# cvs


SYNOPSIS
cvs [ cvs_options ]
cvs_command [ command_options ] [ command_args ]

NOTE
This  manpage is a summary of some of the features of cvs.  It is auto-
generated from an appendix of the CVS manual.  For more in-depth  docu-
in the MirBSD online (HTML) manual pages, the info CVS command or  oth-
erwise,  as described in the SEE ALSO section of this manpage).  Cross-
references in this man page refer to nodes in the same.

CVS commands
Guide to CVS commands
This appendix describes the overall  structure  of  cvs  commands,  and
describes  some commands in detail (others are described elsewhere; for
a quick reference to cvs commands, see node 'Invoking CVS' in  the  CVS
manual).

Structure
Overall structure of CVS commands
The overall format of all cvs commands is:

cvs [ cvs_options ] cvs_command [ command_options ] [ command_args ]

cvs

The name of the cvs program.

cvs_options

Some  options  that  affect  all  sub-commands  of  cvs.   These  are
described below.

cvs_command

One of several different sub-commands.  Some  of  the  commands  have
aliases that can be used instead; those aliases are noted in the ref-
erence manual for that command.  There are only two situations  where
you  may  omit  cvs_command:  cvs -H elicits a list of available com-
mands, and cvs -v displays version information on cvs itself.

There is unfortunately some confusion between  cvs_options  and  com-
mand_options.   When  given as a cvs_option, some options only affect
some of the commands.  When given as a command_option it may  have  a
different meaning, and be accepted by more commands.  In other words,
do not take the above categorization too seriously.  Look at the doc-

Exit status
CVS's exit status
cvs  can  indicate  to  the calling environment whether it succeeded or
failed by setting its exit status.  The exact way of testing  the  exit
status  will vary from one operating system to another.  For example in
a unix shell script the $? variable will be 0 if the last command returned a successful exit status, or greater than 0 if the exit status indicated failure. If cvs is successful, it returns a successful status; if there is an error, it prints an error message and returns a failure status. The one exception to this is the cvs diff command. It will return a suc- cessful status if it found no differences, or a failure status if there were differences or if there was an error. Because this behavior pro- vides no good way to detect errors, in the future it is possible that cvs diff will be changed to behave like the other cvs commands. ~/.cvsrc Default options and the ~/.cvsrc file There are some command_options that are used so often that you might have set up an alias or some other means to make sure you always spec- ify that option. One example (the one that drove the implementation of the .cvsrc support, actually) is that many people find the default out- put of the diff command to be very hard to read, and that either con- text diffs or unidiffs are much easier to understand. The ~/.cvsrc file is a way that you can add default options to cvs_com- mands within cvs, instead of relying on aliases or other shell scripts. The format of the ~/.cvsrc file is simple. The file is searched for a line that begins with the same name as the cvs_command being executed. If a match is found, then the remainder of the line is split up (at whitespace characters) into separate options and added to the command arguments before any options from the command line. If a command has two names (e.g., checkout and co), the official name, not necessarily the one used on the command line, will be used to match against the file. So if this is the contents of the user's ~/.cvsrc file: log -N diff -uN rdiff -u update -Pd because diff doesn't have an option to specify use of the "old" format, so you would need cvs -f diff foobar. In place of the command name you can use cvs to specify global options (see node 'Global options' in the CVS manual). For example the follow- ing line in .cvsrc cvs -z6 causes cvs to use compression level 6. Global options The available cvs_options (that are given to the left of cvs_command) are: --allow-root=rootdir May be invoked multiple times to specify one legal cvsroot directory with each invocation. Also causes CVS to preparse the configuration file for each specified root, which can be useful when configuring write proxies, See node 'Password authentication server' in the CVS manual & node 'Write proxies' in the CVS manual. -a Authenticate all communication between the client and the server. Only has an effect on the cvs client. As of this writing, this is only implemented when using a GSSAPI connection (see node 'GSSAPI authenticated' in the CVS manual). Authentication prevents certain sorts of attacks involving hijacking the active tcp connection. Enabling authentication does not enable encryption. -b bindir In cvs 1.9.18 and older, this specified that rcs programs are in the bindir directory. Current versions of cvs do not run rcs programs; for compatibility this option is accepted, but it does nothing. -T tempdir Use tempdir as the directory where temporary files are located. o The contents of the$TMPDIR environment variable (%TMPDIR% on Win-
dows - see node 'Environment variables' in the CVS manual).

o   /tmp

Temporary directories should always be  specified  as  an  absolute
pathname.   When  running  a  CVS client, -T affects only the local
process; specifying -T for the client has no effect on  the  server
and vice versa.

-d cvs_root_directory

Use  cvs_root_directory as the root directory pathname of the reposi-
tory.  Overrides the setting of the  $CVSROOT environment variable. See node 'Repository' in the CVS manual. -e editor Use editor to enter revision log information. Overrides the setting of the$CVSEDITOR and $EDITOR environment variables. For more infor- mation, see node 'Committing your changes' in the CVS manual. -f Do not read the ~/.cvsrc file. This option is most often used because of the non-orthogonality of the cvs option set. For example, the cvs log option -N (turn off display of tag names) does not have a corresponding option to turn the display on. So if you have -N in the ~/.cvsrc entry for log, you may need to use -f to show the tag names. -g Forges group-writable permissions on files in the working copy. This option is typically used when you have multiple users sharing a sin- gle checked out source tree, allowing them to operate their shells with a less dangerous umask at the expense of cvs security. To use this feature, create a directory to hold the checked-out source tree, set it to a private group, and set up the directory such that files created under it inherit the gid of the directory. On BSD systems, this occurs automatically. On SYSV systems and GNU/Linux, the sgid bit must be set on the directory for this. The users who are to share the checked out tree must be placed in that group which owns This option is a MidnightBSD extension merged into MirBSD cvs. -H --help Display usage information about the specified cvs_command (but do not actually execute the command). If you don't specify a command name, cvs -H displays overall help for cvs, including a list of other help options. -R Turns on read-only repository mode. This allows one to check out from a read-only repository, such as within an anoncvs server, or from a cd-rom repository. Same effect as if the CVSREADONLYFS environment variable is set. Using -R can also considerably speed up checkouts over NFS. -n Do not change any files. Attempt to execute the cvs_command, but only to issue reports; do not remove, update, or merge any existing files, or create any new files. Note that cvs will not necessarily produce exactly the same output as without -n. In some cases the output will be the same, but in other cases cvs will skip some of the processing that would have been required to produce the exact same output. -Q Cause the command to be really quiet; the command will only generate output for serious problems. -q Cause the command to be somewhat quiet; informational messages, such as reports of recursion through subdirectories, are suppressed. Set a user variable (see node 'Variables' in the CVS manual). -t Trace program execution; display messages showing the steps of cvs activity. Particularly useful with -n to explore the potential impact of an unfamiliar command. -v --version Display version and copyright information for cvs. -w Make new working files read-write. Overrides the setting of the$CVSREAD  environment  variable.   Files  are  created  read-write by
default, unless $CVSREAD is set or -r is given. -x Encrypt all communication between the client and the server. Only has an effect on the cvs client. As of this writing, this is only implemented when using a GSSAPI connection (see node 'GSSAPI authen- ticated' in the CVS manual) or a Kerberos connection (see node 'Ker- beros authenticated' in the CVS manual). Enabling encryption implies that message traffic is also authenticated. Encryption support is not available by default; it must be enabled using a special config- ure option, --enable-encryption, when you build cvs. -z level Request compression level for network traffic. cvs interprets level identically to the gzip program. Valid levels are 1 (high speed, low compression) to 9 (low speed, high compression), or 0 to disable com- pression (the default). Data sent to the server will be compressed at the requested level and the client will request the server use the same compression level for data returned. The server will use the closest level allowed by the server administrator to compress options, which are listed with the individual commands, may have dif- ferent behavior from one cvs command to the other). Note: the history command is an exception; it supports many options that conflict even with these standard options. -D date_spec Use the most recent revision no later than date_spec. date_spec is a single argument, a date description specifying a date in the past. The specification is sticky when you use it to make a private copy of a source file; that is, when you get a working file using -D, cvs records the date you specified, so that further updates in the same directory will use the same date (for more information on sticky tags/dates, see node 'Sticky tags' in the CVS manual). -D is available with the annotate, checkout, diff, export, history, ls, rdiff, rls, rtag, tag, and update commands. (The history command uses this option in a slightly different way; see node 'history options' in the CVS manual). For a complete description of the date formats accepted by cvs, see node 'Date input formats' in the CVS manual. Remember to quote the argument to the -D flag so that your shell doesn't interpret spaces as argument separators. A command using the -D flag can look like this:$ cvs diff -D "1 hour ago" cvs.texinfo

-f

When you specify a particular date or tag to cvs commands, they  nor-
mally  ignore  files  that  do  not contain the tag (or did not exist
prior to the date) that you specified.  Use the -f option if you want
files  retrieved  even  when  there  is no match for the tag or date.
(The most recent revision of the file will be used).

