cvs


SYNOPSIS
       cvs [ cvs_options ]
              cvs_command [ command_options ] [ command_args ]

NOTE
       This  manpage is a summary of some of the features of cvs.  It is auto-
       generated from an appendix of the CVS manual.  For more in-depth  docu-
       mentation,  please consult the Cederqvist manual (via the cvs(GNU) link
       in the MirBSD online (HTML) manual pages, the info CVS command or  oth-
       erwise,  as described in the SEE ALSO section of this manpage).  Cross-
       references in this man page refer to nodes in the same.

CVS commands
   Guide to CVS commands
       This appendix describes the overall  structure  of  cvs  commands,  and
       describes  some commands in detail (others are described elsewhere; for
       a quick reference to cvs commands, see node 'Invoking CVS' in  the  CVS
       manual).


Structure
   Overall structure of CVS commands
       The overall format of all cvs commands is:


         cvs [ cvs_options ] cvs_command [ command_options ] [ command_args ]






       cvs

         The name of the cvs program.



       cvs_options

         Some  options  that  affect  all  sub-commands  of  cvs.   These  are
         described below.



       cvs_command

         One of several different sub-commands.  Some  of  the  commands  have
         aliases that can be used instead; those aliases are noted in the ref-
         erence manual for that command.  There are only two situations  where
         you  may  omit  cvs_command:  cvs -H elicits a list of available com-
         mands, and cvs -v displays version information on cvs itself.

         There is unfortunately some confusion between  cvs_options  and  com-
         mand_options.   When  given as a cvs_option, some options only affect
         some of the commands.  When given as a command_option it may  have  a
         different meaning, and be accepted by more commands.  In other words,
         do not take the above categorization too seriously.  Look at the doc-
         umentation instead.


Exit status
   CVS's exit status
       cvs  can  indicate  to  the calling environment whether it succeeded or
       failed by setting its exit status.  The exact way of testing  the  exit
       status  will vary from one operating system to another.  For example in
       a unix shell script the $? variable will  be  0  if  the  last  command
       returned a successful exit status, or greater than 0 if the exit status
       indicated failure.

       If cvs is successful, it returns a successful status; if  there  is  an
       error,  it  prints  an error message and returns a failure status.  The
       one exception to this is the cvs diff command.  It will return  a  suc-
       cessful status if it found no differences, or a failure status if there
       were differences or if there was an error.  Because this behavior  pro-
       vides  no  good way to detect errors, in the future it is possible that
       cvs diff will be changed to behave like the other cvs commands.


~/.cvsrc
   Default options and the ~/.cvsrc file
       There are some command_options that are used so often  that  you  might
       have  set up an alias or some other means to make sure you always spec-
       ify that option.  One example (the one that drove the implementation of
       the .cvsrc support, actually) is that many people find the default out-
       put of the diff command to be very hard to read, and that  either  con-
       text diffs or unidiffs are much easier to understand.

       The ~/.cvsrc file is a way that you can add default options to cvs_com-
       mands within cvs, instead of relying on aliases or other shell scripts.

       The format of the ~/.cvsrc file is simple.  The file is searched for  a
       line  that begins with the same name as the cvs_command being executed.
       If a match is found, then the remainder of the line  is  split  up  (at
       whitespace  characters)  into separate options and added to the command
       arguments before any options from the command line.

       If a command has two names (e.g., checkout and co), the official  name,
       not necessarily the one used on the command line, will be used to match
       against the file.  So if this is the contents of  the  user's  ~/.cvsrc
       file:


         log -N
         diff -uN
         rdiff -u
         update -Pd

       because diff doesn't have an option to specify use of the "old" format,
       so you would need cvs -f diff foobar.

       In place of the command name you can use cvs to specify global  options
       (see node 'Global options' in the CVS manual).  For example the follow-
       ing line in .cvsrc


         cvs -z6




       causes cvs to use compression level 6.


Global options
       The available cvs_options (that are given to the left  of  cvs_command)
       are:



       --allow-root=rootdir

         May  be invoked multiple times to specify one legal cvsroot directory
         with each invocation.  Also causes CVS to preparse the  configuration
         file  for  each  specified root, which can be useful when configuring
         write proxies,  See node 'Password authentication server' in the  CVS
         manual & node 'Write proxies' in the CVS manual.



       -a

         Authenticate  all  communication  between  the client and the server.
         Only has an effect on the cvs client.  As of this  writing,  this  is
         only  implemented  when  using  a GSSAPI connection (see node 'GSSAPI
         authenticated' in the CVS manual).  Authentication  prevents  certain
         sorts  of  attacks  involving  hijacking  the  active tcp connection.
         Enabling authentication does not enable encryption.



       -b bindir

         In cvs 1.9.18 and older, this specified that rcs programs are in  the
         bindir  directory.   Current versions of cvs do not run rcs programs;
         for compatibility this option is accepted, but it does nothing.



       -T tempdir

         Use tempdir as the directory where temporary files are located.

       o   The  contents of the $TMPDIR environment variable (%TMPDIR% on Win-
           dows - see node 'Environment variables' in the CVS manual).


       o   /tmp


           Temporary directories should always be  specified  as  an  absolute
           pathname.   When  running  a  CVS client, -T affects only the local
           process; specifying -T for the client has no effect on  the  server
           and vice versa.



       -d cvs_root_directory

         Use  cvs_root_directory as the root directory pathname of the reposi-
         tory.  Overrides the setting of the  $CVSROOT  environment  variable.
         See node 'Repository' in the CVS manual.



       -e editor

         Use  editor to enter revision log information.  Overrides the setting
         of the $CVSEDITOR and $EDITOR environment variables.  For more infor-
         mation, see node 'Committing your changes' in the CVS manual.



       -f

         Do  not  read  the  ~/.cvsrc  file.   This  option is most often used
         because of the non-orthogonality of the cvs option set.  For example,
         the cvs log option -N (turn off display of tag names) does not have a
         corresponding option to turn the display on.  So if you  have  -N  in
         the  ~/.cvsrc  entry  for log, you may need to use -f to show the tag
         names.



       -g

         Forges group-writable permissions on files in the working copy.  This
         option  is typically used when you have multiple users sharing a sin-
         gle checked out source tree, allowing them to  operate  their  shells
         with  a  less dangerous umask at the expense of cvs security.  To use
         this feature, create a directory to hold the checked-out source tree,
         set  it  to a private group, and set up the directory such that files
         created under it inherit the gid of the directory.  On  BSD  systems,
         this  occurs  automatically.  On SYSV systems and GNU/Linux, the sgid
         bit must be set on the directory for this.   The  users  who  are  to
         share  the  checked  out tree must be placed in that group which owns
         This option is a MidnightBSD extension merged into MirBSD cvs.



       -H




       --help

         Display usage information about the specified cvs_command (but do not
         actually  execute the command).  If you don't specify a command name,
         cvs -H displays overall help for cvs, including a list of other  help
         options.



       -R

         Turns  on  read-only  repository  mode.  This allows one to check out
         from a read-only repository, such as within  an  anoncvs  server,  or
         from a cd-rom repository.

         Same  effect  as  if  the  CVSREADONLYFS environment variable is set.
         Using -R can also considerably speed up checkouts over NFS.



       -n

         Do not change any files.  Attempt to  execute  the  cvs_command,  but
         only  to  issue reports; do not remove, update, or merge any existing
         files, or create any new files.

         Note that cvs will not necessarily produce exactly the same output as
         without  -n.  In some cases the output will be the same, but in other
         cases cvs will skip some of  the  processing  that  would  have  been
         required to produce the exact same output.



       -Q

         Cause  the command to be really quiet; the command will only generate
         output for serious problems.



       -q

         Cause the command to be somewhat quiet; informational messages,  such
         as reports of recursion through subdirectories, are suppressed.


         Set a user variable (see node 'Variables' in the CVS manual).



       -t

         Trace program execution; display messages showing the  steps  of  cvs
         activity.   Particularly  useful  with  -n  to  explore the potential
         impact of an unfamiliar command.



       -v




       --version

         Display version and copyright information for cvs.



       -w

         Make new working files read-write.   Overrides  the  setting  of  the
         $CVSREAD  environment  variable.   Files  are  created  read-write by
         default, unless $CVSREAD is set or -r is given.



       -x

         Encrypt all communication between the client and  the  server.   Only
         has  an  effect  on the cvs client.  As of this writing, this is only
         implemented when using a GSSAPI connection (see node 'GSSAPI  authen-
         ticated'  in the CVS manual) or a Kerberos connection (see node 'Ker-
         beros authenticated' in the CVS manual).  Enabling encryption implies
         that  message  traffic  is also authenticated.  Encryption support is
         not available by default; it must be enabled using a special  config-
         ure option, --enable-encryption, when you build cvs.



       -z level

         Request  compression level for network traffic.  cvs interprets level
         identically to the gzip program.  Valid levels are 1 (high speed, low
         compression) to 9 (low speed, high compression), or 0 to disable com-
         pression (the default).  Data sent to the server will  be  compressed
         at the requested level and the client will request the server use the
         same compression level for data returned.  The server  will  use  the
         closest  level  allowed  by  the  server  administrator  to  compress

       options,  which  are listed with the individual commands, may have dif-
       ferent behavior from one cvs command to the other).

