RCS(1)                      General Commands Manual                     RCS(1)

       rcs - change RCS file attributes

       rcs options file ...

       rcs  creates  new RCS files or changes attributes of existing ones.  An
       RCS file contains multiple revisions of text, an access list, a  change
       log,  descriptive  text, and some control attributes.  For rcs to work,
       the caller's login name must be on  the  access  list,  except  if  the
       access  list is empty, the caller is the owner of the file or the supe-
       ruser, or the -i option is present.

       Filenames matching an RCS suffix denote RCS files;  all  others  denote
       working  files.  Names are paired as explained in ci(1).  Revision num-
       bers use the syntax described in ci(1).

       -i     Create and initialize a new RCS file, but  do  not  deposit  any
              revision.   If the RCS file name has no directory component, try
              to place it first into the subdirectory ./RCS, and then into the
              current  directory.   If  the  RCS file already exists, print an
              error message.

              Append the login names appearing  in  the  comma-separated  list
              logins to the access list of the RCS file.

              Append  the access list of oldfile to the access list of the RCS

              Erase the login names  appearing  in  the  comma-separated  list
              logins from the access list of the RCS file.  If logins is omit-
              ted, erase the entire access list.

              Set the default branch to rev.  If rev is omitted,  the  default
              branch  is  reset  to  the  (dynamically)  highest branch on the

              Set the comment leader to string.  An initial ci, or  an  rcs -i
              without  -c,  guesses  the comment leader from the suffix of the
              working file name.

              This option is obsolescent, since RCS normally uses the  preced-
              ing $Log$ line's prefix when inserting log lines during checkout
              (see co(1)).  However, older versions of  RCS  use  the  comment
              leader  instead  of  the  $Log$ line's prefix, so if you plan to
              access a file with both old and new versions of RCS,  make  sure
              its comment leader matches its $Log$ line prefix.

              Set  the  default  keyword substitution to subst.  The effect of
              keyword substitution is described in co(1).  Giving an  explicit
              -k  option  to co, rcsdiff, and rcsmerge overrides this default.
              Beware rcs -kv, because -kv is  incompatible  with  co -l.   Use
              rcs -kkv to restore the normal default keyword substitution.

              Lock  the  revision with number rev.  If a branch is given, lock
              the latest revision on that branch.  If rev is omitted, lock the
              latest  revision  on the default branch.  Locking prevents over-
              lapping changes.  If someone else already holds  the  lock,  the
              lock is broken as with rcs -u (see below).

              Unlock  the  revision  with  number  rev.  If a branch is given,
              unlock the latest revision on that branch.  If rev  is  omitted,
              remove  the  latest lock held by the caller.  Normally, only the
              locker of a revision can unlock it.  Somebody else  unlocking  a
              revision  breaks the lock.  If RCS was configured --with-mailer,
              then this causes a mail message  to  be  sent  to  the  original
              locker.   The  message  contains a commentary solicited from the
              breaker.  The commentary is terminated by end-of-file  or  by  a
              line containing . by itself.

       -L     Set  locking  to strict.  Strict locking means that the owner of
              an RCS file is not exempt from locking for checkin.  This option
              should be used for files that are shared.

       -U     Set  locking  to  non-strict.  Non-strict locking means that the
              owner of a file need not lock  a  revision  for  checkin.   This
              option  should  not  be used for files that are shared.  Whether
              default locking is strict is determined by your system  adminis-
              trator, but it is normally strict.

              Replace revision rev's log message with msg.  If msg is omitted,
              it defaults to "*** empty log message ***".

       -M     Do not send mail  when  breaking  somebody  else's  lock.   This
              option  is  not  meant  for casual use; it is meant for programs
              that warn users by other means, and invoke rcs -u only as a low-
              level lock-breaking operation.

              Associate  the  symbolic  name  name with the branch or revision
              rev.  Delete the symbolic name if both : and  rev  are  omitted;
              otherwise,  print an error message if name is already associated
              with another number.  If rev is symbolic, it is expanded  before
              association.   A rev consisting of a branch number followed by a
              . stands for the current latest revision in  the  branch.   A  :
              with  an empty rev stands for the current latest revision on the
              default   branch,   normally   the    trunk.     For    example,
              rcs -nname: RCS/*  associates name with the current latest revi-
              sion  of  all  the  named  RCS  files;   this   contrasts   with
              rcs -nname:$ RCS/*  which associates name with the revision num-
              bers extracted from keyword strings in the corresponding working

              Act like -n, except override any previous assignment of name.

              deletes ("outdates") the revisions given by range.  A range con-
              sisting of a single revision  number  means  that  revision.   A
              range consisting of a branch number means the latest revision on
              that branch.  A range of the form rev1:rev2 means revisions rev1
              to rev2 on the same branch, :rev means from the beginning of the
              branch containing rev up to and including rev,  and  rev:  means
              from revision rev to the end of the branch containing rev.  None
              of the outdated revisions can have branches or locks.

       -q     Run quietly; do not print diagnostics.

