Local:  rsync [OPTION...] SRC... [DEST]

       Access via remote shell:
         Pull: rsync [OPTION...] [USER@]HOST:SRC... [DEST]
         Push: rsync [OPTION...] SRC... [USER@]HOST:DEST

       Access via rsync daemon:
         Pull: rsync [OPTION...] [USER@]HOST::SRC... [DEST]
               rsync [OPTION...] rsync://[USER@]HOST[:PORT]/SRC... [DEST]
         Push: rsync [OPTION...] SRC... [USER@]HOST::DEST
               rsync [OPTION...] SRC... rsync://[USER@]HOST[:PORT]/DEST

       Usages with just one SRC arg and no DEST arg will list the source files
       instead of copying.

       Rsync is a fast and extraordinarily versatile file  copying  tool.   It
       can  copy  locally,  to/from  another  host  over  any remote shell, or
       to/from a remote rsync daemon.  It offers a  large  number  of  options
       that  control  every  aspect  of  its behavior and permit very flexible
       specification of the set of files to be copied.  It is famous  for  its
       delta-transfer  algorithm,  which  reduces the amount of data sent over
       the network by sending only the differences between  the  source  files
       and  the  existing  files in the destination.  Rsync is widely used for
       backups and mirroring and as an improved copy command for everyday use.

       Rsync finds files that need to be transferred  using  a  "quick  check"
       algorithm  (by  default) that looks for files that have changed in size
       or  in  last-modified  time.   Any  changes  in  the  other   preserved
       attributes  (as  requested by options) are made on the destination file
       directly when the quick check indicates that the file's data  does  not
       need to be updated.

       Some of the additional features of rsync are:

       o      support  for copying links, devices, owners, groups, and permis-

       o      exclude and exclude-from options similar to GNU tar

       o      a CVS exclude mode for ignoring the same files  that  CVS  would

       o      can use any transparent remote shell, including ssh or rsh

       o      does not require super-user privileges

       o      pipelining of file transfers to minimize latency costs

       o      support  for anonymous or authenticated rsync daemons (ideal for

       daemon  directly happens when the source or destination path contains a
       double colon (::) separator after a  host  specification,  OR  when  an
       rsync://  URL  is  specified (see also the "USING RSYNC-DAEMON FEATURES
       VIA A REMOTE-SHELL CONNECTION" section for an exception to this  latter

       As a special case, if a single source arg is specified without a desti-
       nation, the files are listed in an output format similar to "ls -l".

       As expected, if neither the source or destination path specify a remote
       host, the copy occurs locally (see also the --list-only option).

       Rsync  refers  to the local side as the "client" and the remote side as
       the "server".  Don't confuse "server" with an rsync daemon -- a  daemon
       is  always  a  server,  but  a  server  can  be  either  a  daemon or a
       remote-shell spawned process.

       See the file README for installation instructions.

       Once installed, you can use rsync to any machine that  you  can  access
       via a remote shell (as well as some that you can access using the rsync
       daemon-mode protocol).  For remote transfers, a modern rsync  uses  ssh
       for  its  communications, but it may have been configured to use a dif-
       ferent remote shell by default, such as rsh or remsh.

       You can also specify any remote shell you like, either by using the  -e
       command line option, or by setting the RSYNC_RSH environment variable.

       Note  that  rsync  must be installed on both the source and destination

       You use rsync in the same way you use rcp. You must  specify  a  source
       and a destination, one of which may be remote.

       Perhaps the best way to explain the syntax is with some examples:

              rsync -t *.c foo:src/

       This would transfer all files matching the pattern *.c from the current
       directory to the directory src on the machine foo. If any of the  files
       already  exist on the remote system then the rsync remote-update proto-
       col is used to update the file by sending only the differences. See the
       tech report for details.

              rsync -avz foo:src/bar /data/tmp

       This would recursively transfer all files from the directory src/bar on
       the machine foo into the /data/tmp/bar directory on the local  machine.
       The  files  are  transferred in "archive" mode, which ensures that sym-
       bolic links, devices, attributes,  permissions,  ownerships,  etc.  are
       ing commands copies the files in the same way, including their  setting
       of the attributes of /dest/foo:

              rsync -av /src/foo /dest
              rsync -av /src/foo/ /dest/foo

       Note  also  that  host  and  module references don't require a trailing
       slash to copy the contents of the default directory.  For example, both
       of these copy the remote directory's contents into "/dest":

              rsync -av host: /dest
              rsync -av host::module /dest

       You  can  also  use rsync in local-only mode, where both the source and
       destination don't have a ':' in the name. In this case it behaves  like
       an improved copy command.

       Finally,  you can list all the (listable) modules available from a par-
       ticular rsync daemon by leaving off the module name:


       See the following section for more details.

       The syntax for requesting multiple files from a remote host is done  by
       specifying  additional remote-host args in the same style as the first,
       or with the hostname omitted.  For instance, all these work:

              rsync -av host:file1 :file2 host:file{3,4} /dest/
              rsync -av host::modname/file{1,2} host::modname/file3 /dest/
              rsync -av host::modname/file1 ::modname/file{3,4}

       Older versions of rsync required using quoted spaces in the  SRC,  like
       these examples:

              rsync -av host:'dir1/file1 dir2/file2' /dest
              rsync host::'modname/dir1/file1 modname/dir2/file2' /dest

       This  word-splitting  still works (by default) in the latest rsync, but
       is not as easy to use as the first method.

       If you need to transfer a filename that contains  whitespace,  you  can
       either specify the --protect-args (-s) option, or you'll need to escape
       the whitespace in a way that the remote  shell  will  understand.   For

              rsync -av host:'file\ name\ with\ spaces' /dest

              separate the hostname from the path, or you use an rsync:// URL.

       o      the first word of the "path" is actually a module name.

       o      the  remote  daemon may print a message of the day when you con-

       o      if you specify no path name on the remote daemon then  the  list
              of accessible paths on the daemon will be shown.

       o      if you specify no local destination then a listing of the speci-
              fied files on the remote daemon is provided.

       o      you must not specify the --rsh (-e) option.

       An example that copies all the files in a remote module named "src":

           rsync -av host::src /dest

       Some modules on the remote daemon may require  authentication.  If  so,
       you  will receive a password prompt when you connect. You can avoid the
       password prompt by setting the environment variable  RSYNC_PASSWORD  to
       the  password you want to use or using the --password-file option. This
       may be useful when scripting rsync.

       WARNING: On some systems  environment  variables  are  visible  to  all
       users. On those systems using --password-file is recommended.

       You  may  establish the connection via a web proxy by setting the envi-
       ronment variable RSYNC_PROXY to a hostname:port pair pointing  to  your
       web proxy.  Note that your web proxy's configuration must support proxy
       connections to port 873.

       You may also establish a daemon connection using a program as  a  proxy
       by  setting the environment variable RSYNC_CONNECT_PROG to the commands
       you wish to run in place of making a  direct  socket  connection.   The
       string  may contain the escape "%H" to represent the hostname specified
       in the rsync command (so use "%%" if you need  a  single  "%"  in  your
       string).  For example:

         export RSYNC_CONNECT_PROG='ssh proxyhost nc %H 873'
         rsync -av targethost1::module/src/ /dest/
         rsync -av rsync:://targethost2/module/src/ /dest/

       The command specified above uses ssh to run nc (netcat) on a proxyhost,
       which forwards all data to port 873 (the rsync daemon) on the  targeth-
       ost (%H).

       It is sometimes useful to use various features of an rsync daemon (such
       as named modules) without actually allowing any new socket  connections
       From  the user's perspective, a daemon transfer via a remote-shell con-
       nection uses nearly the same command-line syntax as a normal rsync-dae-
       mon  transfer,  with  the only exception being that you must explicitly
       set the remote shell program on the command-line with the --rsh=COMMAND
       option.   (Setting  the  RSYNC_RSH  in the environment will not turn on
       this functionality.)  For example:

           rsync -av --rsh=ssh host::module /dest

       If you need to specify a different remote-shell user, keep in mind that
       the  user@  prefix  in  front  of the host is specifying the rsync-user
       value (for a module that  requires  user-based  authentication).   This
       means  that  you  must give the '-l user' option to ssh when specifying
       the remote-shell, as in this example that uses the short version of the
       --rsh option:

           rsync -av -e "ssh -l ssh-user" rsync-user@host::module /dest

       The  "ssh-user" will be used at the ssh level; the "rsync-user" will be
       used to log-in to the "module".

       In order to connect to an rsync daemon, the remote system needs to have
       a daemon already running (or it needs to have configured something like
       inetd to spawn an rsync daemon for incoming connections on a particular
       port).   For  full  information on how to start a daemon that will han-
       dling incoming socket connections, see the rsyncd.conf(5) man  page  --
       that  is  the  config  file  for  the  daemon, and it contains the full
       details for how to run the daemon (including stand-alone and inetd con-

       If  you're  using  one of the remote-shell transports for the transfer,
       there is no need to manually start an rsync daemon.

       Rsync always sorts the specified filenames into its  internal  transfer
       list.  This handles the merging together of the contents of identically
       named directories, makes it easy to remove duplicate filenames, and may
       confuse  someone  when  the  files are transferred in a different order
       than what was given on the command-line.

       If you need a particular file  to  be  transferred  prior  to  another,
       either separate the files into different rsync calls, or consider using
       --delay-updates (which doesn't affect the sorted  transfer  order,  but
       does make the final file-updating phase happen much more rapidly).

       Here are some examples of how I use rsync.

       To  backup  my  wife's  home directory, which consists of large MS Word
       files and mail folders, I use a cron job that runs

                   rsync -Cavuzb . samba:samba/
           sync: get put

       this allows me to sync with a CVS directory at the  other  end  of  the
       connection. I then do CVS operations on the remote machine, which saves
       a lot of time as the remote CVS protocol isn't very efficient.

       I mirror a directory between my "old" and "new" ftp sites with the com-

       rsync -az -e ssh --delete ~ftp/pub/samba nimbus:"~ftp/pub/tridge"

       This is launched from cron every few hours.

       Here is a short summary of the options available in rsync. Please refer
       to the detailed description below for a complete description.

        -v, --verbose               increase verbosity
            --info=FLAGS            fine-grained informational verbosity
            --debug=FLAGS           fine-grained debug verbosity
            --msgs2stderr           special output handling for debugging
        -q, --quiet                 suppress non-error messages
            --no-motd               suppress daemon-mode MOTD (see caveat)
        -c, --checksum              skip based on checksum, not mod-time & size
        -a, --archive               archive mode; equals -rlptgoD (no -H,-A,-X)
            --no-OPTION             turn off an implied OPTION (e.g. --no-D)
        -r, --recursive             recurse into directories
        -R, --relative              use relative path names
            --no-implied-dirs       don't send implied dirs with --relative
        -b, --backup                make backups (see --suffix & --backup-dir)
            --backup-dir=DIR        make backups into hierarchy based in DIR
            --suffix=SUFFIX         backup suffix (default ~ w/o --backup-dir)
        -u, --update                skip files that are newer on the receiver
            --inplace               update destination files in-place
            --append                append data onto shorter files
            --append-verify         --append w/old data in file checksum
        -d, --dirs                  transfer directories without recursing
        -l, --links                 copy symlinks as symlinks
        -L, --copy-links            transform symlink into referent file/dir
            --copy-unsafe-links     only "unsafe" symlinks are transformed
            --safe-links            ignore symlinks that point outside the tree
            --munge-links           munge symlinks to make them safer
        -k, --copy-dirlinks         transform symlink to dir into referent dir
        -K, --keep-dirlinks         treat symlinked dir on receiver as dir
        -H, --hard-links            preserve hard links
        -p, --perms                 preserve permissions
        -E, --executability         preserve executability
            --chmod=CHMOD           affect file and/or directory permissions
        -A, --acls                  preserve ACLs (implies -p)
        -X, --xattrs                preserve extended attributes
        -o, --owner                 preserve owner (super-user only)
        -g, --group                 preserve group
        -x, --one-file-system       don't cross filesystem boundaries
        -B, --block-size=SIZE       force a fixed checksum block-size
        -e, --rsh=COMMAND           specify the remote shell to use
            --rsync-path=PROGRAM    specify the rsync to run on remote machine
            --existing              skip creating new files on receiver
            --ignore-existing       skip updating files that exist on receiver
            --remove-source-files   sender removes synchronized files (non-dir)
            --del                   an alias for --delete-during
            --delete                delete extraneous files from dest dirs
            --delete-before         receiver deletes before xfer, not during
            --delete-during         receiver deletes during the transfer
            --delete-delay          find deletions during, delete after
            --delete-after          receiver deletes after transfer, not during
            --delete-excluded       also delete excluded files from dest dirs
            --ignore-missing-args   ignore missing source args without error
            --delete-missing-args   delete missing source args from destination
            --ignore-errors         delete even if there are I/O errors
            --force                 force deletion of dirs even if not empty
            --max-delete=NUM        don't delete more than NUM files
            --max-size=SIZE         don't transfer any file larger than SIZE
            --min-size=SIZE         don't transfer any file smaller than SIZE
            --partial               keep partially transferred files
            --partial-dir=DIR       put a partially transferred file into DIR
            --delay-updates         put all updated files into place at end
        -m, --prune-empty-dirs      prune empty directory chains from file-list
            --numeric-ids           don't map uid/gid values by user/group name
            --usermap=STRING        custom username mapping
            --groupmap=STRING       custom groupname mapping
            --chown=USER:GROUP      simple username/groupname mapping
            --timeout=SECONDS       set I/O timeout in seconds
            --contimeout=SECONDS    set daemon connection timeout in seconds
        -I, --ignore-times          don't skip files that match size and time
            --size-only             skip files that match in size
            --modify-window=NUM     compare mod-times with reduced accuracy
        -T, --temp-dir=DIR          create temporary files in directory DIR
        -y, --fuzzy                 find similar file for basis if no dest file
            --compare-dest=DIR      also compare received files relative to DIR
            --copy-dest=DIR         ... and include copies of unchanged files
            --link-dest=DIR         hardlink to files in DIR when unchanged
        -z, --compress              compress file data during the transfer
            --compress-level=NUM    explicitly set compression level
            --skip-compress=LIST    skip compressing files with suffix in LIST
        -C, --cvs-exclude           auto-ignore files in the same way CVS does
        -f, --filter=RULE           add a file-filtering RULE
        -F                          same as --filter='dir-merge /.rsync-filter'
                                    repeated: --filter='- .rsync-filter'
            --exclude=PATTERN       exclude files matching PATTERN
            --exclude-from=FILE     read exclude patterns from FILE
            --include=PATTERN       don't exclude files matching PATTERN
            --include-from=FILE     read include patterns from FILE
            --files-from=FILE       read list of source-file names from FILE
        -0, --from0                 all *from/filter files are delimited by 0s
        -s, --protect-args          no space-splitting; wildcard chars only
            --address=ADDRESS       bind address for outgoing socket to daemon
            --log-file=FILE         log what we're doing to the specified FILE
            --log-file-format=FMT   log updates using the specified FMT
            --password-file=FILE    read daemon-access password from FILE
            --list-only             list the files instead of copying them
            --bwlimit=RATE          limit socket I/O bandwidth
            --write-batch=FILE      write a batched update to FILE
            --only-write-batch=FILE like --write-batch but w/o updating dest
            --read-batch=FILE       read a batched update from FILE
            --protocol=NUM          force an older protocol version to be used
            --iconv=CONVERT_SPEC    request charset conversion of filenames
            --checksum-seed=NUM     set block/file checksum seed (advanced)
        -4, --ipv4                  prefer IPv4
        -6, --ipv6                  prefer IPv6
            --version               print version number
       (-h) --help                  show this help (see below for -h comment)

       Rsync can also be run as a daemon, in which case the following  options
       are accepted:

            --daemon                run as an rsync daemon
            --address=ADDRESS       bind to the specified address
            --bwlimit=RATE          limit socket I/O bandwidth
            --config=FILE           specify alternate rsyncd.conf file
        -M, --dparam=OVERRIDE       override global daemon config parameter
            --no-detach             do not detach from the parent
            --port=PORT             listen on alternate port number
            --log-file=FILE         override the "log file" setting
            --log-file-format=FMT   override the "log format" setting
            --sockopts=OPTIONS      specify custom TCP options
        -v, --verbose               increase verbosity
        -4, --ipv4                  prefer IPv4
        -6, --ipv6                  prefer IPv6
        -h, --help                  show this help (if used after --daemon)

       Rsync  accepts  both long (double-dash + word) and short (single-dash +
       letter) options.  The full list of the available options are  described
       below.  If an option can be specified in more than one way, the choices
       are comma-separated.  Some options only have  a  long  variant,  not  a
       short.   If  the option takes a parameter, the parameter is only listed
       after the long variant, even though it must also be specified  for  the
       short.   When  specifying  a  parameter,  you  can  either use the form
       --option=param or replace the '=' with whitespace.  The  parameter  may
       need  to  be  quoted  in some manner for it to survive the shell's com-
       mand-line parsing.  Keep in mind that a leading tilde (~) in a filename
       is  substituted  by  your  shell, so --option=~/foo will not change the
       tilde into your home directory (remove the '=' for that).

