This program is for managing a Linux firewall and aims to provide an
easy to use interface for the user.
ufw [--dry-run] enable|disable|reload
ufw [--dry-run] default allow|deny|reject [incoming|outgoing]
ufw [--dry-run] logging on|off|LEVEL
ufw [--dry-run] reset
ufw [--dry-run] status [verbose|numbered]
ufw [--dry-run] show REPORT
ufw [--dry-run] [delete] [insert NUM] allow|deny|reject|limit [in|out]
ufw [--dry-run] [delete] [insert NUM] allow|deny|reject|limit [in|out
on INTERFACE] [log|log-all] [proto protocol] [from ADDRESS [port PORT]]
[to ADDRESS [port PORT]]
ufw [--dry-run] delete NUM
ufw [--dry-run] app list|info|default|update
show program's version number and exit
show help message and exit
don't modify anything, just show the changes
enable reloads firewall and enables firewall on boot.
unloads firewall and disables firewall on boot
reload reloads firewall
default allow|deny|reject DIRECTION
change the default policy for traffic going DIRECTION, where
DIRECTION is one of incoming or outgoing. Note that existing
rules will have to be migrated manually when changing the
default policy. See RULE SYNTAX for more on deny and reject.
bose for extra information. In the status output, 'Anywhere' is
synonymous with 'any' and '0.0.0.0/0'.
display information about the running firewall. See REPORTS
add allow rule. See RULE SYNTAX
add deny rule. See RULE SYNTAX
add reject rule. See RULE SYNTAX
add limit rule. Currently only IPv4 is supported. See RULE
deletes the corresponding RULE
insert NUM RULE
insert the corresponding RULE as rule number NUM
Users can specify rules using either a simple syntax or a full syntax.
The simple syntax only specifies the port and optionally the protocol
to be allowed or denied on the host. For example:
ufw allow 53
This rule will allow tcp and udp port 53 to any address on this host.
To specify a protocol, append '/protocol' to the port. For example:
ufw allow 25/tcp
This will allow tcp port 25 to any address on this host. ufw will also
check /etc/services for the port and protocol if specifying a service
by name. Eg:
ufw allow smtp
ufw supports both ingress and egress filtering and users may optionally
specify a direction of either in or out for either incoming or outgoing
traffic. If no direction is supplied, the rule applies to incoming
ufw allow in http
ufw reject out smtp
Users can also use a fuller syntax, specifying the source and destina-
tion addresses and ports. This syntax is based on OpenBSD's PF syntax.
ufw deny proto tcp from 2001:db8::/32 to any port 25
This will deny all traffic from the IPv6 2001:db8::/32 to tcp port 25
on this host. Note that IPv6 must be enabled in /etc/default/ufw for
IPv6 firewalling to work.
ufw allow proto tcp from any to any port 80,443,8080:8090
The above will allow all traffic to tcp ports 80, 443 and 8080-8090
inclusive. Note that when specifying multiple ports, the ports list
must be numeric, cannot contain spaces and must be modified as a whole.
Eg, in the above example you cannot later try to delete just the '443'
port. You cannot specify more than 15 ports (ranges count as 2 ports,
so the port count in the above example is 4).
ufw supports connection rate limiting, which is useful for protecting
against brute-force login attacks. ufw will deny connections if an IP
address has attempted to initiate 6 or more connections in the last 30
seconds. See http://www.debian-administration.org/articles/187 for
details. Typical usage is:
ufw limit ssh/tcp
Sometimes it is desirable to let the sender know when traffic is being
denied, rather than simply ignoring it. In these cases, use reject
instead of deny. For example:
ufw reject auth
By default, ufw will apply rules to all available interfaces. To limit
this, specify DIRECTION on INTERFACE, where DIRECTION is one of in or
out (interface aliases are not supported). For example, to allow all
new incoming http connections on eth0, use:
ufw allow in on eth0 to any port 80 proto tcp
To delete a rule, simply prefix the original rule with delete. For
example, if the original rule was:
ufw deny 80/tcp
Use this to delete it:
ufw delete deny 80/tcp
You may also specify the rule by NUM, as seen in the status numbered
output. For example, if you want to delete rule number '3', use:
ufw delete 3
If you have IPv6 enabled and are deleting a generic rule that applies
ufw status numbered
ufw supports per rule logging. By default, no logging is performed when
a packet matches a rule. Specifying log will log all new connections
matching the rule, and log-all will log all packets matching the rule.
For example, to allow and log all new ssh connections, use:
ufw allow log 22/tcp
See LOGGING for more information on logging.