       -I     Run interactively, even if the standard input is not a terminal.

              Set the state attribute of the revision rev to state.  If rev is
              a  branch number, assume the latest revision on that branch.  If
              rev is omitted,  assume  the  latest  revision  on  the  default
              branch.   Any  identifier is acceptable for state.  A useful set
              of states is Exp (for experimental), Stab (for stable), and  Rel
              (for  released).  By default, ci(1) sets the state of a revision
              to Exp.

              Write descriptive text from the contents of the named file  into
              the  RCS file, deleting the existing text.  The file name cannot
              begin with -.  If file is omitted, obtain the text from standard
              input,  terminated  by  end-of-file or by a line containing . by
              itself.  Prompt for the text if interaction is possible; see -I.
              With -i, descriptive text is obtained even if -t is not given.

              Write descriptive text from the string into the RCS file, delet-
              ing the existing text.

       -T     Preserve the modification time on the RCS file unless a revision
              is  removed.   This  option can suppress extensive recompilation
              caused by a make(1) dependency of some copy of the working  file
              on  the  RCS  file.   Use this option with care; it can suppress
              recompilation even when it is needed, i.e. when a change to  the
              RCS  file  would mean a change to keyword strings in the working

       -V     Print RCS's version number.

       -Vn    Emulate RCS version n.  See co(1) for details.

              Use suffixes to characterize RCS files.  See ci(1) for details.

       -zzone Use zone as the default time zone.  This option has  no  effect;
              it is present for compatibility with other RCS commands.

       At  least  one  explicit  option must be given, to ensure compatibility
       with future planned extensions to the rcs command.

       The -brev option generates an RCS file that cannot  be  parsed  by  RCS
       version 3 or earlier.

       The  -ksubst  options (except -kkv) generate an RCS file that cannot be
       parsed by RCS version 4 or earlier.

       Use rcs -Vn to make an RCS file acceptable to RCS version n by discard-
       ing information that would confuse version n.

       RCS  version  5.5  and  earlier  does  not  support  the -x option, and
       requires a ,v suffix on an RCS file name.

       rcs accesses files much as ci(1) does, except that it uses  the  effec-
       tive  user  for all accesses, it does not write the working file or its
       directory, and it does not even read the working file unless a revision
       number of $ is specified.

              Options  prepended to the argument list, separated by spaces.  A
              backslash escapes spaces within an option.  The RCSINIT  options
              are  prepended to the argument lists of most RCS commands.  Use-
              ful RCSINIT options include -q, -V, -x, and -z.

              Normally, for speed, commands either memory  map  or  copy  into
              memory  the  RCS file if its size is less than the memory-limit,
              currently defaulting to ``unlimited''.   Otherwise  (or  if  the
              initially-tried  speedy  ways  fail),  the commands fall back to
              using standard i/o routines.  You can adjust the memory limit by
              setting  RCS_MEM_LIMIT to a numeric value lim (measured in kilo-
              bytes).  An empty value is silently ignored.  As a side  effect,
              specifying RCS_MEM_LIMIT inhibits fall-back to slower routines.

       TMPDIR Name  of  the  temporary directory.  If not set, the environment
              variables TMP and TEMP are inspected instead and the first value
              found  is  taken;  if  none  of  them  are set, a host-dependent
              default is used, typically /tmp.

       The RCS file name and the revisions outdated are written to  the  diag-
       nostic  output.   The exit status is zero if and only if all operations
       were successful.

       Author: Walter F. Tichy.
       Manual Page Revision: 5.9.4; Release Date: 2018-01-01.
       Copyright (C) 2010-2015 Thien-Thi Nguyen.
       Copyright (C) 1990, 1991, 1992, 1993, 1994, 1995 Paul Eggert.
       Copyright (C) 1982, 1988, 1989 Walter F. Tichy.

       co(1), ci(1), ident(1), rcsclean(1), rcsdiff(1), rcsmerge(1),  rlog(1),

       Walter  F. Tichy, RCS--A System for Version Control, Software--Practice
       & Experience 15, 7 (July 1985), 637-654.

       The full documentation for RCS is maintained as a Texinfo  manual.   If
       the  info(1)  and RCS programs are properly installed at your site, the

              info rcs

       should give you access to the complete manual.  Additionally,  the  RCS


       has news and links to the latest release, development site, etc.

       A  catastrophe  (e.g.  a  system crash) can cause RCS to leave behind a
       semaphore file that causes later invocations of RCS to claim  that  the
       RCS  file  is in use.  To fix this, remove the semaphore file.  A sema-
       phore file's name typically begins with , or ends with _.

       The separator for revision ranges in the -o option used to be - instead
       of  :,  but this leads to confusion when symbolic names contain -.  For
       backwards compatibility rcs -o still supports the old - separator,  but
       it warns about this obsolete use.

       Symbolic  names  need not refer to existing revisions or branches.  For
       example, the -o option does not remove symbolic names for the  outdated
       revisions; you must use -n to remove the names.

GNU RCS 5.9.4                     2018-01-01                            RCS(1)
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