       Note: the history command is an exception;  it  supports  many  options
       that conflict even with these standard options.



       -D date_spec

         Use the most recent revision no later than date_spec.  date_spec is a
         single argument, a date description specifying a date in the past.

         The specification is sticky when you use it to make a private copy of
         a  source  file;  that  is, when you get a working file using -D, cvs
         records the date you specified, so that further updates in  the  same
         directory  will  use  the  same  date (for more information on sticky
         tags/dates, see node 'Sticky tags' in the CVS manual).

         -D is available with the annotate, checkout, diff,  export,  history,
         ls, rdiff, rls, rtag, tag, and update commands.  (The history command
         uses this option in a  slightly  different  way;  see  node  'history
         options' in the CVS manual).

         For  a  complete description of the date formats accepted by cvs, see
         node 'Date input formats' in the CVS manual.

         Remember to quote the argument to the -D  flag  so  that  your  shell
         doesn't interpret spaces as argument separators.  A command using the
         -D flag can look like this:


           $ cvs diff -D "1 hour ago" cvs.texinfo






       -f

         When you specify a particular date or tag to cvs commands, they  nor-
         mally  ignore  files  that  do  not contain the tag (or did not exist
         prior to the date) that you specified.  Use the -f option if you want
         files  retrieved  even  when  there  is no match for the tag or date.
         (The most recent revision of the file will be used).

         Note that even with -f, a tag that you specify must exist  (that  is,
         in some file, not necessary in every file).  This is so that cvs will
         continue to give an error if you mistype a tag name.

         -f is available with  these  commands:  annotate,  checkout,  export,
         rdiff, rtag, and update.

         fication is sticky; that is, when you use this option with a checkout
         or update command, cvs associates your selected kflag with any  files
         it  operates on, and continues to use that kflag with future commands
         on the same files until you specify otherwise.

         The -k option is available with  the  add,  checkout,  diff,  export,
         import, rdiff, and update commands.

         WARNING:  Prior  to  CVS version 1.12.2, the -k flag overrode the -kb
         indication for a binary file.  This could  sometimes  corrupt  binary
         files.  See node 'Merging and keywords' in the CVS manual, for more.



       -l

         Local;  run  only in current working directory, rather than recursing
         through subdirectories.

         Available with the following commands:  annotate,  checkout,  commit,
         diff,  edit,  editors, export, log, rdiff, remove, rtag, status, tag,
         unedit, update, watch, and watchers.



       -m message

         Use message as log information, instead of invoking an editor.

         Available with the following commands: add, commit and import.



       -n

         Do not run any tag program.  (A program can be specified  to  run  in
         the  modules  database  (see  node 'modules' in the CVS manual); this
         option bypasses it).

         Note: this is not the same as the cvs -n program  option,  which  you
         can specify to the left of a cvs command!

         Available with the checkout, commit, export, and rtag commands.



       -P

         Prune  empty directories.  See node 'Removing directories' in the CVS
         manual.



       -p
         Available  with  the  following commands: annotate, checkout, commit,
         diff, edit, editors, export, ls, rdiff, remove,  rls,  rtag,  status,
         tag, unedit, update, watch, and watchers.



       -r tag




       -r tag[:date]

         Use the revision specified by the tag argument (and the date argument
         for the commands which accept it) instead of the default  head  revi-
         sion.   As  well  as arbitrary tags defined with the tag or rtag com-
         mand, two special tags are always available: HEAD refers to the  most
         recent  version available in the repository (also known as the tip of
         the MAIN branch, also known as trunk; the name of a branch refers  to
         its tip; this version of cvs introduces .bhead, but only for the diff
         command, for the same), and BASE refers  to  the  revision  you  last
         checked out into the current working directory.

         The  tag  specification  is sticky when you use this with checkout or
         update to make your own copy of a file: cvs  remembers  the  tag  and
         continues to use it on future update commands, until you specify oth-
         erwise (for more information on sticky tags/dates, see  node  'Sticky
         tags' in the CVS manual).

         The tag can be either a symbolic or numeric tag, as described in node
         'Tags' in the CVS manual, or the name of a branch,  as  described  in
         node 'Branching and merging' in the CVS manual.  When tag is the name
         of a branch, some commands accept the optional date argument to spec-
         ify  the revision as of the given date on the branch.  When a command
         expects a specific revision, the name of a branch is  interpreted  as
         the most recent revision on that branch.

         As  a MirOS cvs extension, specifying BASE as the date portion of the
         argument yields the base revision of the branch specified by the  tag
         portion  of  the argument, i.e. the revision on the parent branch the
         tag branch split off, or, where both branches were  the  same.   This
         option has not received very much testing, beware!

         Specifying  the  -q global option along with the -r command option is
         often useful, to suppress the warning messages when the rcs file does
         not contain the specified tag.

         Note:  this  is  not the same as the overall cvs -r option, which you
         can specify to the left of a cvs command!

         -r tag is available with the commit and history commands.

         -r tag[:date] is available with the annotate, checkout, diff, export,
         rdiff, rtag, and update commands.

admin
   Administration
       o Requires: repository, working directory.

       o Changes: repository.

       o Synonym: rcs

         This is the cvs  interface  to  assorted  administrative  facilities.
         Some  of them have questionable usefulness for cvs but exist for his-
         torical purposes.  Some of the questionable  options  are  likely  to
         disappear  in  the  future.   This  command does work recursively, so
         extreme care should be used.

         On unix, if there is a group named cvsadmin,  only  members  of  that
         group  can  run  cvs admin commands, except for those specified using
         the UserAdminOptions configuration option in the CVSROOT/config file.
         Options specified using UserAdminOptions can be run by any user.  See
         node 'config' in the CVS manual for more on UserAdminOptions.

         The cvsadmin group should exist on the server, or any system  running
         the non-client/server cvs.  To disallow cvs admin for all users, cre-
         ate a group with no users in it.  On NT, the  cvsadmin  feature  does
         not exist and all users can run cvs admin.


admin options
       Some  of  these  options have questionable usefulness for cvs but exist
       for historical purposes.  Some even make it impossible to use cvs until
       you undo the effect!



       -Aoldfile

         Might  not work together with cvs.  Append the access list of oldfile
         to the access list of the rcs file.



       -alogins

         Might not work together with cvs.  Append the login  names  appearing
         in  the  comma-separated  list  logins  to the access list of the rcs
         file.



       -b[rev]

         Set the default branch to rev.  In cvs, you normally do  not  manipu-
         late default branches; sticky tags (see node 'Sticky tags' in the CVS
         manual) are a better way to decide which branch you want to work  on.
         There  is  one  reason to run cvs admin -b: to revert to the vendor's



       -e[logins]

         Might not work together with cvs.  Erase the login names appearing in
         the comma-separated list logins from the access list of the RCS file.
         If  logins is omitted, erase the entire access list.  There can be no
         space between -e and its argument.



       -I

         Run interactively, even if the standard  input  is  not  a  terminal.
         This option does not work with the client/server cvs and is likely to
         disappear in a future release of cvs.



       -i

         Useless with cvs.  This creates and initializes a new rcs file, with-
         out depositing a revision.  With cvs, add files with the cvs add com-
         mand (see node 'Adding files' in the CVS manual).



       -ksubst

         Set the default keyword substitution to  subst.   See  node  'Keyword
         substitution' in the CVS manual.  Giving an explicit -k option to cvs
         update, cvs export, or cvs checkout overrides this default.



       -l[rev]

         Lock the revision with number rev.  If a branch is  given,  lock  the
         latest  revision  on that branch.  If rev is omitted, lock the latest
         revision on the default branch.  There can be no space between -l and
         its argument.

         This  can  be  used  in conjunction with the rcslock.pl script in the
         contrib directory of the cvs source distribution to provide  reserved
         checkouts  (where  only  one  user  can  be editing a given file at a
         time).  See the comments in that file for details (and see the README
         file  in  that directory for disclaimers about the unsupported nature
         of contrib).  According to comments in that file, locking must set to
         strict (which is the default).



       -L


       -Nname[:[rev]]

         Act like -n, except override any previous assignment  of  name.   For
         use  with  magic branches, see node 'Magic branch numbers' in the CVS
         manual.



       -nname[:[rev]]

         Associate the symbolic name name with the branch or revision rev.  It
         is  normally  better  to use cvs tag or cvs rtag instead.  Delete the
         symbolic name if both : and rev  are  omitted;  otherwise,  print  an
         error  message if name is already associated with another number.  If
         rev is symbolic, it is expanded before association.  A rev consisting
         of  a  branch  number  followed  by a . stands for the current latest
         revision in the branch.  A : with an empty rev stands for the current
         latest revision on the default branch, normally the trunk.  For exam-
         ple, cvs admin -nname: associates name with the current latest  revi-
         sion  of  all  the  RCS files; this contrasts with cvs admin -nname:$
         which associates name with the revision numbers extracted  from  key-
         word strings in the corresponding working files.



       -orange

         Deletes (outdates) the revisions given by range.

         Note that this command can be quite dangerous unless you know exactly
         what you are doing (for example see the warnings below about how  the
         rev1:rev2 syntax is confusing).

