SPU_CREATE(2)              Linux Programmer's Manual             SPU_CREATE(2)

       spu_create - create a new spu context

       #include <sys/types.h>
       #include <sys/spu.h>

       int spu_create(const char *pathname, int flags, mode_t mode);
       int spu_create(const char *pathname, int flags, mode_t mode,
                      int neighbor_fd);

       Note: There is no glibc wrapper for this system call; see NOTES.

       The spu_create() system call is used on PowerPC machines that implement
       the Cell Broadband Engine Architecture in order to  access  Synergistic
       Processor Units (SPUs).  It creates a new logical context for an SPU in
       pathname and returns a file descriptor associated  with  it.   pathname
       must  refer  to  a  nonexistent directory in the mount point of the SPU
       filesystem (spufs).  If spu_create() is successful, a directory is cre-
       ated  at  pathname  and  it  is  populated  with the files described in

       When a context is created, the returned file  descriptor  can  only  be
       passed  to  spu_run(2), used as the dirfd argument to the *at family of
       system calls (e.g., openat(2)), or closed; other operations are not de-
       fined.   A  logical SPU context is destroyed (along with all files cre-
       ated within the context's pathname directory) once the  last  reference
       to  the  context has gone; this usually occurs when the file descriptor
       returned by spu_create() is closed.

       The flags argument can be zero or any bitwise OR-ed combination of  the
       following constants:

              Rather  than  using  signals  for  reporting DMA errors, use the
              event argument to spu_run(2).

              Create an SPU gang instead of a context.  (A gang is a group  of
              SPU  contexts  that  are  functionally related to each other and
              which share common scheduling parameters--priority  and  policy.
              In  the  future,  gang scheduling may be implemented causing the
              group to be switched in and out as a single unit.)

              A new directory will be created at the location specified by the
              pathname argument.  This gang may be used to hold other SPU con-
              texts, by providing a pathname that is within the gang directory
              to further calls to spu_create().

              Create  a  context  that  is  not affected by the SPU scheduler.
              Once the context is run, it will not be scheduled out  until  it
              is destroyed by the creating process.

              Because  the  context cannot be removed from the SPU, some func-
              tionality is disabled for SPU_CREATE_NOSCHED contexts.   Only  a
              subset  of the files will be available in this context directory
              in spufs.  Additionally, SPU_CREATE_NOSCHED contexts cannot dump
              a core file when crashing.

              Creating  SPU_CREATE_NOSCHED  contexts requires the CAP_SYS_NICE

              Create an isolated SPU context.  Isolated contexts are protected
              from  some  PPE (PowerPC Processing Element) operations, such as
              access to the SPU local store and the NPC register.

              Creating SPU_CREATE_ISOLATE contexts also requires the  SPU_CRE-
              ATE_NOSCHED flag.

              Create  a  context  with  affinity to another SPU context.  This
              affinity information is used within  the  SPU  scheduling  algo-
              rithm.   Using  this flag requires that a file descriptor refer-
              ring to the other SPU context be passed in the neighbor_fd argu-

              Create  a context with affinity to system memory.  This affinity
              information is used within the SPU scheduling algorithm.

       The mode argument (minus any bits set in the process's umask(2)) speci-
       fies the permissions used for creating the new directory in spufs.  See
       stat(2) for a full list of the possible mode values.

       On success, spu_create() returns a new file descriptor.  On  error,  -1
       is returned, and errno is set to one of the error codes listed below.

       EACCES The  current  user  does  not  have write access to the spufs(7)
              mount point.

       EEXIST An SPU context already exists at the given pathname.

       EFAULT pathname is not a valid string pointer in the calling  process's
              address space.

       EINVAL pathname  is not a directory in the spufs(7) mount point, or in-
              valid flags have been provided.

       ELOOP  Too many symbolic links were found while resolving pathname.

       EMFILE The per-process limit on the number of open file descriptors has
              been reached.

              pathname is too long.

       ENFILE The system-wide limit on the total number of open files has been

       ENODEV An isolated context was requested, but  the  hardware  does  not
              support SPU isolation.

       ENOENT Part of pathname could not be resolved.

       ENOMEM The kernel could not allocate all resources required.

       ENOSPC There  are  not  enough  SPU resources available to create a new
              context or the user-specific limit for the number  of  SPU  con-
              texts has been reached.

       ENOSYS The functionality is not provided by the current system, because
              either the hardware does not provide SPUs or the spufs module is
              not loaded.

              A part of pathname is not a directory.

       EPERM  The  SPU_CREATE_NOSCHED  flag  has been given, but the user does
              not have the CAP_SYS_NICE capability.

       pathname must point to a location beneath the mount point of spufs.  By
       convention, it gets mounted in /spu.

       The spu_create() system call was added to Linux in kernel 2.6.16.

       This  call is Linux-specific and implemented only on the PowerPC archi-
       tecture.  Programs using this system call are not portable.

       Glibc does not provide a wrapper for this system call;  call  it  using
       syscall(2).   Note  however, that spu_create() is meant to be used from
       libraries that implement a more abstract interface to SPUs, not  to  be
       used   from   regular  applications.   See  <http://www.bsc.es/projects
       /deepcomputing/linuxoncell/> for the recommended libraries.

       See spu_run(2) for an example of the use of spu_create()

       close(2), spu_run(2), capabilities(7), spufs(7)

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Linux                             2017-09-15                     SPU_CREATE(2)
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