       --help Print a short help page  describing  the  options  available  in
              rsync  and exit.  For backward-compatibility with older versions
              of rsync, the help will also be output if you use the -h  option
              without any other args.

              In a modern rsync, the -v option is equivalent to the setting of
              groups of --info and --debug options.  You  can  choose  to  use
              these  newer options in addition to, or in place of using --ver-
              bose, as any fine-grained settings override the implied settings
              of  -v.  Both --info and --debug have a way to ask for help that
              tells you exactly what flags are set for each increase  in  ver-

              This option lets you have fine-grained control over the informa-
              tion output you want to see.  An individual  flag  name  may  be
              followed  by a level number, with 0 meaning to silence that out-
              put, 1 being  the  default  output  level,  and  higher  numbers
              increasing  the  output  of  that  flag  (for those that support
              higher levels).  Use --info=help to see all the  available  flag
              names,  what they output, and what flag names are added for each
              increase in the verbose level.  Some examples:

                  rsync -a --info=progress2 src/ dest/
                  rsync -avv --info=stats2,misc1,flist0 src/ dest/

              Note that --info=name's output is affected by  the  --out-format
              and  --itemize-changes (-i) options.  See those options for more
              information on what is output and when.

              This option was added to 3.1.0, so an older rsync on the  server
              side  might reject your attempts at fine-grained control (if one
              or more flags needed to be send to the server and the server was
              too old to understand them).

              This  option  lets  you have fine-grained control over the debug
              output you want to see.  An individual flag name may be followed
              by  a  level  number,  with  0 meaning to silence that output, 1
              being the default output level, and  higher  numbers  increasing
              the  output of that flag (for those that support higher levels).
              Use --debug=help to see all the available flag names, what  they
              output,  and  what flag names are added for each increase in the
              verbose level.  Some examples:

                  rsync -avvv --debug=none src/ dest/
                  rsync -avA --del --debug=del2,acl src/ dest/

              Note  that  some  debug  messages  will  only  be  output   when
              --msgs2stderr  is  specified, especially those pertaining to I/O
              and buffer debugging.

              This option was added to 3.1.0, so an older rsync on the  server
              side  might reject your attempts at fine-grained control (if one
              or more flags needed to be send to the server and the server was
              too old to understand them).

              This  option  has  the  side-effect  of making stderr output get
              line-buffered so that the merging of the output  of  3  programs
              happens in a more readable manner.

       -q, --quiet
              This  option  decreases  the amount of information you are given
              during the transfer, notably  suppressing  information  messages
              from  the  remote  server.  This  option is useful when invoking
              rsync from cron.

              This option affects the information that is output by the client
              at  the  start  of  a daemon transfer.  This suppresses the mes-
              sage-of-the-day (MOTD) text, but it also  affects  the  list  of
              modules  that the daemon sends in response to the "rsync host::"
              request (due to a limitation in the  rsync  protocol),  so  omit
              this  option if you want to request the list of modules from the

       -I, --ignore-times
              Normally rsync will skip any files that  are  already  the  same
              size  and  have  the  same  modification timestamp.  This option
              turns off this "quick check" behavior, causing all files  to  be

              This  modifies rsync's "quick check" algorithm for finding files
              that need to be transferred, changing it  from  the  default  of
              transferring  files  with  either  a  changed  size or a changed
              last-modified time to just looking for files that  have  changed
              in  size.  This is useful when starting to use rsync after using
              another mirroring  system  which  may  not  preserve  timestamps

              When  comparing  two  timestamps, rsync treats the timestamps as
              being equal if they differ by no  more  than  the  modify-window
              value.   This  is  normally  0 (for an exact match), but you may
              find it useful to set this to a larger value in some situations.
              In  particular,  when  transferring to or from an MS Windows FAT
              filesystem (which represents times with a 2-second  resolution),
              --modify-window=1 is useful (allowing times to differ by up to 1

       -c, --checksum
              This changes the way rsync checks if the files have been changed
              and  are in need of a transfer.  Without this option, rsync uses
              a "quick check" that (by default) checks if each file's size and
              time of last modification match between the sender and receiver.
              This option changes this to compare a 128-bit checksum for  each
              file  that  has a matching size.  Generating the checksums means
              that both sides will expend a lot of disk I/O  reading  all  the
              correctly  reconstructed  on  the  receiving  side by checking a
              whole-file checksum that is generated  as  the  file  is  trans-
              ferred,  but  that automatic after-the-transfer verification has
              nothing to do with this option's before-the-transfer "Does  this
              file need to be updated?" check.

              For  protocol  30  and  beyond  (first  supported in 3.0.0), the
              checksum used is MD5.  For older protocols, the checksum used is

       -a, --archive
              This  is equivalent to -rlptgoD. It is a quick way of saying you
              want recursion and want to preserve almost everything  (with  -H
              being  a  notable  omission).   The  only exception to the above
              equivalence is when --files-from is specified, in which case  -r
              is not implied.

              Note that -a does not preserve hardlinks, because finding multi-
              ply-linked files is expensive.  You must separately specify -H.

              You may turn off one or more implied options  by  prefixing  the
              option  name with "no-".  Not all options may be prefixed with a
              "no-": only options that are  implied  by  other  options  (e.g.
              --no-D,  --no-perms)  or have different defaults in various cir-
              cumstances (e.g. --no-whole-file, --no-blocking-io,  --no-dirs).
              You  may  specify either the short or the long option name after
              the "no-" prefix (e.g. --no-R is the same as --no-relative).

              For example: if you want to use -a (--archive) but don't want -o
              (--owner),  instead  of  converting  -a  into -rlptgD, you could
              specify -a --no-o (or -a --no-owner).

              The order of the options is important:  if  you  specify  --no-r
              -a,  the -r option would end up being turned on, the opposite of
              -a --no-r.  Note also that the side-effects of the  --files-from
              option  are  NOT  positional, as it affects the default state of
              several options and slightly changes the meaning of -a (see  the
              --files-from option for more details).

       -r, --recursive
              This  tells  rsync  to  copy  directories recursively.  See also
              --dirs (-d).

              Beginning with rsync 3.0.0, the recursive algorithm used is  now
              an  incremental  scan that uses much less memory than before and
              begins the transfer after the scanning of the first few directo-
              ries  have  been  completed.  This incremental scan only affects
              our recursion algorithm, and does  not  change  a  non-recursive
              transfer.  It is also only possible when both ends of the trans-
              fer are at least version 3.0.0.

              Some options require rsync to know the full file list, so  these
              options  disable the incremental recursion mode.  These include:
              Use  relative  paths. This means that the full path names speci-
              fied on the command line are sent to the server rather than just
              the  last  parts  of  the filenames. This is particularly useful
              when you want to send several different directories at the  same
              time. For example, if you used this command:

                 rsync -av /foo/bar/baz.c remote:/tmp/

              ...  this would create a file named baz.c in /tmp/ on the remote
              machine. If instead you used

                 rsync -avR /foo/bar/baz.c remote:/tmp/

              then a file named /tmp/foo/bar/baz.c would  be  created  on  the
              remote machine, preserving its full path.  These extra path ele-
              ments are called "implied directories" (i.e. the "foo"  and  the
              "foo/bar" directories in the above example).

              Beginning  with  rsync  3.0.0,  rsync always sends these implied
              directories as real directories in the file list, even if a path
              element  is really a symlink on the sending side.  This prevents
              some really unexpected behaviors when copying the full path of a
              file  that you didn't realize had a symlink in its path.  If you
              want to duplicate a server-side symlink, include both  the  sym-
              link via its path, and referent directory via its real path.  If
              you're dealing with an older rsync on the sending side, you  may
              need to use the --no-implied-dirs option.

              It is also possible to limit the amount of path information that
              is sent as implied directories for each path you specify.   With
              a  modern  rsync on the sending side (beginning with 2.6.7), you
              can insert a dot and a slash into the source path, like this:

                 rsync -avR /foo/./bar/baz.c remote:/tmp/

              That would create /tmp/bar/baz.c on the remote  machine.   (Note
              that  the dot must be followed by a slash, so "/foo/." would not
              be abbreviated.)  For older rsync versions, you  would  need  to
              use a chdir to limit the source path.  For example, when pushing

                 (cd /foo; rsync -avR bar/baz.c remote:/tmp/)

              (Note that the parens put the two commands into a sub-shell,  so
              that  the  "cd" command doesn't remain in effect for future com-
              mands.)  If you're pulling files from an older rsync,  use  this
              idiom (but only for a non-daemon transfer):

                 rsync -avR --rsync-path="cd /foo; rsync" \
                     remote:bar/baz.c /tmp/

              For  instance,  if a command-line arg or a files-from entry told
              rsync to transfer  the  file  "path/foo/file",  the  directories
              "path"  and  "path/foo" are implied when --relative is used.  If
              "path/foo" is a symlink to "bar" on the destination system,  the
              receiving  rsync would ordinarily delete "path/foo", recreate it
              as a directory, and receive the file  into  the  new  directory.
              With    --no-implied-dirs,    the    receiving   rsync   updates
              "path/foo/file" using the existing path  elements,  which  means
              that  the file ends up being created in "path/bar".  Another way
              to  accomplish  this   link   preservation   is   to   use   the
              --keep-dirlinks  option  (which  will  also  affect  symlinks to
              directories in the rest of the transfer).

              When pulling files from an rsync older than 3.0.0, you may  need
              to use this option if the sending side has a symlink in the path
              you request and you wish the implied directories  to  be  trans-
              ferred as normal directories.

       -b, --backup
              With  this  option, preexisting destination files are renamed as
              each file is transferred or deleted.  You can control where  the
              backup  file  goes  and what (if any) suffix gets appended using
              the --backup-dir and --suffix options.

              Note  that  if  you  don't   specify   --backup-dir,   (1)   the
              --omit-dir-times  option will be implied, and (2) if --delete is
              also in effect (without --delete-excluded),  rsync  will  add  a
              "protect"  filter-rule  for  the backup suffix to the end of all
              your existing excludes (e.g. -f "P *~").  This will prevent pre-
              viously  backed-up  files  from being deleted.  Note that if you
              are supplying your own filter rules, you may  need  to  manually
              insert  your own exclude/protect rule somewhere higher up in the
              list so that it has a  high  enough  priority  to  be  effective
              (e.g.,  if  your rules specify a trailing inclusion/exclusion of
              '*', the auto-added rule would never be reached).

              In combination with the --backup option,  this  tells  rsync  to
              store  all  backups  in the specified directory on the receiving
              side.  This can be used for incremental backups.  You can  addi-
              tionally specify a backup suffix using the --suffix option (oth-
              erwise the files backed up in the specified directory will  keep
              their original filenames).

              Note  that  if you specify a relative path, the backup directory
              will be relative to the destination directory, so  you  probably
              want  to  specify  either an absolute path or a path that starts
              with "../".  If an rsync daemon is the receiver, the backup  dir
              cannot  go  outside  the  module's path hierarchy, so take extra
              care not to delete it or copy into it.

              This option allows you to override  the  default  backup  suffix
              sender and receiver is always considered to be important  enough
              for  an update, no matter what date is on the objects.  In other
              words, if the source has a directory where the destination has a
              file, the transfer would occur regardless of the timestamps.

              This  option  is  a transfer rule, not an exclude, so it doesn't
              affect the data that goes  into  the  file-lists,  and  thus  it
              doesn't  affect  deletions.   It  just limits the files that the
              receiver requests to be transferred.

              This option changes how rsync transfers a  file  when  its  data
              needs to be updated: instead of the default method of creating a
              new copy of the file and moving it into place when  it  is  com-
              plete,  rsync  instead  writes  the updated data directly to the
              destination file.

              This has several effects:

              o      Hard links are not broken.  This means the new data  will
                     be  visible  through  other hard links to the destination
                     file.  Moreover, attempts to copy differing source  files
                     onto  a multiply-linked destination file will result in a
                     "tug of war" with the destination data changing back  and

              o      In-use  binaries  cannot  be  updated (either the OS will
                     prevent this from happening, or binaries that attempt  to
                     swap-in their data will misbehave or crash).

              o      The  file's  data will be in an inconsistent state during
                     the transfer and will be left that way if the transfer is
                     interrupted or if an update fails.

              o      A  file  that  rsync  cannot  write to cannot be updated.
                     While a super user can update any  file,  a  normal  user
                     needs  to be granted write permission for the open of the
                     file for writing to be successful.

              o      The efficiency of rsync's delta-transfer algorithm may be
                     reduced if some data in the destination file is overwrit-
                     ten before it can be copied to a position  later  in  the
                     file.   This  does  not  apply if you use --backup, since
                     rsync is smart enough to use the backup file as the basis
                     file for the transfer.

              WARNING: you should not use this option to update files that are
              being accessed by others, so be careful  when  choosing  to  use
              this for a copy.

              This   option  is  useful  for  transferring  large  files  with
              block-based changes or appended data, and also on  systems  that
              are  disk  bound,  not  network  bound.  It can also help keep a
              file on the sending side.  If a file needs to be transferred and
              its size on the receiver is the same or longer than the size  on
              the  sender,  the file is skipped.  This does not interfere with
              the updating of a file's non-content  attributes  (e.g.  permis-
              sions, ownership, etc.) when the file does not need to be trans-
              ferred, nor does it  affect  the  updating  of  any  non-regular
              files.   Implies  --inplace, but does not conflict with --sparse
              (since it is always extending a file's length).

              This works just like the --append option, but the existing  data
              on the receiving side is included in the full-file checksum ver-
              ification step, which will cause a file  to  be  resent  if  the
              final  verification step fails (rsync uses a normal, non-append-
              ing --inplace transfer for the resend).

