rsync


SYNOPSIS
       Local:  rsync [OPTION...] SRC... [DEST]

       Access via remote shell:
         Pull: rsync [OPTION...] [USER@]HOST:SRC... [DEST]
         Push: rsync [OPTION...] SRC... [USER@]HOST:DEST

       Access via rsync daemon:
         Pull: rsync [OPTION...] [USER@]HOST::SRC... [DEST]
               rsync [OPTION...] rsync://[USER@]HOST[:PORT]/SRC... [DEST]
         Push: rsync [OPTION...] SRC... [USER@]HOST::DEST
               rsync [OPTION...] SRC... rsync://[USER@]HOST[:PORT]/DEST


       Usages with just one SRC arg and no DEST arg will list the source files
       instead of copying.

DESCRIPTION
       Rsync is a fast and extraordinarily versatile file  copying  tool.   It
       can  copy  locally,  to/from  another  host  over  any remote shell, or
       to/from a remote rsync daemon.  It offers a  large  number  of  options
       that  control  every  aspect  of  its behavior and permit very flexible
       specification of the set of files to be copied.  It is famous  for  its
       delta-transfer  algorithm,  which  reduces the amount of data sent over
       the network by sending only the differences between  the  source  files
       and  the  existing  files in the destination.  Rsync is widely used for
       backups and mirroring and as an improved copy command for everyday use.

       Rsync finds files that need to be transferred  using  a  "quick  check"
       algorithm  (by  default) that looks for files that have changed in size
       or  in  last-modified  time.   Any  changes  in  the  other   preserved
       attributes  (as  requested by options) are made on the destination file
       directly when the quick check indicates that the file's data  does  not
       need to be updated.

       Some of the additional features of rsync are:

       o      support  for copying links, devices, owners, groups, and permis-
              sions

       o      exclude and exclude-from options similar to GNU tar

       o      a CVS exclude mode for ignoring the same files  that  CVS  would
              ignore

       o      can use any transparent remote shell, including ssh or rsh

       o      does not require super-user privileges

       o      pipelining of file transfers to minimize latency costs

       o      support  for anonymous or authenticated rsync daemons (ideal for
              mirroring)

       daemon  directly happens when the source or destination path contains a
       double colon (::) separator after a  host  specification,  OR  when  an
       rsync://  URL  is  specified (see also the "USING RSYNC-DAEMON FEATURES
       VIA A REMOTE-SHELL CONNECTION" section for an exception to this  latter
       rule).

       As a special case, if a single source arg is specified without a desti-
       nation, the files are listed in an output format similar to "ls -l".

       As expected, if neither the source or destination path specify a remote
       host, the copy occurs locally (see also the --list-only option).

       Rsync  refers  to the local side as the "client" and the remote side as
       the "server".  Don't confuse "server" with an rsync daemon -- a  daemon
       is  always  a  server, but a server can be either a daemon or a remote-
       shell spawned process.

SETUP
       See the file README for installation instructions.

       Once installed, you can use rsync to any machine that  you  can  access
       via a remote shell (as well as some that you can access using the rsync
       daemon-mode protocol).  For remote transfers, a modern rsync  uses  ssh
       for  its  communications, but it may have been configured to use a dif-
       ferent remote shell by default, such as rsh or remsh.

       You can also specify any remote shell you like, either by using the  -e
       command line option, or by setting the RSYNC_RSH environment variable.

       Note  that  rsync  must be installed on both the source and destination
       machines.

USAGE
       You use rsync in the same way you use rcp. You must  specify  a  source
       and a destination, one of which may be remote.

       Perhaps the best way to explain the syntax is with some examples:

              rsync -t *.c foo:src/


       This would transfer all files matching the pattern *.c from the current
       directory to the directory src on the machine foo. If any of the  files
       already  exist on the remote system then the rsync remote-update proto-
       col is used to update the file by sending only the differences. See the
       tech report for details.

              rsync -avz foo:src/bar /data/tmp


       This would recursively transfer all files from the directory src/bar on
       the machine foo into the /data/tmp/bar directory on the local  machine.
       The  files  are  transferred in "archive" mode, which ensures that sym-
       bolic links, devices, attributes,  permissions,  ownerships,  etc.  are
       ing commands copies the files in the same way, including their  setting
       of the attributes of /dest/foo:

              rsync -av /src/foo /dest
              rsync -av /src/foo/ /dest/foo


       Note  also  that  host  and  module references don't require a trailing
       slash to copy the contents of the default directory.  For example, both
       of these copy the remote directory's contents into "/dest":

              rsync -av host: /dest
              rsync -av host::module /dest


       You  can  also  use rsync in local-only mode, where both the source and
       destination don't have a ':' in the name. In this case it behaves  like
       an improved copy command.

       Finally,  you can list all the (listable) modules available from a par-
       ticular rsync daemon by leaving off the module name:

              rsync somehost.mydomain.com::


       See the following section for more details.

ADVANCED USAGE
       The syntax for requesting multiple files from a remote host is done  by
       specifying  additional remote-host args in the same style as the first,
       or with the hostname omitted.  For instance, all these work:

              rsync -av host:file1 :file2 host:file{3,4} /dest/
              rsync -av host::modname/file{1,2} host::modname/file3 /dest/
              rsync -av host::modname/file1 ::modname/file{3,4}


       Older versions of rsync required using quoted spaces in the  SRC,  like
       these examples:

              rsync -av host:'dir1/file1 dir2/file2' /dest
              rsync host::'modname/dir1/file1 modname/dir2/file2' /dest


       This  word-splitting  still works (by default) in the latest rsync, but
       is not as easy to use as the first method.

       If you need to transfer a filename that contains  whitespace,  you  can
       either specify the --protect-args (-s) option, or you'll need to escape
       the whitespace in a way that the remote  shell  will  understand.   For
       instance:

              rsync -av host:'file\ name\ with\ spaces' /dest

              separate the hostname from the path, or you use an rsync:// URL.

       o      the first word of the "path" is actually a module name.

       o      the  remote  daemon may print a message of the day when you con-
              nect.

       o      if you specify no path name on the remote daemon then  the  list
              of accessible paths on the daemon will be shown.

       o      if you specify no local destination then a listing of the speci-
              fied files on the remote daemon is provided.

       o      you must not specify the --rsh (-e) option.


       An example that copies all the files in a remote module named "src":

           rsync -av host::src /dest


       Some modules on the remote daemon may require  authentication.  If  so,
       you  will receive a password prompt when you connect. You can avoid the
       password prompt by setting the environment variable  RSYNC_PASSWORD  to
       the  password you want to use or using the --password-file option. This
       may be useful when scripting rsync.

       WARNING: On some systems  environment  variables  are  visible  to  all
       users. On those systems using --password-file is recommended.

       You  may  establish the connection via a web proxy by setting the envi-
       ronment variable RSYNC_PROXY to a hostname:port pair pointing  to  your
       web proxy.  Note that your web proxy's configuration must support proxy
       connections to port 873.

       You may also establish a daemon connection using a program as  a  proxy
       by  setting the environment variable RSYNC_CONNECT_PROG to the commands
       you wish to run in place of making a  direct  socket  connection.   The
       string  may contain the escape "%H" to represent the hostname specified
       in the rsync command (so use "%%" if you need  a  single  "%"  in  your
       string).  For example:

         export RSYNC_CONNECT_PROG='ssh proxyhost nc %H 873'
         rsync -av targethost1::module/src/ /dest/
         rsync -av rsync:://targethost2/module/src/ /dest/


       The command specified above uses ssh to run nc (netcat) on a proxyhost,
       which forwards all data to port 873 (the rsync daemon) on the  targeth-
       ost (%H).

USING RSYNC-DAEMON FEATURES VIA A REMOTE-SHELL CONNECTION
       It is sometimes useful to use various features of an rsync daemon (such
       as named modules) without actually allowing any new socket  connections
       nection uses nearly the same command-line syntax as a normal rsync-dae-
       mon transfer, with the only exception being that  you  must  explicitly
       set the remote shell program on the command-line with the --rsh=COMMAND
       option.  (Setting the RSYNC_RSH in the environment  will  not  turn  on
       this functionality.)  For example:

           rsync -av --rsh=ssh host::module /dest


       If you need to specify a different remote-shell user, keep in mind that
       the user@ prefix in front of the  host  is  specifying  the  rsync-user
       value  (for  a  module  that requires user-based authentication).  This
       means that you must give the '-l user' option to  ssh  when  specifying
       the remote-shell, as in this example that uses the short version of the
       --rsh option:

           rsync -av -e "ssh -l ssh-user" rsync-user@host::module /dest


       The "ssh-user" will be used at the ssh level; the "rsync-user" will  be
       used to log-in to the "module".

STARTING AN RSYNC DAEMON TO ACCEPT CONNECTIONS
       In order to connect to an rsync daemon, the remote system needs to have
       a daemon already running (or it needs to have configured something like
       inetd to spawn an rsync daemon for incoming connections on a particular
       port).  For full information on how to start a daemon  that  will  han-
       dling  incoming  socket connections, see the rsyncd.conf(5) man page --
       that is the config file for  the  daemon,  and  it  contains  the  full
       details for how to run the daemon (including stand-alone and inetd con-
       figurations).

       If you're using one of the remote-shell transports  for  the  transfer,
       there is no need to manually start an rsync daemon.

EXAMPLES
       Here are some examples of how I use rsync.

       To  backup  my  wife's  home directory, which consists of large MS Word
       files and mail folders, I use a cron job that runs

              rsync -Cavz . arvidsjaur:backup


       each night over a PPP connection to a duplicate directory on my machine
       "arvidsjaur".

       To  synchronize my samba source trees I use the following Makefile tar-
       gets:

           get:
                   rsync -avuzb --exclude '*~' samba:samba/ .
           put:
                   rsync -Cavuzb . samba:samba/

       This is launched from cron every few hours.

OPTIONS SUMMARY
       Here is a short summary of the options available in rsync. Please refer
       to the detailed description below for a complete description.

        -v, --verbose               increase verbosity
        -q, --quiet                 suppress non-error messages
            --no-motd               suppress daemon-mode MOTD (see caveat)
        -c, --checksum              skip based on checksum, not mod-time & size
        -a, --archive               archive mode; equals -rlptgoD (no -H,-A,-X)
            --no-OPTION             turn off an implied OPTION (e.g. --no-D)
        -r, --recursive             recurse into directories
        -R, --relative              use relative path names
            --no-implied-dirs       don't send implied dirs with --relative
        -b, --backup                make backups (see --suffix & --backup-dir)
            --backup-dir=DIR        make backups into hierarchy based in DIR
            --suffix=SUFFIX         backup suffix (default ~ w/o --backup-dir)
        -u, --update                skip files that are newer on the receiver
            --inplace               update destination files in-place
            --append                append data onto shorter files
            --append-verify         --append w/old data in file checksum
        -d, --dirs                  transfer directories without recursing
        -l, --links                 copy symlinks as symlinks
        -L, --copy-links            transform symlink into referent file/dir
            --copy-unsafe-links     only "unsafe" symlinks are transformed
            --safe-links            ignore symlinks that point outside the tree
        -k, --copy-dirlinks         transform symlink to dir into referent dir
        -K, --keep-dirlinks         treat symlinked dir on receiver as dir
        -H, --hard-links            preserve hard links
        -p, --perms                 preserve permissions
        -E, --executability         preserve executability
            --chmod=CHMOD           affect file and/or directory permissions
        -A, --acls                  preserve ACLs (implies -p)
        -X, --xattrs                preserve extended attributes
        -o, --owner                 preserve owner (super-user only)
        -g, --group                 preserve group
            --devices               preserve device files (super-user only)
            --specials              preserve special files
        -D                          same as --devices --specials
        -t, --times                 preserve modification times
        -O, --omit-dir-times        omit directories from --times
            --super                 receiver attempts super-user activities
            --fake-super            store/recover privileged attrs using xattrs
        -S, --sparse                handle sparse files efficiently
        -n, --dry-run               perform a trial run with no changes made
        -W, --whole-file            copy files whole (w/o delta-xfer algorithm)
        -x, --one-file-system       don't cross filesystem boundaries
        -B, --block-size=SIZE       force a fixed checksum block-size
        -e, --rsh=COMMAND           specify the remote shell to use
            --rsync-path=PROGRAM    specify the rsync to run on remote machine
            --existing              skip creating new files on receiver
            --ignore-existing       skip updating files that exist on receiver
            --remove-source-files   sender removes synchronized files (non-dir)
            --partial               keep partially transferred files
            --partial-dir=DIR       put a partially transferred file into DIR
            --delay-updates         put all updated files into place at end
        -m, --prune-empty-dirs      prune empty directory chains from file-list
            --numeric-ids           don't map uid/gid values by user/group name
            --timeout=SECONDS       set I/O timeout in seconds
            --contimeout=SECONDS    set daemon connection timeout in seconds
        -I, --ignore-times          don't skip files that match size and time
            --size-only             skip files that match in size
            --modify-window=NUM     compare mod-times with reduced accuracy
        -T, --temp-dir=DIR          create temporary files in directory DIR
        -y, --fuzzy                 find similar file for basis if no dest file
            --compare-dest=DIR      also compare received files relative to DIR
            --copy-dest=DIR         ... and include copies of unchanged files
            --link-dest=DIR         hardlink to files in DIR when unchanged
        -z, --compress              compress file data during the transfer
            --compress-level=NUM    explicitly set compression level
            --skip-compress=LIST    skip compressing files with suffix in LIST
        -C, --cvs-exclude           auto-ignore files in the same way CVS does
        -f, --filter=RULE           add a file-filtering RULE
        -F                          same as --filter='dir-merge /.rsync-filter'
                                    repeated: --filter='- .rsync-filter'
            --exclude=PATTERN       exclude files matching PATTERN
            --exclude-from=FILE     read exclude patterns from FILE
            --include=PATTERN       don't exclude files matching PATTERN
            --include-from=FILE     read include patterns from FILE
            --files-from=FILE       read list of source-file names from FILE
        -0, --from0                 all *from/filter files are delimited by 0s
        -s, --protect-args          no space-splitting; wildcard chars only
            --address=ADDRESS       bind address for outgoing socket to daemon
            --port=PORT             specify double-colon alternate port number
            --sockopts=OPTIONS      specify custom TCP options
            --blocking-io           use blocking I/O for the remote shell
            --stats                 give some file-transfer stats
        -8, --8-bit-output          leave high-bit chars unescaped in output
        -h, --human-readable        output numbers in a human-readable format
            --progress              show progress during transfer
        -P                          same as --partial --progress
        -i, --itemize-changes       output a change-summary for all updates
            --out-format=FORMAT     output updates using the specified FORMAT
            --log-file=FILE         log what we're doing to the specified FILE
            --log-file-format=FMT   log updates using the specified FMT
            --password-file=FILE    read daemon-access password from FILE
            --list-only             list the files instead of copying them
            --bwlimit=KBPS          limit I/O bandwidth; KBytes per second
            --write-batch=FILE      write a batched update to FILE
            --only-write-batch=FILE like --write-batch but w/o updating dest
            --read-batch=FILE       read a batched update from FILE
            --protocol=NUM          force an older protocol version to be used
            --iconv=CONVERT_SPEC    request charset conversion of filenames
            --checksum-seed=NUM     set block/file checksum seed (advanced)
        -4, --ipv4                  prefer IPv4
        -6, --ipv6                  prefer IPv6
            --version               print version number
            --log-file=FILE         override the "log file" setting
            --log-file-format=FMT   override the "log format" setting
            --sockopts=OPTIONS      specify custom TCP options
        -v, --verbose               increase verbosity
        -4, --ipv4                  prefer IPv4
        -6, --ipv6                  prefer IPv6
        -h, --help                  show this help (if used after --daemon)