Note that even with -f, a tag that you specify must exist  (that  is,
in some file, not necessary in every file).  This is so that cvs will
continue to give an error if you mistype a tag name.

-f is available with  these  commands:  annotate,  checkout,  export,
rdiff, rtag, and update.

fication is sticky; that is, when you use this option with a checkout
or update command, cvs associates your selected kflag with any  files
it  operates on, and continues to use that kflag with future commands
on the same files until you specify otherwise.

The -k option is available with  the  add,  checkout,  diff,  export,
import, rdiff, and update commands.

WARNING:  Prior  to  CVS version 1.12.2, the -k flag overrode the -kb
indication for a binary file.  This could  sometimes  corrupt  binary
files.  See node 'Merging and keywords' in the CVS manual, for more.

-l

Local;  run  only in current working directory, rather than recursing
through subdirectories.

Available with the following commands:  annotate,  checkout,  commit,
diff,  edit,  editors, export, log, rdiff, remove, rtag, status, tag,
unedit, update, watch, and watchers.

-m message

Available with the following commands: add, commit and import.

-n

Do not run any tag program.  (A program can be specified  to  run  in
the  modules  database  (see  node 'modules' in the CVS manual); this
option bypasses it).

Note: this is not the same as the cvs -n program  option,  which  you
can specify to the left of a cvs command!

Available with the checkout, commit, export, and rtag commands.

-P

Prune  empty directories.  See node 'Removing directories' in the CVS
manual.

-p
Available  with  the  following commands: annotate, checkout, commit,
diff, edit, editors, export, ls, rdiff, remove,  rls,  rtag,  status,
tag, unedit, update, watch, and watchers.

-r tag

-r tag[:date]

Use the revision specified by the tag argument (and the date argument
for the commands which accept it) instead of the default  head  revi-
sion.   As  well  as arbitrary tags defined with the tag or rtag com-
mand, two special tags are always available: HEAD refers to the  most
recent  version available in the repository (also known as the tip of
the MAIN branch, also known as trunk; the name of a branch refers  to
its tip; this version of cvs introduces .bhead, but only for the diff
command, for the same), and BASE refers  to  the  revision  you  last
checked out into the current working directory.

The  tag  specification  is sticky when you use this with checkout or
update to make your own copy of a file: cvs  remembers  the  tag  and
continues to use it on future update commands, until you specify oth-
tags' in the CVS manual).

The tag can be either a symbolic or numeric tag, as described in node
'Tags' in the CVS manual, or the name of a branch,  as  described  in
node 'Branching and merging' in the CVS manual.  When tag is the name
of a branch, some commands accept the optional date argument to spec-
ify  the revision as of the given date on the branch.  When a command
expects a specific revision, the name of a branch is  interpreted  as
the most recent revision on that branch.

As  a MirOS cvs extension, specifying BASE as the date portion of the
argument yields the base revision of the branch specified by the  tag
portion  of  the argument, i.e. the revision on the parent branch the
tag branch split off, or, where both branches were  the  same.   This
option has not received very much testing, beware!

Specifying  the  -q global option along with the -r command option is
often useful, to suppress the warning messages when the rcs file does
not contain the specified tag.

Note:  this  is  not the same as the overall cvs -r option, which you
can specify to the left of a cvs command!

-r tag is available with the commit and history commands.

-r tag[:date] is available with the annotate, checkout, diff, export,
rdiff, rtag, and update commands.

o Requires: repository, working directory.

o Changes: repository.

o Synonym: rcs

This is the cvs  interface  to  assorted  administrative  facilities.
Some  of them have questionable usefulness for cvs but exist for his-
torical purposes.  Some of the questionable  options  are  likely  to
disappear  in  the  future.   This  command does work recursively, so
extreme care should be used.

On unix, if there is a group named cvsadmin,  only  members  of  that
group  can  run  cvs admin commands, except for those specified using
the UserAdminOptions configuration option in the CVSROOT/config file.
Options specified using UserAdminOptions can be run by any user.  See
node 'config' in the CVS manual for more on UserAdminOptions.

The cvsadmin group should exist on the server, or any system  running
the non-client/server cvs.  To disallow cvs admin for all users, cre-
ate a group with no users in it.  On NT, the  cvsadmin  feature  does
not exist and all users can run cvs admin.

Some  of  these  options have questionable usefulness for cvs but exist
for historical purposes.  Some even make it impossible to use cvs until
you undo the effect!

-Aoldfile

Might  not work together with cvs.  Append the access list of oldfile
to the access list of the rcs file.

Might not work together with cvs.  Append the login  names  appearing
in  the  comma-separated  list  logins  to the access list of the rcs
file.

-b[rev]

Set the default branch to rev.  In cvs, you normally do  not  manipu-
late default branches; sticky tags (see node 'Sticky tags' in the CVS
manual) are a better way to decide which branch you want to work  on.
There  is  one  reason to run cvs admin -b: to revert to the vendor's

Might not work together with cvs.  Erase the login names appearing in
the comma-separated list logins from the access list of the RCS file.
If  logins is omitted, erase the entire access list.  There can be no
space between -e and its argument.

-I

Run interactively, even if the standard  input  is  not  a  terminal.
This option does not work with the client/server cvs and is likely to
disappear in a future release of cvs.

-i

Useless with cvs.  This creates and initializes a new rcs file, with-
out depositing a revision.  With cvs, add files with the cvs add com-
mand (see node 'Adding files' in the CVS manual).

-ksubst

Set the default keyword substitution to  subst.   See  node  'Keyword
substitution' in the CVS manual.  Giving an explicit -k option to cvs
update, cvs export, or cvs checkout overrides this default.

-l[rev]

Lock the revision with number rev.  If a branch is  given,  lock  the
latest  revision  on that branch.  If rev is omitted, lock the latest
revision on the default branch.  There can be no space between -l and
its argument.

This  can  be  used  in conjunction with the rcslock.pl script in the
contrib directory of the cvs source distribution to provide  reserved
checkouts  (where  only  one  user  can  be editing a given file at a
time).  See the comments in that file for details (and see the README
file  in  that directory for disclaimers about the unsupported nature
of contrib).  According to comments in that file, locking must set to
strict (which is the default).

-L

-Nname[:[rev]]

Act like -n, except override any previous assignment  of  name.   For
use  with  magic branches, see node 'Magic branch numbers' in the CVS
manual.