              Note: prior to rsync 3.0.0,  the  --append  option  worked  like
              --append-verify,  so  if you are interacting with an older rsync
              (or the transfer is using a protocol prior  to  30),  specifying
              either append option will initiate an --append-verify transfer.

       -d, --dirs
              Tell  the  sending  side  to  include  any  directories that are
              encountered.  Unlike --recursive, a directory's contents are not
              copied unless the directory name specified is "." or ends with a
              trailing slash (e.g. ".", "dir/.", "dir/", etc.).  Without  this
              option  or  the --recursive option, rsync will skip all directo-
              ries it encounters (and output a message to that effect for each
              one).   If  you specify both --dirs and --recursive, --recursive
              takes precedence.

              The --dirs option is implied by the --files-from option  or  the
              --list-only  option  (including an implied --list-only usage) if
              --recursive wasn't specified (so that directories  are  seen  in
              the listing).  Specify --no-dirs (or --no-d) if you want to turn
              this off.

              There is also a backward-compatibility helper option, --old-dirs
              (or   --old-d)   that   tells   rsync  to  use  a  hack  of  "-r
              --exclude='/*/*'" to get an older rsync to list a single  direc-
              tory without recursing.

       -l, --links
              When  symlinks are encountered, recreate the symlink on the des-

       -L, --copy-links
              When symlinks are encountered, the item that they point to  (the
              referent) is copied, rather than the symlink.  In older versions
              of rsync, this option also had the side-effect  of  telling  the
              receiving  side to follow symlinks, such as symlinks to directo-
              ries.  In a modern rsync such as this one, you'll need to  spec-
              ify  --keep-dirlinks  (-K) to get this extra behavior.  The only
              exception is when sending files to an rsync that is too  old  to
              side  the  copied  tree. All absolute symlinks are also ignored.
              Using this option in conjunction with --relative may give  unex-
              pected results.

              This  option  tells  rsync  to  (1)  modify  all symlinks on the
              receiving side in a way that makes them unusable but recoverable
              (see below), or (2) to unmunge symlinks on the sending side that
              had been stored in a munged state.  This is useful if you  don't
              quite  trust the source of the data to not try to slip in a sym-
              link to a unexpected place.

              The way rsync disables the use of symlinks is to prefix each one
              with the string "/rsyncd-munged/".  This prevents the links from
              being used as long as that directory does not exist.  When  this
              option  is  enabled,  rsync will refuse to run if that path is a
              directory or a symlink to a directory.

              The option only affects the client side of the transfer,  so  if
              you   need   it   to   affect   the   server,   specify  it  via
              --remote-option.  (Note that in a  local  transfer,  the  client
              side is the sender.)

              This  option has no affect on a daemon, since the daemon config-
              ures whether it wants munged symlinks via its  "munge  symlinks"
              parameter.   See  also  the  "munge-symlinks" perl script in the
              support directory of the source code.

       -k, --copy-dirlinks
              This option causes the sending side to  treat  a  symlink  to  a
              directory as though it were a real directory.  This is useful if
              you don't want symlinks to non-directories to  be  affected,  as
              they would be using --copy-links.

              Without  this  option, if the sending side has replaced a direc-
              tory with a symlink to a  directory,  the  receiving  side  will
              delete anything that is in the way of the new symlink, including
              a directory hierarchy (as long as  --force  or  --delete  is  in

              See also --keep-dirlinks for an analogous option for the receiv-
              ing side.

              --copy-dirlinks applies to all symlinks to  directories  in  the
              source.   If you want to follow only a few specified symlinks, a
              trick you can use is to pass them as additional source args with
              a  trailing  slash,  using --relative to make the paths match up
              right.  For example:

              rsync -r --relative src/./ src/./follow-me/ dest/

              This works because rsync calls lstat(2) on  the  source  arg  as
              given, and the trailing slash makes lstat(2) follow the symlink,
              on  the receiver.  Without --keep-dirlinks, the receiver deletes
              symlink "foo", recreates it as a  directory,  and  receives  the
              file into the new directory.  With --keep-dirlinks, the receiver
              keeps the symlink and "file" ends up in "bar".

              One note of caution:  if you use --keep-dirlinks, you must trust
              all  the  symlinks  in  the  copy!   If  it  is  possible for an
              untrusted user to create their own symlink to any directory, the
              user  could then (on a subsequent copy) replace the symlink with
              a real directory and affect the content  of  whatever  directory
              the  symlink  references.  For backup copies, you are better off
              using something like a bind mount instead of a symlink to modify
              your receiving hierarchy.

              See also --copy-dirlinks for an analogous option for the sending

       -H, --hard-links
              This tells rsync to look for hard-linked files in the source and
              link together the corresponding files on the destination.  With-
              out this option, hard-linked files in the source are treated  as
              though they were separate files.

              This option does NOT necessarily ensure that the pattern of hard
              links on the destination exactly matches  that  on  the  source.
              Cases  in which the destination may end up with extra hard links
              include the following:

              o      If the destination contains extraneous  hard-links  (more
                     linking  than  what  is present in the source file list),
                     the copying algorithm will  not  break  them  explicitly.
                     However, if one or more of the paths have content differ-
                     ences, the normal file-update process  will  break  those
                     extra links (unless you are using the --inplace option).

              o      If you specify a --link-dest directory that contains hard
                     links, the linking of the destination files  against  the
                     --link-dest files can cause some paths in the destination
                     to become linked together due to the --link-dest associa-

              Note  that  rsync  can only detect hard links between files that
              are inside the transfer set.  If rsync updates a file  that  has
              extra  hard-link connections to files outside the transfer, that
              linkage will be broken.  If you are tempted to use the --inplace
              option to avoid this breakage, be very careful that you know how
              your files are being updated so that you  are  certain  that  no
              unintended  changes  happen due to lingering hard links (and see
              the --inplace option for more caveats).

              If incremental recursion is active (see --recursive), rsync  may
              transfer a missing hard-linked file before it finds that another
              link for that contents exists elsewhere in the hierarchy.   This
              be the source permissions.)

              When this option is off, permissions are set as follows:

              o      Existing files (including  updated  files)  retain  their
                     existing  permissions,  though the --executability option
                     might change just the execute permission for the file.

              o      New files get their "normal" permission bits set  to  the
                     source  file's  permissions  masked  with  the  receiving
                     directory's default  permissions  (either  the  receiving
                     process's  umask,  or  the  permissions specified via the
                     destination directory's default ACL), and  their  special
                     permission  bits  disabled except in the case where a new
                     directory inherits a setgid bit from  its  parent  direc-

              Thus,  when  --perms  and  --executability  are  both  disabled,
              rsync's behavior is the same as that of other  file-copy  utili-
              ties, such as cp(1) and tar(1).

              In  summary:  to  give  destination files (both old and new) the
              source permissions, use --perms.  To give new files the destina-
              tion-default   permissions   (while   leaving   existing   files
              unchanged), make sure that the --perms option  is  off  and  use
              --chmod=ugo=rwX  (which  ensures  that  all  non-masked bits get
              enabled).  If you'd care to make this latter behavior easier  to
              type, you could define a popt alias for it, such as putting this
              line in the file ~/.popt (the following defines the  -Z  option,
              and  includes --no-g to use the default group of the destination

                 rsync alias -Z --no-p --no-g --chmod=ugo=rwX

              You could then use this new option in a  command  such  as  this

                 rsync -avZ src/ dest/

              (Caveat:  make  sure  that  -a  does  not  follow -Z, or it will
              re-enable the two "--no-*" options mentioned above.)

              The preservation of the destination's setgid bit  on  newly-cre-
              ated  directories  when --perms is off was added in rsync 2.6.7.
              Older rsync versions erroneously  preserved  the  three  special
              permission  bits  for  newly-created files when --perms was off,
              while overriding the  destination's  setgid  bit  setting  on  a
              newly-created  directory.   Default  ACL observance was added to
              the ACL patch for rsync 2.6.7,  so  older  (or  non-ACL-enabled)
              rsyncs use the umask even if default ACLs are present.  (Keep in
              mind that it is the version of the receiving rsync that  affects
                     'x' permissions.

              o      To make a file executable, rsync turns on each  'x'  per-
                     mission that has a corresponding 'r' permission enabled.

              If --perms is enabled, this option is ignored.

       -A, --acls
              This  option  causes  rsync to update the destination ACLs to be
              the same as the source ACLs.  The option also implies --perms.

              The source and destination  systems  must  have  compatible  ACL
              entries  for this option to work properly.  See the --fake-super
              option for a way to backup and restore ACLs that are not compat-

       -X, --xattrs
              This  option  causes  rsync  to  update the destination extended
              attributes to be the same as the source ones.

              For systems that support extended-attribute namespaces,  a  copy
              being  done  by  a  super-user copies all namespaces except sys-
              tem.*.  A normal user only copies the user.* namespace.   To  be
              able to backup and restore non-user namespaces as a normal user,
              see the --fake-super option.

              Note that this option does not copy rsyncs special xattr  values
              (e.g.  those  used by --fake-super) unless you repeat the option
              (e.g. -XX).  This "copy all xattrs" mode  cannot  be  used  with

              This  option  tells  rsync  to apply one or more comma-separated
              "chmod" modes to the permission of the files  in  the  transfer.
              The resulting value is treated as though it were the permissions
              that the sending side supplied for the file,  which  means  that
              this  option  can  seem  to  have no effect on existing files if
              --perms is not enabled.

              In addition  to  the  normal  parsing  rules  specified  in  the
              chmod(1) manpage, you can specify an item that should only apply
              to a directory by prefixing it with a 'D', or  specify  an  item
              that  should  only  apply  to a file by prefixing it with a 'F'.
              For example, the following will ensure that all directories  get
              marked  set-gid, that no files are other-writable, that both are
              user-writable and group-writable, and that both have  consistent
              executability across all bits:


              Using octal mode numbers is also allowed:

              This  option  causes  rsync  to set the owner of the destination
              file to be the same as the source file, but only if the  receiv-
              ing  rsync  is being run as the super-user (see also the --super
              and --fake-super options).  Without this option,  the  owner  of
              new and/or transferred files are set to the invoking user on the
              receiving side.

              The preservation of ownership will associate matching  names  by
              default,  but  may fall back to using the ID number in some cir-
              cumstances (see also the --numeric-ids option for a full discus-

       -g, --group
              This  option  causes  rsync  to set the group of the destination
              file to be the same as the source file.  If the  receiving  pro-
              gram  is  not  running  as  the super-user (or if --no-super was
              specified), only groups that the invoking user on the  receiving
              side is a member of will be preserved.  Without this option, the
              group is set to the default group of the invoking  user  on  the
              receiving side.

              The  preservation  of  group information will associate matching
              names by default, but may fall back to using the  ID  number  in
              some circumstances (see also the --numeric-ids option for a full

              This option causes rsync to transfer character and block  device
              files  to  the  remote  system  to recreate these devices.  This
              option has no effect if the receiving rsync is not  run  as  the
              super-user (see also the --super and --fake-super options).

              This option causes rsync to transfer special files such as named
              sockets and fifos.

       -D     The -D option is equivalent to --devices --specials.

       -t, --times
              This tells rsync to transfer modification times along  with  the
              files  and  update them on the remote system.  Note that if this
              option is not used, the optimization that  excludes  files  that
              have  not  been  modified cannot be effective; in other words, a
              missing -t or -a will cause the next transfer to behave as if it
              used  -I,  causing  all  files  to  be  updated  (though rsync's
              delta-transfer algorithm will make the update  fairly  efficient
              if  the  files  haven't actually changed, you're much better off
              using -t).

       -O, --omit-dir-times
              This tells rsync to omit directories when it is preserving modi-
              fication times (see --times).  If NFS is sharing the directories
              on the receiving side, it is a good idea to use -O.  This option
              is inferred if you use --backup without --backup-dir.
              without being the super-user, and also  for  ensuring  that  you
              will  get  errors  if  the receiving side isn't being run as the
              super-user.  To turn off super-user activities,  the  super-user
              can use --no-super.

              When  this option is enabled, rsync simulates super-user activi-
              ties by saving/restoring the privileged attributes  via  special
              extended  attributes that are attached to each file (as needed).
              This includes the file's owner and  group  (if  it  is  not  the
              default),  the  file's  device  info (device & special files are
              created as empty text files), and any permission  bits  that  we
              won't allow to be set on the real file (e.g.  the real file gets
              u-s,g-s,o-t for safety) or that would limit the  owner's  access
              (since  the real super-user can always access/change a file, the
              files we create can always be accessed/changed by  the  creating
              user).   This option also handles ACLs (if --acls was specified)
              and non-user extended attributes (if --xattrs was specified).

              This is a good way to backup data without  using  a  super-user,
              and to store ACLs from incompatible systems.

              The  --fake-super  option only affects the side where the option
              is used.  To affect the remote side of  a  remote-shell  connec-
              tion, use the --remote-option (-M) option:

                rsync -av -M--fake-super /src/ host:/dest/

              For  a  local  copy, this option affects both the source and the
              destination.  If you wish a local copy  to  enable  this  option
              just  for the destination files, specify -M--fake-super.  If you
              wish a local copy to enable this  option  just  for  the  source
              files, combine --fake-super with -M--super.

              This option is overridden by both --super and --no-super.

              See  also  the  "fake super" setting in the daemon's rsyncd.conf

       -S, --sparse
              Try to handle sparse files efficiently  so  they  take  up  less
              space on the destination.  Conflicts with --inplace because it's
              not possible to overwrite data in a sparse fashion.

              This tells the receiver to allocate each destination file to its
              eventual  size before writing data to the file.  Rsync will only
              use the real filesystem-level preallocation support provided  by
              Linux's fallocate(2) system call or Cygwin's posix_fallocate(3),
              not the slow glibc implementation that writes a zero  byte  into
              each block.

              Without this option, larger files may not be entirely contiguous
              The  output  of  --itemize-changes is supposed to be exactly the
              same on a dry run and a subsequent real run (barring intentional
              trickery  and  system call failures); if it isn't, that's a bug.
              Other output should be mostly unchanged, but may differ in  some
              areas.   Notably,  a  dry  run does not send the actual data for
              file transfers, so --progress has no effect, the  "bytes  sent",
              "bytes  received", "literal data", and "matched data" statistics
              are too small, and the "speedup" value is equivalent  to  a  run
              where no file transfers were needed.

       -W, --whole-file
              With  this  option  rsync's delta-transfer algorithm is not used
              and the whole file is sent as-is instead.  The transfer  may  be
              faster  if  this  option  is used when the bandwidth between the
              source and destination machines is higher than the bandwidth  to
              disk  (especially  when  the  "disk"  is  actually  a  networked
              filesystem).  This is the default when both the source and  des-
              tination   are   specified  as  local  paths,  but  only  if  no
              batch-writing option is in effect.

       -x, --one-file-system
              This tells rsync to avoid crossing a  filesystem  boundary  when
              recursing.   This  does  not limit the user's ability to specify
              items to copy from multiple filesystems, just rsync's  recursion
              through the hierarchy of each directory that the user specified,
              and also the analogous recursion on the  receiving  side  during
              deletion.  Also keep in mind that rsync treats a "bind" mount to
              the same device as being on the same filesystem.