OPTIONS
       rsync  uses  the  GNU  long  options  package. Many of the command line
       options have two variants, one short and one  long.   These  are  shown
       below, separated by commas. Some options only have a long variant.  The
       '=' for options that take a parameter is optional;  whitespace  can  be
       used instead.

       --help Print  a  short  help  page  describing the options available in
              rsync and exit.  For backward-compatibility with older  versions
              of  rsync, the help will also be output if you use the -h option
              without any other args.

       --version
              print the rsync version number and exit.

       -v, --verbose
              This option increases the amount of information  you  are  given
              during the transfer.  By default, rsync works silently. A single
              -v will give you information about what files are  being  trans-
              ferred  and a brief summary at the end. Two -v options will give
              you information on what files are  being  skipped  and  slightly
              more  information  at  the  end. More than two -v options should
              only be used if you are debugging rsync.

              Note that the names of the transferred files that are output are
              done  using  a  default  --out-format of "%n%L", which tells you
              just the name of the file and, if the item is a link,  where  it
              points.  At the single -v level of verbosity, this does not men-
              tion when a file gets its attributes changed.  If you ask for an
              itemized list of changed attributes (either --itemize-changes or
              adding "%i" to the --out-format setting),  the  output  (on  the
              client)  increases  to mention all items that are changed in any
              way.  See the --out-format option for more details.

       -q, --quiet
              This option decreases the amount of information  you  are  given
              during  the  transfer,  notably suppressing information messages
              from the remote server. This  option  is  useful  when  invoking
              rsync from cron.

       --no-motd
              This option affects the information that is output by the client
              at the start of a daemon transfer.  This suppresses the message-
              of-the-day  (MOTD) text, but it also affects the list of modules
              that the daemon sends in response to the "rsync host::"  request
              transferring files with either a changed size or a changed last-
              modified time to just looking for files  that  have  changed  in
              size.   This  is  useful  when starting to use rsync after using
              another mirroring  system  which  may  not  preserve  timestamps
              exactly.

       --modify-window
              When  comparing  two  timestamps, rsync treats the timestamps as
              being equal if they differ by no  more  than  the  modify-window
              value.   This  is  normally  0 (for an exact match), but you may
              find it useful to set this to a larger value in some situations.
              In  particular,  when  transferring to or from an MS Windows FAT
              filesystem (which represents times with a 2-second  resolution),
              --modify-window=1 is useful (allowing times to differ by up to 1
              second).

       -c, --checksum
              This changes the way rsync checks if the files have been changed
              and  are in need of a transfer.  Without this option, rsync uses
              a "quick check" that (by default) checks if each file's size and
              time of last modification match between the sender and receiver.
              This option changes this to compare a 128-bit checksum for  each
              file  that  has a matching size.  Generating the checksums means
              that both sides will expend a lot of disk I/O  reading  all  the
              data  in  the  files  in  the transfer (and this is prior to any
              reading that will be done to transfer changed  files),  so  this
              can slow things down significantly.

              The  sending  side generates its checksums while it is doing the
              file-system scan that builds the list of  the  available  files.
              The  receiver  generates  its  checksums when it is scanning for
              changed files, and will checksum any file that has the same size
              as the corresponding sender's file:  files with either a changed
              size or a changed checksum are selected for transfer.

              Note that rsync always verifies that each transferred  file  was
              correctly  reconstructed  on  the  receiving  side by checking a
              whole-file checksum that is generated  as  the  file  is  trans-
              ferred,  but  that automatic after-the-transfer verification has
              nothing to do with this option's before-the-transfer "Does  this
              file need to be updated?" check.

              For  protocol  30  and  beyond  (first  supported in 3.0.0), the
              checksum used is MD5.  For older protocols, the checksum used is
              MD4.

       -a, --archive
              This  is equivalent to -rlptgoD. It is a quick way of saying you
              want recursion and want to preserve almost everything  (with  -H
              being  a  notable  omission).   The  only exception to the above
              equivalence is when --files-from is specified, in which case  -r
              is not implied.

              Note that -a does not preserve hardlinks, because finding multi-
              (--owner),  instead  of  converting  -a  into -rlptgD, you could
              specify -a --no-o (or -a --no-owner).

              The order of the options is important:  if  you  specify  --no-r
              -a,  the -r option would end up being turned on, the opposite of
              -a --no-r.  Note also that the side-effects of the  --files-from
              option  are  NOT  positional, as it affects the default state of
              several options and slightly changes the meaning of -a (see  the
              --files-from option for more details).

       -r, --recursive
              This  tells  rsync  to  copy  directories recursively.  See also
              --dirs (-d).

              Beginning with rsync 3.0.0, the recursive algorithm used is  now
              an  incremental  scan that uses much less memory than before and
              begins the transfer after the scanning of the first few directo-
              ries  have  been  completed.  This incremental scan only affects
              our recursion algorithm, and does  not  change  a  non-recursive
              transfer.  It is also only possible when both ends of the trans-
              fer are at least version 3.0.0.

              Some options require rsync to know the full file list, so  these
              options  disable the incremental recursion mode.  These include:
              --delete-before,   --delete-after,    --prune-empty-dirs,    and
              --delay-updates.   Because of this, the default delete mode when
              you specify --delete is now --delete-during when  both  ends  of
              the  connection are at least 3.0.0 (use --del or --delete-during
              to request this improved deletion mode  explicitly).   See  also
              the  --delete-delay  option  that  is a better choice than using
              --delete-after.

              Incremental recursion can be disabled using the  --no-inc-recur-
              sive option or its shorter --no-i-r alias.

       -R, --relative
              Use  relative  paths. This means that the full path names speci-
              fied on the command line are sent to the server rather than just
              the  last  parts  of  the filenames. This is particularly useful
              when you want to send several different directories at the  same
              time. For example, if you used this command:

                 rsync -av /foo/bar/baz.c remote:/tmp/


              ...  this would create a file named baz.c in /tmp/ on the remote
              machine. If instead you used

                 rsync -avR /foo/bar/baz.c remote:/tmp/


              then a file named /tmp/foo/bar/baz.c would  be  created  on  the
              remote machine, preserving its full path.  These extra path ele-
              ments are called "implied directories" (i.e. the "foo"  and  the
              It is also possible to limit the amount of path information that
              is sent as implied directories for each path you specify.   With
              a  modern  rsync on the sending side (beginning with 2.6.7), you
              can insert a dot and a slash into the source path, like this:

                 rsync -avR /foo/./bar/baz.c remote:/tmp/


              That would create /tmp/bar/baz.c on the remote  machine.   (Note
              that  the dot must be followed by a slash, so "/foo/." would not
              be abbreviated.)  For older rsync versions, you  would  need  to
              use a chdir to limit the source path.  For example, when pushing
              files:

                 (cd /foo; rsync -avR bar/baz.c remote:/tmp/)


              (Note that the parens put the two commands into a sub-shell,  so
              that  the  "cd" command doesn't remain in effect for future com-
              mands.)  If you're pulling files from an older rsync,  use  this
              idiom (but only for a non-daemon transfer):

                 rsync -avR --rsync-path="cd /foo; rsync" \
                     remote:bar/baz.c /tmp/


       --no-implied-dirs
              This  option  affects  the  default  behavior  of the --relative
              option.  When it is specified, the  attributes  of  the  implied
              directories from the source names are not included in the trans-
              fer.  This means that the corresponding  path  elements  on  the
              destination  system  are  left  unchanged if they exist, and any
              missing implied directories are created with default attributes.
              This even allows these implied path elements to have big differ-
              ences, such as being a symlink to a directory on  the  receiving
              side.

              For  instance,  if a command-line arg or a files-from entry told
              rsync to transfer  the  file  "path/foo/file",  the  directories
              "path"  and  "path/foo" are implied when --relative is used.  If
              "path/foo" is a symlink to "bar" on the destination system,  the
              receiving  rsync would ordinarily delete "path/foo", recreate it
              as a directory, and receive the file  into  the  new  directory.
              With    --no-implied-dirs,    the    receiving   rsync   updates
              "path/foo/file" using the existing path  elements,  which  means
              that  the file ends up being created in "path/bar".  Another way
              to  accomplish  this   link   preservation   is   to   use   the
              --keep-dirlinks  option  (which  will  also  affect  symlinks to
              directories in the rest of the transfer).

              When pulling files from an rsync older than 3.0.0, you may  need
              to use this option if the sending side has a symlink in the path
              you request and you wish the implied directories  to  be  trans-
              ferred as normal directories.
              viously  backed-up  files  from being deleted.  Note that if you
              are supplying your own filter rules, you may  need  to  manually
              insert  your own exclude/protect rule somewhere higher up in the
              list so that it has a  high  enough  priority  to  be  effective
              (e.g.,  if  your rules specify a trailing inclusion/exclusion of
              '*', the auto-added rule would never be reached).

       --backup-dir=DIR
              In combination with the --backup option,  this  tells  rsync  to
              store  all  backups  in the specified directory on the receiving
              side.  This can be used for incremental backups.  You can  addi-
              tionally specify a backup suffix using the --suffix option (oth-
              erwise the files backed up in the specified directory will  keep
              their original filenames).

       --suffix=SUFFIX
              This  option  allows  you  to override the default backup suffix
              used with the --backup (-b) option. The default suffix is a ~ if
              no --backup-dir was specified, otherwise it is an empty string.

       -u, --update
              This  forces rsync to skip any files which exist on the destina-
              tion and have a modified time that  is  newer  than  the  source
              file.   (If an existing destination file has a modification time
              equal to the source file's, it will be updated if the sizes  are
              different.)

              Note  that this does not affect the copying of symlinks or other
              special files.  Also, a difference of file  format  between  the
              sender  and receiver is always considered to be important enough
              for an update, no matter what date is on the objects.  In  other
              words, if the source has a directory where the destination has a
              file, the transfer would occur regardless of the timestamps.

              This option is a transfer rule, not an exclude,  so  it  doesn't
              affect  the  data  that  goes  into  the file-lists, and thus it
              doesn't affect deletions.  It just limits  the  files  that  the
              receiver requests to be transferred.

       --inplace
              This  option  changes  how  rsync transfers a file when its data
              needs to be updated: instead of the default method of creating a
              new  copy  of  the file and moving it into place when it is com-
              plete, rsync instead writes the updated  data  directly  to  the
              destination file.

              This  has several effects: (1) in-use binaries cannot be updated
              (either the OS will prevent this  from  happening,  or  binaries
              that attempt to swap-in their data will misbehave or crash), (2)
              the file's data will be in  an  inconsistent  state  during  the
              transfer, (3) a file's data may be left in an inconsistent state
              after the transfer if the  transfer  is  interrupted  or  if  an
              update  fails,  (4)  a file that does not have write permissions
              can not be updated, and (5) the  efficiency  of  rsync's  delta-
              disk bound, not network bound.

              The option implies --partial (since an interrupted transfer does
              not delete the  file),  but  conflicts  with  --partial-dir  and
              --delay-updates.  Prior to rsync 2.6.4 --inplace was also incom-
              patible with --compare-dest and --link-dest.

       --append
              This causes rsync to update a file by appending  data  onto  the
              end  of  the  file,  which  presumes  that the data that already
              exists on the receiving side is identical with the start of  the
              file on the sending side.  If a file needs to be transferred and
              its size on the receiver is the same or longer than the size  on
              the  sender,  the file is skipped.  This does not interfere with
              the updating of a file's non-content  attributes  (e.g.  permis-
              sions, ownership, etc.) when the file does not need to be trans-
              ferred, nor does it  affect  the  updating  of  any  non-regular
              files.   Implies  --inplace, but does not conflict with --sparse
              (since it is always extending a file's length).

       --append-verify
              This works just like the --append option, but the existing  data
              on the receiving side is included in the full-file checksum ver-
              ification step, which will cause a file  to  be  resent  if  the
              final  verification step fails (rsync uses a normal, non-append-
              ing --inplace transfer for the resend).