         If you are short on disc this option might help you.  But think twice
         before using it--there is no way short of restoring the latest backup
         to  undo  this  command!   If you delete different revisions than you
         planned, either due to carelessness or (heaven  forbid)  a  cvs  bug,
         there is no opportunity to correct the error before the revisions are
         deleted.  It probably would be a good idea to experiment on a copy of
         the repository first.

         Specify range in one of the following ways:


         rev1::rev2

           Collapse  all  revisions  between  rev1  and rev2, so that cvs only
           stores the differences associated with going from rev1 to rev2, not
           intermediate  steps.   For  example,  after  -o  1.3::1.5  one  can
           retrieve revision 1.3, revision 1.5, or the differences to get from
           1.3  to  1.5,  but not the revision 1.4, or the differences between
           1.3 and 1.4.  Other examples: -o 1.3::1.4 and -o 1.3::1.3  have  no

           Collapse revisions between rev and the end of the branch containing
           rev.  Revision rev is left intact but the head revision is deleted.


         rev

           Delete  the  revision rev.  For example, -o 1.3 is equivalent to -o
           1.2::1.4.


         rev1:rev2

           Delete the revisions from rev1 to  rev2,  inclusive,  on  the  same
           branch.   One  will  not be able to retrieve rev1 or rev2 or any of
           the revisions in between.   For  example,  the  command  cvs  admin
           -oR_1_01:R_1_02  .  is rarely useful.  It means to delete revisions
           up to, and including, the tag R_1_02.  But beware!   If  there  are
           files that have not changed between R_1_02 and R_1_03 the file will
           have the same numerical revision number assigned to the tags R_1_02
           and  R_1_03.  So not only will it be impossible to retrieve R_1_02;
           R_1_03 will also have to be restored from the tapes!  In most cases
           you want to specify rev1::rev2 instead.


         :rev

           Delete revisions from the beginning of the branch containing rev up
           to and including rev.


         rev:

           Delete revisions from revision rev, including rev  itself,  to  the
           end of the branch containing rev.

           None of the revisions to be deleted may have branches or locks.

           If  any of the revisions to be deleted have symbolic names, and one
           specifies one of the :: syntaxes, then cvs will give an  error  and
           not  delete  any  revisions.  If you really want to delete both the
           symbolic names and the revisions, first delete the  symbolic  names
           with  cvs  tag  -d,  then  run  cvs admin -o.  If one specifies the
           non-:: syntaxes, then cvs will delete the revisions but  leave  the
           symbolic names pointing to nonexistent revisions.  This behavior is
           preserved for compatibility with  previous  versions  of  cvs,  but
           because  it  isn't  very  useful, in the future it may change to be
           like the :: case.

           Due to the way cvs handles branches rev cannot be specified symbol-
           ically  if  it is a branch.  See node 'Magic branch numbers' in the
           CVS manual, for an explanation.

           Make sure that no-one has checked out a copy of  the  revision  you


       -sstate[:rev]

         Useful  with  cvs.   Set  the  state attribute of the revision rev to
         state.  If rev is a branch number, assume the latest revision on that
         branch.  If rev is omitted, assume the latest revision on the default
         branch.  Any identifier is acceptable for state.   A  useful  set  of
         states  is  Exp  (for  experimental), Stab (for stable), and Rel (for
         released).  By default, the state of a new revision  is  set  to  Exp
         when  it is created.  The state is visible in the output from cvs log
         (see node 'log' in the CVS manual), and in the $Log$ and $State$ key-
         words (see node 'Keyword substitution' in the CVS manual).  Note that
         cvs uses the dead state for its own purposes (see node 'Attic' in the
         CVS  manual);  to  take a file to or from the dead state use commands
         like cvs remove and cvs add (see node 'Adding and  removing'  in  the
         CVS manual), not cvs admin -s.



       -t[file]

         Useful  with  cvs.   Write  descriptive text from the contents of the
         named file into the RCS file, deleting the existing text.   The  file
         pathname  may  not begin with -.  The descriptive text can be seen in
         the output from cvs log (see node 'log' in the  CVS  manual).   There
         can be no space between -t and its argument.

         If  file  is omitted, obtain the text from standard input, terminated
         by end-of-file or by a line containing . by itself.  Prompt  for  the
         text if interaction is possible; see -I.



       -t-string

         Similar  to  -tfile.  Write descriptive text from the string into the
         rcs file, deleting the existing text.  There can be no space  between
         -t and its argument.



       -U

         Set  locking  to non-strict.  Non-strict locking means that the owner
         of a file need not lock a revision for checkin.  For  use  with  cvs,
         strict  locking  must  be set; see the discussion under the -l option
         above.



       -u[rev]

         See the option -l above, for a discussion of using this  option  with
         In  previous  versions of cvs, this option meant to write an rcs file
         which would be acceptable to rcs version n, but it  is  now  obsolete
         and specifying it will produce an error.



       -xsuffixes

         In previous versions of cvs, this was documented as a way of specify-
         ing the names of the rcs files.  However,  cvs  has  always  required
         that  the  rcs  files used by cvs end in ,v, so this option has never
         done anything useful.



annotate
   What revision modified each line of a file?
       o Synopsis: annotate [options] files...

       o Requires: repository.

       o Changes: nothing.

         For each file in  files,  print  the  head  revision  of  the  trunk,
         together with information on the last modification for each line.  If
         backwards annotation is requested, show the first modification  after
         the  specified  revision.  (Backwards annotation currently appears to
         be broken.)


annotate options
       These standard options are supported  by  annotate  (see  node  'Common
       options' in the CVS manual, for a complete description of them):



       -b

         Backwards,  show  when  a  line was removed.  Currently appears to be
         broken.



       -l

         Local directory only, no recursion.



       -R

         Process directories recursively.



       -r tag[:date]

         Annotate file as of specified revision/tag or, when date is specified
         and  tag  is  a  branch  tag,  the  version from the branch tag as it
         existed on date.  See node 'Common options' in the CVS manual.



       -D date

         Annotate file as of specified date.


annotate example
       For example:


         $ cvs annotate ssfile
         Annotations for ssfile
         ***************
         1.1          (mary     27-Mar-96): ssfile line 1
         1.2          (joe      28-Mar-96): ssfile line 2




       The file ssfile currently contains two lines.  The ssfile line  1  line
       was  checked  in  by  mary on March 27.  Then, on March 28, joe added a
       line ssfile line 2, without modifying the ssfile  line  1  line.   This
       report doesn't tell you anything about lines which have been deleted or
       replaced; you need to use cvs diff for that (see node 'diff' in the CVS
       manual).

       The  options  to  cvs annotate are listed in node 'Invoking CVS' in the
       CVS manual, and can be used to select the files and revisions to  anno-
       tate.  The options are described in more detail there and in node 'Com-
       mon options' in the CVS manual.


checkout
   Check out sources for editing
       o Synopsis: checkout [options] modules...

       o Requires: repository.

       o Changes: working directory.

       o Synonyms: co, get

         Create or update a working directory containing copies of the  source
         files  specified  by modules.  You must execute checkout before using
         most of the other cvs commands, since most of them  operate  on  your
         working directory.
         source repository.

         Note that checkout is used  to  create  directories.   The  top-level
         directory  created is always added to the directory where checkout is
         invoked, and usually has the same name as the specified  module.   In
         the case of a module alias, the created sub-directory may have a dif-
         ferent name, but you can be sure that it will be a sub-directory, and
         that  checkout will show the relative path leading to each file as it
         is extracted into your private work area (unless you specify  the  -Q
         global option).

         The  files  created by checkout are created read-write, unless the -r
         option to cvs (see node 'Global options' in the CVS manual) is speci-
         fied,  the CVSREAD environment variable is specified (see node 'Envi-
         ronment variables' in the CVS manual), or a watch is  in  effect  for
         that file (see node 'Watches' in the CVS manual).

         Note that running checkout on a directory that was already built by a
         prior checkout is also permitted.  This is similar to specifying  the
         -d  option  to  the  update command in the sense that new directories
         that have been created in the repository will  appear  in  your  work
         area.   However,  checkout takes a module name whereas update takes a
         directory name.  Also to use checkout this way it must  be  run  from
         the  top level directory (where you originally ran checkout from), so
         before you run checkout to update an existing directory, don't forget
         to change your directory to the top level directory.

         For the output produced by the checkout command see node 'update out-
         put' in the CVS manual.


checkout options
       These standard options are supported  by  checkout  (see  node  'Common
       options' in the CVS manual, for a complete description of them):



       -D date

         Use  the  most  recent  revision  no later than date.  This option is
         sticky, and implies -P.  See node 'Sticky tags' in  the  CVS  manual,
         for more information on sticky tags/dates.



       -f

         Only  useful  with  the  -D  or -r flags.  If no matching revision is
         found, retrieve the most recent revision  (instead  of  ignoring  the
         file).



       -k kflag



       -n

         Do  not  run any checkout program (as specified with the -o option in
         the modules file; see node 'modules' in the CVS manual).



       -P

         Prune empty directories.  See node 'Moving directories'  in  the  CVS
         manual.



       -p

         Pipe files to the standard output.



       -R

         Checkout directories recursively.  This option is on by default.