              If this option is repeated, rsync omits all mount-point directo-
              ries  from  the copy.  Otherwise, it includes an empty directory
              at each mount-point it encounters (using the attributes  of  the
              mounted  directory  because  those of the underlying mount-point
              directory are inaccessible).

              If rsync has been told to collapse symlinks (via --copy-links or
              --copy-unsafe-links), a symlink to a directory on another device
              is treated like a mount-point.  Symlinks to non-directories  are
              unaffected by this option.

       --existing, --ignore-non-existing
              This  tells rsync to skip creating files (including directories)
              that do not exist yet on the destination.   If  this  option  is
              combined  with  the  --ignore-existing  option, no files will be
              updated (which can be useful if all you want  to  do  is  delete
              extraneous files).

              This  option  is  a transfer rule, not an exclude, so it doesn't
              affect the data that goes  into  the  file-lists,  and  thus  it
              doesn't  affect  deletions.   It  just limits the files that the
              receiver requests to be transferred.

              This tells rsync to skip updating files that  already  exist  on
              existing  will  ensure  that the already-handled files don't get
              tweaked (which avoids a change in permissions on the hard-linked
              files).   This does mean that this option is only looking at the
              existing files in the destination hierarchy itself.

              This tells rsync to remove  from  the  sending  side  the  files
              (meaning  non-directories)  that  are a part of the transfer and
              have been successfully duplicated on the receiving side.

              Note that you should only use this option on source  files  that
              are quiescent.  If you are using this to move files that show up
              in a particular directory over to another host, make  sure  that
              the  finished  files  get renamed into the source directory, not
              directly written into it, so that rsync can't possibly  transfer
              a  file that is not yet fully written.  If you can't first write
              the files into a different directory, you should  use  a  naming
              idiom  that lets rsync avoid transferring files that are not yet
              finished (e.g. name the  file  ""  when  it  is  written,
              rename  it  to  "foo"  when  it is done, and then use the option
              --exclude='*.new' for the rsync transfer).

              Starting with 3.1.0, rsync will  skip  the  sender-side  removal
              (and  output an error) if the file's size or modify time has not
              stayed unchanged.

              This tells rsync to delete extraneous files from  the  receiving
              side  (ones  that  aren't on the sending side), but only for the
              directories that are being synchronized.  You  must  have  asked
              rsync to send the whole directory (e.g. "dir" or "dir/") without
              using a wildcard for the  directory's  contents  (e.g.  "dir/*")
              since  the wildcard is expanded by the shell and rsync thus gets
              a request to transfer individual files, not  the  files'  parent
              directory.   Files  that are excluded from the transfer are also
              excluded from being deleted unless you use the --delete-excluded
              option  or  mark  the rules as only matching on the sending side
              (see the include/exclude modifiers in the FILTER RULES section).

              Prior to rsync 2.6.7, this option would have  no  effect  unless
              --recursive  was  enabled.  Beginning with 2.6.7, deletions will
              also occur when --dirs (-d) is enabled, but only for directories
              whose contents are being copied.

              This  option can be dangerous if used incorrectly!  It is a very
              good idea to first try a run using the --dry-run option (-n)  to
              see what files are going to be deleted.

              If the sending side detects any I/O errors, then the deletion of
              any files at the destination  will  be  automatically  disabled.
              This  is  to  prevent temporary filesystem failures (such as NFS
              errors) on the sending side from causing a massive  deletion  of
              files  on  the  destination.   You  can  override  this with the
              --ignore-errors option.
              more details on file-deletion.

              Deleting before the transfer is helpful  if  the  filesystem  is
              tight for space and removing extraneous files would help to make
              the transfer possible.   However,  it  does  introduce  a  delay
              before the start of the transfer, and this delay might cause the
              transfer to timeout  (if  --timeout  was  specified).   It  also
              forces rsync to use the old, non-incremental recursion algorithm
              that requires rsync to scan all the files in the  transfer  into
              memory at once (see --recursive).

       --delete-during, --del
              Request  that  the  file-deletions on the receiving side be done
              incrementally as the transfer happens.  The per-directory delete
              scan is done right before each directory is checked for updates,
              so it behaves like a more efficient  --delete-before,  including
              doing  the  deletions  prior  to  any per-directory filter files
              being updated.  This option was first  added  in  rsync  version
              2.6.4.   See  --delete  (which  is  implied) for more details on

              Request that the file-deletions on the receiving  side  be  com-
              puted  during  the  transfer  (like  --delete-during),  and then
              removed after the transfer completes.  This is useful when  com-
              bined with --delay-updates and/or --fuzzy, and is more efficient
              than using --delete-after (but  can  behave  differently,  since
              --delete-after  computes  the deletions in a separate pass after
              all updates are done).  If the number of removed files overflows
              an  internal  buffer,  a  temporary  file will be created on the
              receiving side to hold the names (it is removed while  open,  so
              you  shouldn't  see it during the transfer).  If the creation of
              the temporary file fails, rsync will try to fall back  to  using
              --delete-after  (which  it  cannot do if --recursive is doing an
              incremental scan).  See --delete (which  is  implied)  for  more
              details on file-deletion.

              Request  that  the  file-deletions on the receiving side be done
              after the transfer has completed.  This is  useful  if  you  are
              sending  new per-directory merge files as a part of the transfer
              and you want their exclusions to  take  effect  for  the  delete
              phase  of the current transfer.  It also forces rsync to use the
              old, non-incremental recursion algorithm that requires rsync  to
              scan  all  the  files  in  the transfer into memory at once (see
              --recursive).  See --delete (which is implied) for more  details
              on file-deletion.

              In addition to deleting the files on the receiving side that are
              not on the sending side, this tells rsync  to  also  delete  any
              files  on  the receiving side that are excluded (see --exclude).
              See the FILTER RULES section for a way to make individual exclu-
              sions  behave this way on the receiver, and for a way to protect
              This option takes the behavior of (the  implied)  --ignore-miss-
              ing-args  option a step farther:  each missing arg will become a
              deletion request of the corresponding destination  file  on  the
              receiving  side (should it exist).  If the destination file is a
              non-empty directory, it will only  be  successfully  deleted  if
              --force or --delete are in effect.  Other than that, this option
              is independent of any other type of delete processing.

              The missing source files are represented  by  special  file-list
              entries  which  display as a "*missing" entry in the --list-only

              Tells --delete to go ahead and delete files even when there  are
              I/O errors.

              This  option tells rsync to delete a non-empty directory when it
              is to be replaced by a non-directory.  This is only relevant  if
              deletions are not active (see --delete for details).

              Note for older rsync versions: --force used to still be required
              when using --delete-after, and  it  used  to  be  non-functional
              unless the --recursive option was also enabled.

              This  tells  rsync not to delete more than NUM files or directo-
              ries.  If that limit is  exceeded,  all  further  deletions  are
              skipped through the end of the transfer.  At the end, rsync out-
              puts a warning (including a count of the skipped deletions)  and
              exits with an error code of 25 (unless some more important error
              condition also occurred).

              Beginning with version 3.0.0, you may specify --max-delete=0  to
              be  warned about any extraneous files in the destination without
              removing any of them.  Older clients interpreted this as "unlim-
              ited",  so if you don't know what version the client is, you can
              use the less obvious --max-delete=-1  as  a  backward-compatible
              way  to  specify that no deletions be allowed (though really old
              versions didn't warn when the limit was exceeded).

              This tells rsync to avoid transferring any file that  is  larger
              than  the  specified SIZE. The SIZE value can be suffixed with a
              string to indicate a size multiplier, and may  be  a  fractional
              value (e.g. "--max-size=1.5m").

              This  option  is  a transfer rule, not an exclude, so it doesn't
              affect the data that goes  into  the  file-lists,  and  thus  it
              doesn't  affect  deletions.   It  just limits the files that the
              receiver requests to be transferred.

              The suffixes are as  follows:  "K"  (or  "KiB")  is  a  kibibyte
              (1024),  "M"  (or  "MiB") is a mebibyte (1024*1024), and "G" (or

              This tells rsync to avoid transferring any file that is  smaller
              than  the  specified  SIZE,  which  can help in not transferring
              small, junk files.  See the --max-size option for a  description
              of SIZE and other information.

              Note   that   rsync  versions  prior  to  3.1.0  did  not  allow

       -B, --block-size=BLOCKSIZE
              This forces the block size used in rsync's delta-transfer  algo-
              rithm  to  a  fixed value.  It is normally selected based on the
              size of each file being updated.  See the technical  report  for

       -e, --rsh=COMMAND
              This  option  allows  you  to choose an alternative remote shell
              program to use for communication between the  local  and  remote
              copies  of  rsync.  Typically, rsync is configured to use ssh by
              default, but you may prefer to use rsh on a local network.

              If this option is used with [user@]host::module/path,  then  the
              remote  shell COMMAND will be used to run an rsync daemon on the
              remote host, and all  data  will  be  transmitted  through  that
              remote  shell  connection,  rather  than through a direct socket
              connection to a running rsync daemon on the  remote  host.   See
              NECTION" above.

              Command-line arguments are permitted in  COMMAND  provided  that
              COMMAND  is  presented  to rsync as a single argument.  You must
              use spaces (not tabs or other whitespace) to separate  the  com-
              mand  and  args  from each other, and you can use single- and/or
              double-quotes to preserve spaces in an argument (but  not  back-
              slashes).   Note  that  doubling  a  single-quote  inside a sin-
              gle-quoted string gives you a single-quote;  likewise  for  dou-
              ble-quotes  (though  you  need  to pay attention to which quotes
              your shell is parsing and which quotes rsync is parsing).   Some

                  -e 'ssh -p 2234'
                  -e 'ssh -o "ProxyCommand nohup ssh firewall nc -w1 %h %p"'

              (Note  that  ssh  users  can alternately customize site-specific
              connect options in their .ssh/config file.)

              You can also choose the remote shell program using the RSYNC_RSH
              environment  variable, which accepts the same range of values as

              See also the --blocking-io option  which  is  affected  by  this


                  rsync -avR --rsync-path="cd /a/b && rsync" host:c/d /e/

       -M, --remote-option=OPTION
              This option is used for more advanced situations where you  want
              certain  effects to be limited to one side of the transfer only.
              For  instance,  if  you  want  to   pass   --log-file=FILE   and
              --fake-super to the remote system, specify it like this:

                  rsync -av -M --log-file=foo -M--fake-super src/ dest/

              If  you  want  to have an option affect only the local side of a
              transfer when it normally affects both sides, send its  negation
              to the remote side.  Like this:

                  rsync -av -x -M--no-x src/ dest/

              Be  cautious  using  this, as it is possible to toggle an option
              that will cause rsync to have a different idea about  what  data
              to  expect next over the socket, and that will make it fail in a
              cryptic fashion.

              Note that it is best to use a separate --remote-option for  each
              option you want to pass.  This makes your useage compatible with
              the --protect-args option.  If that option is off, any spaces in
              your remote options will be split by the remote shell unless you
              take steps to protect them.

              When performing a local transfer, the "local" side is the sender
              and the "remote" side is the receiver.

              Note some versions of the popt option-parsing library have a bug
              in them that prevents you from using an  adjacent  arg  with  an
              equal   in   it   next   to   a   short   option   letter  (e.g.
              -M--log-file=/tmp/foo.  If this  bug  affects  your  version  of
              popt,  you  can  use  the  version of popt that is included with

       -C, --cvs-exclude
              This is a useful shorthand for excluding a broad range of  files
              that you often don't want to transfer between systems. It uses a
              similar algorithm to CVS  to  determine  if  a  file  should  be

              The  exclude  list is initialized to exclude the following items
              (these initial items are marked as perishable -- see the  FILTER
              RULES section):

                     RCS   SCCS   CVS   CVS.adm   RCSLOG  cvslog.*  tags  TAGS
                     .make.state .nse_depinfo *~ #* .#* ,* _$* *$ *.old  *.bak

              If  you're combining -C with your own --filter rules, you should
              note that these CVS excludes are appended at the end of your own
              rules,  regardless  of  where  the  -C  was  placed  on the com-
              mand-line.  This makes them a lower priority than any rules  you
              specified  explicitly.   If  you want to control where these CVS
              excludes get inserted into your filter rules,  you  should  omit
              the  -C as a command-line option and use a combination of --fil-
              ter=:C and  --filter=-C  (either  on  your  command-line  or  by
              putting  the  ":C"  and  "-C" rules into a filter file with your
              other rules).  The first option turns on the per-directory scan-
              ning for the .cvsignore file.  The second option does a one-time
              import of the CVS excludes mentioned above.

       -f, --filter=RULE
              This option allows you to add rules to selectively exclude  cer-
              tain  files  from  the  list of files to be transferred. This is
              most useful in combination with a recursive transfer.

              You may use as many --filter options on the command line as  you
              like  to  build  up the list of files to exclude.  If the filter
              contains whitespace, be sure to quote it so that the shell gives
              the  rule  to  rsync  as a single argument.  The text below also
              mentions that you can use an underscore  to  replace  the  space
              that separates a rule from its arg.

              See  the  FILTER  RULES section for detailed information on this

       -F     The -F option is a shorthand for adding two  --filter  rules  to
              your command.  The first time it is used is a shorthand for this

                 --filter='dir-merge /.rsync-filter'

              This tells rsync to look for per-directory  .rsync-filter  files
              that  have  been  sprinkled  through the hierarchy and use their
              rules to filter the files in the transfer.  If -F  is  repeated,
              it is a shorthand for this rule:

                 --filter='exclude .rsync-filter'

              This  filters  out  the  .rsync-filter files themselves from the

              See the FILTER RULES section for  detailed  information  on  how
              these options work.

              This  option  is  a  simplified form of the --filter option that
              defaults to  an  exclude  rule  and  does  not  allow  the  full
              rule-parsing syntax of normal filter rules.
              This option is a simplified form of  the  --filter  option  that
              defaults  to  an  include  rule  and  does  not  allow  the full
              rule-parsing syntax of normal filter rules.

              See the FILTER RULES section for detailed  information  on  this

              This option is related to the --include option, but it specifies
              a FILE that contains include patterns  (one  per  line).   Blank
              lines  in  the  file  and  lines  starting  with  ';' or '#' are
              ignored.  If FILE is -, the list  will  be  read  from  standard

              Using  this option allows you to specify the exact list of files
              to transfer (as read from the specified FILE or -  for  standard
              input).   It  also  tweaks the default behavior of rsync to make
              transferring just the specified files and directories easier:

              o      The --relative (-R) option is  implied,  which  preserves
                     the  path  information that is specified for each item in
                     the file (use --no-relative or --no-R if you want to turn
                     that off).

              o      The  --dirs  (-d)  option  is  implied, which will create
                     directories specified in  the  list  on  the  destination
                     rather  than  noisily  skipping  them  (use  --no-dirs or
                     --no-d if you want to turn that off).

              o      The --archive  (-a)  option's  behavior  does  not  imply
                     --recursive  (-r),  so specify it explicitly, if you want

              o      These side-effects change the default state of rsync,  so
                     the  position  of  the  --files-from  option  on the com-
                     mand-line has no bearing on how other options are  parsed
                     (e.g.  -a works the same before or after --files-from, as
                     does --no-R and all other options).