              Note: prior to rsync 3.0.0,  the  --append  option  worked  like
              --append-verify,  so  if you are interacting with an older rsync
              (or the transfer is using a protocol prior  to  30),  specifying
              either append option will initiate an --append-verify transfer.

       -d, --dirs
              Tell  the  sending  side  to  include  any  directories that are
              encountered.  Unlike --recursive, a directory's contents are not
              copied unless the directory name specified is "." or ends with a
              trailing slash (e.g. ".", "dir/.", "dir/", etc.).  Without  this
              option  or  the --recursive option, rsync will skip all directo-
              ries it encounters (and output a message to that effect for each
              one).   If  you specify both --dirs and --recursive, --recursive
              takes precedence.

              The --dirs option is implied by the --files-from option  or  the
              --list-only  option  (including an implied --list-only usage) if
              --recursive wasn't specified (so that directories  are  seen  in
              the listing).  Specify --no-dirs (or --no-d) if you want to turn
              this off.

              There is also a backward-compatibility helper option, --old-dirs
              (or   --old-d)   that   tells   rsync  to  use  a  hack  of  "-r
              --exclude='/*/*'" to get an older rsync to list a single  direc-
              tory without recursing.

       -l, --links
              side-effect of -K on that older receiving rsync.

       --copy-unsafe-links
              This tells rsync to copy the referent  of  symbolic  links  that
              point  outside  the  copied  tree.   Absolute  symlinks are also
              treated like ordinary files, and so  are  any  symlinks  in  the
              source  path itself when --relative is used.  This option has no
              additional effect if --copy-links was also specified.

       --safe-links
              This tells rsync to ignore any symbolic links which  point  out-
              side  the  copied  tree. All absolute symlinks are also ignored.
              Using this option in conjunction with --relative may give  unex-
              pected results.

       -k, --copy-dirlinks
              This  option  causes  the  sending  side to treat a symlink to a
              directory as though it were a real directory.  This is useful if
              you  don't  want  symlinks to non-directories to be affected, as
              they would be using --copy-links.

              Without this option, if the sending side has replaced  a  direc-
              tory  with  a  symlink  to  a directory, the receiving side will
              delete anything that is in the way of the new symlink, including
              a  directory  hierarchy  (as  long  as --force or --delete is in
              effect).

              See also --keep-dirlinks for an analogous option for the receiv-
              ing side.

       -K, --keep-dirlinks
              This  option  causes  the receiving side to treat a symlink to a
              directory as though it were a real directory,  but  only  if  it
              matches  a real directory from the sender.  Without this option,
              the receiver's symlink would be deleted and replaced with a real
              directory.

              For  example,  suppose  you transfer a directory "foo" that con-
              tains a file "file", but "foo" is a symlink to  directory  "bar"
              on  the receiver.  Without --keep-dirlinks, the receiver deletes
              symlink "foo", recreates it as a  directory,  and  receives  the
              file into the new directory.  With --keep-dirlinks, the receiver
              keeps the symlink and "file" ends up in "bar".

              One note of caution:  if you use --keep-dirlinks, you must trust
              all  the  symlinks  in  the  copy!   If  it  is  possible for an
              untrusted user to create their own symlink to any directory, the
              user  could then (on a subsequent copy) replace the symlink with
              a real directory and affect the content  of  whatever  directory
              the  symlink  references.  For backup copies, you are better off
              using something like a bind mount instead of a symlink to modify
              your receiving hierarchy.

              See also --copy-dirlinks for an analogous option for the sending
              tination that do not exist between the source files.  Note, how-
              ever, that if  one  or  more  extra-linked  files  have  content
              changes,  they  will  become unlinked when updated (assuming you
              are not using the --inplace option).

              Note that rsync can only detect hard links  between  files  that
              are  inside  the transfer set.  If rsync updates a file that has
              extra hard-link connections to files outside the transfer,  that
              linkage will be broken.  If you are tempted to use the --inplace
              option to avoid this breakage, be very careful that you know how
              your  files  are  being  updated so that you are certain that no
              unintended changes happen due to lingering hard links  (and  see
              the --inplace option for more caveats).

              If  incremental recursion is active (see --recursive), rsync may
              transfer a missing hard-linked file before it finds that another
              link  for that contents exists elsewhere in the hierarchy.  This
              does not affect the accuracy of the  transfer,  just  its  effi-
              ciency.   One way to avoid this is to disable incremental recur-
              sion using the --no-inc-recursive option.

       -p, --perms
              This option causes the receiving rsync to  set  the  destination
              permissions to be the same as the source permissions.  (See also
              the --chmod option for a way to modify what rsync  considers  to
              be the source permissions.)

              When this option is off, permissions are set as follows:

              o      Existing  files  (including  updated  files) retain their
                     existing permissions, though the  --executability  option
                     might change just the execute permission for the file.

              o      New  files  get their "normal" permission bits set to the
                     source  file's  permissions  masked  with  the  receiving
                     directory's  default  permissions  (either  the receiving
                     process's umask, or the  permissions  specified  via  the
                     destination  directory's  default ACL), and their special
                     permission bits disabled except in the case where  a  new
                     directory  inherits  a  setgid bit from its parent direc-
                     tory.


              Thus,  when  --perms  and  --executability  are  both  disabled,
              rsync's  behavior  is the same as that of other file-copy utili-
              ties, such as cp(1) and tar(1).

              In summary: to give destination files (both  old  and  new)  the
              source permissions, use --perms.  To give new files the destina-
              tion-default   permissions   (while   leaving   existing   files
              unchanged),  make  sure  that  the --perms option is off and use
              --chmod=ugo=rwX (which ensures  that  all  non-masked  bits  get
              enabled).   If you'd care to make this latter behavior easier to
              type, you could define a popt alias for it, such as putting this

              (Caveat: make sure that -a does not follow -Z, or  it  will  re-
              enable the two "--no-*" options mentioned above.)

              The  preservation  of the destination's setgid bit on newly-cre-
              ated directories when --perms is off was added in  rsync  2.6.7.
              Older  rsync  versions  erroneously  preserved the three special
              permission bits for newly-created files when  --perms  was  off,
              while  overriding  the  destination's  setgid  bit  setting on a
              newly-created directory.  Default ACL observance  was  added  to
              the  ACL  patch  for  rsync 2.6.7, so older (or non-ACL-enabled)
              rsyncs use the umask even if default ACLs are present.  (Keep in
              mind  that it is the version of the receiving rsync that affects
              these behaviors.)

       -E, --executability
              This option causes rsync to preserve the executability (or  non-
              executability)  of regular files when --perms is not enabled.  A
              regular file is considered to be executable if at least one  'x'
              is  turned  on in its permissions.  When an existing destination
              file's executability differs  from  that  of  the  corresponding
              source  file,  rsync modifies the destination file's permissions
              as follows:

              o      To make a file non-executable, rsync turns  off  all  its
                     'x' permissions.

              o      To  make  a file executable, rsync turns on each 'x' per-
                     mission that has a corresponding 'r' permission enabled.


              If --perms is enabled, this option is ignored.

       -A, --acls
              This option causes rsync to update the destination  ACLs  to  be
              the same as the source ACLs.  The option also implies --perms.

              The  source  and  destination  systems  must have compatible ACL
              entries for this option to work properly.  See the  --fake-super
              option for a way to backup and restore ACLs that are not compat-
              ible.

       -X, --xattrs
              This  option  causes  rsync  to  update  the   remote   extended
              attributes to be the same as the local ones.

              For  systems  that support extended-attribute namespaces, a copy
              being done by a super-user copies  all  namespaces  except  sys-
              tem.*.   A  normal user only copies the user.* namespace.  To be
              able to backup and restore non-user namespaces as a normal user,
              see the --fake-super option.

       --chmod
              This  option  tells  rsync  to apply one or more comma-separated
              --chmod=Dg+s,ug+w,Fo-w,+X


              It is also legal to specify multiple --chmod  options,  as  each
              additional  option  is  just  appended to the list of changes to
              make.

              See the --perms and --executability options for how the  result-
              ing  permission  value can be applied to the files in the trans-
              fer.

       -o, --owner
              This option causes rsync to set the  owner  of  the  destination
              file  to be the same as the source file, but only if the receiv-
              ing rsync is being run as the super-user (see also  the  --super
              and  --fake-super  options).   Without this option, the owner of
              new and/or transferred files are set to the invoking user on the
              receiving side.

              The  preservation  of ownership will associate matching names by
              default, but may fall back to using the ID number in  some  cir-
              cumstances (see also the --numeric-ids option for a full discus-
              sion).

       -g, --group
              This option causes rsync to set the  group  of  the  destination
              file  to  be the same as the source file.  If the receiving pro-
              gram is not running as the  super-user  (or  if  --no-super  was
              specified),  only groups that the invoking user on the receiving
              side is a member of will be preserved.  Without this option, the
              group  is  set  to the default group of the invoking user on the
              receiving side.

              The preservation of group information  will  associate  matching
              names  by  default,  but may fall back to using the ID number in
              some circumstances (see also the --numeric-ids option for a full
              discussion).

       --devices
              This  option causes rsync to transfer character and block device
              files to the remote system  to  recreate  these  devices.   This
              option  has  no  effect if the receiving rsync is not run as the
              super-user (see also the --super and --fake-super options).

       --specials
              This option causes rsync to transfer special files such as named
              sockets and fifos.

       -D     The -D option is equivalent to --devices --specials.

       -t, --times
              This  tells  rsync to transfer modification times along with the
              files and update them on the remote system.  Note that  if  this
              option  is  not  used, the optimization that excludes files that

       --super
              This tells the receiving side to attempt  super-user  activities
              even if the receiving rsync wasn't run by the super-user.  These
              activities include: preserving users  via  the  --owner  option,
              preserving  all  groups (not just the current user's groups) via
              the --groups option,  and  copying  devices  via  the  --devices
              option.   This  is useful for systems that allow such activities
              without being the super-user, and also  for  ensuring  that  you
              will  get  errors  if  the receiving side isn't being run as the
              super-user.  To turn off super-user activities,  the  super-user
              can use --no-super.

       --fake-super
              When  this option is enabled, rsync simulates super-user activi-
              ties by saving/restoring the privileged attributes  via  special
              extended  attributes that are attached to each file (as needed).
              This includes the file's owner and  group  (if  it  is  not  the
              default),  the  file's  device  info (device & special files are
              created as empty text files), and any permission  bits  that  we
              won't allow to be set on the real file (e.g.  the real file gets
              u-s,g-s,o-t for safety) or that would limit the  owner's  access
              (since  the real super-user can always access/change a file, the
              files we create can always be accessed/changed by  the  creating
              user).   This option also handles ACLs (if --acls was specified)
              and non-user extended attributes (if --xattrs was specified).

              This is a good way to backup data without  using  a  super-user,
              and to store ACLs from incompatible systems.

              The  --fake-super  option only affects the side where the option
              is used.  To affect the remote side of  a  remote-shell  connec-
              tion, specify an rsync path:

                rsync -av --rsync-path="rsync --fake-super" /src/ host:/dest/


              Since  there  is  only  one  "side" in a local copy, this option
              affects both the sending and receiving of files.  You'll need to
              specify a copy using "localhost" if you need to avoid this, pos-
              sibly using the "lsh" shell script (from the support  directory)
              as a substitute for an actual remote shell (see --rsh).

              This option is overridden by both --super and --no-super.

              See  also  the  "fake super" setting in the daemon's rsyncd.conf
              file.

       -S, --sparse
              Try to handle sparse files efficiently  so  they  take  up  less
              space on the destination.  Conflicts with --inplace because it's
              not possible to overwrite data in a sparse fashion.

              NOTE: Don't use this option when the destination  is  a  Solaris
              trickery and system call failures); if it isn't, that's  a  bug.
              Other  output should be mostly unchanged, but may differ in some
              areas.  Notably, a dry run does not send  the  actual  data  for
              file  transfers,  so --progress has no effect, the "bytes sent",
              "bytes received", "literal data", and "matched data"  statistics
              are  too  small,  and the "speedup" value is equivalent to a run
              where no file transfers were needed.

       -W, --whole-file
              With this option rsync's delta-transfer algorithm  is  not  used
              and  the  whole file is sent as-is instead.  The transfer may be
              faster if this option is used when  the  bandwidth  between  the
              source  and destination machines is higher than the bandwidth to
              disk  (especially  when  the  "disk"  is  actually  a  networked
              filesystem).   This is the default when both the source and des-
              tination are specified as local paths, but  only  if  no  batch-
              writing option is in effect.

       -x, --one-file-system
              This  tells  rsync  to avoid crossing a filesystem boundary when
              recursing.  This does not limit the user's  ability  to  specify
              items  to copy from multiple filesystems, just rsync's recursion
              through the hierarchy of each directory that the user specified,
              and  also  the  analogous recursion on the receiving side during
              deletion.  Also keep in mind that rsync treats a "bind" mount to
              the same device as being on the same filesystem.

              If this option is repeated, rsync omits all mount-point directo-
              ries from the copy.  Otherwise, it includes an  empty  directory
              at  each  mount-point it encounters (using the attributes of the
              mounted directory because those of  the  underlying  mount-point
              directory are inaccessible).

              If rsync has been told to collapse symlinks (via --copy-links or
              --copy-unsafe-links), a symlink to a directory on another device
              is  treated like a mount-point.  Symlinks to non-directories are
              unaffected by this option.

       --existing, --ignore-non-existing
              This tells rsync to skip creating files (including  directories)
              that  do  not  exist  yet on the destination.  If this option is
              combined with the --ignore-existing option,  no  files  will  be
              updated  (which  can  be  useful if all you want to do is delete
              extraneous files).

              This option is a transfer rule, not an exclude,  so  it  doesn't
              affect  the  data  that  goes  into  the file-lists, and thus it
              doesn't affect deletions.  It just limits  the  files  that  the
              receiver requests to be transferred.

