#include <sys/types.h>
       #include <sys/stat.h>
       #include <unistd.h>

       int stat(const char *path, struct stat *buf);
       int fstat(int fd, struct stat *buf);
       int lstat(const char *path, struct stat *buf);

   Feature Test Macro Requirements for glibc (see feature_test_macros(7)):

           _BSD_SOURCE || _XOPEN_SOURCE >= 500 ||
           || /* Since glibc 2.10: */ _POSIX_C_SOURCE >= 200112L

       These functions return information about a file.   No  permissions  are
       required  on the file itself, but--in the case of stat() and lstat() --
       execute (search) permission is required on all of  the  directories  in
       path that lead to the file.

       stat() stats the file pointed to by path and fills in buf.

       lstat() is identical to stat(), except that if path is a symbolic link,
       then the link itself is stat-ed, not the file that it refers to.

       fstat() is identical to stat(), except that the file to be  stat-ed  is
       specified by the file descriptor fd.

       All  of  these system calls return a stat structure, which contains the
       following fields:

           struct stat {
               dev_t     st_dev;     /* ID of device containing file */
               ino_t     st_ino;     /* inode number */
               mode_t    st_mode;    /* protection */
               nlink_t   st_nlink;   /* number of hard links */
               uid_t     st_uid;     /* user ID of owner */
               gid_t     st_gid;     /* group ID of owner */
               dev_t     st_rdev;    /* device ID (if special file) */
               off_t     st_size;    /* total size, in bytes */
               blksize_t st_blksize; /* blocksize for file system I/O */
               blkcnt_t  st_blocks;  /* number of 512B blocks allocated */
               time_t    st_atime;   /* time of last access */
               time_t    st_mtime;   /* time of last modification */
               time_t    st_ctime;   /* time of last status change */

       The st_dev field describes the device on which this file resides.  (The
       major(3)  and  minor(3) macros may be useful to decompose the device ID
       in this field.)

       system I/O.  (Writing to a file in smaller chunks may cause an  ineffi-
       cient read-modify-rewrite.)

       Not  all  of  the  Linux file systems implement all of the time fields.
       Some file system types allow mounting in such a way  that  file  and/or
       directory  accesses do not cause an update of the st_atime field.  (See
       noatime, nodiratime, and relatime in mount(8), and related  information
       in mount(2).)  In addition, st_atime is not updated if a file is opened
       with the O_NOATIME; see open(2).

       The field st_atime  is  changed  by  file  accesses,  for  example,  by
       execve(2),  mknod(2),  pipe(2), utime(2) and read(2) (of more than zero
       bytes).  Other routines, like mmap(2), may or may not update st_atime.

       The field st_mtime is changed by file modifications,  for  example,  by
       mknod(2), truncate(2), utime(2) and write(2) (of more than zero bytes).
       Moreover, st_mtime of a directory is changed by the creation  or  dele-
       tion of files in that directory.  The st_mtime field is not changed for
       changes in owner, group, hard link count, or mode.

       The field st_ctime is changed by writing or by setting  inode  informa-
       tion (i.e., owner, group, link count, mode, etc.).

       The following POSIX macros are defined to check the file type using the
       st_mode field:

           S_ISREG(m)  is it a regular file?

           S_ISDIR(m)  directory?

           S_ISCHR(m)  character device?

           S_ISBLK(m)  block device?

           S_ISFIFO(m) FIFO (named pipe)?

           S_ISLNK(m)  symbolic link? (Not in POSIX.1-1996.)

           S_ISSOCK(m) socket? (Not in POSIX.1-1996.)

       The following flags are defined for the st_mode field:

           S_IFMT     0170000   bit mask for the file type bit fields
           S_IFSOCK   0140000   socket
           S_IFLNK    0120000   symbolic link
           S_IFREG    0100000   regular file
           S_IFBLK    0060000   block device
           S_IFDIR    0040000   directory
           S_IFCHR    0020000   character device
           S_IFIFO    0010000   FIFO
           S_ISUID    0004000   set UID bit
           S_ISGID    0002000   set-group-ID bit (see below)
           S_ISVTX    0001000   sticky bit (see below)
           S_IRWXU    00700     mask for file owner permissions

       The set-group-ID bit (S_ISGID) has several special uses.  For a  direc-
       tory  it indicates that BSD semantics is to be used for that directory:
       files created there inherit their group ID from the directory, not from
       the effective group ID of the creating process, and directories created
       there will also get the S_ISGID bit set.  For a file that does not have
       the  group  execution bit (S_IXGRP) set, the set-group-ID bit indicates
       mandatory file/record locking.

       The sticky bit (S_ISVTX) on a directory  means  that  a  file  in  that
       directory  can  be renamed or deleted only by the owner of the file, by
       the owner of the directory, and by a privileged process.

       On success, zero is returned.  On error, -1 is returned, and  errno  is
       set appropriately.

       EACCES Search  permission  is  denied for one of the directories in the
              path prefix of path.  (See also path_resolution(7).)

       EBADF  fd is bad.

       EFAULT Bad address.

       ELOOP  Too many symbolic links encountered while traversing the path.

              path is too long.

       ENOENT A component of path does not exist, or path is an empty string.

       ENOMEM Out of memory (i.e., kernel memory).

              A component of the path prefix of path is not a directory.

              (stat()) path refers to a file whose size cannot be  represented
              in  the type off_t.  This can occur when an application compiled
              on a 32-bit platform without -D_FILE_OFFSET_BITS=64 calls stat()
              on a file whose size exceeds (1<<31)-1 bits.