              The filenames that are read from the FILE are  all  relative  to
              the  source  dir  -- any leading slashes are removed and no ".."
              references are allowed to go higher than the  source  dir.   For
              example, take this command:

                 rsync -a --files-from=/tmp/foo /usr remote:/backup

              If  /tmp/foo  contains  the  string  "bin" (or even "/bin"), the
              /usr/bin directory will be created as /backup/bin on the  remote
              host.   If  it  contains  "bin/"  (note the trailing slash), the
              immediate contents of the directory would also be sent  (without
              needing  to be explicitly mentioned in the file -- this began in
              remote end of the transfer".  For example:

                 rsync -a --files-from=:/path/file-list src:/ /tmp/copy

              This would copy all the files specified in  the  /path/file-list
              file that was located on the remote "src" host.

              If  the --iconv and --protect-args options are specified and the
              --files-from filenames are being sent from one host to  another,
              the filenames will be translated from the sending host's charset
              to the receiving host's charset.

              NOTE: sorting the list of files in the --files-from input  helps
              rsync  to  be  more  efficient, as it will avoid re-visiting the
              path elements that are shared between adjacent entries.  If  the
              input  is  not  sorted, some path elements (implied directories)
              may end up being scanned multiple times, and rsync will  eventu-
              ally  unduplicate them after they get turned into file-list ele-

       -0, --from0
              This tells rsync that the rules/filenames it reads from  a  file
              are  terminated  by  a  null  ('\0') character, not a NL, CR, or
              CR+LF.     This    affects    --exclude-from,    --include-from,
              --files-from, and any merged files specified in a --filter rule.
              It does not affect --cvs-exclude (since all names  read  from  a
              .cvsignore file are split on whitespace).

       -s, --protect-args
              This  option  sends all filenames and most options to the remote
              rsync without allowing the remote shell to interpret them.  This
              means  that  spaces are not split in names, and any non-wildcard
              special characters are not translated  (such  as  ~,  $,  ;,  &,
              etc.).   Wildcards  are  expanded  on  the  remote host by rsync
              (instead of the shell doing it).

              If you use this option with --iconv, the  args  related  to  the
              remote side will also be translated from the local to the remote
              character-set.  The translation happens  before  wild-cards  are
              expanded.  See also the --files-from option.

              You  may  also  control  this  option via the RSYNC_PROTECT_ARGS
              environment variable.  If this variable has  a  non-zero  value,
              this  option  will  be  enabled by default, otherwise it will be
              disabled by default.  Either state is overridden by  a  manually
              specified positive or negative version of this option (note that
              --no-s and --no-protect-args are the negative versions).   Since
              this  option  was first introduced in 3.0.0, you'll need to make
              sure it's disabled if you ever need to interact  with  a  remote
              rsync that is older than that.

              Rsync can also be configured (at build time) to have this option
              enabled by default (with is overridden by both  the  environment
              file in the transfer.  In  this  case  (i.e.  when  the  scratch
              directory  is  on a different disk partition), rsync will not be
              able to rename each received temporary file over the top of  the
              associated  destination  file,  but  instead  must  copy it into
              place.  Rsync does this by copying the file over the top of  the
              destination  file,  which  means  that the destination file will
              contain truncated data during this copy.  If this were not  done
              this  way  (even if the destination file were first removed, the
              data locally copied to  a  temporary  file  in  the  destination
              directory, and then renamed into place) it would be possible for
              the old file to continue taking up disk space (if someone had it
              open),  and  thus  there might not be enough room to fit the new
              version on the disk at the same time.

              If you are using this option for reasons other than  a  shortage
              of   disk   space,   you   may  wish  to  combine  it  with  the
              --delay-updates option, which will ensure that all copied  files
              get put into subdirectories in the destination hierarchy, await-
              ing the end of the transfer.  If you don't have enough  room  to
              duplicate  all  the arriving files on the destination partition,
              another way to tell rsync that you aren't overly concerned about
              disk  space  is  to use the --partial-dir option with a relative
              path; because this tells rsync that it is OK to stash off a copy
              of a single file in a subdir in the destination hierarchy, rsync
              will use the partial-dir as a staging area  to  bring  over  the
              copied file, and then rename it into place from there. (Specify-
              ing a --partial-dir with an absolute path  does  not  have  this

       -y, --fuzzy
              This option tells rsync that it should look for a basis file for
              any destination file that is  missing.   The  current  algorithm
              looks in the same directory as the destination file for either a
              file that has an identical size and modified-time,  or  a  simi-
              larly-named  file.  If found, rsync uses the fuzzy basis file to
              try to speed up the transfer.

              If the option is repeated, the fuzzy scan will also be  done  in
              any  matching  alternate destination directories that are speci-
              fied via --compare-dest, --copy-dest, or --link-dest.

              Note that the use of the --delete option might get  rid  of  any
              potential  fuzzy-match  files,  so  either use --delete-after or
              specify some filename exclusions if you need to prevent this.

              This option instructs  rsync  to  use  DIR  on  the  destination
              machine  as an additional hierarchy to compare destination files
              against doing transfers (if the files are missing in the  desti-
              nation  directory).  If a file is found in DIR that is identical
              to the sender's file, the file will NOT be  transferred  to  the
              destination  directory.   This  is  useful for creating a sparse
              backup of just files that have changed from an  earlier  backup.
              This  option  is  typically used to copy into an empty (or newly

              NOTE:  beginning  with  version  3.1.0, rsync will remove a file
              from a non-empty destination hierarchy  if  an  exact  match  is
              found  in  one  of  the compare-dest hierarchies (making the end
              result more closely match a fresh copy).

              This option behaves like --compare-dest,  but  rsync  will  also
              copy  unchanged  files found in DIR to the destination directory
              using a local copy.  This is useful for doing transfers to a new
              destination  while leaving existing files intact, and then doing
              a flash-cutover when all files  have  been  successfully  trans-

              Multiple  --copy-dest  directories  may  be provided, which will
              cause rsync to search the list in the  order  specified  for  an
              unchanged  file.  If a match is not found, a basis file from one
              of the DIRs will be selected to try to speed up the transfer.

              If DIR is a relative path, it is  relative  to  the  destination
              directory.  See also --compare-dest and --link-dest.

              This  option  behaves  like --copy-dest, but unchanged files are
              hard linked from DIR to the destination  directory.   The  files
              must be identical in all preserved attributes (e.g. permissions,
              possibly  ownership)  in  order  for  the  files  to  be  linked
              together.  An example:

                rsync -av --link-dest=$PWD/prior_dir host:src_dir/ new_dir/

              If  file's  aren't linking, double-check their attributes.  Also
              check if some attributes are getting forced outside  of  rsync's
              control,  such  a  mount  option  that squishes root to a single
              user, or mounts a removable drive with generic  ownership  (such
              as OS X's "Ignore ownership on this volume" option).

              Beginning in version 2.6.4, multiple --link-dest directories may
              be provided, which will cause rsync to search the  list  in  the
              order  specified  for  an exact match.  If a match is found that
              differs only in  attributes,  a  local  copy  is  made  and  the
              attributes  updated.  If a match is not found, a basis file from
              one of the DIRs will be selected to try to speed up  the  trans-

              This  option  works  best when copying into an empty destination
              hierarchy, as existing files may get their  attributes  tweaked,
              and  that can affect alternate destination files via hard-links.
              Also, itemizing of changes can get a  bit  muddled.   Note  that
              prior to version 3.1.0, an alternate-directory exact match would
              never be found (nor linked into the destination) when a destina-
              tion file already exists.

       -z, --compress
              With this option, rsync compresses the file data as it  is  sent
              to  the  destination  machine,  which reduces the amount of data
              being transmitted -- something that is useful over a  slow  con-

              Note  that  this  option  typically  achieves better compression
              ratios than can be achieved by using a compressing remote  shell
              or  a  compressing  transport  because it takes advantage of the
              implicit information in the matching data blocks  that  are  not
              explicitly sent over the connection.

              See the --skip-compress option for the default list of file suf-
              fixes that will not be compressed.

              Explicitly set the compression level  to  use  (see  --compress)
              instead  of  letting it default.  If NUM is non-zero, the --com-
              press option is implied.

              Override the list of file suffixes that will not be  compressed.
              The  LIST  should be one or more file suffixes (without the dot)
              separated by slashes (/).

              You may specify an empty string to indicate that no file  should
              be skipped.

              Simple  character-class matching is supported: each must consist
              of a list of letters inside the square brackets (e.g. no special
              classes, such as "[:alpha:]", are supported, and '-' has no spe-
              cial meaning).

              The characters asterisk (*) and question-mark (?) have  no  spe-
              cial meaning.

              Here's  an example that specifies 6 suffixes to skip (since 1 of
              the 5 rules matches 2 suffixes):


              The default list of suffixes that will not be compressed is this
              (in this version of rsync):

              7z  ace  avi bz2 deb gpg gz iso jpeg jpg lz lzma lzo mov mp3 mp4
              ogg png rar rpm rzip tbz tgz tlz txz xz z zip

              This list will be replaced by your --skip-compress list  in  all
              but  one  situation:  a  copy  from a daemon rsync will add your
              skipped suffixes to its list of non-compressing files  (and  its
              list may be configured to a different default).

              source system is used instead.  See also  the  comments  on  the
              "use  chroot" setting in the rsyncd.conf manpage for information
              on how the chroot setting affects rsync's ability to look up the
              names of the users and groups and what you can do about it.

       --usermap=STRING, --groupmap=STRING
              These  options allow you to specify users and groups that should
              be mapped to other values by the receiving side.  The STRING  is
              one  or  more  FROM:TO pairs of values separated by commas.  Any
              matching FROM value from the sender is replaced with a TO  value
              from  the  receiver.   You may specify usernames or user IDs for
              the FROM and TO values,  and  the  FROM  value  may  also  be  a
              wild-card  string,  which  will  be matched against the sender's
              names (wild-cards do NOT match against ID  numbers,  though  see
              below  for why a '*' matches everything).  You may instead spec-
              ify a range of ID numbers via an inclusive range: LOW-HIGH.  For

                --usermap=0-99:nobody,wayne:admin,*:normal --groupmap=usr:1,1:usr

              The first match in the list is the one that is used.  You should
              specify all your user mappings using a single --usermap  option,
              and/or all your group mappings using a single --groupmap option.

              Note  that  the  sender's  name for the 0 user and group are not
              transmitted to the receiver, so you should  either  match  these
              values  using  a  0, or use the names in effect on the receiving
              side (typically "root").  All other FROM names  match  those  in
              use on the sending side.  All TO names match those in use on the
              receiving side.

              Any IDs that do not have a name on the sending side are  treated
              as  having  an  empty  name  for  the purpose of matching.  This
              allows them to be matched via a "*" or using an empty name.  For

                --usermap=:nobody --groupmap=*:nobody

              When  the --numeric-ids option is used, the sender does not send
              any names, so all the IDs are treated as having an  empty  name.
              This  means that you will need to specify numeric FROM values if
              you want to map these nameless IDs to different values.

              For the --usermap option to have any effect,  the  -o  (--owner)
              option  must be used (or implied), and the receiver will need to
              be running as a super-user (see also the  --fake-super  option).
              For  the --groupmap option to have any effect, the -g (--groups)
              option must be used (or implied), and the receiver will need  to
              have permissions to set that group.

              This  option  forces  all  files  to be owned by USER with group
              If no data is transferred for the specified time then rsync will
              exit. The default is 0, which means no timeout.

              This option allows you to set the amount of time that rsync will
              wait  for  its connection to an rsync daemon to succeed.  If the
              timeout is reached, rsync exits with an error.

              By default rsync will bind to the wildcard address when connect-
              ing  to  an  rsync  daemon.   The --address option allows you to
              specify a specific IP address (or hostname)  to  bind  to.   See
              also this option in the --daemon mode section.

              This  specifies  an alternate TCP port number to use rather than
              the default of 873.  This is only needed if you  are  using  the
              double-colon  (::) syntax to connect with an rsync daemon (since
              the URL syntax has a way to specify the port as a  part  of  the
              URL).  See also this option in the --daemon mode section.

              This  option can provide endless fun for people who like to tune
              their systems to the utmost degree. You can  set  all  sorts  of
              socket  options  which  may  make transfers faster (or slower!).
              Read the man page for the setsockopt() system call  for  details
              on  some  of  the  options you may be able to set. By default no
              special socket options are set. This only affects direct  socket
              connections  to  a remote rsync daemon.  This option also exists
              in the --daemon mode section.

              This tells rsync to use blocking I/O  when  launching  a  remote
              shell  transport.   If  the remote shell is either rsh or remsh,
              rsync defaults to using blocking I/O, otherwise it  defaults  to
              using  non-blocking  I/O.   (Note  that ssh prefers non-blocking

              This sets the output buffering mode.  The mode can be None  (aka
              Unbuffered), Line, or Block (aka Full).  You may specify as lit-
              tle as a single letter for the mode,  and  use  upper  or  lower

              The  main use of this option is to change Full buffering to Line
              buffering when rsync's output is going to a file or pipe.

       -i, --itemize-changes
              Requests a simple itemized list of the changes  that  are  being
              made to each file, including attribute changes.  This is exactly
              the same as specifying --out-format='%i %n%L'.   If  you  repeat
              the option, unchanged files will also be output, but only if the
              receiving rsync is at least version 2.6.7 (you can use -vv  with
              older  versions  of  rsync, but that also turns on the output of

              o      A  >  means that a file is being transferred to the local
                     host (received).

              o      A c means that a local change/creation is  occurring  for
                     the  item  (such  as  the  creation of a directory or the
                     changing of a symlink, etc.).

              o      A h means that the item is a hard link  to  another  item
                     (requires --hard-links).

              o      A  .  means that the item is not being updated (though it
                     might have attributes that are being modified).

              o      A * means that the rest of the itemized-output area  con-
                     tains a message (e.g. "deleting").

              The  file-types  that replace the X are: f for a file, a d for a
              directory, an L for a symlink, a D for a device, and a S  for  a
              special file (e.g. named sockets and fifos).

              The  other  letters  in  the string above are the actual letters
              that will be output if the associated attribute for the item  is
              being  updated or a "." for no change.  Three exceptions to this
              are: (1) a newly created item replaces each letter with  a  "+",
              (2)  an identical item replaces the dots with spaces, and (3) an
              unknown attribute replaces each letter with a "?" (this can hap-
              pen when talking to an older rsync).

              The attribute that is associated with each letter is as follows:

              o      A  c  means  either  that  a regular file has a different
                     checksum (requires --checksum) or that a symlink, device,
                     or  special  file  has a changed value.  Note that if you
                     are sending files to an rsync prior to 3.0.1, this change
                     flag  will be present only for checksum-differing regular

              o      A s means the size of a regular  file  is  different  and
                     will be updated by the file transfer.

              o      A t means the modification time is different and is being
                     updated to the sender's  value  (requires  --times).   An
                     alternate  value  of  T  means that the modification time
                     will be set to the transfer time, which  happens  when  a
                     file/symlink/device is updated without --times and when a
                     symlink is changed and the receiver can't set  its  time.
                     (Note:  when  using  an rsync 3.0.0 client, you might see
                     the s flag combined with t instead of the proper  T  flag
                     for this time-setting failure.)

              o      A  p  means  the  permissions are different and are being
                     updated to the sender's value (requires --perms).

              o      The x  means  that  the  extended  attribute  information

              One  other  output  is  possible:  when deleting files, the "%i"
              will output the string "*deleting" for each item that  is  being
              removed  (assuming that you are talking to a recent enough rsync
              that it logs deletions instead of outputting them as  a  verbose

              This allows you to specify exactly what the rsync client outputs
              to the user on a per-update basis.  The format is a text  string
              containing  embedded  single-character escape sequences prefixed
              with a percent (%) character.   A default format  of  "%n%L"  is
              assumed if either --info=name or -v is specified (this tells you
              just the name of the file and, if the item is a link,  where  it
              points).  For a full list of the possible escape characters, see
              the "log format" setting in the rsyncd.conf manpage.