       --ignore-existing
              This  tells  rsync  to skip updating files that already exist on
              the destination (this does not ignore existing  directories,  or
              nothing would get done).  See also --existing.
              files).  This does mean that this option is only looking at  the
              existing files in the destination hierarchy itself.

       --remove-source-files
              This  tells  rsync  to  remove  from  the sending side the files
              (meaning non-directories) that are a part of  the  transfer  and
              have been successfully duplicated on the receiving side.

       --delete
              This  tells  rsync to delete extraneous files from the receiving
              side (ones that aren't on the sending side), but  only  for  the
              directories  that  are  being synchronized.  You must have asked
              rsync to send the whole directory (e.g. "dir" or "dir/") without
              using  a  wildcard  for  the directory's contents (e.g. "dir/*")
              since the wildcard is expanded by the shell and rsync thus  gets
              a  request  to  transfer individual files, not the files' parent
              directory.  Files that are excluded from the transfer  are  also
              excluded from being deleted unless you use the --delete-excluded
              option or mark the rules as only matching on  the  sending  side
              (see the include/exclude modifiers in the FILTER RULES section).

              Prior  to  rsync  2.6.7, this option would have no effect unless
              --recursive was enabled.  Beginning with 2.6.7,  deletions  will
              also occur when --dirs (-d) is enabled, but only for directories
              whose contents are being copied.

              This option can be dangerous if used incorrectly!  It is a  very
              good  idea to first try a run using the --dry-run option (-n) to
              see what files are going to be deleted.

              If the sending side detects any I/O errors, then the deletion of
              any  files  at  the  destination will be automatically disabled.
              This is to prevent temporary filesystem failures  (such  as  NFS
              errors)  on  the sending side from causing a massive deletion of
              files on the  destination.   You  can  override  this  with  the
              --ignore-errors option.

              The   --delete   option   may   be  combined  with  one  of  the
              --delete-WHEN   options   without   conflict,   as    well    as
              --delete-excluded.    However,  if  none  of  the  --delete-WHEN
              options are specified, rsync  will  choose  the  --delete-during
              algorithm  when  talking  to  rsync  3.0.0  or  newer,  and  the
              --delete-before algorithm when talking to an older  rsync.   See
              also --delete-delay and --delete-after.

       --delete-before
              Request  that  the  file-deletions on the receiving side be done
              before the transfer starts.  See --delete (which is implied) for
              more details on file-deletion.

              Deleting  before  the  transfer  is helpful if the filesystem is
              tight for space and removing extraneous files would help to make
              the  transfer  possible.   However,  it  does  introduce a delay
              before the start of the transfer, and this delay might cause the
              2.6.4.  See --delete (which is  implied)  for  more  details  on
              file-deletion.

       --delete-delay
              Request  that  the  file-deletions on the receiving side be com-
              puted during  the  transfer  (like  --delete-during),  and  then
              removed  after the transfer completes.  This is useful when com-
              bined with --delay-updates and/or --fuzzy, and is more efficient
              than  using  --delete-after  (but  can behave differently, since
              --delete-after computes the deletions in a separate  pass  after
              all updates are done).  If the number of removed files overflows
              an internal buffer, a temporary file  will  be  created  on  the
              receiving  side  to hold the names (it is removed while open, so
              you shouldn't see it during the transfer).  If the  creation  of
              the  temporary  file fails, rsync will try to fall back to using
              --delete-after (which it cannot do if --recursive  is  doing  an
              incremental  scan).   See  --delete  (which is implied) for more
              details on file-deletion.

       --delete-after
              Request that the file-deletions on the receiving  side  be  done
              after  the  transfer  has  completed.  This is useful if you are
              sending new per-directory merge files as a part of the  transfer
              and  you  want  their  exclusions  to take effect for the delete
              phase of the current transfer.  It also forces rsync to use  the
              old,  non-incremental recursion algorithm that requires rsync to
              scan all the files in the transfer  into  memory  at  once  (see
              --recursive).   See --delete (which is implied) for more details
              on file-deletion.

       --delete-excluded
              In addition to deleting the files on the receiving side that are
              not  on  the  sending  side, this tells rsync to also delete any
              files on the receiving side that are excluded  (see  --exclude).
              See the FILTER RULES section for a way to make individual exclu-
              sions behave this way on the receiver, and for a way to  protect
              files  from  --delete-excluded.  See --delete (which is implied)
              for more details on file-deletion.

       --ignore-errors
              Tells --delete to go ahead and delete files even when there  are
              I/O errors.

       --force
              This  option tells rsync to delete a non-empty directory when it
              is to be replaced by a non-directory.  This is only relevant  if
              deletions are not active (see --delete for details).

              Note for older rsync versions: --force used to still be required
              when using --delete-after, and  it  used  to  be  non-functional
              unless the --recursive option was also enabled.

       --max-delete=NUM
              This  tells  rsync not to delete more than NUM files or directo-
              This  tells  rsync to avoid transferring any file that is larger
              than the specified SIZE. The SIZE value can be suffixed  with  a
              string  to  indicate  a size multiplier, and may be a fractional
              value (e.g. "--max-size=1.5m").

              This option is a transfer rule, not an exclude,  so  it  doesn't
              affect  the  data  that  goes  into  the file-lists, and thus it
              doesn't affect deletions.  It just limits  the  files  that  the
              receiver requests to be transferred.

              The  suffixes  are  as  follows:  "K"  (or  "KiB") is a kibibyte
              (1024), "M" (or "MiB") is a mebibyte (1024*1024),  and  "G"  (or
              "GiB")  is  a gibibyte (1024*1024*1024).  If you want the multi-
              plier to be 1000 instead of  1024,  use  "KB",  "MB",  or  "GB".
              (Note: lower-case is also accepted for all values.)  Finally, if
              the suffix ends in either "+1" or "-1", the value will be offset
              by one byte in the indicated direction.

              Examples:    --max-size=1.5mb-1    is    1499999    bytes,   and
              --max-size=2g+1 is 2147483649 bytes.

       --min-size=SIZE
              This tells rsync to avoid transferring any file that is  smaller
              than  the  specified  SIZE,  which  can help in not transferring
              small, junk files.  See the --max-size option for a  description
              of SIZE and other information.

       -B, --block-size=BLOCKSIZE
              This  forces the block size used in rsync's delta-transfer algo-
              rithm to a fixed value.  It is normally selected  based  on  the
              size  of  each file being updated.  See the technical report for
              details.

       -e, --rsh=COMMAND
              This option allows you to choose  an  alternative  remote  shell
              program  to  use  for communication between the local and remote
              copies of rsync. Typically, rsync is configured to  use  ssh  by
              default, but you may prefer to use rsh on a local network.

              If  this  option is used with [user@]host::module/path, then the
              remote shell COMMAND will be used to run an rsync daemon on  the
              remote  host,  and  all  data  will  be transmitted through that
              remote shell connection, rather than  through  a  direct  socket
              connection  to  a  running rsync daemon on the remote host.  See
              the section "USING RSYNC-DAEMON FEATURES VIA A REMOTE-SHELL CON-
              NECTION" above.

              Command-line  arguments  are  permitted in COMMAND provided that
              COMMAND is presented to rsync as a single  argument.   You  must
              use  spaces  (not tabs or other whitespace) to separate the com-
              mand and args from each other, and you can  use  single-  and/or
              double-quotes  to  preserve spaces in an argument (but not back-
              slashes).  Note that doubling a single-quote  inside  a  single-
              quoted  string  gives  you  a single-quote; likewise for double-
              environment variable, which accepts the same range of values  as
              -e.

              See  also  the  --blocking-io  option  which is affected by this
              option.

       --rsync-path=PROGRAM
              Use this to specify what program is to  be  run  on  the  remote
              machine  to start-up rsync.  Often used when rsync is not in the
              default           remote-shell's           path            (e.g.
              --rsync-path=/usr/local/bin/rsync).   Note  that  PROGRAM is run
              with the help of a shell, so it can be any program,  script,  or
              command  sequence you'd care to run, so long as it does not cor-
              rupt the standard-in & standard-out that rsync is using to  com-
              municate.

              One  tricky  example  is to set a different default directory on
              the remote machine for use  with  the  --relative  option.   For
              instance:

                  rsync -avR --rsync-path="cd /a/b && rsync" host:c/d /e/


       -C, --cvs-exclude
              This  is a useful shorthand for excluding a broad range of files
              that you often don't want to transfer between systems. It uses a
              similar  algorithm  to  CVS  to  determine  if  a file should be
              ignored.

              The exclude list is initialized to exclude the  following  items
              (these  initial items are marked as perishable -- see the FILTER
              RULES section):

                     RCS  SCCS  CVS  CVS.adm   RCSLOG   cvslog.*   tags   TAGS
                     .make.state  .nse_depinfo *~ #* .#* ,* _$* *$ *.old *.bak
                     *.BAK *.orig *.rej .del-* *.a *.olb *.o *.obj *.so  *.exe
                     *.Z *.elc *.ln core .svn/ .git/ .bzr/


              then,  files  listed in a $HOME/.cvsignore are added to the list
              and any files listed in the CVSIGNORE environment variable  (all
              cvsignore names are delimited by whitespace).

              Finally, any file is ignored if it is in the same directory as a
              .cvsignore file and matches one of the patterns listed  therein.
              Unlike rsync's filter/exclude files, these patterns are split on
              whitespace.  See the cvs(1) manual for more information.

              If you're combining -C with your own --filter rules, you  should
              note that these CVS excludes are appended at the end of your own
              rules, regardless of where the -C was  placed  on  the  command-
              line.  This makes them a lower priority than any rules you spec-
              ified explicitly.  If  you  want  to  control  where  these  CVS
              excludes  get  inserted  into your filter rules, you should omit
              You  may use as many --filter options on the command line as you
              like to build up the list of files to exclude.   If  the  filter
              contains whitespace, be sure to quote it so that the shell gives
              the rule to rsync as a single argument.   The  text  below  also
              mentions  that  you  can  use an underscore to replace the space
              that separates a rule from its arg.

              See the FILTER RULES section for detailed  information  on  this
              option.

       -F     The  -F  option  is a shorthand for adding two --filter rules to
              your command.  The first time it is used is a shorthand for this
              rule:

                 --filter='dir-merge /.rsync-filter'


              This  tells  rsync to look for per-directory .rsync-filter files
              that have been sprinkled through the  hierarchy  and  use  their
              rules  to  filter the files in the transfer.  If -F is repeated,
              it is a shorthand for this rule:

                 --filter='exclude .rsync-filter'


              This filters out the .rsync-filter  files  themselves  from  the
              transfer.

              See  the  FILTER  RULES  section for detailed information on how
              these options work.

       --exclude=PATTERN
              This option is a simplified form of  the  --filter  option  that
              defaults  to  an  exclude rule and does not allow the full rule-
              parsing syntax of normal filter rules.

              See the FILTER RULES section for detailed  information  on  this
              option.

       --exclude-from=FILE
              This option is related to the --exclude option, but it specifies
              a FILE that contains exclude patterns  (one  per  line).   Blank
              lines  in  the  file  and  lines  starting  with  ';' or '#' are
              ignored.  If FILE is -, the list  will  be  read  from  standard
              input.

       --include=PATTERN
              This  option  is  a  simplified form of the --filter option that
              defaults to an include rule and does not allow  the  full  rule-
              parsing syntax of normal filter rules.

              See  the  FILTER  RULES section for detailed information on this
              option.


              o      The  --relative  (-R)  option is implied, which preserves
                     the path information that is specified for each  item  in
                     the file (use --no-relative or --no-R if you want to turn
                     that off).

              o      The --dirs (-d) option  is  implied,  which  will  create
                     directories  specified  in  the  list  on the destination
                     rather than  noisily  skipping  them  (use  --no-dirs  or
                     --no-d if you want to turn that off).

              o      The  --archive  (-a)  option's  behavior  does  not imply
                     --recursive (-r), so specify it explicitly, if  you  want
                     it.

              o      These  side-effects change the default state of rsync, so
                     the position of the --files-from option on  the  command-
                     line has no bearing on how other options are parsed (e.g.
                     -a works the same before or after --files-from,  as  does
                     --no-R and all other options).


              The  filenames  that  are read from the FILE are all relative to
              the source dir -- any leading slashes are removed  and  no  ".."
              references  are  allowed  to go higher than the source dir.  For
              example, take this command:

                 rsync -a --files-from=/tmp/foo /usr remote:/backup


              If /tmp/foo contains the string  "bin"  (or  even  "/bin"),  the
              /usr/bin  directory will be created as /backup/bin on the remote
              host.  If it contains "bin/"  (note  the  trailing  slash),  the
              immediate  contents of the directory would also be sent (without
              needing to be explicitly mentioned in the file -- this began  in
              version  2.6.4).   In  both cases, if the -r option was enabled,
              that dir's entire hierarchy would also be transferred  (keep  in
              mind that -r needs to be specified explicitly with --files-from,
              since it is not implied by -a).  Also note that  the  effect  of
              the  (enabled by default) --relative option is to duplicate only
              the path info that is read from the file -- it  does  not  force
              the duplication of the source-spec path (/usr in this case).

              In  addition,  the --files-from file can be read from the remote
              host instead of the local host if you specify a "host:" in front
              of the file (the host must match one end of the transfer).  As a
              short-cut, you can specify just a prefix of ":" to mean "use the
              remote end of the transfer".  For example:

                 rsync -a --files-from=:/path/file-list src:/ /tmp/copy


              This  would  copy all the files specified in the /path/file-list
              file that was located on the remote "src" host.
              .cvsignore file are split on whitespace).