Deny all access to port 53:
ufw deny 53
Allow all access to tcp port 80:
ufw allow 80/tcp
Allow all access from RFC1918 networks to this host:
ufw allow from 10.0.0.0/8
ufw allow from 172.16.0.0/12
ufw allow from 192.168.0.0/16
Deny access to udp port 514 from host 22.214.171.124:
ufw deny proto udp from 126.96.36.199 to any port 514
Allow access to udp 188.8.131.52 port 5469 from 184.108.40.206 port 5469:
ufw allow proto udp from 220.127.116.11 port 5469 to 18.104.22.168 port 5469
When running ufw enable or starting ufw via its initscript, ufw will
flush its chains. This is required so ufw can maintain a consistent
state, but it may drop existing connections (eg ssh). ufw does support
adding rules before enabling the firewall, so administrators can do:
ufw allow proto tcp from any to any port 22
before running 'ufw enable'. The rules will still be flushed, but the
ssh port will be open after enabling the firewall. Please note that
once ufw is 'enabled', ufw will not flush the chains when adding or
removing rules (but will when modifying a rule or changing the default
policy). By default, ufw will prompt when enabling the firewall while
users can use:
ufw allow <name>
Or for the extended syntax:
ufw allow from 192.168.0.0/16 to any app <name>
You should not specify the protocol with either syntax, and with the
extended syntax, use app in place of the port clause.
Details on the firewall profile for a given application can be seen
ufw app info <name>
where '<name>' is one of the applications seen with the app list com-
mand. User's may also specify all to see the profiles for all known
After creating or editing an application profile, user's can run:
ufw app update <name>
This command will automatically update the firewall with updated pro-
file information. If specify 'all' for name, then all the profiles will
be updated. To update a profile and add a new rule to the firewall
automatically, user's can run:
ufw app update --add-new <name>
The behavior of the update --add-new command can be configured using:
ufw app default <policy>
The default application policy is skip, which means that the update
--add-new command will do nothing. Users may also specify a policy of
allow or deny so the update --add-new command may automatically update
the firewall. WARNING: it may be a security to risk to use a default
allow policy for application profiles. Carefully consider the security
ramifications before using a default allow policy.
ufw supports multiple logging levels. ufw defaults to a loglevel of
'low' when a loglevel is not specified. Users may specify a loglevel
ufw logging LEVEL
LEVEL may be 'off', 'low', 'medium', 'high' and full. Log levels are
off disables ufw managed logging
Loglevels above medium generate a lot of logging output, and may
quickly fill up your disk. Loglevel medium may generate a lot of log-
ging output on a busy system.
Specifying 'on' simply enables logging at log level 'low' if logging is
currently not enabled.
The following reports are supported. Each is based on the live system
and with the exception of the listening report, is in raw iptables for-
The raw report shows the complete firewall, while the others show a
subset of what is in the raw report.
The listening report will display the ports on the live system in the
listening state for tcp and the open state for udp, along with the
address of the interface and the executable listening on the port. An
'*' is used in place of the address of the interface when the exe-
cutable is bound to all interfaces on that port. Following this infor-
mation is a list of rules which may affect connections on this port.
The rules are listed in the order they are evaluated by the kernel, and
the first match wins. Please note that the default policy is not listed
and tcp6 and udp6 are shown only if IPV6 is enabled.
On installation, ufw is disabled with a default incoming policy of deny
and a default outgoing policy of allow, with stateful tracking for NEW
connections. Having a default policy of allow without stateful tracking
can be achieved by using ACCEPT_NO_TRACK instead of ACCEPT in
Rule ordering is important and the first match wins. Therefore when
adding rules, add the more specific rules first with more general rules
ufw is not intended to provide complete firewall functionality via its
command interface, but instead provides an easy way to add or remove
simple rules. It is currently mainly used for host-based firewalls.
The status command shows basic information about the state of the fire-
IPV6 is allowed by default. To change this behavior to only accept IPv6
traffic on the loopback interface, set IPV6 to 'no' in /etc/default/ufw
and reload ufw. When IPv6 is enabled, you may specify rules in the same
way as for IPv4 rules, and they will be displayed with ufw status.
Rules that match both IPv4 and IPv6 addresses apply to both IP ver-
sions. For example, when IPv6 is enabled, the following rule will allow
access to port 22 for both IPv4 and IPv6 traffic:
ufw allow 22
IPv6 over IPv4 tunnels and 6to4 are supported by using the 'ipv6' pro-
tocol ('41'). This protocol can only be used with the full syntax. For
ufw allow to 10.0.0.1 proto ipv6
ufw allow to 10.0.0.1 from 10.4.0.0/16 proto ipv6
IPSec is supported by using the 'esp' ('50') and 'ah' ('51') protocols.
These protocols can only be used with the full syntax. For example:
ufw allow to 10.0.0.1 proto esp
ufw allow to 10.0.0.1 from 10.4.0.0/16 proto esp
ufw allow to 10.0.0.1 proto ah
ufw allow to 10.0.0.1 from 10.4.0.0/16 proto ah
In addition to the command-line interface, ufw also provides a frame-
work which allows administrators to take full advantage of netfilter.
See the ufw-framework manual page for more information.
ufw-framework(8), iptables(8), ip6tables(8), iptables-restore(8),
ip6tables-restore(8), sysctl(8), sysctl.conf(5)
ufw is Copyright 2008-2009, Canonical Ltd.
ufw and this manual page was originally written by Jamie Strandboge
August 2009 UFW:(8)
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