              Specifying  the  --out-format  option  implies  the  --info=name
              option,  which  will  mention  each  file,  dir,  etc. that gets
              updated in a significant way (a transferred  file,  a  recreated
              symlink/device,  or  a  touched directory).  In addition, if the
              itemize-changes escape (%i) is included in the string  (e.g.  if
              the  --itemize-changes  option  was  used), the logging of names
              increases to mention any item that is changed  in  any  way  (as
              long  as the receiving side is at least 2.6.4).  See the --item-
              ize-changes option for a description of the output of "%i".

              Rsync will output the out-format string prior to a file's trans-
              fer  unless  one of the transfer-statistic escapes is requested,
              in which case the logging is done  at  the  end  of  the  file's
              transfer.  When this late logging is in effect and --progress is
              also specified, rsync will also output  the  name  of  the  file
              being  transferred  prior to its progress information (followed,
              of course, by the out-format output).

              This option causes rsync to log what it  is  doing  to  a  file.
              This  is  similar  to the logging that a daemon does, but can be
              requested for the client  side  and/or  the  server  side  of  a
              non-daemon  transfer.  If specified as a client option, transfer
              logging will be enabled with a default format of "%i %n%L".  See
              the --log-file-format option if you wish to override this.

              Here's  a  example  command that requests the remote side to log
              what is happening:

                rsync -av --remote-option=--log-file=/tmp/rlog src/ dest/

              This is very useful if you need to debug  why  a  connection  is

              This  tells  rsync  to  print a verbose set of statistics on the
              file transfer,  allowing  you  to  tell  how  effective  rsync's
              delta-transfer  algorithm  is  for  your  data.   This option is
              equivalent to --info=stats2 if combined with 0 or 1 -v  options,
              or --info=stats3 if combined with 2 or more -v options.

              The current statistics are as follows:

              o      Number  of  files  is  the  count  of all "files" (in the
                     generic sense),  which  includes  directories,  symlinks,
                     etc.   The  total  count  will  be  followed by a list of
                     counts by filetype (if the total is non-zero).  For exam-
                     ple:  "(reg:  5,  dir:  3,  link: 2, dev: 1, special: 1)"
                     lists the totals for  regular  files,  directories,  sym-
                     links, devices, and special files.  If any of value is 0,
                     it is completely omitted from the list.

              o      Number of created files is the count of how many  "files"
                     (generic  sense)  were  created  (as opposed to updated).
                     The total count will be followed by a list of  counts  by
                     filetype (if the total is non-zero).

              o      Number  of deleted files is the count of how many "files"
                     (generic sense) were created  (as  opposed  to  updated).
                     The  total  count will be followed by a list of counts by
                     filetype (if the total is non-zero).  Note that this line
                     is  only  output  if deletions are in effect, and only if
                     protocol 31 is being used (the default for rsync 3.1.x).

              o      Number of regular files transferred is the count of  nor-
                     mal  files  that  were updated via rsync's delta-transfer
                     algorithm, which does not include  dirs,  symlinks,  etc.
                     Note  that rsync 3.1.0 added the word "regular" into this

              o      Total file size is the total sum of all file sizes in the
                     transfer.   This  does not count any size for directories
                     or special files, but does include the size of symlinks.

              o      Total transferred file size is the total sum of all files
                     sizes for just the transferred files.

              o      Literal  data  is  how much unmatched file-update data we
                     had to send to  the  receiver  for  it  to  recreate  the
                     updated files.

              o      Matched  data  is  how much data the receiver got locally
                     when recreating the updated files.

              o      File list size is how big the file-list data was when the
                     sender sent it to the receiver.  This is smaller than the
                     in-memory size for the file list due to some  compressing

              o      Total  bytes  received  is  the  count of all non-message
                     bytes that rsync received by the  client  side  from  the
                     server  side.   "Non-message"  bytes  means that we don't
                     count the bytes for a verbose  message  that  the  server
                     sent to us, which makes the stats more consistent.

       -8, --8-bit-output
              This  tells  rsync to leave all high-bit characters unescaped in
              the output instead of trying to test  them  to  see  if  they're
              valid  in the current locale and escaping the invalid ones.  All
              control characters (but never tabs) are always escaped,  regard-
              less of this option's setting.

              The  escape  idiom  that started in 2.6.7 is to output a literal
              backslash (\) and a hash (#), followed by exactly 3  octal  dig-
              its.  For example, a newline would output as "\#012".  A literal
              backslash that is in a filename is not escaped unless it is fol-
              lowed by a hash and 3 digits (0-9).

       -h, --human-readable
              Output  numbers  in  a  more human-readable format.  There are 3
              possible levels:  (1) output numbers with  a  separator  between
              each  set  of 3 digits (either a comma or a period, depending on
              if the decimal point is represented by a period or a comma); (2)
              output  numbers  in  units  of 1000 (with a character suffix for
              larger units -- see below); (3) output numbers in units of 1024.

              The default is human-readable level 1.  Each -h option increases
              the  level  by one.  You can take the level down to 0 (to output
              numbers as pure digits)  by  specifing  the  --no-human-readable
              (--no-h) option.

              The  unit  letters  that  are  appended in levels 2 and 3 are: K
              (kilo), M (mega),  G  (giga),  or  T  (tera).   For  example,  a
              1234567-byte  file  would  output  as 1.23M in level-2 (assuming
              that a period is your local decimal point).

              Backward compatibility note:  versions of rsync prior  to  3.1.0
              do not support human-readable level 1, and they default to level
              0.  Thus, specifying one or two -h options will behave in a com-
              parable  manner  in  old  and new versions as long as you didn't
              specify a --no-h option prior to one or more  -h  options.   See
              the --list-only option for one difference.

              By  default, rsync will delete any partially transferred file if
              the transfer is interrupted. In some circumstances  it  is  more
              desirable  to keep partially transferred files. Using the --par-
              tial option tells rsync to keep the partial  file  which  should
              make a subsequent transfer of the rest of the file much faster.

              A  better way to keep partial files than the --partial option is
              not the whole path).  This makes it easy to use a relative  path
              (such  as  "--partial-dir=.rsync-partial")  to have rsync create
              the partial-directory in the destination file's  directory  when
              needed,  and  then  remove  it  again  when  the partial file is

              If the partial-dir value is not an absolute path, rsync will add
              an  exclude rule at the end of all your existing excludes.  This
              will prevent the sending of any partial-dir files that may exist
              on the sending side, and will also prevent the untimely deletion
              of partial-dir items on the receiving  side.   An  example:  the
              above  --partial-dir  option would add the equivalent of "-f '-p
              .rsync-partial/'" at the end of any other filter rules.

              If you are supplying your own exclude rules, you may need to add
              your  own  exclude/hide/protect rule for the partial-dir because
              (1) the auto-added rule may be ineffective at the  end  of  your
              other  rules,  or  (2)  you may wish to override rsync's exclude
              choice.  For instance, if you want to make  rsync  clean-up  any
              left-over  partial-dirs  that  may  be  lying around, you should
              specify --delete-after and add a "risk" filter rule, e.g.  -f 'R
              .rsync-partial/'.  (Avoid using --delete-before or --delete-dur-
              ing unless you don't need rsync to use any of the left-over par-
              tial-dir data during the current run.)

              IMPORTANT:  the  --partial-dir  should  not be writable by other
              users or it is a security risk.  E.g. AVOID "/tmp".

              You can also set the  partial-dir  value  the  RSYNC_PARTIAL_DIR
              environment  variable.  Setting this in the environment does not
              force --partial to be enabled, but rather it affects where  par-
              tial  files  go  when  --partial  is  specified.   For instance,
              instead of using --partial-dir=.rsync-tmp along with --progress,
              you  could  set RSYNC_PARTIAL_DIR=.rsync-tmp in your environment
              and then just use the -P option  to  turn  on  the  use  of  the
              .rsync-tmp  dir  for partial transfers.  The only times that the
              --partial option does not look for this  environment  value  are
              (1) when --inplace was specified (since --inplace conflicts with
              --partial-dir), and (2) when --delay-updates was specified  (see

              For  the  purposes  of the daemon-config's "refuse options" set-
              ting, --partial-dir does not imply --partial.  This is so that a
              refusal  of  the  --partial  option  can be used to disallow the
              overwriting of destination files with a partial transfer,  while
              still allowing the safer idiom provided by --partial-dir.

              This  option puts the temporary file from each updated file into
              a holding directory until the end of the transfer, at which time
              all  the files are renamed into place in rapid succession.  This
              attempts to make the updating of the files a little more atomic.
              By  default the files are placed into a directory named ".~tmp~"
              in each file's destination directory, but  if  you've  specified
              in  the  transfer  having  the  same name (since all the updated
              files will be put into a single directory if the path  is  abso-
              lute)  and (2) there are no mount points in the hierarchy (since
              the delayed updates will fail if  they  can't  be  renamed  into

              See  also the "atomic-rsync" perl script in the "support" subdir
              for an update algorithm  that  is  even  more  atomic  (it  uses
              --link-dest and a parallel hierarchy of files).

       -m, --prune-empty-dirs
              This option tells the receiving rsync to get rid of empty direc-
              tories from the file-list,  including  nested  directories  that
              have no non-directory children.  This is useful for avoiding the
              creation of a bunch of  useless  directories  when  the  sending
              rsync  is  recursively  scanning  a  hierarchy  of  files  using
              include/exclude/filter rules.

              Note that the use of transfer  rules,  such  as  the  --min-size
              option,  does  not affect what goes into the file list, and thus
              does not leave directories empty, even if none of the files in a
              directory match the transfer rule.

              Because the file-list is actually being pruned, this option also
              affects what directories get deleted when a  delete  is  active.
              However,  keep  in  mind that excluded files and directories can
              prevent existing items from being deleted due to an exclude both
              hiding  source  files and protecting destination files.  See the
              perishable filter-rule option for how to avoid this.

              You can prevent the pruning of certain  empty  directories  from
              the file-list by using a global "protect" filter.  For instance,
              this option would ensure that the directory "emptydir" was  kept
              in the file-list:

              --filter 'protect emptydir/'

              Here's  an  example  that  copies all .pdf files in a hierarchy,
              only creating the necessary destination directories to hold  the
              .pdf  files, and ensures that any superfluous files and directo-
              ries in the destination are removed (note  the  hide  filter  of
              non-directories being used instead of an exclude):

              rsync -avm --del --include='*.pdf' -f 'hide,! */' src/ dest

              If  you didn't want to remove superfluous destination files, the
              more  time-honored  options  of  "--include='*/'  --exclude='*'"
              would  work  fine  in  place of the hide-filter (if that is more
              natural to you).

              This  option  tells  rsync  to  print  information  showing  the
              In this example, the receiver has reconstructed 782448 bytes  or
              63% of the sender's file, which is being reconstructed at a rate
              of 110.64 kilobytes per second, and the transfer will finish  in
              4 seconds if the current rate is maintained until the end.

              These  statistics  can  be  misleading if rsync's delta-transfer
              algorithm is in use.  For example, if the sender's file consists
              of the basis file followed by additional data, the reported rate
              will probably drop dramatically when the receiver  gets  to  the
              literal data, and the transfer will probably take much longer to
              finish than the receiver  estimated  as  it  was  finishing  the
              matched part of the file.

              When  the  file  transfer  finishes, rsync replaces the progress
              line with a summary line that looks like this:

                    1,238,099 100%  146.38kB/s    0:00:08  (xfr#5, to-chk=169/396)

              In this example, the file was 1,238,099 bytes long in total, the
              average rate of transfer for the whole file was 146.38 kilobytes
              per second over the 8 seconds that it took to complete,  it  was
              the 5th transfer of a regular file during the current rsync ses-
              sion, and there are 169 more files for the receiver to check (to
              see  if  they  are  up-to-date  or not) remaining out of the 396
              total files in the file-list.

              In an incremental recursion scan, rsync  won't  know  the  total
              number  of  files  in the file-list until it reaches the ends of
              the scan, but since it starts to transfer files during the scan,
              it  will  display a line with the text "ir-chk" (for incremental
              recursion check) instead of "to-chk" until  the  point  that  it
              knows  the  full size of the list, at which point it will switch
              to using "to-chk".  Thus, seeing "ir-chk" lets you know that the
              total count of files in the file list is still going to increase
              (and each time it does, the count of files left to  check   will
              increase by the number of the files added to the list).

       -P     The  -P  option is equivalent to --partial --progress.  Its pur-
              pose is to make it much easier to specify these two options  for
              a long transfer that may be interrupted.

              There  is also a --info=progress2 option that outputs statistics
              based on the whole transfer, rather than individual files.   Use
              this  flag without outputting a filename (e.g. avoid -v or spec-
              ify --info=name0 if you want to see how the  transfer  is  doing
              without  scrolling  the  screen with a lot of names.  (You don't
              need  to  specify  the  --progress  option  in  order   to   use

              This  option  allows  you to provide a password for accessing an
              rsync daemon via a file or via standard input if FILE is -.  The
              file  should  contain  just  the password on the first line (all

              This option will cause the source files to be listed instead  of
              transferred.   This  option  is  inferred  if  there is a single
              source arg and no destination specified, so its main  uses  are:
              (1)  to turn a copy command that includes a destination arg into
              a file-listing command, or (2) to be able to specify  more  than
              one source arg (note: be sure to include the destination).  Cau-
              tion: keep in mind  that  a  source  arg  with  a  wild-card  is
              expanded by the shell into multiple args, so it is never safe to
              try to list such an arg without using this option.  For example:

                  rsync -av --list-only foo* dest/

              Starting with rsync 3.1.0, the sizes output by  --list-only  are
              affected  by  the --human-readable option.  By default they will
              contain digit separators, but higher levels of readability  will
              output  the sizes with unit suffixes.  Note also that the column
              width for the size output has increased from 11 to 14 characters
              for all human-readable levels.  Use --no-h if you want just dig-
              its in the sizes, and the old column width of 11 characters.

              Compatibility note:  when requesting a remote listing  of  files
              from  an rsync that is version 2.6.3 or older, you may encounter
              an error if you  ask  for  a  non-recursive  listing.   This  is
              because  a  file  listing implies the --dirs option w/o --recur-
              sive, and older rsyncs don't have that option.   To  avoid  this
              problem,  either specify the --no-dirs option (if you don't need
              to expand a directory's  content),  or  turn  on  recursion  and
              exclude the content of subdirectories: -r --exclude='/*/*'.

              This  option allows you to specify the maximum transfer rate for
              the data sent over the socket, specified in  units  per  second.
              The  RATE value can be suffixed with a string to indicate a size
              multiplier,   and   may   be   a    fractional    value    (e.g.
              "--bwlimit=1.5m").  If no suffix is specified, the value will be
              assumed to be in units of 1024 bytes (as if  "K"  or  "KiB"  had
              been  appended).  See the --max-size option for a description of
              all the available suffixes. A value of zero specifies no limit.

              For backward-compatibility  reasons,  the  rate  limit  will  be
              rounded  to  the  nearest KiB unit, so no rate smaller than 1024
              bytes per second is possible.