       -s, --protect-args
              This option sends all filenames and most options to  the  remote
              rsync without allowing the remote shell to interpret them.  This
              means that spaces are not split in names, and  any  non-wildcard
              special  characters  are  not  translated  (such  as ~, $, ;, &,
              etc.).  Wildcards are expanded  on  the  remote  host  by  rsync
              (instead of the shell doing it).

              If  you  use  this  option with --iconv, the args related to the
              remote side will also be translated from the local to the remote
              character-set.   The  translation  happens before wild-cards are
              expanded.  See also the --files-from option.

       -T, --temp-dir=DIR
              This option instructs rsync to use DIR as  a  scratch  directory
              when  creating  temporary copies of the files transferred on the
              receiving side.  The default behavior is to create  each  tempo-
              rary  file  in  the same directory as the associated destination
              file.

              This option is most often used when the receiving disk partition
              does  not  have  enough free space to hold a copy of the largest
              file in the transfer.  In  this  case  (i.e.  when  the  scratch
              directory  is  on a different disk partition), rsync will not be
              able to rename each received temporary file over the top of  the
              associated  destination  file,  but  instead  must  copy it into
              place.  Rsync does this by copying the file over the top of  the
              destination  file,  which  means  that the destination file will
              contain truncated data during this copy.  If this were not  done
              this  way  (even if the destination file were first removed, the
              data locally copied to  a  temporary  file  in  the  destination
              directory, and then renamed into place) it would be possible for
              the old file to continue taking up disk space (if someone had it
              open),  and  thus  there might not be enough room to fit the new
              version on the disk at the same time.

              If you are using this option for reasons other than  a  shortage
              of   disk   space,   you   may  wish  to  combine  it  with  the
              --delay-updates option, which will ensure that all copied  files
              get put into subdirectories in the destination hierarchy, await-
              ing the end of the transfer.  If you don't have enough  room  to
              duplicate  all  the arriving files on the destination partition,
              another way to tell rsync that you aren't overly concerned about
              disk  space  is  to use the --partial-dir option with a relative
              path; because this tells rsync that it is OK to stash off a copy
              of a single file in a subdir in the destination hierarchy, rsync
              will use the partial-dir as a staging area  to  bring  over  the
              copied file, and then rename it into place from there. (Specify-
              ing a --partial-dir with an absolute path  does  not  have  this
              side-effect.)

       -y, --fuzzy
              This option instructs  rsync  to  use  DIR  on  the  destination
              machine  as an additional hierarchy to compare destination files
              against doing transfers (if the files are missing in the  desti-
              nation  directory).  If a file is found in DIR that is identical
              to the sender's file, the file will NOT be  transferred  to  the
              destination  directory.   This  is  useful for creating a sparse
              backup of just files that have changed from an earlier backup.

              Beginning in version 2.6.4, multiple --compare-dest  directories
              may  be  provided,  which will cause rsync to search the list in
              the order specified for an exact match.  If  a  match  is  found
              that  differs  only  in attributes, a local copy is made and the
              attributes updated.  If a match is not found, a basis file  from
              one  of  the DIRs will be selected to try to speed up the trans-
              fer.

              If DIR is a relative path, it is  relative  to  the  destination
              directory.  See also --copy-dest and --link-dest.

       --copy-dest=DIR
              This  option  behaves  like  --compare-dest, but rsync will also
              copy unchanged files found in DIR to the  destination  directory
              using a local copy.  This is useful for doing transfers to a new
              destination while leaving existing files intact, and then  doing
              a  flash-cutover  when  all  files have been successfully trans-
              ferred.

              Multiple --copy-dest directories may  be  provided,  which  will
              cause  rsync  to  search  the list in the order specified for an
              unchanged file.  If a match is not found, a basis file from  one
              of the DIRs will be selected to try to speed up the transfer.

              If  DIR  is  a  relative path, it is relative to the destination
              directory.  See also --compare-dest and --link-dest.

       --link-dest=DIR
              This option behaves like --copy-dest, but  unchanged  files  are
              hard  linked  from  DIR to the destination directory.  The files
              must be identical in all preserved attributes (e.g. permissions,
              possibly  ownership)  in  order  for  the  files  to  be  linked
              together.  An example:

                rsync -av --link-dest=$PWD/prior_dir host:src_dir/ new_dir/


              If file's aren't linking, double-check their  attributes.   Also
              check  if  some attributes are getting forced outside of rsync's
              control, such a mount option that  squishes  root  to  a  single
              user,  or  mounts a removable drive with generic ownership (such
              as OS X's "Ignore ownership on this volume" option).

              Beginning in version 2.6.4, multiple --link-dest directories may
              be  provided,  which  will cause rsync to search the list in the
              order specified for an exact match.  If a match  is  found  that
              Note  that if you combine this option with --ignore-times, rsync
              will not link any files together because it only links identical
              files  together as a substitute for transferring the file, never
              as an additional check after the file is updated.

              If DIR is a relative path, it is  relative  to  the  destination
              directory.  See also --compare-dest and --copy-dest.

              Note  that  rsync  versions  prior to 2.6.1 had a bug that could
              prevent --link-dest from working properly for  a  non-super-user
              when  -o  was specified (or implied by -a).  You can work-around
              this bug by avoiding the -o option when sending to an old rsync.

       -z, --compress
              With this option, rsync compresses the file data as it  is  sent
              to  the  destination  machine,  which reduces the amount of data
              being transmitted -- something that is useful over a  slow  con-
              nection.

              Note  that  this  option  typically  achieves better compression
              ratios than can be achieved by using a compressing remote  shell
              or  a  compressing  transport  because it takes advantage of the
              implicit information in the matching data blocks  that  are  not
              explicitly sent over the connection.

              See the --skip-compress option for the default list of file suf-
              fixes that will not be compressed.

       --compress-level=NUM
              Explicitly set the compression level  to  use  (see  --compress)
              instead  of  letting it default.  If NUM is non-zero, the --com-
              press option is implied.

       --skip-compress=LIST
              Override the list of file suffixes that will not be  compressed.
              The  LIST  should be one or more file suffixes (without the dot)
              separated by slashes (/).

              You may specify an empty string to indicate that no file  should
              be skipped.

              Simple  character-class matching is supported: each must consist
              of a list of letters inside the square brackets (e.g. no special
              classes, such as "[:alpha:]", are supported).

              The  characters  asterisk (*) and question-mark (?) have no spe-
              cial meaning.

              Here's an example that specifies 6 suffixes to skip (since 1  of
              the 5 rules matches 2 suffixes):

                  --skip-compress=gz/jpg/mp[34]/7z/bz2


              With  this option rsync will transfer numeric group and user IDs
              rather than using user and group names and mapping them at  both
              ends.

              By  default  rsync will use the username and groupname to deter-
              mine what ownership to give files. The special  uid  0  and  the
              special  group  0  are never mapped via user/group names even if
              the --numeric-ids option is not specified.

              If a user or group has no name on the source system or it has no
              match  on  the  destination system, then the numeric ID from the
              source system is used instead.  See also  the  comments  on  the
              "use  chroot" setting in the rsyncd.conf manpage for information
              on how the chroot setting affects rsync's ability to look up the
              names of the users and groups and what you can do about it.

       --timeout=TIMEOUT
              This  option allows you to set a maximum I/O timeout in seconds.
              If no data is transferred for the specified time then rsync will
              exit. The default is 0, which means no timeout.

       --contimeout
              This option allows you to set the amount of time that rsync will
              wait for its connection to an rsync daemon to succeed.   If  the
              timeout is reached, rsync exits with an error.

       --address
              By default rsync will bind to the wildcard address when connect-
              ing to an rsync daemon.  The  --address  option  allows  you  to
              specify  a  specific  IP  address (or hostname) to bind to.  See
              also this option in the --daemon mode section.

       --port=PORT
              This specifies an alternate TCP port number to use  rather  than
              the  default  of  873.  This is only needed if you are using the
              double-colon (::) syntax to connect with an rsync daemon  (since
              the  URL  syntax  has a way to specify the port as a part of the
              URL).  See also this option in the --daemon mode section.

       --sockopts
              This option can provide endless fun for people who like to  tune
              their  systems  to  the  utmost degree. You can set all sorts of
              socket options which may make  transfers  faster  (or  slower!).
              Read  the  man page for the setsockopt() system call for details
              on some of the options you may be able to  set.  By  default  no
              special  socket options are set. This only affects direct socket
              connections to a remote rsync daemon.  This option  also  exists
              in the --daemon mode section.

       --blocking-io
              This  tells  rsync  to  use blocking I/O when launching a remote
              shell transport.  If the remote shell is either  rsh  or  remsh,
              rsync  defaults  to using blocking I/O, otherwise it defaults to
              using non-blocking I/O.  (Note  that  ssh  prefers  non-blocking
              The general format is like the string YXcstpoguax,  where  Y  is
              replaced  by the type of update being done, X is replaced by the
              file-type, and the other letters represent attributes  that  may
              be output if they are being modified.

              The update types that replace the Y are as follows:

              o      A  < means that a file is being transferred to the remote
                     host (sent).

              o      A > means that a file is being transferred to  the  local
                     host (received).

              o      A  c  means that a local change/creation is occurring for
                     the item (such as the creation  of  a  directory  or  the
                     changing of a symlink, etc.).

              o      A  h  means  that the item is a hard link to another item
                     (requires --hard-links).

              o      A . means that the item is not being updated  (though  it
                     might have attributes that are being modified).

              o      A  * means that the rest of the itemized-output area con-
                     tains a message (e.g. "deleting").


              The file-types that replace the X are: f for a file, a d  for  a
              directory,  an  L for a symlink, a D for a device, and a S for a
              special file (e.g. named sockets and fifos).

              The other letters in the string above  are  the  actual  letters
              that  will be output if the associated attribute for the item is
              being updated or a "." for no change.  Three exceptions to  this
              are:  (1)  a newly created item replaces each letter with a "+",
              (2) an identical item replaces the dots with spaces, and (3)  an
              unknown attribute replaces each letter with a "?" (this can hap-
              pen when talking to an older rsync).

              The attribute that is associated with each letter is as follows:

              o      A c means either that a  regular  file  has  a  different
                     checksum (requires --checksum) or that a symlink, device,
                     or special file has a changed value.  Note  that  if  you
                     are sending files to an rsync prior to 3.0.1, this change
                     flag will be present only for checksum-differing  regular
                     files.

              o      A  s  means  the  size of a regular file is different and
                     will be updated by the file transfer.

              o      A t means the modification time is different and is being
                     updated  to  the  sender's  value (requires --times).  An
                     alternate value of T means  that  the  modification  time
                     ileges).

              o      A  g means the group is different and is being updated to
                     the sender's value (requires --group and the authority to
                     set the group).

              o      The u slot is reserved for future use.

              o      The a means that the ACL information changed.

              o      The  x  means  that  the  extended  attribute information
                     changed.


              One other output is possible:  when  deleting  files,  the  "%i"
              will  output  the string "*deleting" for each item that is being
              removed (assuming that you are talking to a recent enough  rsync
              that  it  logs deletions instead of outputting them as a verbose
              message).

       --out-format=FORMAT
              This allows you to specify exactly what the rsync client outputs
              to  the user on a per-update basis.  The format is a text string
              containing embedded single-character escape  sequences  prefixed
              with  a  percent  (%) character.   A default format of "%n%L" is
              assumed if -v is specified (which reports the name of  the  file
              and,  if  the item is a link, where it points).  For a full list
              of the possible escape characters, see the "log format"  setting
              in the rsyncd.conf manpage.

              Specifying  the --out-format option will mention each file, dir,
              etc. that gets updated in a significant way (a transferred file,
              a  recreated  symlink/device, or a touched directory).  In addi-
              tion, if the itemize-changes escape  (%i)  is  included  in  the
              string (e.g. if the --itemize-changes option was used), the log-
              ging of names increases to mention any item that is  changed  in
              any  way (as long as the receiving side is at least 2.6.4).  See
              the --itemize-changes option for a description of the output  of
              "%i".

              Rsync will output the out-format string prior to a file's trans-
              fer unless one of the transfer-statistic escapes  is  requested,
              in  which  case  the  logging  is  done at the end of the file's
              transfer.  When this late logging is in effect and --progress is
              also  specified,  rsync  will  also  output the name of the file
              being transferred prior to its progress  information  (followed,
              of course, by the out-format output).

       --log-file=FILE
              This  option  causes  rsync  to  log what it is doing to a file.
              This is similar to the logging that a daemon does,  but  can  be
              requested  for  the client side and/or the server side of a non-
              daemon transfer.  If specified as a client option, transfer log-
              ging  will  be  enabled with a default format of "%i %n%L".  See
              This allows you to specify exactly what  per-update  logging  is
              put into the file specified by the --log-file option (which must
              also be specified for this option to have any effect).   If  you
              specify  an empty string, updated files will not be mentioned in
              the log file.  For a list of the possible escape characters, see
              the "log format" setting in the rsyncd.conf manpage.

              The  default  FORMAT  used  if  --log-file is specified and this
              option is not is '%i %n%L'.

       --stats
              This tells rsync to print a verbose set  of  statistics  on  the
              file transfer, allowing you to tell how effective rsync's delta-
              transfer algorithm is for your data.

              The current statistics are as follows:

              o      Number of files is the  count  of  all  "files"  (in  the
                     generic  sense),  which  includes  directories, symlinks,
                     etc.

              o      Number of files transferred is the count of normal  files
                     that  were  updated via rsync's delta-transfer algorithm,
                     which does not include created dirs, symlinks, etc.

              o      Total file size is the total sum of all file sizes in the
                     transfer.   This  does not count any size for directories
                     or special files, but does include the size of symlinks.

              o      Total transferred file size is the total sum of all files
                     sizes for just the transferred files.

              o      Literal  data  is  how much unmatched file-update data we
                     had to send to  the  receiver  for  it  to  recreate  the
                     updated files.

              o      Matched  data  is  how much data the receiver got locally
                     when recreating the updated files.

              o      File list size is how big the file-list data was when the
                     sender sent it to the receiver.  This is smaller than the
                     in-memory size for the file list due to some  compressing
                     of duplicated data when rsync sends the list.

              o      File  list  generation time is the number of seconds that
                     the sender spent creating the file list.  This requires a
                     modern rsync on the sending side for this to be present.

              o      File list transfer time is the number of seconds that the
                     sender spent sending the file list to the receiver.

              o      Total bytes sent is the count of all the bytes that rsync
                     sent from the client side to the server side.

              less of this option's setting.

