etags [-aCDGIRVh] [-i file] [-l language]
       [-o tagfile] [-r regexp] [--parse-stdin=file]
       [--append] [--no-defines] [--globals] [--no-globals] [--include=file]
       [--ignore-indentation] [--language=language] [--members] [--no-members]
       [--output=tagfile] [--regex=regexp] [--no-regex] [--help] [--version]
       file ...

       ctags [-aCdgIRVh] [-BtTuvwx] [-l language]
       [-o tagfile] [-r regexp] [--parse-stdin=file]
       [--append] [--backward-search] [--cxref] [--no-defines] [--globals]
       [--no-globals] [--ignore-indentation] [--language=language] [--members]
       [--no-members] [--output=tagfile] [--regex=regexp] [--update] [--help]
       [--version] file ...

       The  etags  program is used to create a tag table file, in a format un-
       derstood by emacs(1); the ctags program is used to create a similar ta-
       ble  in a format understood by vi(1).  Both forms of the program under-
       stand the syntax of C, Objective C, C++, Java, Fortran, Ada, Cobol, Er-
       lang,  Forth,  HTML, LaTeX, Emacs Lisp/Common Lisp, Lua, Makefile, Pas-
       cal, Perl, PHP, Postscript, Python,  Prolog,  Scheme  and  most  assem-
       bler-like syntaxes.  Both forms read the files specified on the command
       line, and write a tag table (defaults: TAGS for etags, tags for  ctags)
       in  the  current working directory.  Files specified with relative file
       names will be recorded in the tag table with file names relative to the
       directory  where the tag table resides.  If the tag table is in /dev or
       is the standard output, however, the file names are  made  relative  to
       the  working  directory.  Files specified with absolute file names will
       be recorded with absolute file names.  Files generated  from  a  source
       file--like a C file generated from a source Cweb file--will be recorded
       with the name of the source file.  Compressed files are supported using
       gzip  and  bzip2.  The programs recognize the language used in an input
       file based on its file name and contents.  The --language switch can be
       used  to force parsing of the file names following the switch according
       to the given language, overriding guesses based on filename extensions.

       Some options make sense only for the vi style  tag  files  produced  by
       ctags;  etags does not recognize them.  The programs accept unambiguous
       abbreviations for long option names.

       -a, --append
              Append to existing tag file.  (For vi-format tag files, see also

       -B, --backward-search
              Tag  files  written in the format expected by vi contain regular
              expression search instructions; the -B option writes them  using
              the  delimiter  `?', to search backwards through files.  The de-
              fault is to use the delimiter `/', to  search  forwards  through
              files.  Only ctags accepts this option.

              This is the default in C and derived languages.

              Do not tag global variables in C and derived  languages.   Typi-
              cally this reduces the file size by one fourth.

       -i file, --include=file
              Include  a  note in the tag file indicating that, when searching
              for a tag, one should also consult  the  tags  file  file  after
              checking the current file.  Only etags accepts this option.

       -I, --ignore-indentation
              Don't rely on indentation as much as we normally do.  Currently,
              this means not to assume that a closing brace in the first  col-
              umn  is the final brace of a function or structure definition in
              C and C++.

       -l language, --language=language
              Parse the following files according to the given language.  More
              than  one  such  options  may be intermixed with filenames.  Use
              --help to get a list of the available languages  and  their  de-
              fault  filename  extensions.  The `auto' language can be used to
              restore automatic detection of language based on the file  name.
              The  `none' language may be used to disable language parsing al-
              together; only regexp matching is done in  this  case  (see  the
              --regex option).

              Create  tag entries for variables that are members of structure-
              like constructs in PHP.  This is the default for C  and  derived

              Do not tag member variables.

              Only tag packages in Ada files.

              May  be  used (only once) in place of a file name on the command
              line.  etags will read from standard input and mark the produced
              tags as belonging to the file FILE.

       -o tagfile, --output=tagfile
              Explicit name of file for tag table; for etags only, a file name
              of - means standard output;  overrides  default  TAGS  or  tags.
              (But ignored with -v or -x.)

