file with a name as embedded in the data. This
              can be a dangerous option  as  it  allows  to  overwrite  files.
              Defaults to no.

       --cipher-algo name
              Use  name as cipher algorithm. Running the program with the com-
              mand --version yields a list of supported algorithms. If this is
              not  used  the cipher algorithm is selected from the preferences
              stored with the key. In general, you do not  want  to  use  this
              option as it allows you to violate the OpenPGP standard.  --per-
              sonal-cipher-preferences is the safe way to accomplish the  same
              thing.

       --digest-algo name
              Use  name  as  the message digest algorithm. Running the program
              with the command --version yields  a  list  of  supported  algo-
              rithms.  In  general,  you  do not want to use this option as it
              allows you to violate the OpenPGP  standard.  --personal-digest-
              preferences is the safe way to accomplish the same thing.

       --compress-algo name
              Use compression algorithm name. "zlib" is RFC-1950 ZLIB compres-
              sion. "zip" is RFC-1951 ZIP compression which is  used  by  PGP.
              "bzip2"  is  a  more modern compression scheme that can compress
              some things better than zip or zlib, but at  the  cost  of  more
              memory used during compression and decompression. "uncompressed"
              or "none" disables compression. If this option is not used,  the
              default  behavior is to examine the recipient key preferences to
              see which algorithms the recipient supports. If all else  fails,
              ZIP is used for maximum compatibility.

              ZLIB  may  give better compression results than ZIP, as the com-
              pression window size is not limited to 8k. BZIP2 may  give  even
              better  compression  results  than that, but will use a signifi-
              cantly larger amount of memory while compressing and decompress-
              ing.  This  may  be  significant in low memory situations. Note,
              however, that PGP (all versions) only supports ZIP  compression.
              Using  any algorithm other than ZIP or "none" will make the mes-
              sage unreadable with PGP. In general, you do  not  want  to  use
              this  option  as  it allows you to violate the OpenPGP standard.
              --personal-compress-preferences is the safe  way  to  accomplish
              the same thing.

       --cert-digest-algo name
              Use  name  as  the  message digest algorithm used when signing a
              key. Running the program with the  command  --version  yields  a
              list  of  supported  algorithms.  Be aware that if you choose an
              algorithm that GnuPG supports but other OpenPGP  implementations
              do  not,  then some users will not be able to use the key signa-
              tures you make, or quite possibly your entire key.

       --disable-cipher-algo name
              Never allow the use of name as cipher algorithm.  The given name
              will  not be checked so that a later loaded algorithm will still
              get disabled.

       --disable-pubkey-algo name
              Never allow the use of name as public key algorithm.  The  given
              name  will  not be checked so that a later loaded algorithm will
              still get disabled.

       --throw-keyids

       --no-throw-keyids
              Do not put the recipient key IDs into encrypted  messages.  This
              helps  to  hide  the  receivers  of the message and is a limited
              countermeasure against traffic analysis. ([Using a little social
              engineering  anyone who is able to decrypt the message can check
              whether one of the other recipients is the  one  he  suspects.])
              On  the  receiving side, it may slow down the decryption process
              because all available secret keys must  be  tried.   --no-throw-
              keyids disables this option. This option is essentially the same
              as using --hidden-recipient for all recipients.

       --not-dash-escaped
              This option changes the behavior of cleartext signatures so that
              they  can  be  used for patch files. You should not send such an
              armored file via email because all spaces and line  endings  are
              hashed  too.  You  can  not use this option for data which has 5
              dashes at the beginning of a line, patch files don't have  this.
              A  special  armor  header  line tells GnuPG about this cleartext
              signature option.

       --escape-from-lines

       --no-escape-from-lines
              Because some mailers change  lines  starting  with  "From  "  to
              ">From  "  it is good to handle such lines in a special way when
              creating cleartext signatures to prevent the  mail  system  from
              breaking  the  signature. Note that all other PGP versions do it
              this way too.  Enabled by default.  --no-escape-from-lines  dis-
              ables this option.

       --passphrase-repeat n
              Specify  how  many  times  gpg2 will request a new passphrase be
              repeated.  This is useful for  helping  memorize  a  passphrase.
              Defaults to 1 repetition.