              The  escape  idiom  that started in 2.6.7 is to output a literal
              backslash (\) and a hash (#), followed by exactly 3  octal  dig-
              its.  For example, a newline would output as "\#012".  A literal
              backslash that is in a filename is not escaped unless it is fol-
              lowed by a hash and 3 digits (0-9).

       -h, --human-readable
              Output  numbers in a more human-readable format.  This makes big
              numbers output using larger units, with a K, M, or G suffix.  If
              this  option  was  specified  once,  these units are K (1000), M
              (1000*1000), and G (1000*1000*1000); if the option is  repeated,
              the units are powers of 1024 instead of 1000.

       --partial
              By  default, rsync will delete any partially transferred file if
              the transfer is interrupted. In some circumstances  it  is  more
              desirable  to keep partially transferred files. Using the --par-
              tial option tells rsync to keep the partial  file  which  should
              make a subsequent transfer of the rest of the file much faster.

       --partial-dir=DIR
              A  better way to keep partial files than the --partial option is
              to specify a DIR that will be used  to  hold  the  partial  data
              (instead  of  writing  it  out to the destination file).  On the
              next transfer, rsync will use a file found in this dir  as  data
              to  speed  up  the resumption of the transfer and then delete it
              after it has served its purpose.

              Note that if --whole-file is specified (or  implied),  any  par-
              tial-dir  file  that  is  found for a file that is being updated
              will simply be removed (since rsync  is  sending  files  without
              using rsync's delta-transfer algorithm).

              Rsync will create the DIR if it is missing (just the last dir --
              not the whole path).  This makes it easy to use a relative  path
              (such  as  "--partial-dir=.rsync-partial")  to have rsync create
              the partial-directory in the destination file's  directory  when
              needed,  and  then  remove  it  again  when  the partial file is
              deleted.

              If the partial-dir value is not an absolute path, rsync will add
              an  exclude rule at the end of all your existing excludes.  This
              will prevent the sending of any partial-dir files that may exist
              on the sending side, and will also prevent the untimely deletion
              of partial-dir items on the receiving  side.   An  example:  the
              above  --partial-dir  option would add the equivalent of "-f '-p
              .rsync-partial/'" at the end of any other filter rules.

              If you are supplying your own exclude rules, you may need to add
              your  own  exclude/hide/protect rule for the partial-dir because
              (1) the auto-added rule may be ineffective at the  end  of  your
              other  rules,  or  (2)  you may wish to override rsync's exclude
              force --partial to be enabled, but rather it affects where  par-
              tial  files  go  when  --partial  is  specified.   For instance,
              instead of using --partial-dir=.rsync-tmp along with --progress,
              you  could  set RSYNC_PARTIAL_DIR=.rsync-tmp in your environment
              and then just use the -P option  to  turn  on  the  use  of  the
              .rsync-tmp  dir  for partial transfers.  The only times that the
              --partial option does not look for this  environment  value  are
              (1) when --inplace was specified (since --inplace conflicts with
              --partial-dir), and (2) when --delay-updates was specified  (see
              below).

              For  the  purposes  of the daemon-config's "refuse options" set-
              ting, --partial-dir does not imply --partial.  This is so that a
              refusal  of  the  --partial  option  can be used to disallow the
              overwriting of destination files with a partial transfer,  while
              still allowing the safer idiom provided by --partial-dir.

       --delay-updates
              This  option puts the temporary file from each updated file into
              a holding directory until the end of the transfer, at which time
              all  the files are renamed into place in rapid succession.  This
              attempts to make the updating of the files a little more atomic.
              By  default the files are placed into a directory named ".~tmp~"
              in each file's destination directory, but  if  you've  specified
              the  --partial-dir  option, that directory will be used instead.
              See the comments in the --partial-dir section for  a  discussion
              of how this ".~tmp~" dir will be excluded from the transfer, and
              what you can do if you want rsync to cleanup old  ".~tmp~"  dirs
              that  might  be  lying  around.   Conflicts  with  --inplace and
              --append.

              This option uses more memory on the receiving side (one bit  per
              file  transferred)  and  also requires enough free disk space on
              the receiving side to hold an additional copy of all the updated
              files.   Note  also  that you should not use an absolute path to
              --partial-dir unless (1) there is no chance of any of the  files
              in  the  transfer  having  the  same name (since all the updated
              files will be put into a single directory if the path  is  abso-
              lute)  and (2) there are no mount points in the hierarchy (since
              the delayed updates will fail if  they  can't  be  renamed  into
              place).

              See  also the "atomic-rsync" perl script in the "support" subdir
              for an update algorithm  that  is  even  more  atomic  (it  uses
              --link-dest and a parallel hierarchy of files).

       -m, --prune-empty-dirs
              This option tells the receiving rsync to get rid of empty direc-
              tories from the file-list,  including  nested  directories  that
              have no non-directory children.  This is useful for avoiding the
              creation of a bunch of  useless  directories  when  the  sending
              rsync  is  recursively  scanning  a  hierarchy  of  files  using
              include/exclude/filter rules.

              You can prevent the pruning of certain  empty  directories  from
              the file-list by using a global "protect" filter.  For instance,
              this option would ensure that the directory "emptydir" was  kept
              in the file-list:

              --filter 'protect emptydir/'


              Here's  an  example  that  copies all .pdf files in a hierarchy,
              only creating the necessary destination directories to hold  the
              .pdf  files, and ensures that any superfluous files and directo-
              ries in the destination are removed (note  the  hide  filter  of
              non-directories being used instead of an exclude):

              rsync -avm --del --include='*.pdf' -f 'hide,! */' src/ dest


              If  you didn't want to remove superfluous destination files, the
              more  time-honored  options  of  "--include='*/'  --exclude='*'"
              would  work  fine  in  place of the hide-filter (if that is more
              natural to you).

       --progress
              This  option  tells  rsync  to  print  information  showing  the
              progress  of  the transfer. This gives a bored user something to
              watch.  Implies --verbose if it wasn't already specified.

              While rsync  is  transferring  a  regular  file,  it  updates  a
              progress line that looks like this:

                    782448  63%  110.64kB/s    0:00:04


              In  this example, the receiver has reconstructed 782448 bytes or
              63% of the sender's file, which is being reconstructed at a rate
              of  110.64 kilobytes per second, and the transfer will finish in
              4 seconds if the current rate is maintained until the end.

              These statistics can be  misleading  if  rsync's  delta-transfer
              algorithm is in use.  For example, if the sender's file consists
              of the basis file followed by additional data, the reported rate
              will  probably  drop  dramatically when the receiver gets to the
              literal data, and the transfer will probably take much longer to
              finish  than  the  receiver  estimated  as  it was finishing the
              matched part of the file.

              When the file transfer finishes,  rsync  replaces  the  progress
              line with a summary line that looks like this:

                   1238099 100%  146.38kB/s    0:00:08  (xfer#5, to-check=169/396)


              In  this  example, the file was 1238099 bytes long in total, the
              average rate of transfer for the whole file was 146.38 kilobytes
              accessing an rsync daemon.  The file must not be world readable.
              It should contain just the password as a single line.

              This  option does not supply a password to a remote shell trans-
              port such as ssh; to learn how to do that,  consult  the  remote
              shell's  documentation.   When accessing an rsync daemon using a
              remote shell as the  transport,  this  option  only  comes  into
              effect  after the remote shell finishes its authentication (i.e.
              if you have also specified a password  in  the  daemon's  config
              file).

       --list-only
              This  option will cause the source files to be listed instead of
              transferred.  This option is  inferred  if  there  is  a  single
              source  arg  and no destination specified, so its main uses are:
              (1) to turn a copy command that includes a destination arg  into
              a  file-listing  command, or (2) to be able to specify more than
              one source arg (note: be sure to include the destination).  Cau-
              tion:  keep  in  mind  that  a  source  arg  with a wild-card is
              expanded by the shell into multiple args, so it is never safe to
              try to list such an arg without using this option.  For example:

                  rsync -av --list-only foo* dest/


              Compatibility  note:   when requesting a remote listing of files
              from an rsync that is version 2.6.3 or older, you may  encounter
              an  error  if  you  ask  for  a  non-recursive listing.  This is
              because a file listing implies the --dirs  option  w/o  --recur-
              sive,  and  older  rsyncs don't have that option.  To avoid this
              problem, either specify the --no-dirs option (if you don't  need
              to  expand  a  directory's  content),  or  turn on recursion and
              exclude the content of subdirectories: -r --exclude='/*/*'.

       --bwlimit=KBPS
              This option allows you to specify a  maximum  transfer  rate  in
              kilobytes  per  second. This option is most effective when using
              rsync with large files (several megabytes and up).  Due  to  the
              nature  of  rsync  transfers,  blocks  of data are sent, then if
              rsync determines the transfer was too fast, it will wait  before
              sending  the  next data block. The result is an average transfer
              rate equaling the specified limit. A value of zero specifies  no
              limit.

       --write-batch=FILE
              Record  a  file  that  can later be applied to another identical
              destination with --read-batch. See the "BATCH MODE" section  for
              details, and also the --only-write-batch option.

       --only-write-batch=FILE
              Works like --write-batch, except that no updates are made on the
              destination system when  creating  the  batch.   This  lets  you
              transport  the  changes to the destination system via some other
              means and then apply the changes via --read-batch.
              remote, and thus can't write the batch).

       --read-batch=FILE
              Apply  all of the changes stored in FILE, a file previously gen-
              erated by --write-batch.  If FILE is -, the batch data  will  be
              read  from  standard  input.   See  the "BATCH MODE" section for
              details.

       --protocol=NUM
              Force an older protocol version to be used.  This is useful  for
              creating  a  batch file that is compatible with an older version
              of rsync.  For instance, if rsync 2.6.4 is being used  with  the
              --write-batch  option,  but  rsync 2.6.3 is what will be used to
              run the --read-batch option, you should use "--protocol=28" when
              creating  the  batch file to force the older protocol version to
              be used in the batch file (assuming you can't upgrade the  rsync
              on the reading system).

       --iconv=CONVERT_SPEC
              Rsync  can  convert  filenames between character sets using this
              option.  Using a CONVERT_SPEC of "." tells rsync to look up  the
              default  character-set via the locale setting.  Alternately, you
              can fully specify what conversion to do by giving a local and  a
              remote   charset   separated   by   a   comma   in   the   order
              --iconv=LOCAL,REMOTE, e.g.  --iconv=utf8,iso88591.   This  order
              ensures  that the option will stay the same whether you're push-
              ing  or  pulling  files.   Finally,  you  can   specify   either
              --no-iconv  or a CONVERT_SPEC of "-" to turn off any conversion.
              The default setting of this option  is  site-specific,  and  can
              also be affected via the RSYNC_ICONV environment variable.

              For  a  list of what charset names your local iconv library sup-
              ports, you can run "iconv --list".

              If you specify the --protect-args option (-s), rsync will trans-
              late  the  filenames  you  specify  on the command-line that are
              being sent to  the  remote  host.   See  also  the  --files-from
              option.

              Note  that  rsync  does not do any conversion of names in filter
              files (including include/exclude files).  It is  up  to  you  to
              ensure  that  you're specifying matching rules that can match on
              both sides of the transfer.  For instance, you can specify extra
              include/exclude  rules  if there are filename differences on the
              two sides that need to be accounted for.

              When you pass an --iconv option to an rsync daemon  that  allows
              it,  the daemon uses the charset specified in its "charset" con-
              figuration parameter regardless of the remote charset you  actu-
              ally  pass.   Thus,  you may feel free to specify just the local
              charset for a daemon transfer (e.g. --iconv=utf8).

       -4, --ipv4 or -6, --ipv6
              Tells rsync to prefer IPv4/IPv6  when  creating  sockets.   This
              defaults to the current time() .  This option is used to  set  a
              specific  checksum  seed,  which is useful for applications that
              want repeatable block and file checksums, or in the  case  where
              the  user  wants  a more random checksum seed.  Setting NUM to 0
              causes rsync to use the default of time() for checksum seed.


DAEMON OPTIONS
       The options allowed when starting an rsync daemon are as follows:

       --daemon
              This tells rsync that it is to run as a daemon.  The daemon  you
              start  running  may  be accessed using an rsync client using the
              host::module or rsync://host/module/ syntax.

              If standard input is a socket then rsync will assume that it  is
              being  run  via inetd, otherwise it will detach from the current
              terminal and become a background daemon.  The daemon  will  read
              the  config  file (rsyncd.conf) on each connect made by a client
              and respond to requests accordingly.  See the rsyncd.conf(5) man
              page for more details.

       --address
              By default rsync will bind to the wildcard address when run as a
              daemon with the --daemon option.  The  --address  option  allows
              you  to  specify a specific IP address (or hostname) to bind to.
              This makes virtual hosting  possible  in  conjunction  with  the
              --config  option.   See  also the "address" global option in the
              rsyncd.conf manpage.

       --bwlimit=KBPS
              This option allows you to specify a  maximum  transfer  rate  in
              kilobytes  per second for the data the daemon sends.  The client
              can still specify a smaller --bwlimit value, but their requested
              value  will  be  rounded down if they try to exceed it.  See the
              client version of this option (above) for some extra details.