       -r tag[:date]

         Checkout the revision specified by tag or, when date is specified and
         tag is a branch tag, the version from the branch tag as it existed on
         date.  This option is sticky, and implies -P.  See node 'Sticky tags'
         in the CVS manual, for more information on sticky tags/dates.   Also,
         see node 'Common options' in the CVS manual.

         In  addition to those, you can use these special command options with
         checkout:



       -A

         Reset any sticky tags, dates, or -k options.  See node 'Sticky  tags'
         in the CVS manual, for more information on sticky tags/dates.



       -c

         Copy the module file, sorted, to the standard output, instead of cre-
         ating or modifying any files or directories in  your  working  direc-
         tory.
         that doesn't contain empty intermediate directories.   In  this  case
         only,  cvs tries to ``shorten'' pathnames to avoid those empty direc-
         tories.

         For example, given a module foo that contains  the  file  bar.c,  the
         command  cvs  co -d dir foo will create directory dir and place bar.c
         inside.  Similarly, given a module bar  which  has  subdirectory  baz
         wherein  there  is  a  file quux.c, the command cvs co -d dir bar/baz
         will create directory dir and place quux.c inside.

         Using the -N flag will defeat this behavior.  Given the  same  module
         definitions  above,  cvs  co  -N  -d  dir foo will create directories
         dir/foo and place bar.c inside, while cvs co -N -d dir  bar/baz  will
         create directories dir/bar/baz and place quux.c inside.



       -j tag

         With  two  -j options, merge changes from the revision specified with
         the first -j option to the  revision  specified  with  the  second  j
         option, into the working directory.

         With  one  -j option, merge changes from the ancestor revision to the
         revision specified with the -j option, into  the  working  directory.
         The  ancestor  revision  is the common ancestor of the revision which
         the working directory is based on, and the revision specified in  the
         -j option.

         In  addition,  each -j option can contain an optional date specifica-
         tion which, when used with branches, can limit the chosen revision to
         one  within a specific date.  An optional date is specified by adding
         a colon (:) to the tag: -jSymbolic_Tag:Date_Specifier.

         See node 'Branching and merging' in the CVS manual.



       -N

         Only useful together with -d dir.  With this  option,  cvs  will  not
         ``shorten'' module paths in your working directory when you check out
         a single module.  See the -d flag for examples and a discussion.



       -s

         Like -c, but include the status of all modules, and sort  it  by  the
         status  string.  See node 'modules' in the CVS manual, for info about
         the -s option that is used inside the modules file to set the  module
         status.


         $ cvs checkout -D yesterday tc





commit
   Check files into the repository
       o Synopsis:  commit  [-lnRf] [-m 'log_message' | -F file] [-r revision]
         [files...]

       o Requires: working directory, repository.

       o Changes: repository.

       o Synonym: ci

         Use commit when you want to incorporate  changes  from  your  working
         source files into the source repository.

         If  you don't specify particular files to commit, all of the files in
         your working current directory are examined.  commit  is  careful  to
         change  in  the  repository  only  those  files  that you have really
         changed.  By default (or if you explicitly specify  the  -R  option),
         files  in subdirectories are also examined and committed if they have
         changed; you can use the -l option to limit  commit  to  the  current
         directory only.

         commit  verifies that the selected files are up to date with the cur-
         rent revisions in the source repository; it will notify you, and exit
         without  committing,  if any of the specified files must be made cur-
         rent first with update (see node 'update' in the CVS manual).  commit
         does  not call the update command for you, but rather leaves that for
         you to do when the time is right.

         When all is well, an editor is invoked to allow you to  enter  a  log
         message  that  will  be  written to one or more logging programs (see
         node 'modules' in the CVS manual, and see node 'loginfo' in  the  CVS
         manual)  and  placed in the rcs file inside the repository.  This log
         message can be retrieved with the log command; see node 'log' in  the
         CVS manual.  You can specify the log message on the command line with
         the -m message option, and thus avoid the editor invocation,  or  use
         the -F file option to specify that the argument file contains the log
         message.

         At commit, a unique commitid is placed in the  rcs  file  inside  the
         repository.  All  files  committed  at  once get the same commitid, a
         string consisting only of hexadecimal digits (usually 16 in GNU  cvs,
         19 in MirBSD and MirDebian GNU cvs).  FSF GNU cvs 1.11, MirOS GNU cvs
         1.11, and OpenBSD OpenCVS do not support commitids yet.  The commitid
         can  be  retrieved with the log and status command; see node 'log' in
         the CVS manual and node 'File status' in the CVS manual.


       -R

         Commit directories recursively.  This is on by default.



       -r revision

         Commit  to revision.  revision must be either a branch, or a revision
         on the main trunk that is higher than any  existing  revision  number
         (see  node 'Assigning revisions' in the CVS manual).  You cannot com-
         mit to a specific revision on a branch.

         commit also supports these options:



       -c

         Refuse to commit files unless the user has registered a valid edit on
         the  file  via cvs edit.  This is most useful when commit -c and edit
         -c have been placed in all .cvsrc files.  A commit can be forced any-
         ways  by  either  regestering  an edit retroactively via cvs edit (no
         changes to the file will be lost) or using the -f option  to  commit.
         Support  for  commit  -c  requires  both client and a server versions
         1.12.10 or greater.



       -F file

         Read the log message from file, instead of invoking an editor.



       -f

         Note that this is not the standard  behavior  of  the  -f  option  as
         defined in node 'Common options' in the CVS manual.

         Force  cvs  to  commit  a  new  revision even if you haven't made any
         changes to the file.  As of cvs version 1.12.10, it also  causes  the
         -c  option  to  be  ignored.  If the current revision of file is 1.7,
         then the following two commands are equivalent:


           $ cvs commit -f file
           $ cvs commit -r 1.8 file




         The -f option disables recursion (i.e., it implies -l).  To force cvs
         to  commit  a  new  revision for all files in all subdirectories, you

       dots)  with  the  -r  option.   To create a branch revision, use the -b
       option of the rtag or tag commands (see node 'Branching and merging' in
       the  CVS  manual).  Then, either checkout or update can be used to base
       your sources on the newly created branch.  From that point on, all com-
       mit  changes  made  within  these working sources will be automatically
       added to a branch revision, thereby not disturbing  main-line  develop-
       ment  in any way.  For example, if you had to create a patch to the 1.2
       version of the product, even though the 2.0 version  is  already  under
       development, you might do:


         $ cvs rtag -b -r FCS1_2 FCS1_2_Patch product_module
         $ cvs checkout -r FCS1_2_Patch product_module
         $ cd product_module
         [[ hack away ]]
         $ cvs commit




       This works automatically since the -r option is sticky.


   Creating the branch after editing
       Say  you  have  been  working  on some extremely experimental software,
       based on whatever revision you happened to checkout last week.  If oth-
       ers  in  your  group  would like to work on this software with you, but
       without disturbing main-line development, you could commit your  change
       to  a new branch.  Others can then checkout your experimental stuff and
       utilize the full benefit of  cvs  conflict  resolution.   The  scenario
       might look like:


         [[ hacked sources are present ]]
         $ cvs tag -b EXPR1
         $ cvs update -r EXPR1
         $ cvs commit




       The  update  command will make the -r EXPR1 option sticky on all files.
       Note that your changes to the files will never be removed by the update
       command.   The  commit will automatically commit to the correct branch,
       because the -r is sticky.  You could also do like this:


         [[ hacked sources are present ]]
         $ cvs tag -b EXPR1
         $ cvs commit -r EXPR1





diff
   Show differences between revisions
       o Synopsis: diff [-lR] [-k kflag] [format_options] [(-r rev1[:date1]  |
         -D date1) [-r rev2[:date2] | -D date2]] [files...]

       o Requires: working directory, repository.

       o Changes: nothing.

         The  diff  command  is  used to compare different revisions of files.
         The default action is to compare your working files  with  the  revi-
         sions they were based on, and report any differences that are found.

         If  any  file names are given, only those files are compared.  If any
         directories are given, all files under them will be compared.

         The exit status for diff is different than for  other  cvs  commands;
         for details see node 'Exit status' in the CVS manual.


diff options
       These standard options are supported by diff (see node 'Common options'
       in the CVS manual, for a complete description of them):



       -D date

         Use the most recent revision no later than date.  See -r for how this
         affects the comparison.



       -k kflag

         Process keywords according to kflag.  See node 'Keyword substitution'
         in the CVS manual.



       -l

         Local; run only in current working directory.



       -R

         Examine directories recursively.  This option is on by default.



       -r tag[:date]

         The following options specify the format of the  output.   They  have
         the  same  meaning  as in GNU diff.  Most options have two equivalent
         names, one of which is a single letter preceded by -, and  the  other
         of which is a long name preceded by --.



       -lines

         Show lines (an integer) lines of context.  This option does not spec-
         ify an output format by itself; it has no effect unless  it  is  com-
         bined with -c or -u.  This option is obsolete.  For proper operation,
         patch typically needs at least two lines of context.



       -a

         Treat all files as text and compare them line-by-line, even  if  they
         do not seem to be text.



       -b

         Ignore  trailing  white space and consider all other sequences of one
         or more white space characters to be equivalent.



       -B

         Ignore changes that just insert or delete blank lines.



       --binary

         Read and write data in binary mode.



       --brief

         Report only whether the files differ, not the details of the  differ-
         ences.



