ufw-framework


DESCRIPTION
       ufw provides both a command line interface and a framework for managing
       a netfilter firewall. While the ufw command provides  an  easy  to  use
       interface  for  managing  a  firewall,  the  ufw framework provides the
       administrator methods to customize default behavior and add  rules  not
       supported  by  the  command  line  tool. In this way, ufw can take full
       advantage of Linux netfilter's power and flexibility.


OVERVIEW
       The framework provides boot time initialization, rules files for adding
       custom  rules, a method for loading netfilter modules, configuration of
       kernel parameters and configuration of IPv6. The framework consists  of
       the following files:

       /lib/ufw/ufw-init
              initialization script

       /etc/ufw/before[6].rules
              rules file containing rules evaluated before UI added rules

       /lib/ufw/user[6].rules
              rules  file containing UI added rules (managed with the ufw com-
              mand)

       /etc/ufw/after[6].rules
              rules file containing rules evaluated after UI added rules

       /etc/default/ufw
              high level configuration

       /etc/ufw/sysctl.conf
              kernel network tunables

       /etc/ufw/ufw.conf
              additional high level configuration


BOOT INITIALIZATION
       ufw is started on boot with /lib/ufw/ufw-init. This script is  a  stan-
       dard  SysV  style  initscript used by the ufw command and should not be
       modified. It supports the following arguments:

       start: loads the firewall

       stop:  unloads the firewall

       restart:
              reloads the firewall

       force-reload:
              same as restart

       chains. If MANAGE_BUILTINS in /etc/default/ufw is set to 'yes', on stop
       and reload the built-in chains are flushed. If it is set  to  'no',  on
       stop  and  reload the ufw secondary chains are removed and the ufw pri-
       mary chains are flushed. In  addition  to  flushing  the  ufw  specific
       chains,  it  keeps the primary chains in the same order with respect to
       any other user-defined chains that may have been added. This allows for
       ufw to interoperate with other software that may manage their own fire-
       wall rules.

       To ensure your firewall is loading on boot,  you  must  integrate  this
       script into the boot process. Consult your distribution's documentation
       for the proper way to modify your boot process if ufw  is  not  already
       integrated.


RULES FILES
       ufw  is  in part a front-end for iptables-restore, with its rules saved
       in /etc/ufw/before.rules, /etc/ufw/after.rules and /lib/ufw/user.rules.
       Administrators  can  customize  before.rules and after.rules as desired
       using the standard iptables-restore syntax.   Rules  are  evaluated  as
       follows:  before.rules  first,  user.rules  next, and after.rules last.
       IPv6 rules are evaluated in the same way, with the  rules  files  named
       before6.rules,  user6.rules and after6.rules. Please note that ufw sta-
       tus only shows rules added with ufw and not  the  rules  found  in  the
       /etc/ufw rules files.

       Important:  ufw only uses the *filter table by default. You may add any
       other tables such as *nat, *raw and *mangle as desired. For each  table
       a corresponding COMMIT statement is required.

       After  modifying  any of these files, you must reload ufw for the rules
       to take effect.  See the EXAMPLES section  for  common  uses  of  these
       rules files.


MODULES
       Netfilter has many different connection tracking modules. These modules
       are aware of the underlying protocol and  allow  the  administrator  to
       simplify  his  or her rule sets. You can adjust which netfilter modules
       to load by adjusting IPT_MODULES in /etc/default/ufw. Some popular mod-
       ules to load are:

         nf_conntrack_ftp
         nf_nat_ftp
         nf_conntrack_irc
         nf_nat_irc
         nf_conntrack_netbios_ns
         nf_conntrack_pptp
         nf_conntrack_tftp
         nf_nat_tftp


KERNEL PARAMETERS
       ufw  will  read  in  /etc/ufw/sysctl.conf on boot when enabled.  Please

EXAMPLES
       As  mentioned,  ufw  loads its rules files into the kernel by using the
       iptables-restore and ip6tables-restore commands. Users wanting  to  add
       rules  to  the  ufw rules files manually must be familiar with these as
       well as the iptables and ip6tables  commands.  Below  are  some  common
       examples  of  using the ufw rules files.  All examples assume IPv4 only
       and that DEFAULT_FORWARD_POLICY in /etc/default/ufw is set to DROP.

