emacs


SYNOPSIS
       emacs [ command-line switches ] [ files ... ]

DESCRIPTION
       GNU  Emacs is a version of Emacs, written by the author of the original
       (PDP-10) Emacs, Richard Stallman.  The user functionality of GNU  Emacs
       encompasses  everything  other  editors do, and it is easily extensible
       since its editing commands are written in Lisp.

       The primary documentation of GNU Emacs is  in  the  GNU  Emacs  Manual,
       which  you  can  read  using Info, either from Emacs or as a standalone
       program.  Please look there for complete and up-to-date  documentation.
       This man page is updated only when someone volunteers to do so.

       Emacs  has  an  extensive  interactive  help facility, but the facility
       assumes that you know how to  manipulate  Emacs  windows  and  buffers.
       CTRL-h or F1 enters the Help facility.  Help Tutorial (CTRL-h t) starts
       an interactive tutorial to quickly teach beginners the fundamentals  of
       Emacs.   Help  Apropos  (CTRL-h a) helps you find a command with a name
       matching a given pattern, Help Key (CTRL-h k)  describes  a  given  key
       sequence, and Help Function (CTRL-h f) describes a given Lisp function.

       GNU Emacs's many special packages handle mail reading (RMail) and send-
       ing (Mail), outline editing  (Outline),  compiling  (Compile),  running
       subshells  within Emacs windows (Shell), running a Lisp read-eval-print
       loop (Lisp-Interaction-Mode),  automated  psychotherapy  (Doctor),  and
       much more.

   Emacs Options
       The following options are of general interest:

              file    Edit file.

              --file file, --find-file file, --visit file
                      The same as specifying file directly as an argument.

              +number Go  to  the  line  specified  by number (do not insert a
                      space between  the  "+"  sign  and  the  number).   This
                      applies only to the next file specified.

              +line:column
                      Go to the specified line and column.

              -q, --no-init-file
                      Do not load an init file.

              --no-site-file
                      Do not load the site-wide startup file.

              --no-desktop
                      Do not load a saved desktop.

              -Q, --quick
                      Load user's init file.

              -t file, --terminal file
                      Use specified file as  the  terminal  instead  of  using
                      stdin/stdout.  This must be the first argument specified
                      in the command line.

              --daemon
                      Start Emacs as a daemon, enabling the Emacs  server  and
                      disconnecting  from  the terminal.  You can then use the
                      emacsclient command to connect to the server (see  emac-
                      sclient(1)).

              --version
                      Display Emacs version information and exit.

              --help  Display this help and exit.

       The following options are Lisp-oriented (these options are processed in
       the order encountered):

              -f function, --funcall function
                      Execute the lisp function function.

              -l file, --load file
                      Load the lisp code in the file file.

              --eval expr, --execute expr
                      Evaluate the Lisp expression expr.

       The following options are useful when running Emacs as a batch editor:

              --batch Edit in batch mode.  The editor will  send  messages  to
                      stderr.  You must use -l and -f options to specify files
                      to execute and functions to call.

              --script file
                      Run file as an Emacs Lisp script.

              --insert file
                      Insert contents of file into the current buffer.

              --kill  Exit Emacs while in batch mode.

              -L dir, --directory dir
                      Add dir to the list of directories  Emacs  searches  for
                      Lisp files.

   Using Emacs with X
       Emacs  has been tailored to work well with the X window system.  If you
       run Emacs from under X windows, it will create its own X window to dis-
       play  in.   You  will probably want to start the editor as a background
       process so that you can continue using your original window.


              -fn font, --font font
                      Set the Emacs window's font to that specified  by  font.
                      You   will   find   the   various   X   fonts   in   the
                      /usr/lib/X11/fonts directory.  Note that Emacs will only
                      accept fixed width fonts.  Under the X11 Release 4 font-
                      naming conventions, any font with the value "m"  or  "c"
                      in  the eleventh field of the font name is a fixed width
                      font.  Furthermore, fonts whose name  are  of  the  form
                      widthxheight  are  generally fixed width, as is the font
                      fixed.  See xlsfonts(1) for more information.

                      When you specify a font, be sure to put a space  between
                      the switch and the font name.

              --xrm resources
                      Set additional X resources.

              --color, --color=mode
                      Override   color  mode  for  character  terminals;  mode
                      defaults to `auto', and can  also  be  `never',  `auto',
                      `always', or a mode name like `ansi8'.

