CI(1)                       General Commands Manual                      CI(1)

       ci - check in RCS revisions

       ci [options] file ...

       ci stores new revisions into RCS files.  Each file name matching an RCS
       suffix is taken to be an RCS file.  All others are assumed to be  work-
       ing  files  containing new revisions.  ci deposits the contents of each
       working file into the corresponding RCS file.  If only a  working  file
       is  given, ci tries to find the corresponding RCS file in an RCS subdi-
       rectory and then in the working file's directory.   For  more  details,
       see FILE NAMING below.

       For  ci  to work, the caller's login must be on the access list, except
       if the access list is empty or the caller is the superuser or the owner
       of  the  file.  To append a new revision to an existing branch, the tip
       revision on that branch must be locked by the caller.  Otherwise,  only
       a  new branch can be created.  This restriction is not enforced for the
       owner of the file if non-strict locking is used (see rcs(1)).   A  lock
       held by someone else can be broken with the rcs command.

       Unless  the  -f  option  is given, ci checks whether the revision to be
       deposited differs from the preceding one.  If not, instead of  creating
       a new revision ci reverts to the preceding one.  To revert, ordinary ci
       removes the working file and any lock; ci -l keeps  and  ci -u  removes
       any  lock,  and  then  they both generate a new working file much as if
       co -l or co -u had  been  applied  to  the  preceding  revision.   When
       reverting, any -n and -s options apply to the preceding revision.

       For  each  revision  deposited,  ci prompts for a log message.  The log
       message should summarize the change and must be terminated  by  end-of-
       file or by a line containing . by itself.  If several files are checked
       in ci asks whether to reuse the previous log message.  If the  standard
       input is not a terminal, ci suppresses the prompt and uses the same log
       message for all files.  See also -m.

       If the RCS file does not exist, ci creates it and deposits the contents
       of the working file as the initial revision (default number: 1.1).  The
       access list is initialized to empty.  Instead of the  log  message,  ci
       requests descriptive text (see -t below).

       The  number  rev  of  the deposited revision can be given by any of the
       options -f, -i, -I, -j, -k, -l, -M, -q, -r, or -u.   rev  can  be  sym-
       bolic,  numeric,  or  mixed.   Symbolic  names  in  rev must already be
       defined; see the -n and -N options for assigning names during  checkin.
       If  rev  is $, ci determines the revision number from keyword values in
       the working file.

       If rev begins with a period, then  the  default  branch  (normally  the
       trunk)  is  prepended  to  it.  If rev is a branch number followed by a
       period, then the latest revision on that branch is used.

       If rev is a revision number, it must be higher than the latest  one  on
       the branch to which rev belongs, or must start a new branch.

       If  rev  is a branch rather than a revision number, the new revision is
       appended to that branch.  The level number is obtained by  incrementing
       the  tip revision number of that branch.  If rev indicates a non-exist-
       ing branch, that branch is created with the initial  revision  numbered

       If  rev is omitted, ci tries to derive the new revision number from the
       caller's last lock.  If the caller has locked the  tip  revision  of  a
       branch,  the new revision is appended to that branch.  The new revision
       number is obtained by incrementing the tip  revision  number.   If  the
       caller locked a non-tip revision, a new branch is started at that revi-
       sion by incrementing the highest branch number at that  revision.   The
       default initial branch and level numbers are 1.

       If  rev  is  omitted  and the caller has no lock, but owns the file and
       locking is not set to strict, then the  revision  is  appended  to  the
       default branch (normally the trunk; see the -b option of rcs(1)).

       Exception:  On the trunk, revisions can be appended to the end, but not

       -rrev  Check in revision rev.