       -c

         Use the context output format.




       --changed-group-format=format

         Use  format  to  output  a line group containing differing lines from
         both files in if-then-else format.  See node 'Line group formats'  in
         the CVS manual.



       -d

         Change  the algorithm to perhaps find a smaller set of changes.  This
         makes diff slower (sometimes much slower).



       -e




       --ed

         Make output that is a valid ed script.



       --expand-tabs

         Expand tabs to spaces in the output, to  preserve  the  alignment  of
         tabs in the input files.



       -f

         Make  output  that looks vaguely like an ed script but has changes in
         the order they appear in the file.



       -F regexp

         In context and unified format, for each  hunk  of  differences,  show
         some of the last preceding line that matches regexp.



       --forward-ed

         Make  output  that looks vaguely like an ed script but has changes in
         the order they appear in the file.
         Do  not  discard  the  last  lines lines of the common prefix and the
         first lines lines of the common suffix.



       -i

         Ignore changes in case; consider upper- and lower-case letters equiv-
         alent.



       -I regexp

         Ignore changes that just insert or delete lines that match regexp.



       --ifdef=name

         Make merged if-then-else output using name.



       --ignore-all-space

         Ignore white space when comparing lines.



       --ignore-blank-lines

         Ignore changes that just insert or delete blank lines.



       --ignore-case

         Ignore  changes  in  case;  consider  upper- and lower-case to be the
         same.



       --ignore-matching-lines=regexp

         Ignore changes that just insert or delete lines that match regexp.



       --ignore-space-change

         Ignore trailing white space and consider all other sequences  of  one
         or more white space characters to be equivalent.

         Use  label instead of the file name in the context format and unified
         format headers.



       --label=label

         Use label instead of the file name in the context format and  unified
         format headers.



       --left-column

         Print  only  the left column of two common lines in side by side for-
         mat.



       --line-format=format

         Use format to output all input lines  in  if-then-else  format.   See
         node 'Line formats' in the CVS manual.



       --minimal

         Change  the algorithm to perhaps find a smaller set of changes.  This
         makes diff slower (sometimes much slower).



       -n

         Output RCS-format diffs; like -f except that each  command  specifies
         the number of lines affected.



       -N




       --new-file

         In  directory  comparison,  if a file is found in only one directory,
         treat it as present but empty in the other directory.



       --new-group-format=format


       --old-group-format=format

         Use  format to output a group of lines taken from just the first file
         in if-then-else format.  See node 'Line group  formats'  in  the  CVS
         manual.



       --old-line-format=format

         Use  format  to  output  a  line  taken  from  just the first file in
         if-then-else format.  See node 'Line formats' in the CVS manual.



       -p

         Show which C function each change is in.



       --rcs

         Output RCS-format diffs; like -f except that each  command  specifies
         the number of lines affected.



       --report-identical-files




       -s

         Report when two files are the same.



       --show-c-function

         Show which C function each change is in.



       --show-function-line=regexp

         In  context  and  unified  format, for each hunk of differences, show
         some of the last preceding line that matches regexp.



       --side-by-side
       --suppress-common-lines

         Do not print common lines in side by side format.



       -t

         Expand  tabs  to  spaces  in the output, to preserve the alignment of
         tabs in the input files.



       -T

         Output a tab rather than a space before the text of a line in  normal
         or  context format.  This causes the alignment of tabs in the line to
         look normal.



       --text

         Treat all files as text and compare them line-by-line, even  if  they
         do not appear to be text.



       -u

         Use the unified output format.



       --unchanged-group-format=format

         Use format to output a group of common lines taken from both files in
         if-then-else format.  See node 'Line group formats' in the  CVS  man-
         ual.



       --unchanged-line-format=format

         Use format to output a line common to both files in if-then-else for-
         mat.  See node 'Line formats' in the CVS manual.



       -U lines






       -W columns




       --width=columns

         Use an output width of columns in side by side format.



       -y

         Use the side by side output format.


Line group formats
       Line group formats let you specify formats suitable for  many  applica-
       tions  that  allow  if-then-else input, including programming languages
       and text formatting languages.  A line group format specifies the  out-
       put format for a contiguous group of similar lines.

       For  example,  the  following command compares the TeX file myfile with
       the original version from the repository, and outputs a merged file  in
       which  old regions are surrounded by \begin{em}-\end{em} lines, and new
       regions are surrounded by \begin{bf}-\end{bf} lines.


         cvs diff \

            --old-group-format='\begin{em}
         %<\end{em}
         ' \

            --new-group-format='\begin{bf}
         %>\end{bf}
         ' \

            myfile




       The following command is equivalent to the above example, but it  is  a
       little  more verbose, because it spells out the default line group for-
       mats.


         cvs diff \

            --old-group-format='\begin{em}
         %<\end{em}
         ' \

            myfile




       Here is a more advanced example, which  outputs  a  diff  listing  with
       headers containing line numbers in a ``plain English'' style.


         cvs diff \

            --unchanged-group-format='' \

            --old-group-format='-------- %dn line%(n=1?:s) deleted at %df:
         %<' \

            --new-group-format='-------- %dN line%(N=1?:s) added after %de:
         %>' \

            --changed-group-format='-------- %dn line%(n=1?:s) changed at %df:
         %<-------- to:
         %>' \

            myfile




       To  specify  a  line group format, use one of the options listed below.
       You can specify up to four line group formats, one  for  each  kind  of
       line  group.   You  should  quote format, because it typically contains
       shell metacharacters.



       --old-group-format=format

         These line groups are hunks containing  only  lines  from  the  first
         file.   The default old group format is the same as the changed group
         format if it is specified; otherwise it is a format that outputs  the
         line group as-is.



       --new-group-format=format

         These  line  groups  are  hunks containing only lines from the second
         file.  The default new group format is same as the changed group for-
         mat  if  it  is  specified; otherwise it is a format that outputs the
         line group as-is.


         unchanged group format is a format that outputs the line group as-is.

         In  a  line  group  format, ordinary characters represent themselves;
         conversion specifications start with % and have one of the  following
         forms.



       %<

         stands for the lines from the first file, including the trailing new-
         line.  Each line is formatted according to the old line  format  (see
         node 'Line formats' in the CVS manual).



       %>

         stands  for  the  lines  from the second file, including the trailing
         newline.  Each line is formatted according to the new line format.



       %=

         stands for the lines common to both  files,  including  the  trailing
         newline.  Each line is formatted according to the unchanged line for-
         mat.



       %%

         stands for %.



       %c'C'

         where C is a single character, stands for C.  C may not  be  a  back-
         slash  or an apostrophe.  For example, %c':' stands for a colon, even
         inside the then-part of an if-then-else format, which a  colon  would
         normally terminate.



       %c'\O'

         where  O is a string of 1, 2, or 3 octal digits, stands for the char-
         acter with octal code O.  For example, %c'\0' stands for a null char-
         acter.




           The line number of the first line in the group  in  the  old  file;
           equals e + 1.


         l

           The line number of the last line in the group in the old file.


         m

           The  line  number of the line just after the group in the old file;
           equals l + 1.


         n

           The number of lines in the group in the old file; equals l - f + 1.


         E, F, L, M, N

           Likewise, for lines in the new file.


           The printf conversion specification can be %d, %o, %x, or %X, spec-
           ifying  decimal, octal, lower case hexadecimal, or upper case hexa-
           decimal output respectively.  After the % the following options can
           appear  in  sequence: a - specifying left-justification; an integer
           specifying the minimum field width; and a  period  followed  by  an
           optional  integer  specifying  the  minimum  number of digits.  For
           example, %5dN prints the number of new lines  in  the  group  in  a
           field of width 5 characters, using the printf format "%5d".



       (A=B?T:E)

         If  A equals B then T else E.  A and B are each either a decimal con-
         stant or a single letter interpreted as above.  This format  spec  is
         equivalent  to  T if A's value equals B's; otherwise it is equivalent
         to E.

         For example, %(N=0?no:%dN) line%(N=1?:s) is equivalent to no lines if
         N  (the number of lines in the group in the new file) is 0, to 1 line
         if N is 1, and to %dN lines otherwise.


Line formats
       Line formats control how each line taken from an input file  is  output
       as part of a line group in if-then-else format.

       For  example,  the  following  command  outputs  text with a one-column
         ' \

            --unchanged-line-format=' %l
         ' \

            myfile




       To specify a line format, use one of the following options.  You should
       quote format, since it often contains shell metacharacters.



       --old-line-format=format

         formats lines just from the first file.



       --new-line-format=format

         formats lines just from the second file.



       --unchanged-line-format=format

         formats lines common to both files.



       --line-format=format

         formats all lines; in effect, it sets all three above options  simul-
         taneously.

         In  a  line format, ordinary characters represent themselves; conver-
         sion specifications start with % and have one of the following forms.



       %l

         stands for the contents of the line, not counting its  trailing  new-
         line (if any).  This format ignores whether the line is incomplete.



       %L

         stands  for  the contents of the line, including its trailing newline
         (if any).  If a line is incomplete, this format preserves its  incom-
         where  C  is  a single character, stands for C.  C may not be a back-
         slash or an apostrophe.  For example, %c':' stands for a colon.



