smartd [options]


       smartmontools-6.2 2013-07-26 r3841

       [This man page is generated for the Linux version of smartmontools.  It
       does not contain info specific to other platforms.]

       smartd is a daemon that  monitors  the  Self-Monitoring,  Analysis  and
       Reporting  Technology  (SMART)  system  built  into  most  ATA/SATA and
       SCSI/SAS hard drives and solid-state drives.  The purpose of  SMART  is
       to  monitor  the  reliability of the hard drive and predict drive fail-
       ures, and to carry out different types of drive self-tests.  This  ver-
       sion of smartd is compatible with ACS-2, ATA8-ACS, ATA/ATAPI-7 and ear-
       lier standards (see REFERENCES below).

       smartd will attempt to enable SMART monitoring on ATA devices  (equiva-
       lent  to smartctl -s on) and polls these and SCSI devices every 30 min-
       utes  (configurable),  logging  SMART  errors  and  changes  of   SMART
       Attributes  via  the  SYSLOG interface.  The default location for these
       SYSLOG  notifications  and  warnings  is  system-dependent   (typically
       /var/log/messages  or  /var/log/syslog).   To change this default loca-
       tion, please see the '-l' command-line option described below.

       In addition to logging to a file, smartd can also be configured to send
       email  warnings  if  problems are detected.  Depending upon the type of
       problem, you may want to run self-tests on the disk, back up the  disk,
       replace the disk, or use a manufacturer's utility to force reallocation
       of bad or unreadable disk sectors.   If  disk  problems  are  detected,
       please  see the smartctl manual page and the smartmontools web page/FAQ
       for further guidance.

       If you send a USR1 signal to smartd it will immediately check the  sta-
       tus  of  the  disks, and then return to polling the disks every 30 min-
       utes. See the '-i' option below for additional details.

       smartd can be configured  at  start-up  using  the  configuration  file
       /etc/smartd.conf  (Windows:  EXEDIR/smartd.conf).  If the configuration
       file is subsequently modified, smartd can be told to re-read  the  con-
       figuration  file  by sending it a HUP signal, for example with the com-
       killall -HUP smartd.

       On startup, if smartd finds a syntax error in the  configuration  file,
       On  startup, in the absence of the configuration file /etc/smartd.conf,
       the smartd daemon first scans for all devices that support SMART.   The
       scanning is done as follows:

       LINUX:   Examine  all  entries  "/dev/hd[a-t]" for IDE/ATA devices, and
                "/dev/sd[a-z]", "/dev/sd[a-c][a-z]" for SCSI or SATA  devices.
                Disks behind RAID controllers are not included.

       smartd  then  monitors  for all possible SMART errors (corresponding to
       the '-a' Directive in the configuration file;  see  the  smartd.conf(5)
       man page).

       If  a  cciss  controller  is  used  then the corresponding block device
       (/dev/cciss/c?d?) must be listed, along with the '-d cciss,N' Directive
       (see below).

       -A PREFIX, --attributelog=PREFIX
              Writes   smartd   attribute   information  (normalized  and  raw
              attribute values)  to  files  'PREFIX''MODEL-SERIAL.ata.csv'  or
              'PREFIX''VENDOR-MODEL-SERIAL.scsi.csv'.   At  each  check  cycle
              attributes are logged as a line of semicolon separated  triplets
              of  the  form  "attribute-ID;attribute-norm-value;attribute-raw-
              value;".   For  SCSI  devices  error  counters  and  temperature
              recorded  in the form "counter-name;counter-value;" Each line is
              led by a date string of the form "yyyy-mm-dd HH:MM:SS" (in UTC).

              If this option is not specified, attribute information is  writ-
              ten         to        files        '/var/lib/smartmontools/attr-
              log.MODEL-SERIAL.ata.csv'.   To  disable  attribute  log  files,
              specify  this  option  with  an  empty string argument: '-A ""'.
              MODEL and SERIAL are  build  from  drive  identify  information,
              invalid characters are replaced by underline.

              If    the    PREFIX    has    the    form   '/path/dir/'   (e.g.
              '/var/lib/smartd/'), then files 'MODEL-SERIAL.ata.csv' are  cre-
              ated  in  directory  '/path/dir'.   If  the  PREFIX has the form
              '/path/name' (e.g. '/var/lib/misc/attrlog-'), then files 'nameM-
              ODEL-SERIAL.ata.csv'  are  created  in  directory '/path/'.  The
              path must be absolute, except if debug mode is enabled.