-nname[:[rev]]

Associate the symbolic name name with the branch or revision rev.  It
is  normally  better  to use cvs tag or cvs rtag instead.  Delete the
symbolic name if both : and rev  are  omitted;  otherwise,  print  an
error  message if name is already associated with another number.  If
rev is symbolic, it is expanded before association.  A rev consisting
of  a  branch  number  followed  by a . stands for the current latest
revision in the branch.  A : with an empty rev stands for the current
latest revision on the default branch, normally the trunk.  For exam-
ple, cvs admin -nname: associates name with the current latest  revi-
sion  of  all  the  RCS files; this contrasts with cvs admin -nname:$which associates name with the revision numbers extracted from key- word strings in the corresponding working files. -orange Deletes (outdates) the revisions given by range. Note that this command can be quite dangerous unless you know exactly what you are doing (for example see the warnings below about how the rev1:rev2 syntax is confusing). If you are short on disc this option might help you. But think twice before using it--there is no way short of restoring the latest backup to undo this command! If you delete different revisions than you planned, either due to carelessness or (heaven forbid) a cvs bug, there is no opportunity to correct the error before the revisions are deleted. It probably would be a good idea to experiment on a copy of the repository first. Specify range in one of the following ways: rev1::rev2 Collapse all revisions between rev1 and rev2, so that cvs only stores the differences associated with going from rev1 to rev2, not intermediate steps. For example, after -o 1.3::1.5 one can retrieve revision 1.3, revision 1.5, or the differences to get from 1.3 to 1.5, but not the revision 1.4, or the differences between 1.3 and 1.4. Other examples: -o 1.3::1.4 and -o 1.3::1.3 have no Collapse revisions between rev and the end of the branch containing rev. Revision rev is left intact but the head revision is deleted. rev Delete the revision rev. For example, -o 1.3 is equivalent to -o 1.2::1.4. rev1:rev2 Delete the revisions from rev1 to rev2, inclusive, on the same branch. One will not be able to retrieve rev1 or rev2 or any of the revisions in between. For example, the command cvs admin -oR_1_01:R_1_02 . is rarely useful. It means to delete revisions up to, and including, the tag R_1_02. But beware! If there are files that have not changed between R_1_02 and R_1_03 the file will have the same numerical revision number assigned to the tags R_1_02 and R_1_03. So not only will it be impossible to retrieve R_1_02; R_1_03 will also have to be restored from the tapes! In most cases you want to specify rev1::rev2 instead. :rev Delete revisions from the beginning of the branch containing rev up to and including rev. rev: Delete revisions from revision rev, including rev itself, to the end of the branch containing rev. None of the revisions to be deleted may have branches or locks. If any of the revisions to be deleted have symbolic names, and one specifies one of the :: syntaxes, then cvs will give an error and not delete any revisions. If you really want to delete both the symbolic names and the revisions, first delete the symbolic names with cvs tag -d, then run cvs admin -o. If one specifies the non-:: syntaxes, then cvs will delete the revisions but leave the symbolic names pointing to nonexistent revisions. This behavior is preserved for compatibility with previous versions of cvs, but because it isn't very useful, in the future it may change to be like the :: case. Due to the way cvs handles branches rev cannot be specified symbol- ically if it is a branch. See node 'Magic branch numbers' in the CVS manual, for an explanation. Make sure that no-one has checked out a copy of the revision you -sstate[:rev] Useful with cvs. Set the state attribute of the revision rev to state. If rev is a branch number, assume the latest revision on that branch. If rev is omitted, assume the latest revision on the default branch. Any identifier is acceptable for state. A useful set of states is Exp (for experimental), Stab (for stable), and Rel (for released). By default, the state of a new revision is set to Exp when it is created. The state is visible in the output from cvs log (see node 'log' in the CVS manual), and in the$Log$and$State$key- words (see node 'Keyword substitution' in the CVS manual). Note that cvs uses the dead state for its own purposes (see node 'Attic' in the CVS manual); to take a file to or from the dead state use commands like cvs remove and cvs add (see node 'Adding and removing' in the CVS manual), not cvs admin -s. -t[file] Useful with cvs. Write descriptive text from the contents of the named file into the RCS file, deleting the existing text. The file pathname may not begin with -. The descriptive text can be seen in the output from cvs log (see node 'log' in the CVS manual). There can be no space between -t and its argument. If file is omitted, obtain the text from standard input, terminated by end-of-file or by a line containing . by itself. Prompt for the text if interaction is possible; see -I. -t-string Similar to -tfile. Write descriptive text from the string into the rcs file, deleting the existing text. There can be no space between -t and its argument. -U Set locking to non-strict. Non-strict locking means that the owner of a file need not lock a revision for checkin. For use with cvs, strict locking must be set; see the discussion under the -l option above. -u[rev] See the option -l above, for a discussion of using this option with In previous versions of cvs, this option meant to write an rcs file which would be acceptable to rcs version n, but it is now obsolete and specifying it will produce an error. -xsuffixes In previous versions of cvs, this was documented as a way of specify- ing the names of the rcs files. However, cvs has always required that the rcs files used by cvs end in ,v, so this option has never done anything useful. annotate What revision modified each line of a file? o Synopsis: annotate [options] files... o Requires: repository. o Changes: nothing. For each file in files, print the head revision of the trunk, together with information on the last modification for each line. If backwards annotation is requested, show the first modification after the specified revision. (Backwards annotation currently appears to be broken.) annotate options These standard options are supported by annotate (see node 'Common options' in the CVS manual, for a complete description of them): -b Backwards, show when a line was removed. Currently appears to be broken. -l Local directory only, no recursion. -R Process directories recursively. -r tag[:date] Annotate file as of specified revision/tag or, when date is specified and tag is a branch tag, the version from the branch tag as it existed on date. See node 'Common options' in the CVS manual. -D date Annotate file as of specified date. annotate example For example:$ cvs annotate ssfile
Annotations for ssfile
***************
1.1          (mary     27-Mar-96): ssfile line 1
1.2          (joe      28-Mar-96): ssfile line 2

The file ssfile currently contains two lines.  The ssfile line  1  line
was  checked  in  by  mary on March 27.  Then, on March 28, joe added a
line ssfile line 2, without modifying the ssfile  line  1  line.   This
report doesn't tell you anything about lines which have been deleted or
replaced; you need to use cvs diff for that (see node 'diff' in the CVS
manual).

The  options  to  cvs annotate are listed in node 'Invoking CVS' in the
CVS manual, and can be used to select the files and revisions to  anno-
tate.  The options are described in more detail there and in node 'Com-
mon options' in the CVS manual.

checkout
Check out sources for editing
o Synopsis: checkout [options] modules...

o Requires: repository.

o Changes: working directory.

o Synonyms: co, get

Create or update a working directory containing copies of the  source
files  specified  by modules.  You must execute checkout before using
most of the other cvs commands, since most of them  operate  on  your
working directory.
source repository.

Note that checkout is used  to  create  directories.   The  top-level
directory  created is always added to the directory where checkout is
invoked, and usually has the same name as the specified  module.   In
the case of a module alias, the created sub-directory may have a dif-
ferent name, but you can be sure that it will be a sub-directory, and
that  checkout will show the relative path leading to each file as it
is extracted into your private work area (unless you specify  the  -Q
global option).

The  files  created by checkout are created read-write, unless the -r
option to cvs (see node 'Global options' in the CVS manual) is speci-
fied,  the CVSREAD environment variable is specified (see node 'Envi-
ronment variables' in the CVS manual), or a watch is  in  effect  for
that file (see node 'Watches' in the CVS manual).

Note that running checkout on a directory that was already built by a
prior checkout is also permitted.  This is similar to specifying  the
-d  option  to  the  update command in the sense that new directories
that have been created in the repository will  appear  in  your  work
area.   However,  checkout takes a module name whereas update takes a
directory name.  Also to use checkout this way it must  be  run  from
the  top level directory (where you originally ran checkout from), so
before you run checkout to update an existing directory, don't forget
to change your directory to the top level directory.

For the output produced by the checkout command see node 'update out-
put' in the CVS manual.

checkout options
These standard options are supported  by  checkout  (see  node  'Common
options' in the CVS manual, for a complete description of them):

-D date

Use  the  most  recent  revision  no later than date.  This option is
sticky, and implies -P.  See node 'Sticky tags' in  the  CVS  manual,

-f

Only  useful  with  the  -D  or -r flags.  If no matching revision is
found, retrieve the most recent revision  (instead  of  ignoring  the
file).

-k kflag

-n

Do  not  run any checkout program (as specified with the -o option in
the modules file; see node 'modules' in the CVS manual).

-P

Prune empty directories.  See node 'Moving directories'  in  the  CVS
manual.

-p

Pipe files to the standard output.

-R

Checkout directories recursively.  This option is on by default.

-r tag[:date]

Checkout the revision specified by tag or, when date is specified and
tag is a branch tag, the version from the branch tag as it existed on
date.  This option is sticky, and implies -P.  See node 'Sticky tags'
see node 'Common options' in the CVS manual.