              -bw pixels, --border-width pixels
                      Set  the  Emacs  window's  border width to the number of
                      pixels specified by pixels.  Defaults to  one  pixel  on
                      each side of the window.

              -ib pixels, --internal-border pixels
                      Set  the window's internal border width to the number of
                      pixels specified by pixels.  Defaults to  one  pixel  of
                      padding on each side of the window.

              -g geometry, --geometry geometry
                      Set  the  Emacs  window's width, height, and position as
                      specified.  The geometry specification is in  the  stan-
                      dard X format; see X(7) for more information.  The width
                      and height are specified in characters; the  default  is
                      80  by  24.   See the Emacs manual, section "Options for
                      Window Size and Position", for information on how window
                      sizes  interact  with  selecting or deselecting the tool
                      bar and menu bar.

              -lsp pixels, --line-spacing pixels
                      Additional space to put between lines.

              -vb, --vertical-scroll-bars
                      Enable vertical scrollbars.

              -fh, --fullheight
                      Make the first frame as high as the screen.

              -fs, --fullscreen
                      Make the first frame fullscreen.

              -bg color, --background-color color
                      On  color  displays, set the color of the window's back-
                      ground.

              -bd color, --border-color color
                      On color displays, set the color of the window's border.

              -cr color, --cursor-color color
                      On color displays, set the color of  the  window's  text
                      cursor.

              -ms color, --mouse-color color
                      On  color  displays, set the color of the window's mouse
                      cursor.

              -d displayname, --display displayname
                      Create the Emacs window on the display specified by dis-
                      playname.   Must  be  the  first option specified in the
                      command line.

              -nbi, --no-bitmap-icon
                      Do not use picture of gnu for Emacs icon.

              --iconic
                      Start Emacs in iconified state.

              -nbc, --no-blinking-cursor
                      Disable blinking cursor.

              -nw, --no-window-system
                      Tell Emacs not to create a graphical frame.  If you  use
                      this switch when invoking Emacs from an xterm(1) window,
                      display is done in that window.

              -D, --basic-display
                      This option disables many display features; use  it  for
                      debugging Emacs.

       You can set X default values for your Emacs windows in your .Xresources
       file (see xrdb(1)).  Use the following format:

              emacs.keyword:value

       where value specifies the default value of keyword.  Emacs lets you set
       default values for the following keywords:

              background (class Background)
                      For color displays, sets the window's background color.

              bitmapIcon (class BitmapIcon)
                      If  bitmapIcon's  value  is  set  to on, the window will
                      iconify into the "kitchen sink."

                      Specifies whether to make the cursor blink.  The default
                      is on.  Use off or false to turn cursor blinking off.

              font (class Font)
                      Sets the window's text font.

              foreground (class Foreground)
                      For color displays, sets the window's text color.

              fullscreen (class Fullscreen)
                      The  desired  fullscreen  size.  The value can be one of
                      fullboth, maximized,  fullwidth,  or  fullheight,  which
                      correspond  to  the  command-line  options `-fs', `-mm',
                      `-fw', and `-fh', respectively.  Note that this  applies
                      to the initial frame only.

              geometry (class Geometry)
                      Sets  the  geometry  of  the  Emacs window (as described
                      above).

              iconName (class Title)
                      Sets the icon name for the Emacs window icon.

              internalBorder (class BorderWidth)
                      Sets the window's internal border width in pixels.

              lineSpacing (class LineSpacing)
                      Additional space ("leading") between lines, in pixels.

              menuBar (class MenuBar)
                      Gives frames menu bars if on; don't have  menu  bars  if
                      off.   See  the Emacs manual, sections "Lucid Resources"
                      and "LessTif Resources", for how to control the  appear-
                      ance of the menu bar if you have one.

              minibuffer (class Minibuffer)
                      If none, don't make a minibuffer in this frame.  It will
                      use a separate minibuffer frame instead.

              paneFont (class Font)
                      Font name for menu pane titles, in non-toolkit  versions
                      of Emacs.

              pointerColor (class Foreground)
                      For color displays, sets the color of the window's mouse
                      cursor.

              privateColormap (class PrivateColormap)
                      If on, use a private color map, in the  case  where  the
                      "default visual" of class PseudoColor and Emacs is using
                      it.

              reverseVideo (class ReverseVideo)
                      If reverseVideo's value is set to on, the window will be
                      of Emacs.  (For toolkit versions, see the Emacs  manual,
                      sections "Lucid Resources" and "LessTif Resources".)

              selectionTimeout (class SelectionTimeout)
                      Number of milliseconds to wait for a selection reply.  A
                      value of 0 means wait as long as necessary.