       --passphrase-fd n
              Read  the passphrase from file descriptor n. Only the first line
              will be read from file descriptor n. If you use  0  for  n,  the
              passphrase  will  be  read  from STDIN. This can only be used if
              only one passphrase is supplied.

              Note that this passphrase is only used if the option --batch has
              also been given.  This is different from GnuPG version 1.x.

       --passphrase-file file
              Read  the passphrase from file file. Only the first line will be
              read from  file  file.  This  can  only  be  used  if  only  one
              passphrase is supplied. Obviously, a passphrase stored in a file
              is of questionable security if other users can read  this  file.
              Don't  use  this  option  if  you  can avoid it.  Note that this
              passphrase is only used if the  option  --batch  has  also  been
              given.  This is different from GnuPG version 1.x.

       --passphrase string
              Use  string as the passphrase. This can only be used if only one
              passphrase is supplied. Obviously, this is of very  questionable
              security  on  a  multi-user system. Don't use this option if you
              can avoid it.  Note that this passphrase is  only  used  if  the
              option  --batch  has  also  been  given.  This is different from
              GnuPG version 1.x.

       --pinentry-mode mode
              Set the pinentry mode to mode.  Allowed values for mode are:

              default
                     Use the default of the agent, which is ask.

              ask    Force the use of the Pinentry.

              cancel Emulate use of Pinentry's cancel button.

              error  Return a Pinentry error (``No Pinentry'').

              loopback
                     Redirect Pinentry queries to the caller.   Note  that  in
                     contrast to Pinentry the user is not prompted again if he
                     enters a bad password.

       --command-fd n
              This is a replacement for the deprecated shared-memory IPC mode.
              If  this  option  is  enabled,  user  input  on questions is not
              expected from the TTY but from the  given  file  descriptor.  It
              should   be   used  together  with  --status-fd.  See  the  file
              doc/DETAILS in the source distribution for details on how to use
              it.

       --command-file file
              Same  as  --command-fd, except the commands are read out of file
              file

       --allow-non-selfsigned-uid

       --no-allow-non-selfsigned-uid
              Allow the import and use of keys with user  IDs  which  are  not
              self-signed.  This is not recommended, as a non self-signed user
              ID is trivial to forge. --no-allow-non-selfsigned-uid disables.

       --allow-freeform-uid
              Disable all checks on the form of the user ID while generating a
              new  one.  This option should only be used in very special envi-
              ronments as it does not ensure the de-facto standard  format  of
              user IDs.

       --ignore-time-conflict
              GnuPG  normally  checks that the timestamps associated with keys
              and signatures have plausible values. However, sometimes a  sig-
              nature  seems  to  be  older than the key due to clock problems.
              This  option  makes  these  checks  just  a  warning.  See  also
              --ignore-valid-from for timestamp issues on subkeys.

       --ignore-valid-from
              GnuPG  normally  does  not select and use subkeys created in the
              future.  This option allows  the  use  of  such  keys  and  thus
              exhibits the pre-1.0.7 behaviour. You should not use this option
              unless there is some clock problem. See also  --ignore-time-con-
              flict for timestamp issues with signatures.

       --ignore-crc-error
              The  ASCII  armor used by OpenPGP is protected by a CRC checksum
              against transmission errors. Occasionally the CRC  gets  mangled
              somewhere  on  the  transmission  channel but the actual content
              (which is protected by the OpenPGP  protocol  anyway)  is  still
              okay. This option allows GnuPG to ignore CRC errors.

       --ignore-mdc-error
              This  option  changes  a MDC integrity protection failure into a
              warning.  This can be useful if a message is partially  corrupt,
              but  it  is necessary to get as much data as possible out of the
              corrupt message.  However, be aware that a MDC protection  fail-
              ure  may also mean that the message was tampered with intention-
              ally by an attacker.

       --allow-weak-digest-algos
              Signatures made with known-weak digest algorithms  are  normally
              rejected  with  an  ``invalid  digest algorithm'' message.  This
              option allows the verification of signatures made with such weak
              algorithms.  MD5 is the only digest algorithm considered weak by
              default.  See also --weak-digest to reject  other  digest  algo-
              rithms.