In  addition to those, you can use these special command options with
checkout:

-A

Reset any sticky tags, dates, or -k options.  See node 'Sticky  tags'

-c

Copy the module file, sorted, to the standard output, instead of cre-
ating or modifying any files or directories in  your  working  direc-
tory.
that doesn't contain empty intermediate directories.   In  this  case
only,  cvs tries to shorten'' pathnames to avoid those empty direc-
tories.

For example, given a module foo that contains  the  file  bar.c,  the
command  cvs  co -d dir foo will create directory dir and place bar.c
inside.  Similarly, given a module bar  which  has  subdirectory  baz
wherein  there  is  a  file quux.c, the command cvs co -d dir bar/baz
will create directory dir and place quux.c inside.

Using the -N flag will defeat this behavior.  Given the  same  module
definitions  above,  cvs  co  -N  -d  dir foo will create directories
dir/foo and place bar.c inside, while cvs co -N -d dir  bar/baz  will
create directories dir/bar/baz and place quux.c inside.

-j tag

With  two  -j options, merge changes from the revision specified with
the first -j option to the  revision  specified  with  the  second  j
option, into the working directory.

With  one  -j option, merge changes from the ancestor revision to the
revision specified with the -j option, into  the  working  directory.
The  ancestor  revision  is the common ancestor of the revision which
the working directory is based on, and the revision specified in  the
-j option.

In  addition,  each -j option can contain an optional date specifica-
tion which, when used with branches, can limit the chosen revision to
one  within a specific date.  An optional date is specified by adding
a colon (:) to the tag: -jSymbolic_Tag:Date_Specifier.

See node 'Branching and merging' in the CVS manual.

-N

Only useful together with -d dir.  With this  option,  cvs  will  not
shorten'' module paths in your working directory when you check out
a single module.  See the -d flag for examples and a discussion.

-s

Like -c, but include the status of all modules, and sort  it  by  the
status  string.  See node 'modules' in the CVS manual, for info about
the -s option that is used inside the modules file to set the  module
status.

$cvs checkout -D yesterday tc commit Check files into the repository o Synopsis: commit [-lnRf] [-m 'log_message' | -F file] [-r revision] [files...] o Requires: working directory, repository. o Changes: repository. o Synonym: ci Use commit when you want to incorporate changes from your working source files into the source repository. If you don't specify particular files to commit, all of the files in your working current directory are examined. commit is careful to change in the repository only those files that you have really changed. By default (or if you explicitly specify the -R option), files in subdirectories are also examined and committed if they have changed; you can use the -l option to limit commit to the current directory only. commit verifies that the selected files are up to date with the cur- rent revisions in the source repository; it will notify you, and exit without committing, if any of the specified files must be made cur- rent first with update (see node 'update' in the CVS manual). commit does not call the update command for you, but rather leaves that for you to do when the time is right. When all is well, an editor is invoked to allow you to enter a log message that will be written to one or more logging programs (see node 'modules' in the CVS manual, and see node 'loginfo' in the CVS manual) and placed in the rcs file inside the repository. This log message can be retrieved with the log command; see node 'log' in the CVS manual. You can specify the log message on the command line with the -m message option, and thus avoid the editor invocation, or use the -F file option to specify that the argument file contains the log message. At commit, a unique commitid is placed in the rcs file inside the repository. All files committed at once get the same commitid, a string consisting only of hexadecimal digits (usually 16 in GNU cvs, 19 in MirBSD and MirDebian GNU cvs). FSF GNU cvs 1.11, MirOS GNU cvs 1.11, and OpenBSD OpenCVS do not support commitids yet. The commitid can be retrieved with the log and status command; see node 'log' in the CVS manual and node 'File status' in the CVS manual. -R Commit directories recursively. This is on by default. -r revision Commit to revision. revision must be either a branch, or a revision on the main trunk that is higher than any existing revision number (see node 'Assigning revisions' in the CVS manual). You cannot com- mit to a specific revision on a branch. commit also supports these options: -c Refuse to commit files unless the user has registered a valid edit on the file via cvs edit. This is most useful when commit -c and edit -c have been placed in all .cvsrc files. A commit can be forced any- ways by either regestering an edit retroactively via cvs edit (no changes to the file will be lost) or using the -f option to commit. Support for commit -c requires both client and a server versions 1.12.10 or greater. -F file Read the log message from file, instead of invoking an editor. -f Note that this is not the standard behavior of the -f option as defined in node 'Common options' in the CVS manual. Force cvs to commit a new revision even if you haven't made any changes to the file. As of cvs version 1.12.10, it also causes the -c option to be ignored. If the current revision of file is 1.7, then the following two commands are equivalent:$ cvs commit -f file
$cvs commit -r 1.8 file The -f option disables recursion (i.e., it implies -l). To force cvs to commit a new revision for all files in all subdirectories, you dots) with the -r option. To create a branch revision, use the -b option of the rtag or tag commands (see node 'Branching and merging' in the CVS manual). Then, either checkout or update can be used to base your sources on the newly created branch. From that point on, all com- mit changes made within these working sources will be automatically added to a branch revision, thereby not disturbing main-line develop- ment in any way. For example, if you had to create a patch to the 1.2 version of the product, even though the 2.0 version is already under development, you might do:$ cvs rtag -b -r FCS1_2 FCS1_2_Patch product_module
$cvs checkout -r FCS1_2_Patch product_module$ cd product_module
[[ hack away ]]
$cvs commit This works automatically since the -r option is sticky. Creating the branch after editing Say you have been working on some extremely experimental software, based on whatever revision you happened to checkout last week. If oth- ers in your group would like to work on this software with you, but without disturbing main-line development, you could commit your change to a new branch. Others can then checkout your experimental stuff and utilize the full benefit of cvs conflict resolution. The scenario might look like: [[ hacked sources are present ]]$ cvs tag -b EXPR1
$cvs update -r EXPR1$ cvs commit

The  update  command will make the -r EXPR1 option sticky on all files.
Note that your changes to the files will never be removed by the update
command.   The  commit will automatically commit to the correct branch,
because the -r is sticky.  You could also do like this:

[[ hacked sources are present ]]
$cvs tag -b EXPR1$ cvs commit -r EXPR1

diff
Show differences between revisions
o Synopsis: diff [-lR] [-k kflag] [format_options] [(-r rev1[:date1]  |
-D date1) [-r rev2[:date2] | -D date2]] [files...]

o Requires: working directory, repository.

o Changes: nothing.

The  diff  command  is  used to compare different revisions of files.
The default action is to compare your working files  with  the  revi-
sions they were based on, and report any differences that are found.

If  any  file names are given, only those files are compared.  If any
directories are given, all files under them will be compared.

The exit status for diff is different than for  other  cvs  commands;
for details see node 'Exit status' in the CVS manual.

diff options
These standard options are supported by diff (see node 'Common options'
in the CVS manual, for a complete description of them):

-D date

Use the most recent revision no later than date.  See -r for how this
affects the comparison.

-k kflag

Process keywords according to kflag.  See node 'Keyword substitution'
in the CVS manual.

-l

Local; run only in current working directory.

-R

Examine directories recursively.  This option is on by default.

-r tag[:date]

The following options specify the format of the  output.   They  have
the  same  meaning  as in GNU diff.  Most options have two equivalent
names, one of which is a single letter preceded by -, and  the  other
of which is a long name preceded by --.

-lines

Show lines (an integer) lines of context.  This option does not spec-
ify an output format by itself; it has no effect unless  it  is  com-
bined with -c or -u.  This option is obsolete.  For proper operation,
patch typically needs at least two lines of context.

-a

Treat all files as text and compare them line-by-line, even  if  they
do not seem to be text.

-b

Ignore  trailing  white space and consider all other sequences of one
or more white space characters to be equivalent.

-B

Ignore changes that just insert or delete blank lines.

--binary

Read and write data in binary mode.

--brief

Report only whether the files differ, not the details of the  differ-
ences.

-c

Use the context output format.

--changed-group-format=format

Use  format  to  output  a line group containing differing lines from
both files in if-then-else format.  See node 'Line group formats'  in
the CVS manual.

-d

Change  the algorithm to perhaps find a smaller set of changes.  This
makes diff slower (sometimes much slower).