       %c'\O'

         where O is a string of 1, 2, or 3 octal digits, stands for the  char-
         acter with octal code O.  For example, %c'\0' stands for a null char-
         acter.



       Fn

         where F is a printf conversion specification,  stands  for  the  line
         number  formatted  with F.  For example, %.5dn prints the line number
         using the printf format "%.5d".  See node 'Line group formats' in the
         CVS manual, for more about printf conversion specifications.


         The default line format is %l followed by a newline character.

         If  the  input  contains tab characters and it is important that they
         line up on output, you should ensure that %l or %L in a  line  format
         is just after a tab stop (e.g. by preceding %l or %L with a tab char-
         acter), or you should use the -t or --expand-tabs option.

         Taken together, the line and line group formats let you specify  many
         different  formats.  For example, the following command uses a format
         similar to diff's normal format.  You can tailor this command to  get
         fine control over diff's output.


         cvs diff \

            --old-line-format='< %l
         ' \

            --new-line-format='> %l
         ' \

            --old-group-format='%df%(f=l?:,%dl)d%dE
         %<' \

            --new-group-format='%dea%dF%(F=L?:,%dL)
         %>' \

            --changed-group-format='%df%(f=l?:,%dl)c%dF%(F=L?:,%dL)
         %<--
         %>' \

            --unchanged-group-format='' \


         $ cvs diff -kk -u -r 1.14 -r 1.19 backend.c




       Suppose the experimental branch EXPR1 was  based  on  a  set  of  files
       tagged  RELEASE_1_0.  To see what has happened on that branch, the fol-
       lowing can be used:


         $ cvs diff -r RELEASE_1_0 -r EXPR1




       A command like this can be used to produce a context diff  between  two
       releases:


         $ cvs diff -c -r RELEASE_1_0 -r RELEASE_1_1 > diffs




       If  you  are  maintaining ChangeLogs, a command like the following just
       before you commit your changes may help you write the ChangeLog  entry.
       All  local  modifications  that  have  not  yet  been committed will be
       printed.


         $ cvs diff -u | less





export
   Export sources from CVS, similar to checkout
       o Synopsis: export [-flNnR] (-r rev[:date] | -D date)  [-k  subst]  [-d
         dir] module...

       o Requires: repository.

       o Changes: current directory.

         This command is a variant of checkout; use it when you want a copy of
         the source for module without  the  cvs  administrative  directories.
         For  example,  you  might  use  export to prepare source for shipment
         off-site.  This command requires that you specify a date or tag (with
         -D  or  -r), so that you can count on reproducing the source you ship
         to others (and thus it always prunes empty directories).

         One often would like to use -kv with cvs  export.   This  causes  any



       -D date

         Use the most recent revision no later than date.



       -f

         If no matching revision is found, retrieve the most  recent  revision
         (instead of ignoring the file).



       -l

         Local; run only in current working directory.



       -n

         Do not run any checkout program.



       -R

         Export directories recursively.  This is on by default.



       -r tag[:date]

         Export  the  revision specified by tag or, when date is specified and
         tag is a branch tag, the version from the branch tag as it existed on
         date.  See node 'Common options' in the CVS manual.

         In  addition,  these options (that are common to checkout and export)
         are also supported:



       -d dir

         Create a directory called dir for the working files, instead of using
         the  module name.  See node 'checkout options' in the CVS manual, for
         complete details on how cvs handles this flag.



       -k subst

history
   Show status of files and users
       o Synopsis:     history [-report] [-flags] [-options args] [files...]

       o Requires: the file $CVSROOT/CVSROOT/history

       o Changes: nothing.

         cvs can keep a history log that tracks each use of most cvs commands.
         You can use history to display this information in various formats.

         To  enable  logging, the LogHistory config option must be set to some
         value other than the empty string and the history file  specified  by
         the  HistoryLogPath  option must be writable by all users who may run
         the cvs executable (see node 'config' in the CVS manual).

         To enable the history command, logging must be enabled as  above  and
         the  HistorySearchPath  config  option  (see node 'config' in the CVS
         manual) must be set to specify some number of the history  logs  cre-
         ated  thereby and these files must be readable by each user who might
         run the history command.

         Creating a repository via the cvs init command will enable logging of
         all  possible  events  to  a  single  history log file ($CVSROOT/CVS-
         ROOT/history) with read and write permissions for all users (see node
         'Creating a repository' in the CVS manual).

         Note:  history uses -f, -l, -n, and -p in ways that conflict with the
         normal use inside cvs (see node 'Common options' in the CVS manual).


history options
       Several options (shown above as -report)  control  what kind of  report
       is generated:



       -c

         Report  on  each time commit was used (i.e., each time the repository
         was modified).



       -e

         Everything (all record types).  Equivalent to specifying -x with  all
         record types.  Of course, -e will also include record types which are
         added in a future version of cvs; if you are writing a  script  which
         can only handle certain record types, you'll want to specify -x.



       -m module
       -T

         Report on all tags.



       -x type

         Extract a particular set of record types type from the  cvs  history.
         The  types  are indicated by single letters, which you may specify in
         combination.

         Certain commands have a single record type:


         F

           release

         O

           checkout

         E

           export

         T

           rtag

           One of five record types may result from an update:


         C

           A merge was necessary but collisions were detected (requiring  man-
           ual merging).

         G

           A merge was necessary and it succeeded.

         U

           A working file was copied from the repository.

         P

           A working file was patched to match the repository.

         W

           The  working  copy  of a file was deleted during update (because it

         R

           A file was removed.

           The options shown as -flags constrain or expand the report  without
           requiring option arguments:



       -a

         Show  data  for  all  users (the default is to show data only for the
         user executing history).



       -l

         Show last modification only.



       -w

         Show only the records for modifications done from  the  same  working
         directory where history is executing.

         The  options  shown as -options args constrain the report based on an
         argument:



       -b str

         Show data back to a record containing  the  string  str   in   either
         the module name, the file name, or the repository path.



       -D date

         Show data since date.  This is slightly different from the normal use
         of -D date, which selects the newest revision older than date.



       -f file

         Show data for a particular file (you can specify several  -f  options
         on the same command line).  This is equivalent to specifying the file
         on the command line.





       -r rev

         Show records referring to revisions since the revision or  tag  named
         rev  appears  in individual rcs files.  Each rcs file is searched for
         the revision or tag.



       -t tag

         Show records since tag tag was last added to the history file.   This
         differs  from  the  -r  flag  above in that it reads only the history
         file, not the rcs files, and is much faster.



       -u name

         Show records for user name.



       -z timezone

         Show times in the selected records  using  the  specified  time  zone
         instead of UTC.


import
   Import sources into CVS, using vendor branches
       o Synopsis: import [-options] repository vendortag releasetag...

       o Requires: Repository, source distribution directory.

       o Changes: repository.

         Use  import to incorporate an entire source distribution from an out-
         side source (e.g., a  source  vendor)  into  your  source  repository
         directory.   You  can use this command both for initial creation of a
         repository, and for wholesale updates to the module from the  outside
         source.  See node 'Tracking sources' in the CVS manual, for a discus-
         sion on this subject.

         The repository argument gives a directory name (or a path to a direc-
         tory) under the cvs root directory for repositories; if the directory
         did not exist, import creates it.

         When you use import for updates to source that has been  modified  in
         your  source repository (since a prior import), it will notify you of
         any files that conflict in  the  two  branches  of  development;  use
         checkout  -j to reconcile the differences, as import instructs you to
         The outside source is saved  in  a  first-level  branch,  by  default
         1.1.1.   Updates  are  leaves of this branch; for example, files from
         the first imported collection of source  will  be  revision  1.1.1.1,
         then  files  from the first imported update will be revision 1.1.1.2,
         and so on.

         At least three arguments are required.  repository is needed to iden-
         tify  the  collection  of  source.  vendortag is a tag for the entire
         branch (e.g., for  1.1.1).   You  must  also  specify  at  least  one
         releasetag  to uniquely identify the files at the leaves created each
         time you execute import.  The releasetag should be  new,  not  previ-
         ously  existing  in  the  repository  file, and uniquely identify the
         imported release,

         Note that import does not change the directory in  which  you  invoke
         it.   In particular, it does not set up that directory as a cvs work-
         ing directory; if you want to work with the sources import them first
         and then check them out into a different directory (see node 'Getting
         the source' in the CVS manual).


import options
       This standard option is supported by import (see node 'Common  options'
       in the CVS manual, for a complete description):



       -m message

         Use message as log information, instead of invoking an editor.

         There are the following additional special options.



       -b branch

         See node 'Multiple vendor branches' in the CVS manual.



       -k subst

         Indicate the keyword expansion mode desired.  This setting will apply
         to all files created during the import, but not  to  any  files  that
         previously  existed in the repository.  See node 'Substitution modes'
         in the CVS manual, for a list of valid -k settings.



       -I name

         Specify file names that should be ignored during import.  You can use
         this  option  repeatedly.   To  avoid ignoring any files at all (even
         spec can be a file name pattern of the same type that you can specify
         in the .cvswrappers file. See node 'Wrappers' in the CVS manual.



       -X

         Modify the algorithm used by cvs when importing new files so that new
         files do not immediately appear on the main trunk.