       --config=FILE
              This specifies an alternate config file than the default.   This
              is  only  relevant  when  --daemon is specified.  The default is
              /etc/rsyncd.conf unless the daemon  is  running  over  a  remote
              shell program and the remote user is not the super-user; in that
              case the default is rsyncd.conf in the current directory  (typi-
              cally $HOME).

       --no-detach
              When  running  as  a  daemon, this option instructs rsync to not
              detach itself and become a background process.  This  option  is
              required  when  running  as a service on Cygwin, and may also be
              useful when rsync is supervised by a program such as daemontools
              or AIX's System Resource Controller.  --no-detach is also recom-
              mended when rsync is run under a debugger.  This option  has  no
              effect if rsync is run from inetd or sshd.

              file.  It also enables "transfer logging" unless the  string  is
              empty, in which case transfer logging is turned off.

       --sockopts
              This  overrides  the  socket  options setting in the rsyncd.conf
              file and has the same syntax.

       -v, --verbose
              This option increases the amount of information the daemon  logs
              during  its  startup phase.  After the client connects, the dae-
              mon's verbosity level will be controlled by the options that the
              client used and the "max verbosity" setting in the module's con-
              fig section.

       -4, --ipv4 or -6, --ipv6
              Tells rsync to prefer IPv4/IPv6 when creating the incoming sock-
              ets  that  the  rsync daemon will use to listen for connections.
              One of these options may be required in older versions of  Linux
              to work around an IPv6 bug in the kernel (if you see an "address
              already in use" error when nothing else is using the  port,  try
              specifying --ipv6 or --ipv4 when starting the daemon).

              If  rsync  was  complied  without  support  for IPv6, the --ipv6
              option will have no effect.  The --version output will tell  you
              if this is the case.

       -h, --help
              When  specified after --daemon, print a short help page describ-
              ing the options available for starting an rsync daemon.


FILTER RULES
       The filter rules allow for flexible selection of which files to  trans-
       fer  (include)  and  which  files  to skip (exclude).  The rules either
       directly specify include/exclude patterns or  they  specify  a  way  to
       acquire more include/exclude patterns (e.g. to read them from a file).

       As  the  list  of  files/directories to transfer is built, rsync checks
       each name to be transferred against the list  of  include/exclude  pat-
       terns in turn, and the first matching pattern is acted on:  if it is an
       exclude pattern, then that file is skipped; if it is an include pattern
       then  that  filename  is  not skipped; if no matching pattern is found,
       then the filename is not skipped.

       Rsync builds an ordered list of filter rules as specified on  the  com-
       mand-line.  Filter rules have the following syntax:

              RULE [PATTERN_OR_FILENAME]
              RULE,MODIFIERS [PATTERN_OR_FILENAME]


       You  have  your  choice  of  using  either short or long RULE names, as
       described below.  If you use a short-named rule, the ',' separating the
       RULE from the MODIFIERS is optional.  The PATTERN or FILENAME that fol-
              clear, ! clears the current include/exclude list (takes no arg)


       When rules are being read from a file, empty lines are ignored, as  are
       comment lines that start with a "#".

       Note that the --include/--exclude command-line options do not allow the
       full range of rule parsing as described above -- they  only  allow  the
       specification of include/exclude patterns plus a "!" token to clear the
       list (and the normal comment parsing when rules are read from a  file).
       If  a  pattern  does  not  begin with "- " (dash, space) or "+ " (plus,
       space), then the rule will be interpreted as if "+ "  (for  an  include
       option) or "- " (for an exclude option) were prefixed to the string.  A
       --filter option, on the other hand, must always contain either a  short
       or long rule name at the start of the rule.

       Note  also that the --filter, --include, and --exclude options take one
       rule/pattern each. To add multiple ones, you can repeat the options  on
       the  command-line, use the merge-file syntax of the --filter option, or
       the --include-from/--exclude-from options.

INCLUDE/EXCLUDE PATTERN RULES
       You can include and exclude files by specifying patterns using the "+",
       "-",  etc.  filter  rules  (as  introduced  in the FILTER RULES section
       above).  The include/exclude rules  each  specify  a  pattern  that  is
       matched  against  the  names  of  the files that are going to be trans-
       ferred.  These patterns can take several forms:

       o      if the pattern starts with a / then it is anchored to a particu-
              lar  spot  in  the  hierarchy  of files, otherwise it is matched
              against the end of the pathname.  This is similar to a leading ^
              in regular expressions.  Thus "/foo" would match a name of "foo"
              at either the "root of the transfer" (for a global rule)  or  in
              the  merge-file's  directory  (for  a  per-directory  rule).  An
              unqualified "foo" would match a name of "foo"  anywhere  in  the
              tree  because  the algorithm is applied recursively from the top
              down; it behaves as if each path component gets a turn at  being
              the  end  of  the filename.  Even the unanchored "sub/foo" would
              match at any point in the hierarchy  where  a  "foo"  was  found
              within  a  directory  named "sub".  See the section on ANCHORING
              INCLUDE/EXCLUDE PATTERNS for a full discussion of how to specify
              a pattern that matches at the root of the transfer.

       o      if  the  pattern  ends with a / then it will only match a direc-
              tory, not a regular file, symlink, or device.

       o      rsync chooses between doing a simple string match  and  wildcard
              matching  by checking if the pattern contains one of these three
              wildcard characters: '*', '?', and '[' .

       o      a '*' matches any path component, but it stops at slashes.

       o      use '**' to match anything, including slashes.

              "**", then it is matched only against the final component of the
              filename.   (Remember  that the algorithm is applied recursively
              so "full filename" can actually be any portion of  a  path  from
              the starting directory on down.)

       o      a  trailing  "dir_name/***" will match both the directory (as if
              "dir_name/" had been specified) and everything in the  directory
              (as  if  "dir_name/**"  had  been specified).  This behavior was
              added in version 2.6.7.


       Note that, when using the --recursive (-r) option (which is implied  by
       -a),  every subcomponent of every path is visited from the top down, so
       include/exclude patterns get applied recursively to each subcomponent's
       full  name (e.g. to include "/foo/bar/baz" the subcomponents "/foo" and
       "/foo/bar" must not be excluded).  The exclude patterns actually short-
       circuit  the  directory  traversal  stage when rsync finds the files to
       send.  If a pattern excludes a particular parent directory, it can ren-
       der  a deeper include pattern ineffectual because rsync did not descend
       through that excluded section of the hierarchy.  This  is  particularly
       important  when  using  a  trailing '*' rule.  For instance, this won't
       work:

              + /some/path/this-file-will-not-be-found
              + /file-is-included
              - *


       This fails because the parent directory "some" is excluded by  the  '*'
       rule,  so  rsync  never  visits  any  of  the  files  in  the "some" or
       "some/path" directories.  One solution is to ask for all directories in
       the  hierarchy  to  be  included by using a single rule: "+ */" (put it
       somewhere   before   the   "-   *"   rule),   and   perhaps   use   the
       --prune-empty-dirs option.  Another solution is to add specific include
       rules for all the parent dirs that need to be visited.   For  instance,
       this set of rules works fine:

              + /some/
              + /some/path/
              + /some/path/this-file-is-found
              + /file-also-included
              - *


       Here are some examples of exclude/include matching:

       o      "- *.o" would exclude all names matching *.o

       o      "-  /foo"  would  exclude a file (or directory) named foo in the
              transfer-root directory

       o      "- foo/" would exclude any directory named foo

       o      "- /foo/*/bar" would exclude any file named bar which is at  two
              include  only the foo directory and foo/bar.c (the foo directory
              must be explicitly included or it would be excluded by the "*")


       The following modifiers are accepted after a "+" or "-":

       o      A / specifies that the include/exclude rule  should  be  matched
              against the absolute pathname of the current item.  For example,
              "-/ /etc/passwd" would exclude the  passwd  file  any  time  the
              transfer  was  sending  files from the "/etc" directory, and "-/
              subdir/foo" would always exclude "foo" when it is in a dir named
              "subdir", even if "foo" is at the root of the current transfer.

       o      A ! specifies that the include/exclude should take effect if the
              pattern fails to match.  For instance, "-! */" would exclude all
              non-directories.

       o      A  C  is  used to indicate that all the global CVS-exclude rules
              should be inserted as excludes in place of  the  "-C".   No  arg
              should follow.

       o      An  s  is  used to indicate that the rule applies to the sending
              side.  When a rule affects the sending side, it  prevents  files
              from  being  transferred.   The  default is for a rule to affect
              both sides unless --delete-excluded was specified, in which case
              default  rules  become  sender-side only.  See also the hide (H)
              and show (S) rules, which are an alternate way to specify  send-
              ing-side includes/excludes.

       o      An  r is used to indicate that the rule applies to the receiving
              side.  When a rule affects the receiving side, it prevents files
              from being deleted.  See the s modifier for more info.  See also
              the protect (P) and risk (R) rules, which are an  alternate  way
              to specify receiver-side includes/excludes.

       o      A  p  indicates  that  a  rule is perishable, meaning that it is
              ignored in directories that are being  deleted.   For  instance,
              the -C option's default rules that exclude things like "CVS" and
              "*.o" are marked as perishable, and will not prevent a directory
              that  was removed on the source from being deleted on the desti-
              nation.


MERGE-FILE FILTER RULES
       You can merge whole files into your filter rules by specifying either a
       merge  (.)  or a dir-merge (:) filter rule (as introduced in the FILTER
       RULES section above).

       There are two kinds of merged files -- single-instance ('.')  and  per-
       directory  (':').   A  single-instance merge file is read one time, and
       its rules are incorporated into the filter list in the place of the "."
       rule.   For  per-directory merge files, rsync will scan every directory
       that it traverses for the named file, merging  its  contents  when  the
       file exists into the current list of inherited rules.  These per-direc-
              :n- .non-inherited-per-dir-excludes


       The following modifiers are accepted after a merge or dir-merge rule:

       o      A - specifies that the file should consist of only exclude  pat-
              terns, with no other rule-parsing except for in-file comments.

       o      A  + specifies that the file should consist of only include pat-
              terns, with no other rule-parsing except for in-file comments.

       o      A C is a way to specify that the file should be read in  a  CVS-
              compatible  manner.   This  turns on 'n', 'w', and '-', but also
              allows the list-clearing token (!) to be specified.  If no file-
              name is provided, ".cvsignore" is assumed.

       o      A  e  will  exclude  the merge-file name from the transfer; e.g.
              "dir-merge,e .rules" is like "dir-merge .rules" and "- .rules".

       o      An n specifies that the rules are not inherited  by  subdirecto-
              ries.

       o      A  w  specifies  that  the  rules  are  word-split on whitespace
              instead of the normal line-splitting.  This also turns off  com-
              ments.   Note: the space that separates the prefix from the rule
              is treated specially, so "- foo + bar" is parsed  as  two  rules
              (assuming that prefix-parsing wasn't also disabled).

       o      You  may  also  specify  any of the modifiers for the "+" or "-"
              rules (above) in order to have the rules that are read  in  from
              the  file  default  to  having that modifier set.  For instance,
              "merge,-/ .excl" would treat the contents of .excl as  absolute-
              path  excludes,  while  "dir-merge,s .filt" and ":sC" would each
              make all their per-directory rules apply  only  on  the  sending
              side.


       Per-directory  rules  are inherited in all subdirectories of the direc-
       tory where the merge-file was found unless the 'n' modifier  was  used.
       Each  subdirectory's  rules are prefixed to the inherited per-directory
       rules from its parents, which gives the newest rules a higher  priority
       than  the  inherited  rules.   The  entire  set  of dir-merge rules are
       grouped together in the spot where the merge-file was specified, so  it
       is  possible  to override dir-merge rules via a rule that got specified
       earlier in the list of global rules.  When the list-clearing rule ("!")
       is  read  from a per-directory file, it only clears the inherited rules
       for the current merge file.

       Another way to prevent a single rule from a dir-merge file  from  being
       inherited  is  to  anchor it with a leading slash.  Anchored rules in a
       per-directory merge-file are relative to the merge-file's directory, so
       a pattern "/foo" would only match the file "foo" in the directory where
       the dir-merge filter file was found.

       directory  filter  file.   All  rules read in prior to the start of the
       directory scan follow the global anchoring rules (i.e. a leading  slash
       matches at the root of the transfer).

       If a per-directory merge-file is specified with a path that is a parent
       directory of the first transfer directory, rsync will scan all the par-
       ent  dirs  from  that  starting point to the transfer directory for the
       indicated per-directory file.  For instance, here is  a  common  filter
       (see -F):

              --filter=': /.rsync-filter'


       That  rule tells rsync to scan for the file .rsync-filter in all direc-
       tories from the root down through the parent directory of the  transfer
       prior  to  the  start  of  the normal directory scan of the file in the
       directories that are sent as a part of the  transfer.   (Note:  for  an
       rsync daemon, the root is always the same as the module's "path".)

       Some examples of this pre-scanning for per-directory files:

              rsync -avF /src/path/ /dest/dir
              rsync -av --filter=': ../../.rsync-filter' /src/path/ /dest/dir
              rsync -av --filter=': .rsync-filter' /src/path/ /dest/dir


       The  first  two commands above will look for ".rsync-filter" in "/" and
       "/src"  before  the  normal  scan  begins  looking  for  the  file   in
       "/src/path"  and  its subdirectories.  The last command avoids the par-
       ent-dir scan and only looks  for  the  ".rsync-filter"  files  in  each
       directory that is a part of the transfer.