       These system calls conform to SVr4, 4.3BSD, POSIX.1-2001.

       According to POSIX.1-2001, lstat() on a symbolic link need return valid
       information only in the st_size field and the  file-type  component  of
       the  st_mode  field  of  the  stat structure.  POSIX.-2008 tightens the
       specification, requiring lstat() to return  valid  information  in  all
       fields except the permission bits in st_mode.

       Use of the st_blocks and st_blksize fields may be less portable.  (They
       were introduced in BSD.  The interpretation  differs  between  systems,

       UNIX V7 (and later systems) had S_IREAD, S_IWRITE, S_IEXEC, where POSIX
       prescribes the synonyms S_IRUSR, S_IWUSR, S_IXUSR.

   Other Systems
       Values that have been (or are) in use on various systems:

       hex    name       ls   octal    description
       f000   S_IFMT          170000   mask for file type
       0000                   000000   SCO out-of-service inode; BSD unknown
                                       type; SVID-v2 and XPG2 have both
                                       0 and 0100000 for ordinary file
       1000   S_IFIFO    p|   010000   FIFO (named pipe)
       2000   S_IFCHR    c    020000   character special (V7)
       3000   S_IFMPC         030000   multiplexed character special (V7)
       4000   S_IFDIR    d/   040000   directory (V7)
       5000   S_IFNAM         050000   XENIX named special file
                                       with two subtypes, distinguished by
                                       st_rdev values 1, 2
       0001   S_INSEM    s    000001   XENIX semaphore subtype of IFNAM
       0002   S_INSHD    m    000002   XENIX shared data subtype of IFNAM
       6000   S_IFBLK    b    060000   block special (V7)
       7000   S_IFMPB         070000   multiplexed block special (V7)
       8000   S_IFREG    -    100000   regular (V7)
       9000   S_IFCMP         110000   VxFS compressed
       9000   S_IFNWK    n    110000   network special (HP-UX)
       a000   S_IFLNK    l@   120000   symbolic link (BSD)
       b000   S_IFSHAD        130000   Solaris shadow inode for ACL
                                       (not seen by userspace)
       c000   S_IFSOCK   s=   140000   socket (BSD; also "S_IFSOC" on VxFS)
       d000   S_IFDOOR   D>   150000   Solaris door
       e000   S_IFWHT    w%   160000   BSD whiteout (not used for inode)
       0200   S_ISVTX         001000   sticky bit: save swapped text even
                                       after use (V7)
                                       reserved (SVID-v2)
                                       On nondirectories: don't cache this
                                       file (SunOS)
                                       On directories: restricted deletion
                                       flag (SVID-v4.2)
       0400   S_ISGID         002000   set-group-ID on execution (V7)
                                       for directories: use BSD semantics for
                                       propagation of GID
       0400   S_ENFMT         002000   System V file locking enforcement (shared
                                       with S_ISGID)
       0800   S_ISUID         004000   set-user-ID on execution (V7)
       0800   S_CDF           004000   directory is a context dependent
                                       file (HP-UX)

       A sticky command appeared in Version 32V AT&T UNIX.

       Since kernel 2.5.48, the stat structure supports nanosecond  resolution
       for the three file timestamp fields.  Glibc exposes the nanosecond com-

       For  most  files  under the /proc directory, stat() does not return the
       file size in the st_size field; instead the field is returned with  the
       value 0.

   Underlying kernel interface
       Over  time,  increases  in  the  size of the stat structure have led to
       three successive versions of stat():  sys_stat()  (slot  __NR_oldstat),
       sys_newstat()  (slot  __NR_stat),  and sys_stat64() (new in kernel 2.4;
       slot __NR_stat64).  The  glibc  stat()  wrapper  function  hides  these
       details from applications, invoking the most recent version of the sys-
       tem call provided by the kernel, and repacking the returned information
       if  required  for  old binaries.  Similar remarks apply for fstat() and

       The following program calls stat() and displays selected fields in  the
       returned stat structure.

       #include <sys/types.h>
       #include <sys/stat.h>
       #include <time.h>
       #include <stdio.h>
       #include <stdlib.h>

       main(int argc, char *argv[])
           struct stat sb;

           if (argc != 2) {
               fprintf(stderr, "Usage: %s <pathname>\n", argv[0]);

           if (stat(argv[1], &sb) == -1) {

           printf("File type:                ");

           switch (sb.st_mode & S_IFMT) {
           case S_IFBLK:  printf("block device\n");            break;
           case S_IFCHR:  printf("character device\n");        break;
           case S_IFDIR:  printf("directory\n");               break;
           case S_IFIFO:  printf("FIFO/pipe\n");               break;
           case S_IFLNK:  printf("symlink\n");                 break;
           case S_IFREG:  printf("regular file\n");            break;
           case S_IFSOCK: printf("socket\n");                  break;
           default:       printf("unknown?\n");                break;

           printf("I-node number:            %ld\n", (long) sb.st_ino);
           printf("Blocks allocated:         %lld\n",
                   (long long) sb.st_blocks);

           printf("Last status change:       %s", ctime(&sb.st_ctime));
           printf("Last file access:         %s", ctime(&sb.st_atime));
           printf("Last file modification:   %s", ctime(&sb.st_mtime));


       access(2), chmod(2), chown(2), fstatat(2), readlink(2), utime(2), capa-
       bilities(7), symlink(7)

       This page is part of release 3.35 of the Linux  man-pages  project.   A
       description  of  the project, and information about reporting bugs, can
       be found at

Linux                             2011-10-04                           STAT(2)
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