         Specifically, this flag causes cvs to mark new files as if they  were
         deleted  on  the  main  trunk, by taking the following steps for each
         file in addition to those normally taken on import:  creating  a  new
         revision  on  the  main  trunk  indicating that the new file is dead,
         resetting the new file's default branch, and placing the file in  the
         Attic (see node 'Attic' in the CVS manual) directory.

         Use  of  this option can be forced on a repository-wide basis by set-
         ting the ImportNewFilesToVendorBranchOnly  option  in  CVSROOT/config
         (see node 'config' in the CVS manual).


import output
       import  keeps  you informed of its progress by printing a line for each
       file, preceded by one character indicating the status of the file:



       U file

         The file already exists in the repository and has  not  been  locally
         modified; a new revision has been created (if necessary).



       N file

         The file is a new file which has been added to the repository.



       C file

         The  file already exists in the repository but has been locally modi-
         fied; you will have to merge the changes.



       I file

         The file is being ignored (see node 'cvsignore' in the CVS manual).



       the CVS manual.


log
   Print out log information for files
       o Synopsis: log [options] [files...]

       o Requires: repository, working directory.

       o Changes: nothing.

         Display log information for files.  log used to call the rcs  utility
         rlog.   Although  this is no longer true in the current sources, this
         history determines the format of the output and  the  options,  which
         are not quite in the style of the other cvs commands.

         The  output  includes the location of the rcs file, the head revision
         (the latest revision on the trunk), all  symbolic  names  (tags)  and
         some other things.  For each revision, the revision number, the date,
         the author, the number of lines added/deleted, the commitid  and  the
         log  message  are  printed.  All dates are displayed in local time at
         the client. This is typically specified in the $TZ environment  vari-
         able, which can be set to govern how log displays dates.

         Note:  log uses -R in a way that conflicts with the normal use inside
         cvs (see node 'Common options' in the CVS manual).


log options
       By default, log prints all information that is  available.   All  other
       options  restrict the output.  Note that the revision selection options
       (-d, -r, -s, and -w) have no effect,  other  than  possibly  causing  a
       search  for  files  in Attic directories, when used in conjunction with
       the options that restrict the output to only log header fields (-b, -h,
       -R, and -t) unless the -S option is also specified.



       -b

         Print information about the revisions on the default branch, normally
         the highest branch on the trunk.



       -d dates

         Print information about revisions with a  checkin  date/time  in  the
         range  given by the semicolon-separated list of dates.  The date for-
         mats accepted are those accepted by the -D option to many  other  cvs
         commands (see node 'Common options' in the CVS manual).  Dates can be
         combined into ranges as follows:



         d>

           Select all revisions dated d or earlier.


         d<



         >d

           Select all revisions dated d or later.


         d

           Select the single, latest revision dated d or earlier.

           The > or < characters may be followed by = to indicate an inclusive
           range rather than an exclusive one.

           Note that the separator is a semicolon (;).



       -h

         Print  only the name of the rcs file, name of the file in the working
         directory, head, default branch, access list, locks, symbolic  names,
         and suffix.



       -l

         Local;  run  only  in  current working directory.  (Default is to run
         recursively).



       -N

         Do not print the list of tags for this file.  This option can be very
         useful  when  your site uses a lot of tags, so rather than "more"'ing
         over 3 pages of tag information, the  log  information  is  presented
         without tags at all.



       -R

         Print only the name of the rcs file.



         rev1::rev2

           The same, but excluding rev1.


         :rev



         ::rev

           Revisions from the beginning of the branch up to and including rev.


         rev:

           Revisions  starting  with  rev  to the end of the branch containing
           rev.


         rev::

           Revisions starting just after rev to the end of the branch contain-
           ing rev.


         branch

           An argument that is a branch means all revisions on that branch.


         branch1:branch2



         branch1::branch2

           A  range  of  branches  means all revisions on the branches in that
           range.


         branch.

           The latest revision in branch.

           A bare -r with no  revisions  means  the  latest  revision  on  the
           default  branch, normally the trunk.  There can be no space between
           the -r option and its argument.



       -S



       -t

         Print the same as -h, plus the descriptive text.



       -wlogins

         Print information about revisions checked  in  by  users  with  login
         names  appearing  in  the  comma-separated list logins.  If logins is
         omitted, the user's login is assumed.  There can be no space  between
         the -w option and its argument.

         log  prints  the  intersection  of  the  revisions  selected with the
         options -d, -s, and -w, intersected with the union of  the  revisions
         selected by -b and -r.


log examples
       Since  log  shows  dates  in  local time, you might want to see them in
       Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) or some other timezone.   To  do  this
       you can set your $TZ environment variable before invoking cvs:


         $ TZ=UTC cvs log foo.c
         $ TZ=EST cvs log bar.c




       (If  you are using a csh-style shell, like tcsh, you would need to pre-
       fix the examples above with env.)


ls & rls
       o ls [-e | -l] [-RP] [-r tag[:date]] [-D date] [path...]

       o Requires: repository for rls, repository & working directory for ls.

       o Changes: nothing.

       o Synonym: dir & list are synonyms for ls and rdir & rlist are synonyms
         for rls.

         The ls and rls commands are used to list files and directories in the
         repository.

         By default ls lists the files and directories  that  belong  in  your
         working directory, what would be there after an update.

         By  default  rls  lists  the  files and directories on the tip of the

       -d

         Show dead revisions (with tag when specified).



       -e

         Display in CVS/Entries format.  This format is meant to remain easily
         parsable by automation.



       -l

         Display all details.



       -P

         Don't list contents of empty directories when recursing.



       -R

         List recursively.



       -r tag[:date]

         Show  files  specified by tag or, when date is specified and tag is a
         branch tag, the version from the branch tag as it  existed  on  date.
         See node 'Common options' in the CVS manual.



       -D date

         Show files from date.


rls examples
         $ cvs rls
         cvs rls: Listing module: `.'
         CVSROOT
         first-dir











rdiff
   'patch' format diffs between releases
       o rdiff  [-flags] [-V vn] (-r tag1[:date1] | -D date1) [-r tag2[:date2]
         | -D date2] modules...

       o Requires: repository.

       o Changes: nothing.

       o Synonym: patch

         Builds a Larry Wall format patch(1) file between two  releases,  that
         can  be  fed  directly into the patch program to bring an old release
         up-to-date with the new release.  (This is one of the  few  cvs  com-
         mands that operates directly from the repository, and doesn't require
         a prior checkout.) The diff output is sent  to  the  standard  output
         device.

         You  can  specify (using the standard -r and -D options) any combina-
         tion of one or two revisions or dates.  If only one revision or  date
         is  specified, the patch file reflects differences between that revi-
         sion or date and the current head revisions in the rcs file.

         Note that if the software release affected is contained in more  than
         one  directory,  then it may be necessary to specify the -p option to
         the patch command when patching the old sources,  so  that  patch  is
         able to find the files that are located in other directories.


rdiff options
       These  standard  options  are  supported  by  rdiff  (see  node 'Common
       options' in the CVS manual, for a complete description of them):



       -D date

         Use the most recent revision no later than date.



       -f

         If no matching revision is found, retrieve the most  recent  revision
         (instead of ignoring the file).




       -R

         Examine directories recursively.  This option is on by default.



       -r tag

         Use the revision specified by tag, or when date is specified and  tag
         is  a  branch  tag,  the version from the branch tag as it existed on
         date.  See node 'Common options' in the CVS manual.

         In addition to the above, these options are available:



       -c

         Use the context diff format.  This is the default format.



       -p

         Show which C function each change is in.



       -s

         Create a summary change report  instead  of  a  patch.   The  summary
         includes  information  about files that were changed or added between
         the releases.  It is sent to the standard  output  device.   This  is
         useful for finding out, for example, which files have changed between
         two dates or revisions.



       -t

         A diff of the top two  revisions  is  sent  to  the  standard  output
         device.   This  is  most  useful for seeing what the last change to a
         file was.



       -u

         Use the unidiff format for the context diffs.  Remember that old ver-
         sions of the patch program can't handle the unidiff format, so if you
         plan to post this patch to the net you should probably not use -u.


       hand,  but  with  cvs  that  can easily be fixed with a command such as
       this:


         $ cvs rdiff -c -r FOO1_2 -r FOO1_4 tc | \
         $$ Mail -s 'The patches you asked for' foo@example.net




       Suppose you have made release 1.3, and forked a branch called  R_1_3fix
       for  bug  fixes.   R_1_3_1 corresponds to release 1.3.1, which was made
       some time ago.  Now, you want to see how much development has been done
       on the branch.  This command can be used:


         $ cvs patch -s -r R_1_3_1 -r R_1_3fix module-name
         cvs rdiff: Diffing module-name
         File ChangeLog,v changed from revision 1.52.2.5 to 1.52.2.6
         File foo.c,v changed from revision 1.52.2.3 to 1.52.2.4
         File bar.h,v changed from revision 1.29.2.1 to 1.2





release
   Indicate that a Module is no longer in use
       o release [-d] directories...

       o Requires: Working directory.

       o Changes: Working directory, history log.

         This  command  is  meant to safely cancel the effect of cvs checkout.
         Since cvs doesn't lock files, it isn't strictly necessary to use this
         command.  You can always simply delete your working directory, if you
         like; but you risk losing changes you may  have  forgotten,  and  you
         leave  no  trace  in the cvs history file (see node 'history file' in
         the CVS manual) that you've abandoned your checkout.