       -B [+]FILE, --drivedb=[+]FILE
              [ATA only] Read the drive database from FILE.  The new  database
              replaces the built in database by default.  If '+' is specified,
              then the new entries prepend the built in entries.   Please  see
              the smartctl(8) man page for further details.

       -c FILE, --configfile=FILE
              Read  smartd configuration Directives from FILE, instead of from
              the     default     location     /etc/smartd.conf      (Windows:
              EXEDIR/smartd.conf).   If  FILE does not exist, then smartd will
              print an error message and exit with nonzero status.  Thus,  '-c

       -d, --debug
              Runs  smartd  in  "debug" mode. In this mode, it displays status
              information to STDOUT rather than logging it to SYSLOG and  does
              not  fork(2) into the background and detach from the controlling
              terminal.  In this mode, smartd also prints more verbose  infor-
              mation  about  what  it is doing than when operating in "daemon"
              mode. In this mode, the INT signal (normally  generated  from  a
              terminal  with  CONTROL-C) makes smartd reload its configuration
              file.  Please use CONTROL-\ to exit

       -D, --showdirectives
              Prints a list (to STDOUT) of all the possible  Directives  which
              may  appear in the configuration file /etc/smartd.conf, and then
              exits.  These Directives are also described later  in  this  man
              page.  They  may  appear in the configuration file following the
              device name.

       -h, --help, --usage
              Prints usage message to STDOUT and exits.

       -i N, --interval=N
              Sets the interval between disk checks to N seconds, where N is a
              decimal integer.  The minimum allowed value is ten and the maxi-
              mum is the largest positive integer that can be  represented  on
              your system (often 2^31-1).  The default is 1800 seconds.

              Note  that the superuser can make smartd check the status of the
              disks at any time by sending it the SIGUSR1 signal, for  example
              with the command:
              kill -SIGUSR1 <pid>
              where  <pid>  is  the process id number of smartd.  One may also
              killall -USR1 smartd
              for the same purpose.

       -l FACILITY, --logfacility=FACILITY
              Uses syslog facility FACILITY to log the messages  from  smartd.
              Here  FACILITY  is one of local0, local1, ..., local7, or daemon
              [default].  If this command-line option is  not  used,  then  by
              default messages from smartd are logged to the facility daemon.

              If you would like to have smartd messages logged somewhere other
              than the default location, this can  typically  be  accomplished
              with (for example) the following steps:

              [1] Modify  the  script that starts smartd to include the smartd
                  command-line argument '-l local3'.  This tells smartd to log
                  its messages to facility local3.

              [2] Modify  the  syslogd configuration file (typically /etc/sys-
                  log.conf) by adding a line of the form:
                  local3.* /var/log/smartd.log
                  This tells syslogd to log all  the  messages  from  facility

       -n, --no-fork
              Do  not  fork into background; this is useful when executed from
              modern init methods like initng, minit or supervise.

       -p NAME, --pidfile=NAME
              Writes pidfile NAME containing  the  smartd  Process  ID  number
              (PID).   To  avoid  symlink  attacks  make sure the directory to
              which pidfile is written is only  writable  for  root.   Without
              this  option,  or if the --debug option is given, no PID file is
              written on startup.  If smartd is killed with a maskable  signal
              then the pidfile is removed.

       -q WHEN, --quit=WHEN
              Specifies  when,  if  ever, smartd should exit.  The valid argu-
              ments are to this option are:

              nodev - Exit if there are no  devices  to  monitor,  or  if  any
              errors  are found at startup in the configuration file.  This is
              the default.

              errors - Exit if there are no devices  to  monitor,  or  if  any
              errors  are  found in the configuration file /etc/smartd.conf at
              startup or whenever it is reloaded.

              nodevstartup - Exit if  there  are  no  devices  to  monitor  at
              startup.   But  continue to run if no devices are found whenever
              the configuration file is reloaded.

              never - Only exit if a fatal error occurs (no  remaining  system
              memory,  invalid  command line arguments). In this mode, even if
              there are no devices to monitor, or if  the  configuration  file
              /etc/smartd.conf  has errors, smartd will continue to run, wait-
              ing to load a configuration file listing valid devices.

              onecheck - Start smartd in debug mode,  then  register  devices,
              then  check  device's SMART status once, and then exit with zero
              exit status if all of these steps worked correctly.