       --weak-digest name
              Treat  the  specified digest algorithm as weak.  Signatures made
              over weak digests algorithms are normally rejected. This  option
              can  be supplied multiple times if multiple algorithms should be
              considered weak.  See also --allow-weak-digest-algos to  disable
              rejection  of  weak digests.  MD5 is always considered weak, and
              does not need to be listed explicitly.

       --no-default-keyring
              Do not add the default keyrings to the list  of  keyrings.  Note
              that  GnuPG will not operate without any keyrings, so if you use
              this option and do not provide alternate keyrings via  --keyring
              or  --secret-keyring, then GnuPG will still use the default pub-
              lic or secret keyrings.

       --skip-verify
              Skip the signature verification step. This may be used  to  make
              the  decryption  faster  if  the  signature  verification is not
              needed.

       --with-key-data
              Print key listings delimited by colons (like --with-colons)  and
              print the public key data.

       --fast-list-mode
              Changes  the output of the list commands to work faster; this is
              achieved by leaving some parts empty.  Some  applications  don't
              need  the  user  ID and the trust information given in the list-
              ings. By using this options they can get a faster  listing.  The
              exact  behaviour  of  this option may change in future versions.
              If you are missing some information, don't use this option.

       --no-literal
              This is not for normal use. Use the source to see  for  what  it
              might be useful.

       --set-filesize
              This  is  not  for normal use. Use the source to see for what it
              might be useful.

       --show-session-key
              Display the session key used for one  message.  See  --override-
              session-key for the counterpart of this option.

              We think that Key Escrow is a Bad Thing; however the user should
              have the freedom to decide whether to go to prison or to  reveal
              the  content  of  one  specific message without compromising all
              messages ever encrypted for one secret key.

              You can also use this option if you receive an encrypted message
              which is abusive or offensive, to prove to the administrators of
              the messaging system that the ciphertext transmitted corresponds
              to  an  inappropriate  plaintext so they can take action against
              the offending user.

       --override-session-key string
              Don't use the public key but the session key string. The  format
              of this string is the same as the one printed by --show-session-
              key. This option is normally not used but comes  handy  in  case
              someone  forces  you  to reveal the content of an encrypted mes-
              sage; using this option you can do this without handing out  the
              secret key.

       --ask-sig-expire

       --no-ask-sig-expire
              When  making a data signature, prompt for an expiration time. If
              this option is  not  specified,  the  expiration  time  set  via
              --default-sig-expire  is used. --no-ask-sig-expire disables this
              option.

       --default-sig-expire
              The default expiration time to  use  for  signature  expiration.
              Valid values are "0" for no expiration, a number followed by the
              letter d (for days), w (for weeks), m (for months),  or  y  (for
              years)  (for  example  "2m"  for  two  months,  or "5y" for five
              years), or an absolute date in the form YYYY-MM-DD. Defaults  to
              "0".

       --ask-cert-expire

       --no-ask-cert-expire
              When  making  a key signature, prompt for an expiration time. If
              this option is  not  specified,  the  expiration  time  set  via
              --default-cert-expire  is  used.  --no-ask-cert-expire  disables
              this option.

       --default-cert-expire
              The default expiration time to use for key signature expiration.
              Valid values are "0" for no expiration, a number followed by the
              letter d (for days), w (for weeks), m (for months),  or  y  (for
              years)  (for  example  "2m"  for  two  months,  or "5y" for five
              years), or an absolute date in the form YYYY-MM-DD. Defaults  to
              "0".

       --allow-secret-key-import
              This is an obsolete option and is not used anywhere.

       --allow-multiple-messages

       --no-allow-multiple-messages
              Allow  processing  of  multiple  OpenPGP messages contained in a
              single file or stream.  Some programs that call GPG are not pre-
              pared  to  deal with multiple messages being processed together,
              so this option defaults to no.  Note that versions of GPG  prior
              to 1.4.7 always allowed multiple messages.

              Warning:  Do  not use this option unless you need it as a tempo-
              rary workaround!

       --enable-special-filenames
              This options enables a mode  in  which  filenames  of  the  form
              '-&n',  where  n  is a non-negative decimal number, refer to the
              file descriptor n and not to a file with that name.

       --no-expensive-trust-checks
              Experimental use only.