   IP Masquerading
       To allow IP masquerading for computers from the 10.0.0.0/8  network  to
       share the single IP address on eth0:

       Edit /etc/ufw/sysctl.conf to have:
               net.ipv4.ip_forward=1

       Add to the end of /etc/ufw/before.rules, after the *filter section:
               *nat
               :POSTROUTING ACCEPT [0:0]
               -A POSTROUTING -s 10.0.0.0/8 -o eth0 -j MASQUERADE
               COMMIT

       If  your  firewall is using IPv6 tunnels or 6to4 and is also doing NAT,
       then you should not usually masquerade protocol  '41'  (ipv6)  packets.
       For  example,  instead  of  the  above,  /etc/ufw/before.rules  can  be
       adjusted to have:
               *nat
               :POSTROUTING ACCEPT [0:0]
               -A POSTROUTING -s 10.0.0.0/8 --protocol ! 41 -o  eth0  -j  MAS-
              QUERADE
               COMMIT

   Port Redirections
       To forward tcp port 80 on eth0 to go to the webserver at 10.0.0.2:

       Edit /etc/ufw/sysctl.conf to have:
               net.ipv4.ip_forward=1

       Add to the *filter section of /etc/ufw/before.rules:
               -A ufw-before-forward -m state --state RELATED,ESTABLISHED \
                 -j ACCEPT
               -A ufw-before-forward -m state --state NEW -i eth0 \
                 -d 10.0.0.2 -p tcp --dport 80 -j ACCEPT

       Add to the end of /etc/ufw/before.rules, after the *filter section:
               *nat
               :PREROUTING ACCEPT [0:0]
               -A PREROUTING -p tcp -i eth0 --dport 80 -j DNAT \
                 --to-destination 10.0.0.2:80
               COMMIT


   Egress filtering
       To block RFC1918 addresses going out of eth0:

       less open.

       This router/firewall has two interfaces:  eth0  (Internet  facing)  and
       eth1  (internal LAN). Internal clients have addresses on the 10.0.0.0/8
       network and should be able to connect to anywhere on the Internet. Con-
       nections  to port 80 from the Internet should be forwarded to 10.0.0.2.
       Access to ssh port 22 from the administrative workstation  (10.0.0.100)
       to  this  machine should be allowed. Also make sure no internal traffic
       goes to the Internet.

       Edit /etc/ufw/sysctl.conf to have:
                net.ipv4.ip_forward=1

       Add to the *filter section of /etc/ufw/before.rules:
               -A ufw-before-forward -m state --state RELATED,ESTABLISHED \
                 -j ACCEPT

               -A ufw-before-forward -i eth1 -s 10.0.0.0/8 -o eth0 -m state \
                 --state NEW -j ACCEPT

               -A ufw-before-forward -m state --state NEW -i eth0 \
                 -d 10.0.0.2 -p tcp --dport 80 -j ACCEPT

               -A ufw-before-forward -o eth0 -d 10.0.0.0/8 -j REJECT
               -A ufw-before-forward -o eth0 -d 172.16.0.0/12 -j REJECT
               -A ufw-before-forward -o eth0 -d 192.168.0.0/16 -j REJECT

       Add to the end of /etc/ufw/before.rules, after the *filter section:
               *nat
               :PREROUTING ACCEPT [0:0]
               :POSTROUTING ACCEPT [0:0]
               -A PREROUTING -p tcp -i eth0 --dport 80 -j DNAT \
                 --to-destination 10.0.0.2:80
               -A POSTROUTING -s 10.0.0.0/8 -o eth0 -j MASQUERADE
               COMMIT

       For allowing ssh on eth1 from 10.0.0.100, use the ufw command:
               # ufw allow in on eth1 from 10.0.0.100 to any port 22 proto tcp


SEE ALSO
       ufw(8),      iptables(8),      ip6tables(8),       iptables-restore(8),
       ip6tables-restore(8), sysctl(8), sysctl.conf(5)


AUTHOR
       ufw is Copyright 2008-2011, Canonical Ltd.


       ufw  and  this  manual  page was originally written by Jamie Strandboge
       <jamie@canonical.com>
Man Pages Copyright Respective Owners. Site Copyright (C) 1994 - 2017 Hurricane Electric. All Rights Reserved.