-e

--ed

Make output that is a valid ed script.

--expand-tabs

Expand tabs to spaces in the output, to  preserve  the  alignment  of
tabs in the input files.

-f

Make  output  that looks vaguely like an ed script but has changes in
the order they appear in the file.

-F regexp

In context and unified format, for each  hunk  of  differences,  show
some of the last preceding line that matches regexp.

--forward-ed

Make  output  that looks vaguely like an ed script but has changes in
the order they appear in the file.
Do  not  discard  the  last  lines lines of the common prefix and the
first lines lines of the common suffix.

-i

Ignore changes in case; consider upper- and lower-case letters equiv-
alent.

-I regexp

Ignore changes that just insert or delete lines that match regexp.

--ifdef=name

Make merged if-then-else output using name.

--ignore-all-space

Ignore white space when comparing lines.

--ignore-blank-lines

Ignore changes that just insert or delete blank lines.

--ignore-case

Ignore  changes  in  case;  consider  upper- and lower-case to be the
same.

--ignore-matching-lines=regexp

Ignore changes that just insert or delete lines that match regexp.

--ignore-space-change

Ignore trailing white space and consider all other sequences  of  one
or more white space characters to be equivalent.

Use  label instead of the file name in the context format and unified

--label=label

Use label instead of the file name in the context format and  unified

--left-column

Print  only  the left column of two common lines in side by side for-
mat.

--line-format=format

Use format to output all input lines  in  if-then-else  format.   See
node 'Line formats' in the CVS manual.

--minimal

Change  the algorithm to perhaps find a smaller set of changes.  This
makes diff slower (sometimes much slower).

-n

Output RCS-format diffs; like -f except that each  command  specifies
the number of lines affected.

-N

--new-file

In  directory  comparison,  if a file is found in only one directory,
treat it as present but empty in the other directory.

--new-group-format=format

--old-group-format=format

Use  format to output a group of lines taken from just the first file
in if-then-else format.  See node 'Line group  formats'  in  the  CVS
manual.

--old-line-format=format

Use  format  to  output  a  line  taken  from  just the first file in
if-then-else format.  See node 'Line formats' in the CVS manual.

-p

Show which C function each change is in.

--rcs

Output RCS-format diffs; like -f except that each  command  specifies
the number of lines affected.

--report-identical-files

-s

Report when two files are the same.

--show-c-function

Show which C function each change is in.

--show-function-line=regexp

In  context  and  unified  format, for each hunk of differences, show
some of the last preceding line that matches regexp.

--side-by-side
--suppress-common-lines

Do not print common lines in side by side format.

-t

Expand  tabs  to  spaces  in the output, to preserve the alignment of
tabs in the input files.

-T

Output a tab rather than a space before the text of a line in  normal
or  context format.  This causes the alignment of tabs in the line to
look normal.

--text

Treat all files as text and compare them line-by-line, even  if  they
do not appear to be text.

-u

Use the unified output format.

--unchanged-group-format=format

Use format to output a group of common lines taken from both files in
if-then-else format.  See node 'Line group formats' in the  CVS  man-
ual.

--unchanged-line-format=format

Use format to output a line common to both files in if-then-else for-
mat.  See node 'Line formats' in the CVS manual.

-U lines

-W columns

--width=columns

Use an output width of columns in side by side format.

-y

Use the side by side output format.

Line group formats
Line group formats let you specify formats suitable for  many  applica-
tions  that  allow  if-then-else input, including programming languages
and text formatting languages.  A line group format specifies the  out-
put format for a contiguous group of similar lines.

For  example,  the  following command compares the TeX file myfile with
the original version from the repository, and outputs a merged file  in
which  old regions are surrounded by \begin{em}-\end{em} lines, and new
regions are surrounded by \begin{bf}-\end{bf} lines.

cvs diff \

--old-group-format='\begin{em}
%<\end{em}
' \

--new-group-format='\begin{bf}
%>\end{bf}
' \

myfile

The following command is equivalent to the above example, but it  is  a
little  more verbose, because it spells out the default line group for-
mats.

cvs diff \

--old-group-format='\begin{em}
%<\end{em}
' \

myfile

Here is a more advanced example, which  outputs  a  diff  listing  with
headers containing line numbers in a plain English'' style.

cvs diff \

--unchanged-group-format='' \

--old-group-format='-------- %dn line%(n=1?:s) deleted at %df:
%<' \

--new-group-format='-------- %dN line%(N=1?:s) added after %de:
%>' \

--changed-group-format='-------- %dn line%(n=1?:s) changed at %df:
%<-------- to:
%>' \

myfile

To  specify  a  line group format, use one of the options listed below.
You can specify up to four line group formats, one  for  each  kind  of
line  group.   You  should  quote format, because it typically contains
shell metacharacters.

--old-group-format=format

These line groups are hunks containing  only  lines  from  the  first
file.   The default old group format is the same as the changed group
format if it is specified; otherwise it is a format that outputs  the
line group as-is.

--new-group-format=format

These  line  groups  are  hunks containing only lines from the second
file.  The default new group format is same as the changed group for-
mat  if  it  is  specified; otherwise it is a format that outputs the
line group as-is.

unchanged group format is a format that outputs the line group as-is.

In  a  line  group  format, ordinary characters represent themselves;
forms.

%<

stands for the lines from the first file, including the trailing new-
line.  Each line is formatted according to the old line  format  (see
node 'Line formats' in the CVS manual).

%>

stands  for  the  lines  from the second file, including the trailing
newline.  Each line is formatted according to the new line format.

%=

stands for the lines common to both  files,  including  the  trailing
newline.  Each line is formatted according to the unchanged line for-
mat.

%%

stands for %.

%c'C'

where C is a single character, stands for C.  C may not  be  a  back-
slash  or an apostrophe.  For example, %c':' stands for a colon, even
inside the then-part of an if-then-else format, which a  colon  would
normally terminate.

%c'\O'

where  O is a string of 1, 2, or 3 octal digits, stands for the char-
acter with octal code O.  For example, %c'\0' stands for a null char-
acter.

The line number of the first line in the group  in  the  old  file;
equals e + 1.

l

The line number of the last line in the group in the old file.

m

The  line  number of the line just after the group in the old file;
equals l + 1.

n

The number of lines in the group in the old file; equals l - f + 1.

E, F, L, M, N

Likewise, for lines in the new file.

The printf conversion specification can be %d, %o, %x, or %X, spec-
ifying  decimal, octal, lower case hexadecimal, or upper case hexa-
decimal output respectively.  After the % the following options can
appear  in  sequence: a - specifying left-justification; an integer
specifying the minimum field width; and a  period  followed  by  an
optional  integer  specifying  the  minimum  number of digits.  For
example, %5dN prints the number of new lines  in  the  group  in  a
field of width 5 characters, using the printf format "%5d".

(A=B?T:E)

If  A equals B then T else E.  A and B are each either a decimal con-
stant or a single letter interpreted as above.  This format  spec  is
equivalent  to  T if A's value equals B's; otherwise it is equivalent
to E.

For example, %(N=0?no:%dN) line%(N=1?:s) is equivalent to no lines if
N  (the number of lines in the group in the new file) is 0, to 1 line
if N is 1, and to %dN lines otherwise.

Line formats
Line formats control how each line taken from an input file  is  output
as part of a line group in if-then-else format.

For  example,  the  following  command  outputs  text with a one-column
' \

--unchanged-line-format=' %l
' \

myfile

To specify a line format, use one of the following options.  You should
quote format, since it often contains shell metacharacters.

--old-line-format=format

formats lines just from the first file.

--new-line-format=format

formats lines just from the second file.

--unchanged-line-format=format

formats lines common to both files.

--line-format=format

formats all lines; in effect, it sets all three above options  simul-
taneously.

In  a  line format, ordinary characters represent themselves; conver-
sion specifications start with % and have one of the following forms.

%l

stands for the contents of the line, not counting its  trailing  new-
line (if any).  This format ignores whether the line is incomplete.

%L

stands  for  the contents of the line, including its trailing newline
(if any).  If a line is incomplete, this format preserves its  incom-
where  C  is  a single character, stands for C.  C may not be a back-
slash or an apostrophe.  For example, %c':' stands for a colon.