       --preserve-permissions
              Don't change the permissions of a secret keyring  back  to  user
              read/write  only.  Use  this option only if you really know what
              you are doing.

       --default-preference-list string
              Set the list of default preferences to string.  This  preference
              list  is used for new keys and becomes the default for "setpref"
              in the edit menu.

       --default-keyserver-url name
              Set the default keyserver URL to name. This  keyserver  will  be
              used as the keyserver URL when writing a new self-signature on a
              key, which includes key generation and changing preferences.

       --list-config
              Display various internal configuration parameters of GnuPG. This
              option is intended for external programs that call GnuPG to per-
              form tasks, and is thus  not  generally  useful.  See  the  file
              'doc/DETAILS'  in  the  source  distribution  for the details of
              which configuration items may be listed. --list-config  is  only
              usable with --with-colons set.

       --list-gcrypt-config
              Display various internal configuration parameters of Libgcrypt.

       --gpgconf-list
              This  command  is  similar  to --list-config but in general only
              internally used by the gpgconf tool.

       --gpgconf-test
              This is more or less dummy action.  However it parses  the  con-
              figuration  file  and  returns with failure if the configuration
              file would prevent gpg from startup.  Thus it may be used to run
              a syntax check on the configuration file.

   Deprecated options

       --show-photos

       --no-show-photos
              Causes  --list-keys,  --list-sigs,  --list-public-keys,  --list-
              secret-keys, and verifying a signature to also display the photo
              ID  attached  to the key, if any. See also --photo-viewer. These
              options  are  deprecated.  Use  --list-options  [no-]show-photos
              and/or --verify-options [no-]show-photos instead.

       --show-keyring
              Display  the  keyring  name  at the head of key listings to show
              which keyring a given key resides on. This option is deprecated:
              use --list-options [no-]show-keyring instead.

       --always-trust
              Identical to --trust-model always. This option is deprecated.

       --show-notation

       --no-show-notation
              Show  signature  notations  in  the  --list-sigs or --check-sigs
              listings as well as when verifying a signature with  a  notation
              in   it.   These  options  are  deprecated.  Use  --list-options
              [no-]show-notation  and/or  --verify-options  [no-]show-notation
              instead.

       --show-policy-url

       --no-show-policy-url
              Show  policy URLs in the --list-sigs or --check-sigs listings as
              well as when verifying a signature with  a  policy  URL  in  it.
              These  options are deprecated. Use --list-options [no-]show-pol-
              icy-url and/or --verify-options [no-]show-policy-url instead.

EXAMPLES
       gpg -se -r Bob file
              sign and encrypt for user Bob

       gpg --clearsign file
              make a clear text signature

       gpg -sb file
              make a detached signature

       gpg -u 0x12345678 -sb file
              make a detached signature with the key 0x12345678

       gpg --list-keys user_ID
              show keys

       gpg --fingerprint user_ID
              show fingerprint

       gpg --verify pgpfile

       gpg --verify sigfile
              Verify the signature of the file but do not output the data. The
              second  form  is  used for detached signatures, where sigfile is
              the detached signature (either ASCII armored or binary) and  are
              the  signed  data;  if  this  is not given, the name of the file
              holding the signed data is constructed by cutting off the exten-
              sion (".asc" or ".sig") of sigfile or by asking the user for the
              filename.

HOW TO SPECIFY A USER ID
       There are different ways to specify a user ID to GnuPG.  Some  of  them
       are  only  valid  for  gpg others are only good for gpgsm.  Here is the
       entire list of ways to specify a key:

       By key Id.
              This format is deduced from the length of  the  string  and  its
              content or 0x prefix. The key Id of an X.509 certificate are the
              low 64 bits of its SHA-1 fingerprint.  The use  of  key  Ids  is
              just  a  shortcut,  for all automated processing the fingerprint
              should be used.

              When using gpg an exclamation mark (!) may be appended to  force
              using  the specified primary or secondary key and not to try and
              calculate which primary or secondary key to use.

              The last four lines of the example give the key ID in their long
              form as internally used by the OpenPGP protocol. You can see the
              long key ID using the option --with-colons.