              Rsync writes data over the socket in  blocks,  and  this  option
              both  limits the size of the blocks that rsync writes, and tries
              to keep the average transfer rate at the requested limit.   Some
              "burstiness"  may be seen where rsync writes out a block of data
              and then sleeps to bring the average rate into compliance.

              Due to the internal buffering of data, the --progress option may
              not  be  an  accurate  reflection  on how fast the data is being
              sent.  This is because some files can show up as  being  rapidly
              transport  the  changes to the destination system via some other
              means and then apply the changes via --read-batch.

              Note that you can feel free to write the batch directly to  some
              portable  media:  if this media fills to capacity before the end
              of the transfer, you can just apply that partial transfer to the
              destination  and repeat the whole process to get the rest of the
              changes (as long as you don't mind a partially updated  destina-
              tion system while the multi-update cycle is happening).

              Also note that you only save bandwidth when pushing changes to a
              remote system  because  this  allows  the  batched  data  to  be
              diverted  from  the sender into the batch file without having to
              flow over the wire to the receiver (when pulling, the sender  is
              remote, and thus can't write the batch).

              Apply  all of the changes stored in FILE, a file previously gen-
              erated by --write-batch.  If FILE is -, the batch data  will  be
              read  from  standard  input.   See  the "BATCH MODE" section for

              Force an older protocol version to be used.  This is useful  for
              creating  a  batch file that is compatible with an older version
              of rsync.  For instance, if rsync 2.6.4 is being used  with  the
              --write-batch  option,  but  rsync 2.6.3 is what will be used to
              run the --read-batch option, you should use "--protocol=28" when
              creating  the  batch file to force the older protocol version to
              be used in the batch file (assuming you can't upgrade the  rsync
              on the reading system).

              Rsync  can  convert  filenames between character sets using this
              option.  Using a CONVERT_SPEC of "." tells rsync to look up  the
              default  character-set via the locale setting.  Alternately, you
              can fully specify what conversion to do by giving a local and  a
              remote   charset   separated   by   a   comma   in   the   order
              --iconv=LOCAL,REMOTE, e.g.  --iconv=utf8,iso88591.   This  order
              ensures  that the option will stay the same whether you're push-
              ing  or  pulling  files.   Finally,  you  can   specify   either
              --no-iconv  or a CONVERT_SPEC of "-" to turn off any conversion.
              The default setting of this option  is  site-specific,  and  can
              also be affected via the RSYNC_ICONV environment variable.

              For  a  list of what charset names your local iconv library sup-
              ports, you can run "iconv --list".

              If you specify the --protect-args option (-s), rsync will trans-
              late  the  filenames  you  specify  on the command-line that are
              being sent to  the  remote  host.   See  also  the  --files-from

              Note  that  rsync  does not do any conversion of names in filter

       -4, --ipv4 or -6, --ipv6
              Tells rsync to prefer IPv4/IPv6  when  creating  sockets.   This
              only affects sockets that rsync has direct control over, such as
              the outgoing socket when directly contacting  an  rsync  daemon.
              See also these options in the --daemon mode section.

              If  rsync  was  complied  without  support  for IPv6, the --ipv6
              option will have no effect.  The --version output will tell  you
              if this is the case.

              Set  the checksum seed to the integer NUM.  This 4 byte checksum
              seed is included in each block and MD4 file checksum calculation
              (the  more  modern  MD5  file  checksums  don't use a seed).  By
              default the  checksum  seed  is  generated  by  the  server  and
              defaults  to  the current time() .  This option is used to set a
              specific checksum seed, which is useful  for  applications  that
              want  repeatable  block checksums, or in the case where the user
              wants a more random checksum seed.   Setting  NUM  to  0  causes
              rsync to use the default of time() for checksum seed.

       The options allowed when starting an rsync daemon are as follows:

              This  tells rsync that it is to run as a daemon.  The daemon you
              start running may be accessed using an rsync  client  using  the
              host::module or rsync://host/module/ syntax.

              If  standard input is a socket then rsync will assume that it is
              being run via inetd, otherwise it will detach from  the  current
              terminal  and  become a background daemon.  The daemon will read
              the config file (rsyncd.conf) on each connect made by  a  client
              and respond to requests accordingly.  See the rsyncd.conf(5) man
              page for more details.

              By default rsync will bind to the wildcard address when run as a
              daemon  with  the  --daemon option.  The --address option allows
              you to specify a specific IP address (or hostname) to  bind  to.
              This  makes  virtual  hosting  possible  in conjunction with the
              --config option.  See also the "address" global  option  in  the
              rsyncd.conf manpage.

              This  option allows you to specify the maximum transfer rate for
              the data the daemon sends over the socket.  The client can still
              specify  a  smaller --bwlimit value, but no larger value will be
              allowed.  See the client version of this option (above) for some
              extra details.

              This  specifies an alternate config file than the default.  This
              is only relevant when --daemon is  specified.   The  default  is
                  rsync --daemon -M pidfile=/path/

              When running as a daemon, this option  instructs  rsync  to  not
              detach  itself  and become a background process.  This option is
              required when running as a service on Cygwin, and  may  also  be
              useful when rsync is supervised by a program such as daemontools
              or AIX's System Resource Controller.  --no-detach is also recom-
              mended  when  rsync is run under a debugger.  This option has no
              effect if rsync is run from inetd or sshd.

              This specifies an alternate TCP port number for  the  daemon  to
              listen  on  rather than the default of 873.  See also the "port"
              global option in the rsyncd.conf manpage.

              This option tells the rsync daemon to  use  the  given  log-file
              name instead of using the "log file" setting in the config file.

              This  option  tells  the  rsync  daemon  to use the given FORMAT
              string instead of using the "log format" setting in  the  config
              file.   It  also enables "transfer logging" unless the string is
              empty, in which case transfer logging is turned off.

              This overrides the socket options  setting  in  the  rsyncd.conf
              file and has the same syntax.

       -v, --verbose
              This  option increases the amount of information the daemon logs
              during its startup phase.  After the client connects,  the  dae-
              mon's verbosity level will be controlled by the options that the
              client used and the "max verbosity" setting in the module's con-
              fig section.

       -4, --ipv4 or -6, --ipv6
              Tells rsync to prefer IPv4/IPv6 when creating the incoming sock-
              ets that the rsync daemon will use to  listen  for  connections.
              One  of these options may be required in older versions of Linux
              to work around an IPv6 bug in the kernel (if you see an "address
              already  in  use" error when nothing else is using the port, try
              specifying --ipv6 or --ipv4 when starting the daemon).

              If rsync was complied  without  support  for  IPv6,  the  --ipv6
              option  will have no effect.  The --version output will tell you
              if this is the case.

       -h, --help
              When specified after --daemon, print a short help page  describ-
              ing the options available for starting an rsync daemon.

       then the filename is not skipped.

       Rsync  builds  an ordered list of filter rules as specified on the com-
       mand-line.  Filter rules have the following syntax:


       You have your choice of using either  short  or  long  RULE  names,  as
       described below.  If you use a short-named rule, the ',' separating the
       RULE from the MODIFIERS is optional.  The PATTERN or FILENAME that fol-
       lows  (when present) must come after either a single space or an under-
       score (_).  Here are the available rule prefixes:

              exclude, - specifies an exclude pattern.
              include, + specifies an include pattern.
              merge, . specifies a merge-file to read for more rules.
              dir-merge, : specifies a per-directory merge-file.
              hide, H specifies a pattern for hiding files from the transfer.
              show, S files that match the pattern are not hidden.
              protect, P specifies a pattern for protecting files  from  dele-
              risk, R files that match the pattern are not protected.
              clear, ! clears the current include/exclude list (takes no arg)

       When  rules are being read from a file, empty lines are ignored, as are
       comment lines that start with a "#".

       Note that the --include/--exclude command-line options do not allow the
       full  range  of  rule parsing as described above -- they only allow the
       specification of include/exclude patterns plus a "!" token to clear the
       list  (and the normal comment parsing when rules are read from a file).
       If a pattern does not begin with "- " (dash,  space)  or  "+  "  (plus,
       space),  then  the  rule will be interpreted as if "+ " (for an include
       option) or "- " (for an exclude option) were prefixed to the string.  A
       --filter  option, on the other hand, must always contain either a short
       or long rule name at the start of the rule.

       Note also that the --filter, --include, and --exclude options take  one
       rule/pattern  each. To add multiple ones, you can repeat the options on
       the command-line, use the merge-file syntax of the --filter option,  or
       the --include-from/--exclude-from options.

       You can include and exclude files by specifying patterns using the "+",
       "-", etc. filter rules (as  introduced  in  the  FILTER  RULES  section
       above).   The  include/exclude  rules  each  specify  a pattern that is
       matched against the names of the files that  are  going  to  be  trans-
       ferred.  These patterns can take several forms:

       o      if the pattern starts with a / then it is anchored to a particu-
              lar spot in the hierarchy of  files,  otherwise  it  is  matched

       o      if the pattern ends with a / then it will only  match  a  direc-
              tory, not a regular file, symlink, or device.

       o      rsync  chooses  between doing a simple string match and wildcard
              matching by checking if the pattern contains one of these  three
              wildcard characters: '*', '?', and '[' .

       o      a '*' matches any path component, but it stops at slashes.

       o      use '**' to match anything, including slashes.

       o      a '?' matches any character except a slash (/).

       o      a   '['   introduces   a  character  class,  such  as  [a-z]  or

       o      in a wildcard pattern, a backslash can be used to escape a wild-
              card  character,  but  it is matched literally when no wildcards
              are present.

       o      if the pattern contains a / (not counting a  trailing  /)  or  a
              "**",  then  it  is matched against the full pathname, including
              any leading directories. If the pattern doesn't contain a / or a
              "**", then it is matched only against the final component of the
              filename.  (Remember that the algorithm is  applied  recursively
              so  "full  filename"  can actually be any portion of a path from
              the starting directory on down.)

       o      a trailing "dir_name/***" will match both the directory  (as  if
              "dir_name/"  had been specified) and everything in the directory
              (as if "dir_name/**" had been  specified).   This  behavior  was
              added in version 2.6.7.

       Note  that, when using the --recursive (-r) option (which is implied by
       -a), every subcomponent of every path is visited from the top down,  so
       include/exclude patterns get applied recursively to each subcomponent's
       full name (e.g. to include "/foo/bar/baz" the subcomponents "/foo"  and
       "/foo/bar"  must  not  be  excluded).   The  exclude  patterns actually
       short-circuit the directory traversal stage when rsync finds the  files
       to  send.   If a pattern excludes a particular parent directory, it can
       render a deeper include  pattern  ineffectual  because  rsync  did  not
       descend  through  that excluded section of the hierarchy.  This is par-
       ticularly important when using a trailing '*' rule.  For instance, this
       won't work:

              + /some/path/this-file-will-not-be-found
              + /file-is-included
              - *

       This  fails  because the parent directory "some" is excluded by the '*'
       rule, so rsync  never  visits  any  of  the  files  in  the  "some"  or

       Here are some examples of exclude/include matching:

       o      "- *.o" would exclude all names matching *.o

       o      "- /foo" would exclude a file (or directory) named  foo  in  the
              transfer-root directory

       o      "- foo/" would exclude any directory named foo

       o      "-  /foo/*/bar" would exclude any file named bar which is at two
              levels below a directory named foo in the  transfer-root  direc-

       o      "-  /foo/**/bar"  would  exclude  any file named bar two or more
              levels below a directory named foo in the  transfer-root  direc-

       o      The  combination of "+ */", "+ *.c", and "- *" would include all
              directories and C source files but nothing else  (see  also  the
              --prune-empty-dirs option)

       o      The  combination  of  "+  foo/",  "+ foo/bar.c", and "- *" would
              include only the foo directory and foo/bar.c (the foo  directory
              must be explicitly included or it would be excluded by the "*")

       The following modifiers are accepted after a "+" or "-":

       o      A  /  specifies  that the include/exclude rule should be matched
              against the absolute pathname of the current item.  For example,
              "-/  /etc/passwd"  would  exclude  the  passwd file any time the
              transfer was sending files from the "/etc"  directory,  and  "-/
              subdir/foo" would always exclude "foo" when it is in a dir named
              "subdir", even if "foo" is at the root of the current transfer.

       o      A ! specifies that the include/exclude should take effect if the
              pattern fails to match.  For instance, "-! */" would exclude all

       o      A C is used to indicate that all the  global  CVS-exclude  rules
              should  be  inserted  as  excludes in place of the "-C".  No arg
              should follow.

       o      An s is used to indicate that the rule applies  to  the  sending
              side.   When  a rule affects the sending side, it prevents files
              from being transferred.  The default is for  a  rule  to  affect
              both sides unless --delete-excluded was specified, in which case
              default rules become sender-side only.  See also  the  hide  (H)
              and  show (S) rules, which are an alternate way to specify send-
              ing-side includes/excludes.

       o      An r is used to indicate that the rule applies to the  receiving

       You can merge whole files into your filter rules by specifying either a
       merge (.) or a dir-merge (:) filter rule (as introduced in  the  FILTER
       RULES section above).

       There  are  two  kinds  of  merged  files  -- single-instance ('.') and
       per-directory (':').  A single-instance merge file is  read  one  time,
       and its rules are incorporated into the filter list in the place of the
       "." rule.  For per-directory merge files, rsync will scan every  direc-
       tory  that  it  traverses for the named file, merging its contents when
       the file exists into  the  current  list  of  inherited  rules.   These
       per-directory rule files must be created on the sending side because it
       is the sending side that is being scanned for the  available  files  to
       transfer.   These  rule  files  may  also need to be transferred to the
       receiving side if you want them to affect what files don't get  deleted

       Some examples:

              merge /etc/rsync/default.rules
              . /etc/rsync/default.rules
              dir-merge .per-dir-filter
              dir-merge,n- .non-inherited-per-dir-excludes
              :n- .non-inherited-per-dir-excludes

       The following modifiers are accepted after a merge or dir-merge rule:

       o      A  - specifies that the file should consist of only exclude pat-
              terns, with no other rule-parsing except for in-file comments.

       o      A + specifies that the file should consist of only include  pat-
              terns, with no other rule-parsing except for in-file comments.

       o      A  C  is  a  way  to  specify  that the file should be read in a
              CVS-compatible manner.  This turns on 'n',  'w',  and  '-',  but
              also  allows the list-clearing token (!) to be specified.  If no
              filename is provided, ".cvsignore" is assumed.

       o      A e will exclude the merge-file name  from  the  transfer;  e.g.
              "dir-merge,e .rules" is like "dir-merge .rules" and "- .rules".

       o      An  n  specifies that the rules are not inherited by subdirecto-

       o      A w specifies  that  the  rules  are  word-split  on  whitespace
              instead  of the normal line-splitting.  This also turns off com-
              ments.  Note: the space that separates the prefix from the  rule
              is  treated  specially,  so "- foo + bar" is parsed as two rules
              (assuming that prefix-parsing wasn't also disabled).

       o      You may also specify any of the modifiers for  the  "+"  or  "-"
              rules  (above)  in order to have the rules that are read in from

       Each  subdirectory's  rules are prefixed to the inherited per-directory
       rules from its parents, which gives the newest rules a higher  priority
       than  the  inherited  rules.   The  entire  set  of dir-merge rules are
       grouped together in the spot where the merge-file was specified, so  it
       is  possible  to override dir-merge rules via a rule that got specified
       earlier in the list of global rules.  When the list-clearing rule ("!")
       is  read  from a per-directory file, it only clears the inherited rules
       for the current merge file.