              synchronous (class Synchronous)
                      Run Emacs in synchronous mode if on.   Synchronous  mode
                      is useful for debugging X problems.

              title (class Title)
                      Sets the title of the Emacs window.

              toolBar (class ToolBar)
                      Number of lines to reserve for the tool bar.

              useXIM (class UseXIM)
                      Turns off use of X input methods (XIM) if false or off.

              verticalScrollBars (class ScrollBars)
                      Gives  frames  scroll bars if on; suppresses scroll bars
                      if off.

              visualClass (class VisualClass)
                      Specify the "visual" that X should use.   This  tells  X
                      how  to  handle colors.  The value should start with one
                      of  TrueColor,  PseudoColor,  DirectColor,  StaticColor,
                      GrayScale,  and  StaticGray,  followed  by -depth, where
                      depth is the number of color planes.

MANUALS
       You can order printed copies of the GNU  Emacs  Manual  from  the  Free
       Software Foundation, which develops GNU software.  See the online store
       at <http://shop.fsf.org/>.
       Your local administrator might also have copies available.  As with all
       software  and  publications from FSF, everyone is permitted to make and
       distribute copies of the Emacs manual.  The Texinfo source to the  man-
       ual is also included in the Emacs source distribution.

FILES
       /usr/local/share/info -- files for the Info documentation browser.  The
       complete text of the Emacs reference manual is included in a convenient
       tree  structured  form.  Also includes the Emacs Lisp Reference Manual,
       useful to anyone wishing to write programs in the Emacs Lisp  extension
       language, and the Introduction to Programming in Emacs Lisp.

       /usr/local/share/emacs/$VERSION/lisp  -- Lisp source files and compiled
       files that define most editing commands.  Some  are  preloaded;  others
       are autoloaded from this directory when used.

       /usr/local/libexec/emacs/$VERSION/$ARCH  --  various  programs that are
       used with GNU Emacs.

       bugs and fixes.  But before reporting something as a bug, please try to
       be sure that it really is a bug, not a misunderstanding or a deliberate
       feature.   We  ask  you  to  read the section ``Reporting Bugs'' in the
       Emacs manual for hints on how and when to report bugs.   Also,  include
       the  version  number  of  the Emacs you are running in every bug report
       that you send in.  Bugs tend actually to be fixed if they can  be  iso-
       lated, so it is in your interest to report them in such a way that they
       can be easily reproduced.

       Do not expect a personal answer  to  a  bug  report.   The  purpose  of
       reporting  bugs  is to get them fixed for everyone in the next release,
       if possible.  For personal assistance, look in the  SERVICE  file  (see
       above) for a list of people who offer it.

       Please  do not send anything but bug reports to this mailing list.  For
       more  information   about   Emacs   mailing   lists,   see   the   file
       /usr/local/share/emacs/$VERSION/etc/MAILINGLISTS.

UNRESTRICTIONS
       Emacs  is free; anyone may redistribute copies of Emacs to anyone under
       the terms stated in the GNU General Public License,  a  copy  of  which
       accompanies  each copy of Emacs and which also appears in the reference
       manual.

       Copies of Emacs may sometimes be received packaged  with  distributions
       of  Unix  systems, but it is never included in the scope of any license
       covering those systems.  Such inclusion violates  the  terms  on  which
       distribution  is  permitted.   In  fact, the primary purpose of the GNU
       General Public License is to prohibit anyone from attaching  any  other
       restrictions to redistribution of Emacs.

       Richard  Stallman encourages you to improve and extend Emacs, and urges
       that you contribute your extensions to the GNU library.  Eventually GNU
       (Gnu's  Not  Unix)  will  be a complete replacement for Unix.  Everyone
       will be free to use, copy, study and change the GNU system.

SEE ALSO
       emacsclient(1), etags(1), X(7), xlsfonts(1), xterm(1), xrdb(1)

AUTHORS
       Emacs was written by Richard Stallman and the Free Software Foundation.
       For detailed credits and acknowledgements, see the GNU Emacs manual.

COPYING
       Copyright  (C)  1995,  1999,  2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006,
       2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011 Free Software Foundation, Inc.

       Permission is granted to make and distribute verbatim  copies  of  this
       document  provided  the copyright notice and this permission notice are
       preserved on all copies.

       Permission is granted to copy and distribute modified versions of  this
       document  under  the conditions for verbatim copying, provided that the
       entire resulting derived work is distributed under the terms of a  per-
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