         234567C4
         0F34E556E
         01347A56A
         0xAB123456

         234AABBCC34567C4
         0F323456784E56EAB
         01AB3FED1347A5612
         0x234AABBCC34567C4

       By fingerprint.
              This format is deduced from the length of  the  string  and  its
              content  or  the 0x prefix.  Note, that only the 20 byte version
              fingerprint is available with gpgsm (i.e. the SHA-1 hash of  the
              certificate).

              When  using gpg an exclamation mark (!) may be appended to force
              using the specified primary or secondary key and not to try  and
              calculate which primary or secondary key to use.

              The  best  way  to specify a key Id is by using the fingerprint.
              This avoids any ambiguities in case that  there  are  duplicated
              key IDs.

         1234343434343434C434343434343434
         123434343434343C3434343434343734349A3434
         0E12343434343434343434EAB3484343434343434
         0xE12343434343434343434EAB3484343434343434

       gpgsm  also  accepts  colons  between  each  pair of hexadecimal digits
       because this is the de-facto standard on how to present  X.509  finger-
       prints.   gpg  also allows the use of the space separated SHA-1 finger-
       print as printed by the key listing commands.

       By exact match on OpenPGP user ID.
              This is denoted by a leading equal sign. It does not make  sense
              for X.509 certificates.

         =Heinrich Heine <heinrichh@uni-duesseldorf.de>

       By exact match on an email address.
              This  is  indicated  by enclosing the email address in the usual
              way with left and right angles.

         <heinrichh@uni-duesseldorf.de>

       By partial match on an email address.
              This is indicated by prefixing the  search  string  with  an  @.
              This uses a substring search but considers only the mail address
              (i.e. inside the angle brackets).

         @heinrichh

       By exact match on the subject's DN.
              This is indicated by a leading slash, directly followed  by  the
              RFC-2253 encoded DN of the subject.  Note that you can't use the
              string printed by "gpgsm --list-keys" because that one  as  been
              reordered and modified for better readability; use --with-colons
              to print the raw (but standard escaped) RFC-2253 string

         /CN=Heinrich Heine,O=Poets,L=Paris,C=FR

       By exact match on the issuer's DN.
              This is indicated by a leading hash mark, directly followed by a
              slash  and  then  directly followed by the rfc2253 encoded DN of
              the issuer.  This should return the Root  cert  of  the  issuer.
              See note above.

         #/CN=Root Cert,O=Poets,L=Paris,C=FR

       By exact match on serial number and issuer's DN.
              This  is  indicated  by a hash mark, followed by the hexadecimal
              representation of the serial number, then followed  by  a  slash
              and the RFC-2253 encoded DN of the issuer. See note above.

         #4F03/CN=Root Cert,O=Poets,L=Paris,C=FR

       By keygrip
              This  is indicated by an ampersand followed by the 40 hex digits
              of a keygrip.  gpgsm prints the keygrip when using  the  command
              --dump-cert.  It does not yet work for OpenPGP keys.

         &D75F22C3F86E355877348498CDC92BD21010A480

       By substring match.
              This is the default mode but applications may want to explicitly
              indicate this by putting the asterisk in front.   Match  is  not
              case sensitive.

         Heine
         *Heine

       . and + prefixes
              These prefixes are reserved for looking up mails anchored at the
              end and for a word search mode.  They are  not  yet  implemented
              and using them is undefined.

              Please  note  that we have reused the hash mark identifier which
              was used in old GnuPG versions to indicate the so called  local-
              id.  It is not anymore used and there should be no conflict when
              used with X.509 stuff.

              Using the RFC-2253 format of DNs has the drawback that it is not
              possible  to  map them back to the original encoding, however we
              don't have to do this  because  our  key  database  stores  this
              encoding as meta data.

FILES
       There  are  a  few  configuration  files  to control certain aspects of
       gpg2's operation. Unless noted, they are expected in the  current  home
       directory (see: [option --homedir]).

       gpg.conf
              This is the standard configuration file read by gpg2 on startup.
              It may contain any valid long option; the leading two dashes may
              not  be  entered  and  the  option may not be abbreviated.  This
              default name may be changed on  the  command  line  (see:  [gpg-
              option --options]).  You should backup this file.

       Note that on larger installations, it is useful to put predefined files
       into the directory '/etc/skel/.gnupg2'  so  that  newly  created  users
       start  up  with  a  working  configuration.  For existing users a small
       helper script is provided to create these files (see: [addgnupghome]).