       If you want to include the contents of a ".cvsignore" in your patterns,
       you should use the rule ":C", which creates a dir-merge of the  .cvsig-
       nore  file, but parsed in a CVS-compatible manner.  You can use this to
       affect where the --cvs-exclude (-C)  option's  inclusion  of  the  per-
       directory  .cvsignore  file  gets placed into your rules by putting the
       ":C" wherever you like in your filter rules.  Without this, rsync would
       add  the  dir-merge rule for the .cvsignore file at the end of all your
       other rules (giving it a lower priority than your command-line  rules).
       For example:

              cat <<EOT | rsync -avC --filter='. -' a/ b
              + foo.o
              :C
              - *.old
              EOT
              rsync -avC --include=foo.o -f :C --exclude='*.old' a/ b


       Both  of  the  above rsync commands are identical.  Each one will merge
       all the per-directory .cvsignore rules in the middle of the list rather
       than at the end.  This allows their dir-specific rules to supersede the
       rules that follow the :C instead  of  being  subservient  to  all  your

ANCHORING INCLUDE/EXCLUDE PATTERNS
       As  mentioned  earlier, global include/exclude patterns are anchored at
       the "root of the transfer" (as opposed to per-directory patterns, which
       are  anchored  at  the  merge-file's  directory).   If you think of the
       transfer as a subtree of names that  are  being  sent  from  sender  to
       receiver,  the  transfer-root is where the tree starts to be duplicated
       in the destination directory.  This root governs  where  patterns  that
       start with a / match.

       Because  the  matching  is  relative to the transfer-root, changing the
       trailing slash on a source path or changing your use of the  --relative
       option  affects  the path you need to use in your matching (in addition
       to changing how much of the file tree is duplicated on the  destination
       host).  The following examples demonstrate this.

       Let's  say that we want to match two source files, one with an absolute
       path of "/home/me/foo/bar", and one with a path of "/home/you/bar/baz".
       Here is how the various command choices differ for a 2-source transfer:

              Example cmd: rsync -a /home/me /home/you /dest
              +/- pattern: /me/foo/bar
              +/- pattern: /you/bar/baz
              Target file: /dest/me/foo/bar
              Target file: /dest/you/bar/baz


              Example cmd: rsync -a /home/me/ /home/you/ /dest
              +/- pattern: /foo/bar               (note missing "me")
              +/- pattern: /bar/baz               (note missing "you")
              Target file: /dest/foo/bar
              Target file: /dest/bar/baz


              Example cmd: rsync -a --relative /home/me/ /home/you /dest
              +/- pattern: /home/me/foo/bar       (note full path)
              +/- pattern: /home/you/bar/baz      (ditto)
              Target file: /dest/home/me/foo/bar
              Target file: /dest/home/you/bar/baz


              Example cmd: cd /home; rsync -a --relative me/foo you/ /dest
              +/- pattern: /me/foo/bar      (starts at specified path)
              +/- pattern: /you/bar/baz     (ditto)
              Target file: /dest/me/foo/bar
              Target file: /dest/you/bar/baz


       The  easiest  way to see what name you should filter is to just look at
       the output when using --verbose and put a / in front of the  name  (use
       the --dry-run option if you're not yet ready to copy any files).

PER-DIRECTORY RULES AND DELETE
       Without  a  delete option, per-directory rules are only relevant on the
       is to include the per-directory merge files in  the  transfer  and  use
       --delete-after,  because  this ensures that the receiving side gets all
       the same exclude rules as the sending side before it  tries  to  delete
       anything:

              rsync -avF --delete-after host:src/dir /dest


       However, if the merge files are not a part of the transfer, you'll need
       to either specify some global exclude rules (i.e. specified on the com-
       mand  line),  or  you'll  need to maintain your own per-directory merge
       files on the receiving side.  An example of the first is  this  (assume
       that the remote .rules files exclude themselves):

       rsync -av --filter=': .rules' --filter='. /my/extra.rules'
          --delete host:src/dir /dest


       In  the above example the extra.rules file can affect both sides of the
       transfer, but (on the sending side) the rules are  subservient  to  the
       rules  merged  from  the .rules files because they were specified after
       the per-directory merge rule.

       In one final example, the remote side is  excluding  the  .rsync-filter
       files from the transfer, but we want to use our own .rsync-filter files
       to control what gets deleted on the receiving side.  To do this we must
       specifically  exclude the per-directory merge files (so that they don't
       get deleted) and then put rules into the local files  to  control  what
       else should not get deleted.  Like one of these commands:

           rsync -av --filter=':e /.rsync-filter' --delete \
               host:src/dir /dest
           rsync -avFF --delete host:src/dir /dest


BATCH MODE
       Batch mode can be used to apply the same set of updates to many identi-
       cal systems. Suppose one has a tree which is replicated on a number  of
       hosts.  Now suppose some changes have been made to this source tree and
       those changes need to be propagated to the other hosts. In order to  do
       this  using  batch  mode,  rsync  is run with the write-batch option to
       apply the changes made to the source tree to  one  of  the  destination
       trees.   The  write-batch  option causes the rsync client to store in a
       "batch file" all  the  information  needed  to  repeat  this  operation
       against other, identical destination trees.

       Generating the batch file once saves having to perform the file status,
       checksum, and data block generation more than once when updating multi-
       ple  destination  trees.  Multicast  transport protocols can be used to
       transfer the batch update files in parallel  to  many  hosts  at  once,
       instead of sending the same data to every host individually.

       To  apply  the  recorded changes to another destination tree, run rsync
       with the read-batch option, specifying the name of the same batch file,

       Examples:

              $ rsync --write-batch=foo -a host:/source/dir/ /adest/dir/
              $ scp foo* remote:
              $ ssh remote ./foo.sh /bdest/dir/


              $ rsync --write-batch=foo -a /source/dir/ /adest/dir/
              $ ssh remote rsync --read-batch=- -a /bdest/dir/ <foo


       In  these  examples,  rsync  is  used  to   update   /adest/dir/   from
       /source/dir/  and the information to repeat this operation is stored in
       "foo" and "foo.sh".  The host "remote" is then updated with the batched
       data  going into the directory /bdest/dir.  The differences between the
       two examples reveals some of the flexibility you have in how  you  deal
       with batches:

       o      The first example shows that the initial copy doesn't have to be
              local -- you can push or pull data to/from a remote  host  using
              either  the  remote-shell  syntax  or  rsync  daemon  syntax, as
              desired.

       o      The first example uses the created  "foo.sh"  file  to  get  the
              right  rsync  options when running the read-batch command on the
              remote host.

       o      The second example reads the batch data via  standard  input  so
              that  the  batch  file  doesn't  need to be copied to the remote
              machine first.  This example avoids the foo.sh script because it
              needed to use a modified --read-batch option, but you could edit
              the script file if you wished to make use of it  (just  be  sure
              that  no  other  option is trying to use standard input, such as
              the "--exclude-from=-" option).


       Caveats:

       The read-batch option expects the destination tree that it is  updating
       to  be  identical  to  the destination tree that was used to create the
       batch update fileset.  When a difference between the destination  trees
       is  encountered  the  update  might be discarded with a warning (if the
       file appears to be  up-to-date  already)  or  the  file-update  may  be
       attempted  and  then, if the file fails to verify, the update discarded
       with an error.  This means that it should be safe  to  re-run  a  read-
       batch  operation  if the command got interrupted.  If you wish to force
       the batched-update to always be attempted regardless of the file's size
       and  date,  use  the  -I  option (when reading the batch).  If an error
       occurs, the destination tree will probably be in  a  partially  updated
       state.  In that case, rsync can be used in its regular (non-batch) mode
       of operation to fix up the destination tree.

       The rsync version used on all destinations must be at least as  new  as
       are not needed unless one of the --delete options is specified.

       The   code   that   creates  the  BATCH.sh  file  transforms  any  fil-
       ter/include/exclude options into a single list that is  appended  as  a
       "here"  document  to  the  shell script file.  An advanced user can use
       this to modify the exclude list if a change in  what  gets  deleted  by
       --delete is desired.  A normal user can ignore this detail and just use
       the shell script as an easy way to  run  the  appropriate  --read-batch
       command for the batched data.

       The  original batch mode in rsync was based on "rsync+", but the latest
       version uses a new implementation.

SYMBOLIC LINKS
       Three basic behaviors are possible when  rsync  encounters  a  symbolic
       link in the source directory.

       By  default,  symbolic  links  are  not  transferred at all.  A message
       "skipping non-regular" file is emitted for any symlinks that exist.

       If --links is specified, then symlinks are recreated with the same tar-
       get on the destination.  Note that --archive implies --links.

       If  --copy-links is specified, then symlinks are "collapsed" by copying
       their referent, rather than the symlink.

       Rsync can also distinguish "safe"  and  "unsafe"  symbolic  links.   An
       example  where  this  might be used is a web site mirror that wishes to
       ensure that the rsync module that is copied does not  include  symbolic
       links  to  /etc/passwd  in  the  public  section  of  the  site.  Using
       --copy-unsafe-links will cause any links to be copied as the file  they
       point  to  on  the  destination.   Using --safe-links will cause unsafe
       links to be omitted altogether.  (Note that you  must  specify  --links
       for --safe-links to have any effect.)

       Symbolic  links  are  considered  unsafe  if they are absolute symlinks
       (start with /), empty, or if they contain  enough  ".."  components  to
       ascend from the directory being copied.

       Here's  a summary of how the symlink options are interpreted.  The list
       is in order of precedence, so if your combination of options isn't men-
       tioned, use the first line that is a complete subset of your options:

       --copy-links
              Turn all symlinks into normal files (leaving no symlinks for any
              other options to affect).

       --links --copy-unsafe-links
              Turn all unsafe symlinks into files and duplicate all safe  sym-
              links.

       --copy-unsafe-links
              Turn  all unsafe symlinks into files, noisily skip all safe sym-
              links.

       This message is usually caused by your startup scripts or remote  shell
       facility  producing  unwanted garbage on the stream that rsync is using
       for its transport. The way to diagnose this  problem  is  to  run  your
       remote shell like this:

              ssh remotehost /bin/true > out.dat


       then  look  at out.dat. If everything is working correctly then out.dat
       should be a zero length file. If you are getting the above  error  from
       rsync  then  you  will probably find that out.dat contains some text or
       data. Look at the contents and try to work out what  is  producing  it.
       The  most  common cause is incorrectly configured shell startup scripts
       (such as .cshrc or .profile) that contain output  statements  for  non-
       interactive logins.

       If  you are having trouble debugging filter patterns, then try specify-
       ing the -vv option.  At this level of verbosity  rsync  will  show  why
       each individual file is included or excluded.

EXIT VALUES
       0      Success

       1      Syntax or usage error

       2      Protocol incompatibility

       3      Errors selecting input/output files, dirs

       4      Requested  action  not supported: an attempt was made to manipu-
              late 64-bit files on a platform that cannot support them; or  an
              option  was specified that is supported by the client and not by
              the server.

       5      Error starting client-server protocol

       6      Daemon unable to append to log-file

       10     Error in socket I/O

       11     Error in file I/O

       12     Error in rsync protocol data stream

       13     Errors with program diagnostics

       14     Error in IPC code

       20     Received SIGUSR1 or SIGINT

       21     Some error returned by waitpid()

       22     Error allocating core memory buffers

       CVSIGNORE
              The CVSIGNORE environment variable supplements any  ignore  pat-
              terns in .cvsignore files. See the --cvs-exclude option for more
              details.

       RSYNC_ICONV
              Specify a default --iconv setting using this  environment  vari-
              able.

       RSYNC_RSH
              The  RSYNC_RSH  environment  variable allows you to override the
              default shell used as the transport  for  rsync.   Command  line
              options  are permitted after the command name, just as in the -e
              option.

       RSYNC_PROXY
              The RSYNC_PROXY environment variable allows you to redirect your
              rsync  client to use a web proxy when connecting to a rsync dae-
              mon. You should set RSYNC_PROXY to a hostname:port pair.

       RSYNC_PASSWORD
              Setting RSYNC_PASSWORD to the required password  allows  you  to
              run  authenticated  rsync connections to an rsync daemon without
              user intervention. Note that this does not supply a password  to
              a  remote  shell transport such as ssh; to learn how to do that,
              consult the remote shell's documentation.

       USER or LOGNAME
              The USER or LOGNAME environment variables are used to  determine
              the  default  username  sent  to an rsync daemon.  If neither is
              set, the username defaults to "nobody".

       HOME   The HOME environment variable is used to find the user's default
              .cvsignore file.


FILES
       /etc/rsyncd.conf or rsyncd.conf

SEE ALSO
       rsyncd.conf(5)

BUGS
       times are transferred as *nix time_t values

       When  transferring  to  FAT  filesystems  rsync  may re-sync unmodified
       files.  See the comments on the --modify-window option.

       file permissions, devices, etc. are  transferred  as  native  numerical
       values

       see also the comments on the --delete option

       Please report bugs! See the web site at http://rsync.samba.org/

CREDITS
       rsync  is distributed under the GNU public license.  See the file COPY-
       ING for details.

       A WEB site is available at http://rsync.samba.org/.  The site  includes
       an  FAQ-O-Matic  which  may  cover  questions unanswered by this manual
       page.

       The primary ftp site for rsync is ftp://rsync.samba.org/pub/rsync.

       We would be delighted to hear  from  you  if  you  like  this  program.
       Please contact the mailing-list at rsync@lists.samba.org.

       This  program  uses  the  excellent zlib compression library written by
       Jean-loup Gailly and Mark Adler.

THANKS
       Special thanks go out to: John Van Essen,  Matt  McCutchen,  Wesley  W.
       Terpstra,  David  Dykstra,  Jos Backus, Sebastian Krahmer, Martin Pool,
       and our gone-but-not-forgotten compadre, J.W. Schultz.

       Thanks also to Richard Brent, Brendan Mackay, Bill Waite, Stephen Roth-
       well and David Bell.  I've probably missed some people, my apologies if
       I have.

AUTHOR
       rsync was originally written by Andrew  Tridgell  and  Paul  Mackerras.
       Many  people  have later contributed to it.  It is currently maintained
       by Wayne Davison.

       Mailing  lists  for  support   and   development   are   available   at
       http://lists.samba.org



                                  31 Dec 2009                         rsync(1)
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