         Use cvs release to avoid these problems.  This command checks that no
         uncommitted changes are present; that you are executing it from imme-
         diately above a  cvs  working  directory;  and  that  the  repository
         recorded  for your files is the same as the repository defined in the
         module database.

         If all these conditions are true, cvs release leaves a record of  its
         execution  (attesting to your intentionally abandoning your checkout)
         in the cvs history log.


release options
       The release command supports one command option:
         added  to  the  repository  (using  the add command; see node 'Adding
         files' in the CVS manual) will be silently  deleted--even  if  it  is
         non-empty!


release output
       Before  release  releases your sources it will print a one-line message
       for any file that is not up-to-date.



       U file




       P file

         There exists a newer revision of this file in the repository, and you
         have  not modified your local copy of the file (U and P mean the same
         thing).



       A file

         The file has been added to your private copy of the sources, but  has
         not yet been committed to the repository.  If you delete your copy of
         the sources this file will be lost.



       R file

         The file has been removed from your private copy of the sources,  but
         has  not yet been removed from the repository, since you have not yet
         committed the removal.  See node 'commit' in the CVS manual.



       M file

         The file is modified in your working directory.  There might also  be
         a newer revision inside the repository.



       ? file

         file  is  in  your working directory, but does not correspond to any-
         thing in the source repository, and is not in the list of  files  for
         cvs  to  ignore  (see  the description of the -I option, and see node
         'cvsignore' in the CVS manual).  If you remove your working  sources,
         this file will be lost.
         Are you sure you want to release (and delete) directory `tc': y
         $





server & pserver
   Act as a server for a client on stdin/stdout
       o pserver [-c path]

         server [-c path]

       o Requires: repository, client conversation on stdin/stdout

       o Changes: Repository or, indirectly, client working directory.

         The cvs server and pserver commands are used  to  provide  repository
         access  to remote clients and expect a client conversation on stdin &
         stdout.  Typically these commands are launched from inetd or via  ssh
         (see node 'Remote repositories' in the CVS manual).

         server  expects  that the client has already been authenticated some-
         how, typically via ssh, and  pserver  attempts  to  authenticate  the
         client itself.

         Only one option is available with the server and pserver commands:



       -c path

         Load  configuration  from path rather than the default location $CVS-
         ROOT/CVSROOT/config (see node 'config' in the CVS manual).  path must
         be  /etc/cvs.conf or prefixed by /etc/cvs/.  This option is supported
         beginning with cvs release 1.12.13.


suck
   Download RCS ,v file raw
       o suck module/path

       o Requires: repository

         Locates the file module/path,v or module/pa/Attic/th,v and  downloads
         it raw as RCS comma-v file.

         Output consists of the real pathname of the comma-v file, relative to
         the CVS repository, followed by a newline and the binary file content
         immediately thereafter.


update
   Bring work tree in sync with repository
         to the source repository since your last checkout or update.  Without
         the -C option, update will also merge  any  differences  between  the
         local  copy  of  files  and their base revisions into any destination
         revisions specified with -r, -D, or -A.


update options
       These standard options are available  with  update  (see  node  'Common
       options' in the CVS manual, for a complete description of them):



       -D date

         Use  the  most  recent  revision  no later than date.  This option is
         sticky, and implies -P.  See node 'Sticky tags' in  the  CVS  manual,
         for more information on sticky tags/dates.



       -f

         Only  useful  with  the  -D  or -r flags.  If no matching revision is
         found, retrieve the most recent revision  (instead  of  ignoring  the
         file).



       -k kflag

         Process keywords according to kflag.  See node 'Keyword substitution'
         in the CVS manual.  This option is sticky;  future  updates  of  this
         file  in  this working directory will use the same kflag.  The status
         command can be viewed to see the sticky options.  See node  'Invoking
         CVS' in the CVS manual, for more information on the status command.



       -l

         Local;  run  only  in current working directory.  See node 'Recursive
         behavior' in the CVS manual.



       -P

         Prune empty directories.  See node 'Moving directories'  in  the  CVS
         manual.



       -p


         Retrieve the revisions specified by tag or, when  date  is  specified
         and  tag  is  a  branch  tag,  the  version from the branch tag as it
         existed on date.  This option is sticky, and implies  -P.   See  node
         'Sticky  tags'  in  the  CVS  manual,  for more information on sticky
         tags/dates. Also see node 'Common options' in the CVS manual.

         These special options are also available with update.



       -A

         Reset any sticky tags, dates, or -k options.  See node 'Sticky  tags'
         in the CVS manual, for more information on sticky tags/dates.



       -C

         Overwrite  locally  modified files with clean copies from the reposi-
         tory (the modified file is saved in .#file.revision, however).



       -d

         Create any directories that exist in the repository if they're  miss-
         ing from the working directory.  Normally, update acts only on direc-
         tories and files that were already enrolled in  your  working  direc-
         tory.

         This  is  useful  for  updating  directories that were created in the
         repository since the initial checkout; but it has an unfortunate side
         effect.   If  you  deliberately  avoided  certain  directories in the
         repository when you created your working  directory  (either  through
         use  of a module name or by listing explicitly the files and directo-
         ries you wanted on the command line), then updating with -d will cre-
         ate those directories, which may not be what you want.



       -I name

         Ignore  files whose names match name (in your working directory) dur-
         ing the update.  You can specify -I more than  once  on  the  command
         line  to specify several files to ignore.  Use -I ! to avoid ignoring
         any files at all.  See node 'cvsignore' in the CVS manual, for  other
         ways to make cvs ignore some files.



       -Wspec

         option, into the working directory.

         With  one  -j option, merge changes from the ancestor revision to the
         revision specified with the -j option, into  the  working  directory.
         The  ancestor  revision  is the common ancestor of the revision which
         the working directory is based on, and the revision specified in  the
         -j option.

         Note  that using a single -j tagname option rather than -j branchname
         to merge changes from a branch will often not remove files which were
         removed  on  the branch.  See node 'Merging adds and removals' in the
         CVS manual, for more.

         In addition, each -j option can contain an optional  date  specifica-
         tion which, when used with branches, can limit the chosen revision to
         one within a specific date.  An optional date is specified by  adding
         a colon (:) to the tag: -jSymbolic_Tag:Date_Specifier.

         See node 'Branching and merging' in the CVS manual.



update output
       update  and  checkout keep you informed of their progress by printing a
       line for each file, preceded by one character indicating the status  of
       the file:



       U file

         The file was brought up to date with respect to the repository.  This
         is done for any file that exists in the repository but  not  in  your
         working directory, and for files that you haven't changed but are not
         the most recent versions available in the repository.



       P file

         Like U, but the cvs server sends a patch instead of an  entire  file.
         This accomplishes the same thing as U using less bandwidth.



       A file

         The file has been added to your private copy of the sources, and will
         be added to the source repository when you run commit  on  the  file.
         This is a reminder to you that the file needs to be committed.



       R file
         there were no modifications to the same file in  the  repository,  so
         that  your  file  remains as you last saw it; or there were modifica-
         tions in the repository as well as in your copy, but they were merged
         successfully, without conflict, in your working directory.

         cvs  will  print  some  messages if it merges your work, and a backup
         copy of your working file (as it looked before you ran  update)  will
         be made.  The exact name of that file is printed while update runs.



       C file

         A  conflict  was  detected while trying to merge your changes to file
         with changes from the source repository.   file  (the  copy  in  your
         working  directory)  is now the result of attempting to merge the two
         revisions; an unmodified copy of your file is also  in  your  working
         directory,  with the name .#file.revision where revision is the revi-
         sion that your modified file started from.  Resolve the  conflict  as
         described  in node 'Conflicts example' in the CVS manual.  (Note that
         some systems automatically purge files that begin  with  .#  if  they
         have  not been accessed for a few days.  If you intend to keep a copy
         of your original file, it is a very good idea to rename  it.)   Under
         vms, the file name starts with __ rather than .#.



       ? file

         file  is  in  your working directory, but does not correspond to any-
         thing in the source repository, and is not in the list of  files  for
         cvs  to  ignore  (see  the description of the -I option, and see node
         'cvsignore' in the CVS manual).

AUTHORS
       Dick Grune
              Original author of  the  cvs  shell  script  version  posted  to
              comp.sources.unix  in  the  volume6  release  of December, 1986.
              Credited with much of the cvs conflict resolution algorithms.

       Brian Berliner
              Coder and designer of the cvs program  itself  in  April,  1989,
              based on the original work done by Dick.

       Jeff Polk
              Helped Brian with the design of the cvs module and vendor branch
              support and author of the checkin(1) shell script (the  ancestor
              of cvs import).

       Larry Jones, Derek R. Price, and Mark D. Baushke
              Have helped maintain cvs for many years.

       And many others too numerous to mention here.

 ci(1), co(1), cvs(5), cvsbug(8), diff(1), grep(1),  patch(1),  rcs(1),  rcsd-
 iff(1), rcsmerge(1), rlog(1).



                                                                        CVS(1)
Man Pages Copyright Respective Owners. Site Copyright (C) 1994 - 2017 Hurricane Electric. All Rights Reserved.