       -r regexp, --regex=regexp

              Make  tags based on regexp matching for the files following this
              option, in addition to the tags made with the  standard  parsing
              based  on  language. May be freely intermixed with filenames and
              the -R option.  The regexps are cumulative, i.e. each  such  op-
              tively stand for the ASCII characters BEL, BS, DEL, ESC, FF, NL,
              CR, TAB, VT.
              The modifiers are a sequence of 0 or more  characters  among  i,
              which  means  to  ignore case when matching; m, which means that
              the tagregexp will be matched against the whole file contents at
              once,  rather  than  line by line, and the matching sequence can
              match multiple lines; and s, which implies m and means that  the
              dot character in tagregexp matches the newline char as well.
              The  separator, which is / in the examples, can be any character
              different from space, tab, braces and @.  If the separator char-
              acter is needed inside the regular expression, it must be quoted
              by preceding it with \.
              The optional {language} prefix means that the tag should be cre-
              ated only for files of language language, and ignored otherwise.
              This is particularly useful when storing many predefined regexps
              in a file.
              In  its  second  form, regexfile is the name of a file that con-
              tains a number of arguments to  the  --regex=  option,  one  per
              line.   Lines  beginning  with  a space or tab are assumed to be
              comments, and ignored.

              Here are some examples.  All the regexps are quoted  to  protect
              them from shell interpretation.

              Tag the DEFVAR macros in the emacs source files:
              --regex='/[ \t]*DEFVAR_[A-Z_ \t(]+"\([^"]+\)"/'

              Tag  VHDL files (this example is a single long line, broken here
              for formatting reasons):
              --language=none --regex='/[ \t]*\(ARCHITECTURE\|\     CONFIGURA-
              TION\) +[^ ]* +OF/' --regex='/[ \t]*\ \(ATTRIBUTE\|ENTITY\|FUNC-
              TION\|PACKAGE\( BODY\)?\                                \|PROCE-
              DURE\|PROCESS\|TYPE\)[ \t]+\([^ \t(]+\)/\3/'

              Tag  TCL  files  (this last example shows the usage of a tagreg-
              --lang=none --regex='/proc[ \t]+\([^ \t]+\)/\1/'

              A regexp can be preceded by {lang}, thus restricting it to match
              lines  of  files of the specified language.  Use etags --help to
              obtain a list of the recognized languages.  This feature is par-
              ticularly  useful inside regex files.  A regex file contains one
              regex per line.  Empty lines, and  those  lines  beginning  with
              space or tab are ignored.  Lines beginning with @ are references
              to regex files whose name follows the @ sign.  Other  lines  are
              considered regular expressions like those following --regex.
              For example, the command
              etags --regex=@regex.file *.c
              reads the regexes contained in the file regex.file.

       -R, --no-regex
              Don't  do  any more regexp matching on the following files.  May
              be freely intermixed with filenames and the --regex option.

       -x, --cxref
              Instead of generating a tag file, write a  cross  reference  (in
              cxref  format)  to standard output.  Only ctags accepts this op-

       -h, -H, --help
              Print  usage  information.   Followed  by  one  or  more  --lan-
              guage=LANG prints detailed information about how tags are creat-
              ed for LANG.

       -V, --version
              Print the current version of the program (same as the version of
              the emacs etags is shipped with).

       `emacs' entry in info; GNU Emacs Manual, Richard Stallman.
       cxref(1), emacs(1), vgrind(1), vi(1).

       Copyright  (C)  1992,  1999,  2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007,
       2008, 2009, 2010, 2011  Free Software Foundation, Inc.

       Permission is granted to make and distribute verbatim  copies  of  this
       document  provided  the copyright notice and this permission notice are
       preserved on all copies.

       Permission is granted to copy and distribute modified versions of  this
       document  under  the conditions for verbatim copying, provided that the
       entire resulting derived work is distributed under the terms of a  per-
       mission notice identical to this one.

       Permission is granted to copy and distribute translations of this docu-
       ment into another language, under the  above  conditions  for  modified
       versions,  except that this permission notice may be stated in a trans-
       lation approved by the Free Software Foundation.

GNU Tools                          23nov2001                          etags(1)
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