              This last option is intended for 'distribution-writers' who want
              to create automated scripts to determine whether or not to auto-
              matically start up smartd after installing smartmontools.  After
              starting  smartd  with  this  command-line option, the distribu-
              tion's install scripts should wait a reasonable length  of  time
              (say ten seconds).  If smartd has not exited with zero status by
              that time, the script should send smartd a  SIGTERM  or  SIGKILL
              and  assume  that smartd will not operate correctly on the host.
              Conversely, if smartd exits with zero status, then it is safe to
              run smartd in normal daemon mode. If smartd is unable to monitor
              any devices or encounters other problems  then  it  will  return
              with non-zero exit status.

              showtests  -  Start smartd in debug mode, then register devices,
              then write a list of future scheduled self tests to stdout,  and
              then  exit  with  zero  exit status if all of these steps worked
              actions with the device.  The option can be used multiple times.
              When used just once, it shows a record of the  ioctl()  transac-
              tions  with the device.  When used more than once, the detail of
              these ioctl() transactions are reported in greater detail.   The
              valid arguments to this option are:

              ioctl - report all ioctl() transactions.

              ataioctl - report only ioctl() transactions with ATA devices.

              scsiioctl - report only ioctl() transactions with SCSI devices.

              Any argument may include a positive integer to specify the level
              of detail that should be reported.  The argument should be  fol-
              lowed  by a comma then the integer with no spaces.  For example,
              ataioctl,2 The default level is 1, so '-r  ataioctl,1'  and  '-r
              ataioctl' are equivalent.

       -s PREFIX, --savestates=PREFIX
              Reads/writes   smartd  state  information  from/to  files  'PRE-
              FIX''MODEL-SERIAL.ata.state'          or           'PREFIX''VEN-
              DOR-MODEL-SERIAL.scsi.state'.   This preserves SMART attributes,
              drive min and max temperatures (-W directive), info  about  last
              sent warning email (-m directive), and the time of next check of
              the self-test REGEXP (-s directive) across boot cycles.

              If this option is not specified, state information is maintained
              in  files '/var/lib/smartmontools/smartd.MODEL-SERIAL.ata.state'
              for   ATA   devices   and    '/var/lib/smartmontools/smartd.VEN-
              DOR-MODEL-SERIAL.scsi.state' for SCSI devices.  To disable state
              files, specify this option with an empty  string  argument:  '-s
              ""'.   MODEL  and  SERIAL are build from drive identify informa-
              tion, invalid characters are replaced by underline.

              If   the   PREFIX    has    the    form    '/path/dir/'    (e.g.
              '/var/lib/smartd/'),  then  files  'MODEL-SERIAL.ata.state'  are
              created in directory '/path/dir'.  If the PREFIX  has  the  form
              '/path/name' (e.g. '/var/lib/misc/smartd-'), then files 'nameMO-
              DEL-SERIAL.ata.state' are created in  directory  '/path/'.   The
              path must be absolute, except if debug mode is enabled.

              The  state  information  files  are  read on smartd startup. The
              files are always (re)written  after  reading  the  configuration
              file,  before  rereading the configuration file (SIGHUP), before
              smartd shutdown, and after a check forced by  SIGUSR1.  After  a
              normal  check  cycle,  a  file is only rewritten if an important
              change (which usually results in a SYSLOG output) occurred.

       -w PATH, --warnexec=PATH
              [NEW  EXPERIMENTAL  SMARTD  FEATURE]  Run  the  executable  PATH
              instead  of the default script when smartd needs to send warning
              messages.  PATH must point  to  an  executable  binary  file  or
              script.  The default script is /etc/

       smartd -d -i 30
       Run  in foreground (debug) mode, checking the disk status every 30 sec-

       smartd -q onecheck
       Registers devices, and checks the status of the devices  exactly  once.
       The  exit status (the bash $?  variable) will be zero if all went well,
       and nonzero if no devices were  detected  or  some  other  problem  was

       Note  that smartmontools provides a start-up script in /smartd which is
       responsible for starting and stopping the daemon via  the  normal  init
       interface.   Using this script, you can start smartd by giving the com-
       /smartd start
       and stop it by using the command:
       /smartd stop

       The syntax of the smartd.conf(5) file is discussed separately.

       smartd will make log entries at loglevel  LOG_INFO  if  the  Normalized
       SMART  Attribute values have changed, as reported using the '-t', '-p',
       or '-u' Directives. For example:
       'Device: /dev/hda, SMART Attribute: 194 Temperature_Celsius changed from 94 to 93'
       Note that in this message, the value given is the 'Normalized' not  the
       'Raw'  Attribute  value  (the disk temperature in this case is about 22
       Celsius).  The '-R' and '-r' Directives modify this behavior,  so  that
       the information is printed with the Raw values as well, for example:
       'Device: /dev/hda, SMART Attribute: 194 Temperature_Celsius changed from 94 [Raw 22] to 93 [Raw 23]'
       Here  the  Raw values are the actual disk temperatures in Celsius.  The
       way in which the Raw values are printed, and the names under which  the
       Attributes  are  reported,  is governed by the various '-v Num,Descrip-
       tion' Directives described previously.