       -r     The bare -r option (without any revision) has an unusual meaning
              in  ci.  With other RCS commands, a bare -r option specifies the
              most recent revision on the default branch, but with ci, a  bare
              -r option reestablishes the default behavior of releasing a lock
              and removing the working file,  and  is  used  to  override  any
              default  -l  or  -u  options  established  by  shell  aliases or

              works like -r, except it performs an additional  co -l  for  the
              deposited revision.  Thus, the deposited revision is immediately
              checked out again and locked.  This is useful for saving a revi-
              sion  although  one  wants  to  continue  editing  it  after the

              works like -l, except that the deposited revision is not locked.
              This lets one read the working file immediately after checkin.

              The  -l,  bare  -r,  and  -u  options are mutually exclusive and
              silently override each other.  For example, ci -u -r is  equiva-
              lent to ci -r because bare -r overrides -u.

              forces  a  deposit; the new revision is deposited even it is not
              different from the preceding one.

              searches the working file for keyword values  to  determine  its
              revision  number,  creation date, state, and author (see co(1)),
              and assigns these values to the deposited revision, rather  than
              computing  them locally.  It also generates a default login mes-
              sage noting the login of the caller and the actual checkin date.
              This  option  is  useful  for software distribution.  A revision
              that is sent to several sites should be checked in with  the  -k
              option  at  these  sites  to preserve the original number, date,
              author, and state.  The extracted keyword values and the default
              log  message  can be overridden with the options -d, -m, -s, -w,
              and any option that carries a revision number.

              quiet mode; diagnostic output is not printed.  A  revision  that
              is not different from the preceding one is not deposited, unless
              -f is given.

              initial checkin; report an error if the RCS file already exists.
              This avoids race conditions in certain applications.

              just  checkin  and do not initialize; report an error if the RCS
              file does not already exist.

              interactive mode; the user is prompted and  questioned  even  if
              the standard input is not a terminal.

              uses  date for the checkin date and time.  The date is specified
              in free format as explained in co(1).  This is useful for  lying
              about  the checkin date, and for -k if no date is available.  If
              date is empty, the working file's time of last  modification  is

              Set the modification time on any new working file to be the date
              of the retrieved revision.  For example, ci -d -M -u f does  not
              alter  f's modification time, even if f's contents change due to
              keyword substitution.  Use this option with care; it can confuse

              uses the string msg as the log message for all revisions checked
              in.  If msg is omitted, it defaults to "***  empty  log  message
              ***".   By  convention,  log messages that start with # are com-
              ments and are ignored by programs like GNU Emacs's  vc  package.
              Also,  log  messages  that  start  with {clumpname} (followed by
              white space) are meant to be clumped together if possible,  even
              if  they  are  associated  with different files; the {clumpname}
              label is used only for clumping, and is  not  considered  to  be
              part of the log message itself.

       -nname assigns  the  symbolic name name to the number of the checked-in
              revision.  ci  prints  an  error  message  if  name  is  already
              assigned to another number.

       -Nname same  as  -n,  except that it overrides a previous assignment of

              sets the state of the  checked-in  revision  to  the  identifier
              state.  The default state is Exp.

       -tfile writes descriptive text from the contents of the named file into
              the RCS file, deleting the existing text.  The file cannot begin
              with -.

              Write descriptive text from the string into the RCS file, delet-
              ing the existing text.

              The -t option, in both its forms, has effect only during an ini-
              tial checkin; it is silently ignored otherwise.

              During  the  initial checkin, if -t is not given, ci obtains the
              text from standard input, terminated by end-of-file or by a line
              containing  . by  itself.   The user is prompted for the text if
              interaction is possible; see -I.

              For backward compatibility with older versions of RCS, a bare -t
              option is ignored.