       For internal purposes gpg2 creates and maintains  a  few  other  files;
       They  all  live  in in the current home directory (see: [option --home-
       dir]).  Only the gpg2 program may modify these files.

       ~/.gnupg/pubring.gpg
              The public keyring.  You should backup this file.

       ~/.gnupg/pubring.gpg.lock
              The lock file for the public keyring.

       ~/.gnupg/pubring.kbx
              The public keyring using  a  different  format.   This  file  is
              sharred with gpgsm.  You should backup this file.

       ~/.gnupg/pubring.kbx.lock
              The lock file for 'pubring.kbx'.

       ~/.gnupg/secring.gpg
              A  secret  keyring  as used by GnuPG versions before 2.1.  It is
              not used by GnuPG 2.1 and later.

       ~/.gnupg/.gpg-v21-migrated
              File indicating that a migration to GnuPG 2.1 has been done.

       ~/.gnupg/trustdb.gpg
              The trust database.  There is no need to backup this file; it is
              better  to  backup the ownertrust values (see: [option --export-
              ownertrust]).

       ~/.gnupg/trustdb.gpg.lock
              The lock file for the trust database.

       ~/.gnupg/random_seed
              A file used to preserve the state of the internal random pool.

       ~/.gnupg/secring.gpg.lock
              The lock file for the secret keyring.

       ~/.gnupg/openpgp-revocs.d/
              This is the directory where gpg stores pre-generated  revocation
              certificates.   The file name corresponds to the OpenPGP finger-
              print of the respective key.  It is suggested  to  backup  those
              certificates and if the primary private key is not stored on the
              disk to move them to an external storage device.  Anyone who can
              access  theses  files  is  able to revoke the corresponding key.
              You may want to print them out.  You should backup all files  in
              this directory and take care to keep this backup closed away.

       /usr/share/gnupg2/options.skel
              The skeleton options file.

       /usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/gnupg2/
              Default location for extensions.

       Operation is further controlled by a few environment variables:

       HOME   Used to locate the default home directory.

       GNUPGHOME
              If set directory used instead of "~/.gnupg".

       GPG_AGENT_INFO
              This variable was used by GnuPG versions before 2.1

       PINENTRY_USER_DATA
              This value is passed via gpg-agent to pinentry.  It is useful to
              convey extra information to a custom pinentry.

       COLUMNS

       LINES  Used to size some displays to the full size of the screen.

       LANGUAGE
              Apart from its use by GNU, it is used  in  the  W32  version  to
              override  the  language selection done through the Registry.  If
              used and set to a valid and available  language  name  (langid),
              the file with the translation is loaded from

              gpgdir/gnupg.nls/langid.mo.  Here gpgdir is the directory out of
              which the gpg binary has been loaded.  If it can't be loaded the
              Registry  is  tried and as last resort the native Windows locale
              system is used.

BUGS
       On older systems this program should be installed as setuid(root). This
       is  necessary  to  lock memory pages. Locking memory pages prevents the
       operating  system  from  writing  memory  pages  (which   may   contain
       passphrases or other sensitive material) to disk. If you get no warning
       message about insecure memory your operating  system  supports  locking
       without being root. The program drops root privileges as soon as locked
       memory is allocated.

       Note also that some systems (especially laptops) have  the  ability  to
       ``suspend  to  disk''  (also known as ``safe sleep'' or ``hibernate'').
       This writes all memory to disk before going into a low  power  or  even
       powered off mode.  Unless measures are taken in the operating system to
       protect the saved memory, passphrases or other sensitive  material  may
       be recoverable from it later.

       Before  you  report  a bug you should first search the mailing list ar-
       chives for similar problems and second check whether  such  a  bug  has
       already been reported to our bug tracker at http://bugs.gnupg.org .

SEE ALSO
       gpgv(1), gpgsm(1), gpg-agent(1)

       The full documentation for this tool is maintained as a Texinfo manual.
       If GnuPG and the info program are properly installed at your site,  the
       command

         info gnupg

       should  give  you access to the complete manual including a menu struc-
       ture and an index.

GnuPG 2.1.11                      2016-01-21                           GPG2(1)
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