start-stop-daemon(8)              dpkg suite              start-stop-daemon(8)

       start-stop-daemon - start and stop system daemon programs

       start-stop-daemon [option...] command

       start-stop-daemon  is  used  to control the creation and termination of
       system-level  processes.   Using   one   of   the   matching   options,
       start-stop-daemon  can  be  configured  to find existing instances of a
       running process.

       Note:  unless  --pid  or  --pidfile  are  specified,  start-stop-daemon
       behaves similar to killall(1).  start-stop-daemon will scan the process
       table looking for any processes which match the  process  name,  parent
       pid,  uid, and/or gid (if specified). Any matching process will prevent
       --start from starting the daemon. All matching processes will  be  sent
       the  TERM  signal  (or  the  one  specified via --signal or --retry) if
       --stop is specified. For daemons which have long-lived  children  which
       need to live through a --stop, you must specify a pidfile.

       -S, --start [--] arguments
              Check  for  the  existence  of  a  specified process.  If such a
              process exists, start-stop-daemon does nothing, and  exits  with
              error  status 1 (0 if --oknodo is specified).  If such a process
              does  not  exist,  it  starts  an  instance,  using  either  the
              executable  specified  by --exec or, if specified, by --startas.
              Any arguments given after -- on  the  command  line  are  passed
              unmodified to the program being started.

       -K, --stop
              Checks  for  the  existence  of  a specified process.  If such a
              process exists, start-stop-daemon sends it the signal  specified
              by  --signal,  and exits with error status 0.  If such a process
              does not exist, start-stop-daemon exits with error status  1  (0
              if  --oknodo  is  specified).  If  --retry  is  specified,  then
              start-stop-daemon  will  check   that   the   process(es)   have

       -T, --status
              Check  for  the existence of a specified process, and returns an
              exit status code, according  to  the  LSB  Init  Script  Actions
              (since version 1.16.1).

       -H, --help
              Show usage information and exit.

       -V, --version
              Show the program version and exit.

   Matching options
       --pid pid
              Check  for  a  process  with  the  specified  pid (since version
              1.17.6).  The pid must be a number greater than 0.

       --ppid ppid
              Check for a process with the specified parent  pid  ppid  (since
              version 1.17.7).  The ppid must be a number greater than 0.

       -p, --pidfile pid-file
              Check  whether  a  process  has created the file pid-file. Note:
              using  this  matching  option  alone  might   cause   unintended
              processes  to be acted on, if the old process terminated without
              being able to remove the pid-file.

       -x, --exec executable
              Check for processes that are instances of this  executable.  The
              executable  argument  should be an absolute pathname. Note: this
              might not work as intended  with  interpreted  scripts,  as  the
              executable  will  point  to  the  interpreter. Take into account
              processes running from inside a chroot will also be matched,  so
              other match restrictions might be needed.

       -n, --name process-name
              Check for processes with the name process-name. The process-name
              is usually the process filename, but it could have been  changed
              by the process itself. Note: on most systems this information is
              retrieved from the process comm  name  from  the  kernel,  which
              tends  to  have  a  relatively short length limit (assuming more
              than 15 characters is non-portable).

       -u, --user username|uid
              Check for processes owned by the user specified by  username  or
              uid.  Note:  using  this  matching  option  alone will cause all
              processes matching the user to be acted on.

   Generic options
       -g, --group group|gid
              Change to group or gid when starting the process.

       -s, --signal signal
              With --stop, specifies the signal to  send  to  processes  being
              stopped (default TERM).

       -R, --retry timeout|schedule
              With  --stop,  specifies  that  start-stop-daemon  is  to  check
              whether the process(es) do  finish.  It  will  check  repeatedly
              whether  any  matching processes are running, until none are. If
              the processes do not exit it will then take  further  action  as
              determined by the schedule.

              If  timeout  is specified instead of schedule, then the schedule
              signal/timeout/KILL/timeout is used, where signal is the  signal
              specified with --signal.

              schedule  is  a  list of at least two items separated by slashes
              (/); each item may be -signal-number  or  [-]signal-name,  which
              means  to send that signal, or timeout, which means to wait that
              many seconds for processes to exit, or forever, which  means  to
              repeat the rest of the schedule forever if necessary.

              If  the  end  of  the  schedule  is  reached  and forever is not
              specified, then start-stop-daemon exits with error status 2.  If
              a schedule is specified, then any signal specified with --signal
              is ignored.

       -a, --startas pathname
              With --start, start the process specified by pathname.   If  not
              specified, defaults to the argument given to --exec.