       -T     Set  the RCS file's modification time to the new revision's time
              if the former precedes the latter and there is a  new  revision;
              preserve  the  RCS  file's  modification time otherwise.  If you
              have locked a revision, ci usually updates the RCS file's  modi-
              fication time to the current time, because the lock is stored in
              the RCS file and removing the lock  requires  changing  the  RCS
              file.   This  can create an RCS file newer than the working file
              in one of two ways: first, ci -M can create a working file  with
              a  date  before  the current time; second, when reverting to the
              previous revision the RCS file can change while the working file
              remains unchanged.  These two cases can cause excessive recompi-
              lation caused by a make(1) dependency of the working file on the
              RCS  file.   The  -T option inhibits this recompilation by lying
              about the RCS file's date.  Use this option with  care;  it  can
              suppress  recompilation  even when a checkin of one working file
              should affect another working file associated with the same  RCS
              file.   For  example,  suppose the RCS file's time is 01:00, the
              (changed) working file's time is 02:00, some other copy  of  the
              working file has a time of 03:00, and the current time is 04:00.
              Then ci -d -T sets the RCS file's time to 02:00 instead  of  the
              usual 04:00; this causes make(1) to think (incorrectly) that the
              other copy is newer than the RCS file.

              uses login for the author field of the deposited revision.  Use-
              ful  for  lying  about  the  author,  and for -k if no author is

       -V     Print RCS's version number.

       -Vn    Emulate RCS version n.  See co(1) for details.

              specifies the suffixes for RCS files.  A nonempty suffix matches
              any file name ending in the suffix.  An empty suffix matches any
              file name of the  form  RCS/frag  or  frag1/RCS/frag2.   The  -x
              option can specify a list of suffixes separated by /.  For exam-
              ple, -x,v/ specifies two suffixes: ,v and the empty suffix.   If
              two or more suffixes are specified, they are tried in order when
              looking for an RCS file; the first one that works  is  used  for
              that  file.  If no RCS file is found but an RCS file can be cre-
              ated, the suffixes are tried in order to determine the  new  RCS
              file's  name.   The  default for suffixes is installation-depen-
              dent; normally it is ,v/ for hosts like Unix that permit  commas
              in  file  names,  and  is empty (i.e. just the empty suffix) for
              other hosts.

       -zzone specifies the date output format in  keyword  substitution,  and
              specifies  the  default time zone for date in the -ddate option.
              The zone should be empty, a numeric UTC offset, or  the  special
              string  LT  for local time.  The default is an empty zone, which
              uses the traditional RCS format of UTC  without  any  time  zone
              indication  and  with  slashes separating the parts of the date;
              otherwise, times are output in ISO 8601 format  with  time  zone
              indication.  For example, if local time is January 11, 1990, 8pm
              Pacific Standard Time, eight hours west of UTC, then the time is
              output as follows:

                     option    time output
                     -z        1990/01/12 04:00:00        (default)
                     -zLT      1990-01-11 20:00:00-08
                     -z+05:30  1990-01-12 09:30:00+05:30

              The  -z  option does not affect dates stored in RCS files, which
              are always UTC.

       Pairs of RCS files and working files can be  specified  in  three  ways
       (see also the example section).

       1) Both the RCS file and the working file are given.  The RCS file name
       is of the form frag1/workfileX and the working file name is of the form
       frag2/workfile  where  frag1/  and  frag2/  are  (possibly different or
       empty) file names, workfile is a file name, and X is an RCS suffix.  If
       X is empty, frag1/ must start with RCS/ or must contain /RCS/.

       2) Only the RCS file is given.  Then the working file is created in the
       current directory and its name is derived from the  RCS  file  name  by
       removing frag1/ and the suffix X.

       3) Only the working file is given.  Then ci considers each RCS suffix X
       in turn, looking for an RCS file of the form frag2/RCS/workfileX or (if
       the former is not found and X is nonempty) frag2/workfileX.

       If the RCS file is specified without a file name in 1) and 2), ci looks
       for the RCS file first in the directory ./RCS and then in  the  current

       ci  reports  an  error  if  an attempt to open an RCS file fails for an
       unusual reason, even if the RCS file's name is just one of several pos-
       sibilities.   For  example, to suppress use of RCS commands in a direc-
       tory d, create a regular file named d/RCS so that  casual  attempts  to
       use RCS commands in d fail because d/RCS is not a directory.