%c'\O'

where O is a string of 1, 2, or 3 octal digits, stands for the  char-
acter with octal code O.  For example, %c'\0' stands for a null char-
acter.

Fn

where F is a printf conversion specification,  stands  for  the  line
number  formatted  with F.  For example, %.5dn prints the line number
using the printf format "%.5d".  See node 'Line group formats' in the
CVS manual, for more about printf conversion specifications.

The default line format is %l followed by a newline character.

If  the  input  contains tab characters and it is important that they
line up on output, you should ensure that %l or %L in a  line  format
is just after a tab stop (e.g. by preceding %l or %L with a tab char-
acter), or you should use the -t or --expand-tabs option.

Taken together, the line and line group formats let you specify  many
different  formats.  For example, the following command uses a format
similar to diff's normal format.  You can tailor this command to  get
fine control over diff's output.

cvs diff \

--old-line-format='< %l
' \

--new-line-format='> %l
' \

--old-group-format='%df%(f=l?:,%dl)d%dE
%<' \

--new-group-format='%dea%dF%(F=L?:,%dL)
%>' \

--changed-group-format='%df%(f=l?:,%dl)c%dF%(F=L?:,%dL)
%<--
%>' \

--unchanged-group-format='' \

$cvs diff -kk -u -r 1.14 -r 1.19 backend.c Suppose the experimental branch EXPR1 was based on a set of files tagged RELEASE_1_0. To see what has happened on that branch, the fol- lowing can be used:$ cvs diff -r RELEASE_1_0 -r EXPR1

A command like this can be used to produce a context diff  between  two
releases:

$cvs diff -c -r RELEASE_1_0 -r RELEASE_1_1 > diffs If you are maintaining ChangeLogs, a command like the following just before you commit your changes may help you write the ChangeLog entry. All local modifications that have not yet been committed will be printed.$ cvs diff -u | less

export
Export sources from CVS, similar to checkout
o Synopsis: export [-flNnR] (-r rev[:date] | -D date)  [-k  subst]  [-d
dir] module...

o Requires: repository.

o Changes: current directory.

This command is a variant of checkout; use it when you want a copy of
the source for module without  the  cvs  administrative  directories.
For  example,  you  might  use  export to prepare source for shipment
off-site.  This command requires that you specify a date or tag (with
-D  or  -r), so that you can count on reproducing the source you ship
to others (and thus it always prunes empty directories).

One often would like to use -kv with cvs  export.   This  causes  any

-D date

Use the most recent revision no later than date.

-f

If no matching revision is found, retrieve the most  recent  revision

-l

Local; run only in current working directory.

-n

Do not run any checkout program.

-R

Export directories recursively.  This is on by default.

-r tag[:date]

Export  the  revision specified by tag or, when date is specified and
tag is a branch tag, the version from the branch tag as it existed on
date.  See node 'Common options' in the CVS manual.

In  addition,  these options (that are common to checkout and export)
are also supported:

-d dir

Create a directory called dir for the working files, instead of using
the  module name.  See node 'checkout options' in the CVS manual, for
complete details on how cvs handles this flag.

-k subst

history
Show status of files and users
o Synopsis:     history [-report] [-flags] [-options args] [files...]

o Requires: the file $CVSROOT/CVSROOT/history o Changes: nothing. cvs can keep a history log that tracks each use of most cvs commands. You can use history to display this information in various formats. To enable logging, the LogHistory config option must be set to some value other than the empty string and the history file specified by the HistoryLogPath option must be writable by all users who may run the cvs executable (see node 'config' in the CVS manual). To enable the history command, logging must be enabled as above and the HistorySearchPath config option (see node 'config' in the CVS manual) must be set to specify some number of the history logs cre- ated thereby and these files must be readable by each user who might run the history command. Creating a repository via the cvs init command will enable logging of all possible events to a single history log file ($CVSROOT/CVS-
ROOT/history) with read and write permissions for all users (see node
'Creating a repository' in the CVS manual).

Note:  history uses -f, -l, -n, and -p in ways that conflict with the
normal use inside cvs (see node 'Common options' in the CVS manual).

history options
Several options (shown above as -report)  control  what kind of  report
is generated:

-c

Report  on  each time commit was used (i.e., each time the repository
was modified).

-e

Everything (all record types).  Equivalent to specifying -x with  all
record types.  Of course, -e will also include record types which are
added in a future version of cvs; if you are writing a  script  which
can only handle certain record types, you'll want to specify -x.

-m module
-T

Report on all tags.

-x type

Extract a particular set of record types type from the  cvs  history.
The  types  are indicated by single letters, which you may specify in
combination.

Certain commands have a single record type:

F

release

O

checkout

E

export

T

rtag

One of five record types may result from an update:

C

A merge was necessary but collisions were detected (requiring  man-
ual merging).

G

A merge was necessary and it succeeded.

U

A working file was copied from the repository.

P

A working file was patched to match the repository.

W

The  working  copy  of a file was deleted during update (because it

R

A file was removed.

The options shown as -flags constrain or expand the report  without
requiring option arguments:

-a

Show  data  for  all  users (the default is to show data only for the
user executing history).

-l

Show last modification only.

-w

Show only the records for modifications done from  the  same  working
directory where history is executing.

The  options  shown as -options args constrain the report based on an
argument:

-b str

Show data back to a record containing  the  string  str   in   either
the module name, the file name, or the repository path.

-D date

Show data since date.  This is slightly different from the normal use
of -D date, which selects the newest revision older than date.

-f file

Show data for a particular file (you can specify several  -f  options
on the same command line).  This is equivalent to specifying the file
on the command line.

-r rev

Show records referring to revisions since the revision or  tag  named
rev  appears  in individual rcs files.  Each rcs file is searched for
the revision or tag.

-t tag

Show records since tag tag was last added to the history file.   This
differs  from  the  -r  flag  above in that it reads only the history
file, not the rcs files, and is much faster.

-u name

Show records for user name.

-z timezone

Show times in the selected records  using  the  specified  time  zone

import
Import sources into CVS, using vendor branches
o Synopsis: import [-options] repository vendortag releasetag...

o Requires: Repository, source distribution directory.

o Changes: repository.

Use  import to incorporate an entire source distribution from an out-
side source (e.g., a  source  vendor)  into  your  source  repository
directory.   You  can use this command both for initial creation of a
repository, and for wholesale updates to the module from the  outside
source.  See node 'Tracking sources' in the CVS manual, for a discus-
sion on this subject.

The repository argument gives a directory name (or a path to a direc-
tory) under the cvs root directory for repositories; if the directory
did not exist, import creates it.

When you use import for updates to source that has been  modified  in
your  source repository (since a prior import), it will notify you of
any files that conflict in  the  two  branches  of  development;  use
checkout  -j to reconcile the differences, as import instructs you to
The outside source is saved  in  a  first-level  branch,  by  default
1.1.1.   Updates  are  leaves of this branch; for example, files from
the first imported collection of source  will  be  revision  1.1.1.1,
then  files  from the first imported update will be revision 1.1.1.2,
and so on.

At least three arguments are required.  repository is needed to iden-
tify  the  collection  of  source.  vendortag is a tag for the entire
branch (e.g., for  1.1.1).   You  must  also  specify  at  least  one
releasetag  to uniquely identify the files at the leaves created each
time you execute import.  The releasetag should be  new,  not  previ-
ously  existing  in  the  repository  file, and uniquely identify the
imported release,

Note that import does not change the directory in  which  you  invoke
it.   In particular, it does not set up that directory as a cvs work-
ing directory; if you want to work with the sources import them first
and then check them out into a different directory (see node 'Getting
the source' in the CVS manual).

import options
This standard option is supported by import (see node 'Common  options'
in the CVS manual, for a complete description):

-m message

There are the following additional special options.

-b branch

See node 'Multiple vendor branches' in the CVS manual.

-k subst

Indicate the keyword expansion mode desired.  This setting will apply
to all files created during the import, but not  to  any  files  that
previously  existed in the repository.  See node 'Substitution modes'
in the CVS manual, for a list of valid -k settings.