       Another way to prevent a single rule from a dir-merge file  from  being
       inherited  is  to  anchor it with a leading slash.  Anchored rules in a
       per-directory merge-file are relative to the merge-file's directory, so
       a pattern "/foo" would only match the file "foo" in the directory where
       the dir-merge filter file was found.

       Here's an example filter  file  which  you'd  specify  via  --filter=".

              merge /home/user/.global-filter
              - *.gz
              dir-merge .rules
              + *.[ch]
              - *.o

       This  will  merge the contents of the /home/user/.global-filter file at
       the start of the list and also  turns  the  ".rules"  filename  into  a
       per-directory filter file.  All rules read in prior to the start of the
       directory scan follow the global anchoring rules (i.e. a leading  slash
       matches at the root of the transfer).

       If a per-directory merge-file is specified with a path that is a parent
       directory of the first transfer directory, rsync will scan all the par-
       ent  dirs  from  that  starting point to the transfer directory for the
       indicated per-directory file.  For instance, here is  a  common  filter
       (see -F):

              --filter=': /.rsync-filter'

       That  rule tells rsync to scan for the file .rsync-filter in all direc-
       tories from the root down through the parent directory of the  transfer
       prior  to  the  start  of  the normal directory scan of the file in the
       directories that are sent as a part of the  transfer.   (Note:  for  an
       rsync daemon, the root is always the same as the module's "path".)

       Some examples of this pre-scanning for per-directory files:

              rsync -avF /src/path/ /dest/dir
              rsync -av --filter=': ../../.rsync-filter' /src/path/ /dest/dir
              rsync -av --filter=': .rsync-filter' /src/path/ /dest/dir

       The  first  two commands above will look for ".rsync-filter" in "/" and
       your other rules (giving it a lower  priority  than  your  command-line
       rules).  For example:

              cat <<EOT | rsync -avC --filter='. -' a/ b
              + foo.o
              - *.old
              rsync -avC --include=foo.o -f :C --exclude='*.old' a/ b

       Both  of  the  above rsync commands are identical.  Each one will merge
       all the per-directory .cvsignore rules in the middle of the list rather
       than at the end.  This allows their dir-specific rules to supersede the
       rules that follow the :C instead  of  being  subservient  to  all  your
       rules.  To affect the other CVS exclude rules (i.e. the default list of
       exclusions, the contents of $HOME/.cvsignore, and the value of  $CVSIG-
       NORE)  you  should omit the -C command-line option and instead insert a
       "-C" rule into your filter rules; e.g. "--filter=-C".

       You can clear the current include/exclude list by using the "!"  filter
       rule  (as introduced in the FILTER RULES section above).  The "current"
       list is either the global list of rules (if  the  rule  is  encountered
       while  parsing  the  filter  options)  or  a set of per-directory rules
       (which are inherited in their own sub-list, so a subdirectory  can  use
       this to clear out the parent's rules).

       As  mentioned  earlier, global include/exclude patterns are anchored at
       the "root of the transfer" (as opposed to per-directory patterns, which
       are  anchored  at  the  merge-file's  directory).   If you think of the
       transfer as a subtree of names that  are  being  sent  from  sender  to
       receiver,  the  transfer-root is where the tree starts to be duplicated
       in the destination directory.  This root governs  where  patterns  that
       start with a / match.

       Because  the  matching  is  relative to the transfer-root, changing the
       trailing slash on a source path or changing your use of the  --relative
       option  affects  the path you need to use in your matching (in addition
       to changing how much of the file tree is duplicated on the  destination
       host).  The following examples demonstrate this.

       Let's  say that we want to match two source files, one with an absolute
       path of "/home/me/foo/bar", and one with a path of "/home/you/bar/baz".
       Here is how the various command choices differ for a 2-source transfer:

              Example cmd: rsync -a /home/me /home/you /dest
              +/- pattern: /me/foo/bar
              +/- pattern: /you/bar/baz
              Target file: /dest/me/foo/bar
              Target file: /dest/you/bar/baz

              Example cmd: cd /home; rsync -a --relative me/foo you/ /dest
              +/- pattern: /me/foo/bar      (starts at specified path)
              +/- pattern: /you/bar/baz     (ditto)
              Target file: /dest/me/foo/bar
              Target file: /dest/you/bar/baz

       The  easiest  way to see what name you should filter is to just look at
       the output when using --verbose and put a / in front of the  name  (use
       the --dry-run option if you're not yet ready to copy any files).

       Without  a  delete option, per-directory rules are only relevant on the
       sending side, so you can feel free to exclude  the  merge  files  them-
       selves without affecting the transfer.  To make this easy, the 'e' mod-
       ifier adds this exclude for you, as seen in these two  equivalent  com-

              rsync -av --filter=': .excl' --exclude=.excl host:src/dir /dest
              rsync -av --filter=':e .excl' host:src/dir /dest

       However,  if you want to do a delete on the receiving side AND you want
       some files to be excluded from being deleted, you'll need  to  be  sure
       that  the  receiving side knows what files to exclude.  The easiest way
       is to include the per-directory merge files in  the  transfer  and  use
       --delete-after,  because  this ensures that the receiving side gets all
       the same exclude rules as the sending side before it  tries  to  delete

              rsync -avF --delete-after host:src/dir /dest

       However, if the merge files are not a part of the transfer, you'll need
       to either specify some global exclude rules (i.e. specified on the com-
       mand  line),  or  you'll  need to maintain your own per-directory merge
       files on the receiving side.  An example of the first is  this  (assume
       that the remote .rules files exclude themselves):

       rsync -av --filter=': .rules' --filter='. /my/extra.rules'
          --delete host:src/dir /dest

       In  the above example the extra.rules file can affect both sides of the
       transfer, but (on the sending side) the rules are  subservient  to  the
       rules  merged  from  the .rules files because they were specified after
       the per-directory merge rule.

       In one final example, the remote side is  excluding  the  .rsync-filter
       files from the transfer, but we want to use our own .rsync-filter files
       to control what gets deleted on the receiving side.  To do this we must
       specifically  exclude the per-directory merge files (so that they don't
       those changes need to be propagated to the other hosts. In order to  do
       this  using  batch  mode,  rsync  is run with the write-batch option to
       apply the changes made to the source tree to  one  of  the  destination
       trees.   The  write-batch  option causes the rsync client to store in a
       "batch file" all  the  information  needed  to  repeat  this  operation
       against other, identical destination trees.

       Generating the batch file once saves having to perform the file status,
       checksum, and data block generation more than once when updating multi-
       ple  destination  trees.  Multicast  transport protocols can be used to
       transfer the batch update files in parallel  to  many  hosts  at  once,
       instead of sending the same data to every host individually.

       To  apply  the  recorded changes to another destination tree, run rsync
       with the read-batch option, specifying the name of the same batch file,
       and the destination tree.  Rsync updates the destination tree using the
       information stored in the batch file.

       For  your  convenience,  a  script  file  is  also  created  when   the
       write-batch  option  is  used:   it will be named the same as the batch
       file with ".sh" appended.  This script  file  contains  a  command-line
       suitable  for  updating  a  destination tree using the associated batch
       file. It can be executed using a Bourne (or Bourne-like) shell, option-
       ally  passing  in  an alternate destination tree pathname which is then
       used instead of the original destination path.  This is useful when the
       destination  tree path on the current host differs from the one used to
       create the batch file.


              $ rsync --write-batch=foo -a host:/source/dir/ /adest/dir/
              $ scp foo* remote:
              $ ssh remote ./ /bdest/dir/

              $ rsync --write-batch=foo -a /source/dir/ /adest/dir/
              $ ssh remote rsync --read-batch=- -a /bdest/dir/ <foo

       In  these  examples,  rsync  is  used  to   update   /adest/dir/   from
       /source/dir/  and the information to repeat this operation is stored in
       "foo" and "".  The host "remote" is then updated with the batched
       data  going into the directory /bdest/dir.  The differences between the
       two examples reveals some of the flexibility you have in how  you  deal
       with batches:

       o      The first example shows that the initial copy doesn't have to be
              local -- you can push or pull data to/from a remote  host  using
              either  the  remote-shell  syntax  or  rsync  daemon  syntax, as

       o      The first example uses the created  ""  file  to  get  the
              right  rsync  options when running the read-batch command on the
              remote host.

       The read-batch option expects the destination tree that it is  updating
       to  be  identical  to  the destination tree that was used to create the
       batch update fileset.  When a difference between the destination  trees
       is  encountered  the  update  might be discarded with a warning (if the
       file appears to be  up-to-date  already)  or  the  file-update  may  be
       attempted  and  then, if the file fails to verify, the update discarded
       with an error.   This  means  that  it  should  be  safe  to  re-run  a
       read-batch  operation  if  the command got interrupted.  If you wish to
       force the batched-update to  always  be  attempted  regardless  of  the
       file's  size  and date, use the -I option (when reading the batch).  If
       an error occurs, the destination tree will probably be in  a  partially
       updated  state.  In  that  case,  rsync  can  be  used  in  its regular
       (non-batch) mode of operation to fix up the destination tree.

       The rsync version used on all destinations must be at least as  new  as
       the  one used to generate the batch file.  Rsync will die with an error
       if the  protocol  version  in  the  batch  file  is  too  new  for  the
       batch-reading  rsync  to  handle.  See also the --protocol option for a
       way to have the creating rsync generate a  batch  file  that  an  older
       rsync can understand.  (Note that batch files changed format in version
       2.6.3, so mixing versions older than that with newer versions will  not

       When  reading  a  batch  file,  rsync  will  force the value of certain
       options to match the data in the batch file if you didn't set  them  to
       the  same as the batch-writing command.  Other options can (and should)
       be  changed.   For  instance  --write-batch  changes  to  --read-batch,
       --files-from  is  dropped, and the --filter/--include/--exclude options
       are not needed unless one of the --delete options is specified.

       The  code  that  creates  the  file   transforms   any   fil-
       ter/include/exclude  options  into  a single list that is appended as a
       "here" document to the shell script file.  An  advanced  user  can  use
       this  to  modify  the  exclude list if a change in what gets deleted by
       --delete is desired.  A normal user can ignore this detail and just use
       the  shell  script  as  an easy way to run the appropriate --read-batch
       command for the batched data.

       The original batch mode in rsync was based on "rsync+", but the  latest
       version uses a new implementation.

       Three  basic  behaviors  are  possible when rsync encounters a symbolic
       link in the source directory.

       By default, symbolic links are  not  transferred  at  all.   A  message
       "skipping non-regular" file is emitted for any symlinks that exist.

       If --links is specified, then symlinks are recreated with the same tar-
       get on the destination.  Note that --archive implies --links.

       If --copy-links is specified, then symlinks are "collapsed" by  copying
       their referent, rather than the symlink.

       Here's a summary of how the symlink options are interpreted.  The  list
       is in order of precedence, so if your combination of options isn't men-
       tioned, use the first line that is a complete subset of your options:

              Turn all symlinks into normal files (leaving no symlinks for any
              other options to affect).

       --links --copy-unsafe-links
              Turn  all unsafe symlinks into files and duplicate all safe sym-

              Turn all unsafe symlinks into files, noisily skip all safe  sym-

       --links --safe-links
              Duplicate safe symlinks and skip unsafe ones.

              Duplicate all symlinks.

       rsync occasionally produces error messages that may seem a little cryp-
       tic. The one that seems to cause the most confusion is  "protocol  ver-
       sion mismatch -- is your shell clean?".

       This  message is usually caused by your startup scripts or remote shell
       facility producing unwanted garbage on the stream that rsync  is  using
       for  its  transport.  The  way  to diagnose this problem is to run your
       remote shell like this:

              ssh remotehost /bin/true > out.dat

       then look at out.dat. If everything is working correctly  then  out.dat
       should  be  a zero length file. If you are getting the above error from
       rsync then you will probably find that out.dat contains  some  text  or
       data.  Look  at  the contents and try to work out what is producing it.
       The most common cause is incorrectly configured shell  startup  scripts
       (such  as  .cshrc  or  .profile)  that  contain  output  statements for
       non-interactive logins.

       If you are having trouble debugging filter patterns, then try  specify-
       ing  the  -vv  option.   At this level of verbosity rsync will show why
       each individual file is included or excluded.

       0      Success

       1      Syntax or usage error

       2      Protocol incompatibility
       10     Error in socket I/O

       11     Error in file I/O

       12     Error in rsync protocol data stream

       13     Errors with program diagnostics

       14     Error in IPC code

       20     Received SIGUSR1 or SIGINT

       21     Some error returned by waitpid()

       22     Error allocating core memory buffers

       23     Partial transfer due to error

       24     Partial transfer due to vanished source files

       25     The --max-delete limit stopped deletions

       30     Timeout in data send/receive

       35     Timeout waiting for daemon connection

              The  CVSIGNORE  environment variable supplements any ignore pat-
              terns in .cvsignore files. See the --cvs-exclude option for more

              Specify  a  default --iconv setting using this environment vari-
              able. (First supported in 3.0.0.)

              Specify a non-zero numeric value if you want the  --protect-args
              option  to  be  enabled by default, or a zero value to make sure
              that it is disabled by default. (First supported in 3.1.0.)

              The RSYNC_RSH environment variable allows you  to  override  the
              default  shell  used  as  the transport for rsync.  Command line
              options are permitted after the command name, just as in the  -e

              The RSYNC_PROXY environment variable allows you to redirect your
              rsync client to use a web proxy when connecting to a rsync  dae-
              mon. You should set RSYNC_PROXY to a hostname:port pair.

              .cvsignore file.

       /etc/rsyncd.conf or rsyncd.conf


       times are transferred as *nix time_t values

       When transferring to  FAT  filesystems  rsync  may  re-sync  unmodified
       files.  See the comments on the --modify-window option.

       file  permissions,  devices,  etc.  are transferred as native numerical

       see also the comments on the --delete option

       Please report bugs! See the web site at

       This man page is current for version 3.1.0 of rsync.

       The options --server and --sender are used  internally  by  rsync,  and
       should  never  be  typed  by  a  user under normal circumstances.  Some
       awareness of these options may be needed in certain scenarios, such  as
       when  setting  up  a  login  that  can  only run an rsync command.  For
       instance, the support directory of the rsync distribution has an  exam-
       ple  script named rrsync (for restricted rsync) that can be used with a
       restricted ssh login.

       rsync is distributed under the GNU General  Public  License.   See  the
       file COPYING for details.

       A  WEB site is available at  The site includes
       an FAQ-O-Matic which may cover  questions  unanswered  by  this  manual

       The primary ftp site for rsync is

       We  would  be  delighted  to  hear  from  you if you like this program.
       Please contact the mailing-list at

       This program uses the excellent zlib  compression  library  written  by
       Jean-loup Gailly and Mark Adler.

       Special  thanks  go  out  to: John Van Essen, Matt McCutchen, Wesley W.
       Terpstra, David Dykstra, Jos Backus, Sebastian  Krahmer,  Martin  Pool,
       and our gone-but-not-forgotten compadre, J.W. Schultz.

                                  28 Sep 2013                         rsync(1)
Man Pages Copyright Respective Owners. Site Copyright (C) 1994 - 2019 Hurricane Electric. All Rights Reserved.