       Suppose ,v is an RCS suffix and the current directory contains a subdi-
       rectory RCS with an RCS file io.c,v.  Then each of the  following  com-
       mands  check  in a copy of io.c into RCS/io.c,v as the latest revision,
       removing io.c.

              ci  io.c;    ci  RCS/io.c,v;   ci  io.c,v;
              ci  io.c  RCS/io.c,v;    ci  io.c  io.c,v;
              ci  RCS/io.c,v  io.c;    ci  io.c,v  io.c;

       Suppose instead that the empty suffix is an RCS suffix and the  current
       directory  contains a subdirectory RCS with an RCS file io.c.  The each
       of the following commands checks in a new revision.

              ci  io.c;    ci  RCS/io.c;
              ci  io.c  RCS/io.c;
              ci  RCS/io.c  io.c;

       An RCS file created by ci inherits the  read  and  execute  permissions
       from  the  working  file.  If the RCS file exists already, ci preserves
       its read and execute permissions.  ci always turns off all  write  per-
       missions of RCS files.

       Temporary  files  are  created  in the directory containing the working
       file, and also in the temporary directory (see  TMPDIR  under  ENVIRON-
       MENT).  A semaphore file or files are created in the directory contain-
       ing the RCS file.  With a nonempty suffix, the  semaphore  names  begin
       with  the  first  character of the suffix; therefore, do not specify an
       suffix whose first character could be that  of  a  working  file  name.
       With  an  empty  suffix, the semaphore names end with _ so working file
       names should not end in _.

       ci never changes an RCS file or working file.  Normally, ci unlinks the
       file  and  creates a new one; but instead of breaking a chain of one or
       more symbolic links to an RCS file, it  unlinks  the  destination  file
       instead.   Therefore, ci breaks any hard or symbolic links to any work-
       ing file it changes; and hard links to RCS files are  ineffective,  but
       symbolic links to RCS files are preserved.

       The  effective user must be able to search and write the directory con-
       taining the RCS file.  Normally, the real user must be able to read the
       RCS  and working files and to search and write the directory containing
       the working file;  however,  some  older  hosts  cannot  easily  switch
       between  real and effective users, so on these hosts the effective user
       is used for all accesses.  The effective user is the same as  the  real
       user  unless  your  copies  of  ci  and  co have setuid privileges.  As
       described in the next section, these privileges yield extra security if
       the  effective user owns all RCS files and directories, and if only the
       effective user can write RCS directories.

       Users can control access to RCS files by setting the permissions of the
       directory  containing  the  files;  only users with write access to the
       directory can use RCS commands to change its RCS files.   For  example,
       in  hosts that allow a user to belong to several groups, one can make a
       group's RCS directories writable to that  group  only.   This  approach
       suffices  for informal projects, but it means that any group member can
       arbitrarily change the group's RCS files,  and  can  even  remove  them
       entirely.   Hence more formal projects sometimes distinguish between an
       RCS administrator, who can change the RCS  files  at  will,  and  other
       project  members,  who  can check in new revisions but cannot otherwise
       change the RCS files.

       To prevent anybody but their RCS administrator from deleting revisions,
       a set of users can employ setuid privileges as follows.

       o Check  that  the host supports RCS setuid use.  Consult a trustworthy
         expert if there are any doubts.  It is best  if  the  seteuid  system
         call  works  as  described  in Posix 1003.1a Draft 5, because RCS can
         switch back and forth easily between real and effective  users,  even
         if  the  real user is root.  If not, the second best is if the setuid
         system call supports saved setuid (the {_POSIX_SAVED_IDS} behavior of
         Posix  1003.1-1990); this fails only if the real or effective user is
         root.  If RCS detects any failure in setuid, it quits immediately.