-I name

Specify file names that should be ignored during import.  You can use
this  option  repeatedly.   To  avoid ignoring any files at all (even
spec can be a file name pattern of the same type that you can specify
in the .cvswrappers file. See node 'Wrappers' in the CVS manual.

-X

Modify the algorithm used by cvs when importing new files so that new
files do not immediately appear on the main trunk.

Specifically, this flag causes cvs to mark new files as if they  were
deleted  on  the  main  trunk, by taking the following steps for each
file in addition to those normally taken on import:  creating  a  new
revision  on  the  main  trunk  indicating that the new file is dead,
resetting the new file's default branch, and placing the file in  the
Attic (see node 'Attic' in the CVS manual) directory.

Use  of  this option can be forced on a repository-wide basis by set-
ting the ImportNewFilesToVendorBranchOnly  option  in  CVSROOT/config
(see node 'config' in the CVS manual).

import output
import  keeps  you informed of its progress by printing a line for each
file, preceded by one character indicating the status of the file:

U file

The file already exists in the repository and has  not  been  locally
modified; a new revision has been created (if necessary).

N file

The file is a new file which has been added to the repository.

C file

The  file already exists in the repository but has been locally modi-
fied; you will have to merge the changes.

I file

The file is being ignored (see node 'cvsignore' in the CVS manual).

the CVS manual.

log
o Synopsis: log [options] [files...]

o Requires: repository, working directory.

o Changes: nothing.

Display log information for files.  log used to call the rcs  utility
rlog.   Although  this is no longer true in the current sources, this
history determines the format of the output and  the  options,  which
are not quite in the style of the other cvs commands.

The  output  includes the location of the rcs file, the head revision
(the latest revision on the trunk), all  symbolic  names  (tags)  and
some other things.  For each revision, the revision number, the date,
the author, the number of lines added/deleted, the commitid  and  the
log  message  are  printed.  All dates are displayed in local time at
the client. This is typically specified in the $TZ environment vari- able, which can be set to govern how log displays dates. Note: log uses -R in a way that conflicts with the normal use inside cvs (see node 'Common options' in the CVS manual). log options By default, log prints all information that is available. All other options restrict the output. Note that the revision selection options (-d, -r, -s, and -w) have no effect, other than possibly causing a search for files in Attic directories, when used in conjunction with the options that restrict the output to only log header fields (-b, -h, -R, and -t) unless the -S option is also specified. -b Print information about the revisions on the default branch, normally the highest branch on the trunk. -d dates Print information about revisions with a checkin date/time in the range given by the semicolon-separated list of dates. The date for- mats accepted are those accepted by the -D option to many other cvs commands (see node 'Common options' in the CVS manual). Dates can be combined into ranges as follows: d> Select all revisions dated d or earlier. d< >d Select all revisions dated d or later. d Select the single, latest revision dated d or earlier. The > or < characters may be followed by = to indicate an inclusive range rather than an exclusive one. Note that the separator is a semicolon (;). -h Print only the name of the rcs file, name of the file in the working directory, head, default branch, access list, locks, symbolic names, and suffix. -l Local; run only in current working directory. (Default is to run recursively). -N Do not print the list of tags for this file. This option can be very useful when your site uses a lot of tags, so rather than "more"'ing over 3 pages of tag information, the log information is presented without tags at all. -R Print only the name of the rcs file. rev1::rev2 The same, but excluding rev1. :rev ::rev Revisions from the beginning of the branch up to and including rev. rev: Revisions starting with rev to the end of the branch containing rev. rev:: Revisions starting just after rev to the end of the branch contain- ing rev. branch An argument that is a branch means all revisions on that branch. branch1:branch2 branch1::branch2 A range of branches means all revisions on the branches in that range. branch. The latest revision in branch. A bare -r with no revisions means the latest revision on the default branch, normally the trunk. There can be no space between the -r option and its argument. -S -t Print the same as -h, plus the descriptive text. -wlogins Print information about revisions checked in by users with login names appearing in the comma-separated list logins. If logins is omitted, the user's login is assumed. There can be no space between the -w option and its argument. log prints the intersection of the revisions selected with the options -d, -s, and -w, intersected with the union of the revisions selected by -b and -r. log examples Since log shows dates in local time, you might want to see them in Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) or some other timezone. To do this you can set your$TZ environment variable before invoking cvs:

$TZ=UTC cvs log foo.c$ TZ=EST cvs log bar.c

(If  you are using a csh-style shell, like tcsh, you would need to pre-
fix the examples above with env.)

ls & rls
o ls [-e | -l] [-RP] [-r tag[:date]] [-D date] [path...]

o Requires: repository for rls, repository & working directory for ls.

o Changes: nothing.

o Synonym: dir & list are synonyms for ls and rdir & rlist are synonyms
for rls.

The ls and rls commands are used to list files and directories in the
repository.

By default ls lists the files and directories  that  belong  in  your
working directory, what would be there after an update.

By  default  rls  lists  the  files and directories on the tip of the

-d

Show dead revisions (with tag when specified).

-e

Display in CVS/Entries format.  This format is meant to remain easily
parsable by automation.

-l

Display all details.

-P

Don't list contents of empty directories when recursing.

-R

List recursively.

-r tag[:date]

Show  files  specified by tag or, when date is specified and tag is a
branch tag, the version from the branch tag as it  existed  on  date.
See node 'Common options' in the CVS manual.

-D date

Show files from date.

rls examples
$cvs rls cvs rls: Listing module: .' CVSROOT first-dir rdiff 'patch' format diffs between releases o rdiff [-flags] [-V vn] (-r tag1[:date1] | -D date1) [-r tag2[:date2] | -D date2] modules... o Requires: repository. o Changes: nothing. o Synonym: patch Builds a Larry Wall format patch(1) file between two releases, that can be fed directly into the patch program to bring an old release up-to-date with the new release. (This is one of the few cvs com- mands that operates directly from the repository, and doesn't require a prior checkout.) The diff output is sent to the standard output device. You can specify (using the standard -r and -D options) any combina- tion of one or two revisions or dates. If only one revision or date is specified, the patch file reflects differences between that revi- sion or date and the current head revisions in the rcs file. Note that if the software release affected is contained in more than one directory, then it may be necessary to specify the -p option to the patch command when patching the old sources, so that patch is able to find the files that are located in other directories. rdiff options These standard options are supported by rdiff (see node 'Common options' in the CVS manual, for a complete description of them): -D date Use the most recent revision no later than date. -f If no matching revision is found, retrieve the most recent revision (instead of ignoring the file). -R Examine directories recursively. This option is on by default. -r tag Use the revision specified by tag, or when date is specified and tag is a branch tag, the version from the branch tag as it existed on date. See node 'Common options' in the CVS manual. In addition to the above, these options are available: -c Use the context diff format. This is the default format. -p Show which C function each change is in. -s Create a summary change report instead of a patch. The summary includes information about files that were changed or added between the releases. It is sent to the standard output device. This is useful for finding out, for example, which files have changed between two dates or revisions. -t A diff of the top two revisions is sent to the standard output device. This is most useful for seeing what the last change to a file was. -u Use the unidiff format for the context diffs. Remember that old ver- sions of the patch program can't handle the unidiff format, so if you plan to post this patch to the net you should probably not use -u. hand, but with cvs that can easily be fixed with a command such as this:$ cvs rdiff -c -r FOO1_2 -r FOO1_4 tc | \
 Mail -s 'The patches you asked for' foo@example.net

Suppose you have made release 1.3, and forked a branch called  R_1_3fix
for  bug  fixes.   R_1_3_1 corresponds to release 1.3.1, which was made
some time ago.  Now, you want to see how much development has been done
on the branch.  This command can be used:

$cvs patch -s -r R_1_3_1 -r R_1_3fix module-name cvs rdiff: Diffing module-name File ChangeLog,v changed from revision 1.52.2.5 to 1.52.2.6 File foo.c,v changed from revision 1.52.2.3 to 1.52.2.4 File bar.h,v changed from revision 1.29.2.1 to 1.2 release Indicate that a Module is no longer in use o release [-d] directories... o Requires: Working directory. o Changes: Working directory, history log. This command is meant to safely cancel the effect of cvs checkout. Since cvs doesn't lock files, it isn't strictly necessary to use this command. You can always simply delete your working directory, if you like; but you risk losing changes you may have forgotten, and you leave no trace in the cvs history file (see node 'history file' in the CVS manual) that you've abandoned your checkout. Use cvs release to avoid these problems. This command checks that no uncommitted changes are present; that you are executing it from imme- diately above a cvs working directory; and that the repository recorded for your files is the same as the repository defined in the module database. If all these conditions are true, cvs release leaves a record of its execution (attesting to your intentionally abandoning your checkout) in the cvs history log. release options The release command supports one command option: added to the repository (using the add command; see node 'Adding files' in the CVS manual) will be silently deleted--even if it is non-empty! release output Before release releases your sources it will print a one-line message for any file that is not up-to-date. U file P file There exists a newer revision of this file in the repository, and you have not modified your local copy of the file (U and P mean the same thing). A file The file has been added to your private copy of the sources, but has not yet been committed to the repository. If you delete your copy of the sources this file will be lost. R file The file has been removed from your private copy of the sources, but has not yet been removed from the repository, since you have not yet committed the removal. See node 'commit' in the CVS manual. M file The file is modified in your working directory. There might also be a newer revision inside the repository. ? file file is in your working directory, but does not correspond to any- thing in the source repository, and is not in the list of files for cvs to ignore (see the description of the -I option, and see node 'cvsignore' in the CVS manual). If you remove your working sources, this file will be lost. Are you sure you want to release (and delete) directory tc': y$

server & pserver
Act as a server for a client on stdin/stdout
o pserver [-c path]

server [-c path]

o Requires: repository, client conversation on stdin/stdout

o Changes: Repository or, indirectly, client working directory.

The cvs server and pserver commands are used  to  provide  repository
access  to remote clients and expect a client conversation on stdin &
stdout.  Typically these commands are launched from inetd or via  ssh
(see node 'Remote repositories' in the CVS manual).

server  expects  that the client has already been authenticated some-
how, typically via ssh, and  pserver  attempts  to  authenticate  the
client itself.

Only one option is available with the server and pserver commands:

-c path

Load  configuration  from path rather than the default location \$CVS-
ROOT/CVSROOT/config (see node 'config' in the CVS manual).  path must
be  /etc/cvs.conf or prefixed by /etc/cvs/.  This option is supported
beginning with cvs release 1.12.13.

suck
o suck module/path

o Requires: repository

it raw as RCS comma-v file.

Output consists of the real pathname of the comma-v file, relative to
the CVS repository, followed by a newline and the binary file content
immediately thereafter.

update
Bring work tree in sync with repository
to the source repository since your last checkout or update.  Without
the -C option, update will also merge  any  differences  between  the
local  copy  of  files  and their base revisions into any destination
revisions specified with -r, -D, or -A.

update options
These standard options are available  with  update  (see  node  'Common
options' in the CVS manual, for a complete description of them):

-D date

Use  the  most  recent  revision  no later than date.  This option is
sticky, and implies -P.  See node 'Sticky tags' in  the  CVS  manual,

-f

Only  useful  with  the  -D  or -r flags.  If no matching revision is
found, retrieve the most recent revision  (instead  of  ignoring  the
file).

-k kflag

Process keywords according to kflag.  See node 'Keyword substitution'
in the CVS manual.  This option is sticky;  future  updates  of  this
file  in  this working directory will use the same kflag.  The status
command can be viewed to see the sticky options.  See node  'Invoking
CVS' in the CVS manual, for more information on the status command.

-l

Local;  run  only  in current working directory.  See node 'Recursive
behavior' in the CVS manual.

-P

Prune empty directories.  See node 'Moving directories'  in  the  CVS
manual.

-p

Retrieve the revisions specified by tag or, when  date  is  specified
and  tag  is  a  branch  tag,  the  version from the branch tag as it
existed on date.  This option is sticky, and implies  -P.   See  node
tags/dates. Also see node 'Common options' in the CVS manual.

These special options are also available with update.

-A

Reset any sticky tags, dates, or -k options.  See node 'Sticky  tags'

-C

Overwrite  locally  modified files with clean copies from the reposi-
tory (the modified file is saved in .#file.revision, however).

-d

Create any directories that exist in the repository if they're  miss-
ing from the working directory.  Normally, update acts only on direc-
tory.

This  is  useful  for  updating  directories that were created in the
repository since the initial checkout; but it has an unfortunate side
effect.   If  you  deliberately  avoided  certain  directories in the
repository when you created your working  directory  (either  through
use  of a module name or by listing explicitly the files and directo-
ries you wanted on the command line), then updating with -d will cre-
ate those directories, which may not be what you want.

-I name

Ignore  files whose names match name (in your working directory) dur-
ing the update.  You can specify -I more than  once  on  the  command
line  to specify several files to ignore.  Use -I ! to avoid ignoring
any files at all.  See node 'cvsignore' in the CVS manual, for  other
ways to make cvs ignore some files.

-Wspec

option, into the working directory.

With  one  -j option, merge changes from the ancestor revision to the
revision specified with the -j option, into  the  working  directory.
The  ancestor  revision  is the common ancestor of the revision which
the working directory is based on, and the revision specified in  the
-j option.

Note  that using a single -j tagname option rather than -j branchname
to merge changes from a branch will often not remove files which were
removed  on  the branch.  See node 'Merging adds and removals' in the
CVS manual, for more.

In addition, each -j option can contain an optional  date  specifica-
tion which, when used with branches, can limit the chosen revision to
one within a specific date.  An optional date is specified by  adding
a colon (:) to the tag: -jSymbolic_Tag:Date_Specifier.

See node 'Branching and merging' in the CVS manual.

update output
update  and  checkout keep you informed of their progress by printing a
line for each file, preceded by one character indicating the status  of
the file:

U file

The file was brought up to date with respect to the repository.  This
is done for any file that exists in the repository but  not  in  your
working directory, and for files that you haven't changed but are not

P file

Like U, but the cvs server sends a patch instead of an  entire  file.
This accomplishes the same thing as U using less bandwidth.

A file

The file has been added to your private copy of the sources, and will
be added to the source repository when you run commit  on  the  file.
This is a reminder to you that the file needs to be committed.

R file
there were no modifications to the same file in  the  repository,  so
that  your  file  remains as you last saw it; or there were modifica-
tions in the repository as well as in your copy, but they were merged
successfully, without conflict, in your working directory.

cvs  will  print  some  messages if it merges your work, and a backup
copy of your working file (as it looked before you ran  update)  will
be made.  The exact name of that file is printed while update runs.

C file

A  conflict  was  detected while trying to merge your changes to file
with changes from the source repository.   file  (the  copy  in  your
working  directory)  is now the result of attempting to merge the two
revisions; an unmodified copy of your file is also  in  your  working
directory,  with the name .#file.revision where revision is the revi-
sion that your modified file started from.  Resolve the  conflict  as
described  in node 'Conflicts example' in the CVS manual.  (Note that
some systems automatically purge files that begin  with  .#  if  they
have  not been accessed for a few days.  If you intend to keep a copy
of your original file, it is a very good idea to rename  it.)   Under
vms, the file name starts with __ rather than .#.

? file

file  is  in  your working directory, but does not correspond to any-
thing in the source repository, and is not in the list of  files  for
cvs  to  ignore  (see  the description of the -I option, and see node
'cvsignore' in the CVS manual).

AUTHORS
Dick Grune
Original author of  the  cvs  shell  script  version  posted  to
comp.sources.unix  in  the  volume6  release  of December, 1986.
Credited with much of the cvs conflict resolution algorithms.

Brian Berliner
Coder and designer of the cvs program  itself  in  April,  1989,
based on the original work done by Dick.

Jeff Polk
Helped Brian with the design of the cvs module and vendor branch
support and author of the checkin(1) shell script (the  ancestor
of cvs import).

Larry Jones, Derek R. Price, and Mark D. Baushke
Have helped maintain cvs for many years.

And many others too numerous to mention here.

ci(1), co(1), cvs(5), cvsbug(8), diff(1), grep(1),  patch(1),  rcs(1),  rcsd-
iff(1), rcsmerge(1), rlog(1).

CVS(1)