       Please see the smartctl manual page for further explanation of the dif-
       ferences between Normalized and Raw Attribute values.

       smartd  will make log entries at loglevel LOG_CRIT if a SMART Attribute
       has failed, for example:
       'Device: /dev/hdc, Failed SMART Attribute: 5 Reallocated_Sector_Ct'
        This loglevel  is  used  for  reporting  enabled  by  the  '-H',  -f',
       '-l selftest',  and '-l error' Directives. Entries reporting failure of
       SMART Prefailure Attributes should not be ignored: they mean  that  the
       disk is failing.  Use the smartctl utility to investigate.

       When smartd makes log entries, these are time-stamped.  The time stamps
       are in the computer's local time zone, which  is  generally  set  using
       either  the environment variable 'TZ' or using a time-zone file such as
       /etc/localtime.  You may wish to change the timezone  while  smartd  is
       running  (for  example,  if  you  carry a laptop to a new time-zone and
              in debug mode, a SIGQUIT).

       1:     Commandline did not parse.

       2:     There was a syntax error in the config file.

       3:     Forking the daemon failed.

       4:     Couldn't create PID file.

       5:     Config  file  does  not exist (only returned in conjunction with
              the '-c' option).

       6:     Config file exists, but cannot be read.

       8:     smartd ran out of memory during startup.

       9:     A compile time constant of smartd was too small.   This  can  be
              caused  by  an  excessive  number  of  disks,  or  by  lines  in
              /etc/smartd.conf that are too long.  Please report this  problem

       10:    An inconsistency was found in smartd's internal data structures.
              This should never happen.  It must be due to either a coding  or
              compiler bug.  Please report such failures to smartmontools-sup-

       16:    A device explicitly listed in /etc/smartd.conf  can't  be  moni-

       17:    smartd didn't find any devices to monitor.

       254:   When in daemon mode, smartd received a SIGINT or SIGQUIT.  (Note
              that in debug mode, SIGINT has the same effect  as  SIGHUP,  and
              makes smartd reload its configuration file. SIGQUIT has the same
              effect as SIGTERM and causes smartd to exit with zero exit  sta-

       132 and above
              smartd  was  killed  by  a  signal that is not explicitly listed
              above.  The exit status is then 128 plus the signal number.  For
              example  if smartd is killed by SIGKILL (signal 9) then the exit
              status is 137.

       Bruce Allen
       University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee Physics Department
       Christian Franke (Windows interface, C++  redesign,  most  enhancements
       since 2009)

       Phil Williams (User interface and drive database)
       Shengfeng Zhou (Linux/FreeBSD HighPoint RocketRAID interface)
       Many other individuals have made smaller contributions and corrections.

       This  code  was derived from the smartsuite package, written by Michael
       Cornwell, and from the previous UCSC smartsuite  package.   It  extends
       these  to  cover  ATA-5 disks.  This code was originally developed as a
       Senior Thesis by Michael Cornwell at the Concurrent Systems  Laboratory
       (now  part  of the Storage Systems Research Center), Jack Baskin School
       of    Engineering,    University    of    California,    Santa    Cruz. .

       Please  see  the following web site for updates, further documentation,
       bug reports and patches:

       smartd.conf(5), smartctl(8), syslogd(8), syslog.conf(5),  badblocks(8),
       ide-smart(8), regex(7).

       An  introductory  article  about smartmontools is Monitoring Hard Disks
       with SMART, by Bruce Allen, Linux Journal, January 2004,  pages  74-77.
       This is online.

       If  you  would  like  to understand better how SMART works, and what it
       does, a good place to start is with Sections 4.8 and 6.54 of the  first
       volume  of  the  'AT  Attachment with Packet Interface-7' (ATA/ATAPI-7)
       specification Revision 4b.   This  documents  the  SMART  functionality
       which the smartmontools utilities provide access to.

       The  functioning of SMART was originally defined by the SFF-8035i revi-
       sion 2 and the SFF-8055i revision 1.4 specifications.  These are publi-
       cations of the Small Form Factors (SFF) Committee.

       Links  to  these  and other documents may be found on the Links page of
       the smartmontools  Wiki  at
       tools/wiki/Links .

       $Id: 3799 2013-03-15 17:47:25Z chrfranke $

smartmontools-6.2                 2013-07-26                         SMARTD(8)
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