       o Choose a user A to serve as RCS administrator for the set  of  users.
         Only  A can invoke the rcs command on the users' RCS files.  A should
         not be root or any other user with special powers.   Mutually  suspi-
         cious sets of users should use different administrators.

       o Choose a file name B to be a directory of files to be executed by the

       o Have A set up B to contain copies of ci and co that are setuid  to  A
         by  copying the commands from their standard installation directory D
         as follows:

              mkdir  B
              cp  D/c[io]  B
              chmod  go-w,u+s  B/c[io]

       o Have each user prepend B to their command search path as follows:

              PATH=B:$PATH;  export  PATH  # ordinary shell
              set  path=(B  $path)  # C shell

       o Have A create each RCS directory R with write access  only  to  A  as

              mkdir  R
              chmod  go-w  R

       o If  you  want  to  let only certain users read the RCS files, put the
         users into a group G, and have A further protect the RCS directory as

              chgrp  G  R
              chmod  g-w,o-rwx  R

       o Have  A  copy  old  RCS  files (if any) into R, to ensure that A owns

       o An RCS file's access list limits who can check in and lock revisions.
         The default access list is empty, which grants checkin access to any-
         one who can read the RCS file.  If you  want  limit  checkin  access,
         have  A  invoke  rcs -a  on  the  file;  see  rcs(1).  In particular,
         rcs -e -aA limits access to just A.

       o Have A initialize any  new  RCS  files  with  rcs -i  before  initial
         checkin, adding the -a option if you want to limit checkin access.

       o Give setuid privileges only to ci, co, and rcsclean; do not give them
         to rcs or to any other command.

       o Do not use other setuid commands to invoke RCS  commands;  setuid  is
         trickier than you think!

              Options  prepended to the argument list, separated by spaces.  A
              backslash escapes spaces within an option.  The RCSINIT  options
              are  prepended to the argument lists of most RCS commands.  Use-
              ful RCSINIT options include -q, -V, -x, and -z.

              Normally, for speed, commands either memory  map  or  copy  into
              memory  the  RCS file if its size is less than the memory-limit,
              currently defaulting to ``unlimited''.   Otherwise  (or  if  the
              initially-tried  speedy  ways  fail),  the commands fall back to
              using standard i/o routines.  You can adjust the memory limit by
              setting  RCS_MEM_LIMIT to a numeric value lim (measured in kilo-
              bytes).  An empty value is silently ignored.  As a side  effect,
              specifying RCS_MEM_LIMIT inhibits fall-back to slower routines.

       TMPDIR Name  of  the  temporary directory.  If not set, the environment
              variables TMP and TEMP are inspected instead and the first value
              found  is  taken;  if  none  of  them  are set, a host-dependent
              default is used, typically /tmp.

       For each revision, ci prints the RCS file, the working  file,  and  the
       number of both the deposited and the preceding revision.  The exit sta-
       tus is zero if and only if all operations were successful.

       Author: Walter F. Tichy.
       Manual Page Revision: 5.9.4; Release Date: 2018-01-01.
       Copyright (C) 2010-2015 Thien-Thi Nguyen.
       Copyright (C) 1990, 1991, 1992, 1993, 1994, 1995 Paul Eggert.
       Copyright (C) 1982, 1988, 1989 Walter F. Tichy.

       co(1), emacs(1), ident(1), make(1),  rcs(1),  rcsclean(1),  rcsdiff(1),
       rcsmerge(1), rlog(1), setuid(2), rcsfile(5).

       Walter  F. Tichy, RCS--A System for Version Control, Software--Practice
       & Experience 15, 7 (July 1985), 637-654.

       The full documentation for RCS is maintained as a Texinfo  manual.   If
       the  info(1)  and RCS programs are properly installed at your site, the

              info rcs

       should give you access to the complete manual.  Additionally,  the  RCS


       has news and links to the latest release, development site, etc.

GNU RCS 5.9.4                     2018-01-01                             CI(1)
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