       -t, --test
              Print  actions  that  would  be taken and set appropriate return
              value, but take no action.

       -o, --oknodo
              Return exit status 0 instead of 1 if no actions are  (would  be)

       -q, --quiet
              Do   not   print  informational  messages;  only  display  error

       -c, --chuid username|uid[:group|gid]
              Change to this username/uid before starting the process. You can
              also  specify a group by appending a :, then the group or gid in
              the same way as you would for the chown(1) command (user:group).
              If a user is specified without a group, the primary GID for that
              user is used.  When using this option you must realize that  the
              primary  and  supplemental  groups  are set as well, even if the
              --group option is not specified. The --group option is only  for
              groups that the user isn't normally a member of (like adding per
              process group membership for generic users like nobody).

       -r, --chroot root
              Chdir and chroot to root before  starting  the  process.  Please
              note that the pidfile is also written after the chroot.

       -d, --chdir path
              Chdir  to  path  before starting the process. This is done after
              the chroot if the -r|--chroot option is set. When not specified,
              start-stop-daemon  will  chdir  to  the  root  directory  before
              starting the process.

       -b, --background
              Typically used with programs that don't  detach  on  their  own.
              This option will force start-stop-daemon to fork before starting
              the  process,  and  force  it  into  the  background.   Warning:
              start-stop-daemon  cannot  check  the exit status if the process
              fails to execute for any reason. This is a last resort,  and  is
              only  meant  for  programs  that either make no sense forking on
              their own, or where it's not feasible to add the code  for  them
              to do this themselves.

       -C, --no-close
              Do  not  close  any file descriptor when forcing the daemon into
              the background  (since  version  1.16.5).   Used  for  debugging
              purposes  to  see  the  process  output,  or  to  redirect  file
              descriptors to log the process output.  Only relevant when using

       -N, --nicelevel int
              This alters the priority of the process before starting it.

       -P, --procsched policy:priority
              This  alters  the  process  scheduler policy and priority of the
              process before starting it (since version 1.15.0).  The priority
              can  be  optionally  specified  by appending a : followed by the
              value. The default priority is 0. The currently supported policy
              values are other, fifo and rr.

       -I, --iosched class:priority
              This  alters  the IO scheduler class and priority of the process
              before starting it (since version 1.15.0).  The priority can  be
              optionally specified by appending a : followed by the value. The
              default priority is 4, unless class is idle, then priority  will
              always  be 7. The currently supported values for class are idle,
              best-effort and real-time.

       -k, --umask mask
              This sets the umask of the process  before  starting  it  (since
              version 1.13.22).

       -m, --make-pidfile
              Used  when  starting  a program that does not create its own pid
              file. This option will make start-stop-daemon  create  the  file
              referenced  with --pidfile and place the pid into it just before
              executing the process. Note, the file will only be removed  when
              stopping  the  program  if --remove-pidfile is used.  Note: This
              feature may not work in all cases. Most notably when the program
              being  executed forks from its main process. Because of this, it
              is usually only  useful  when  combined  with  the  --background

              Used  when  stopping  a program that does not remove its own pid
              file  (since  version   1.17.19).    This   option   will   make
              start-stop-daemon  remove  the  file  referenced  with --pidfile
              after terminating the process.

       -v, --verbose
              Print verbose informational messages.

       0      The requested action was performed. If --oknodo  was  specified,
              it's also possible that nothing had to be done.  This can happen
              when --start was specified and a matching  process  was  already
              running, or when --stop was specified and there were no matching

       1      If --oknodo was not specified and nothing was done.

       2      If --stop and  --retry  were  specified,  but  the  end  of  the
              schedule was reached and the processes were still running.

       3      Any other error.

       When  using  the  --status  command,  the  following  status  codes are

       0      Program is running.

       1      Program is not running and the pid file exists.

       3      Program is not running.

       4      Unable to determine program status.

       Start the food daemon, unless one is already running (a  process  named
       food, running as user food, with pid in

              start-stop-daemon --start --oknodo --user food --name food \
                   --pidfile /run/ --startas /usr/sbin/food \
                   --chuid food -- --daemon

       Send SIGTERM to food and wait up to 5 seconds for it to stop:

              start-stop-daemon --stop --oknodo --user food --name food \
                   --pidfile /run/ --retry 5

       Demonstration of a custom schedule for stopping food:

              start-stop-daemon --stop --oknodo --user food --name food \
                   --pidfile /run/ --retry=TERM/30/KILL/5                          2019-09-05              start-stop-daemon(8)
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