SMARTD(8)                   SMART Monitoring Tools                   SMARTD(8)

       smartd - SMART Disk Monitoring Daemon

       smartd [options]

       [This man page is generated for the Linux version of smartmontools.  It
       does not contain info specific to other platforms.]

       smartd is a daemon that  monitors  the  Self-Monitoring,  Analysis  and
       Reporting  Technology  (SMART)  system  built  into  most  ATA/SATA and
       SCSI/SAS hard drives and solid-state drives.  The purpose of  SMART  is
       to  monitor  the  reliability of the hard drive and predict drive fail-
       ures, and to carry out different types of drive self-tests.  This  ver-
       sion  of  smartd is compatible with ACS-3, ACS-2, ATA8-ACS, ATA/ATAPI-7
       and earlier standards (see REFERENCES below).

       smartd will attempt to enable SMART monitoring on ATA devices  (equiva-
       lent  to smartctl -s on) and polls these and SCSI devices every 30 min-
       utes  (configurable),  logging  SMART  errors  and  changes  of   SMART
       Attributes  via  the  SYSLOG interface.  The default location for these
       SYSLOG  notifications  and  warnings  is  system-dependent   (typically
       /var/log/messages  or  /var/log/syslog).   To change this default loca-
       tion, please see the '-l' command-line option described below.

       In addition to logging to a file, smartd can also be configured to send
       email  warnings  if  problems are detected.  Depending upon the type of
       problem, you may want to run self-tests on the disk, back up the  disk,
       replace the disk, or use a manufacturer's utility to force reallocation
       of bad or unreadable disk sectors.   If  disk  problems  are  detected,
       please  see the smartctl manual page and the smartmontools web page/FAQ
       for further guidance.

       If you send a USR1 signal to smartd it will immediately check the  sta-
       tus  of  the  disks, and then return to polling the disks every 30 min-
       utes. See the '-i' option below for additional details.

       smartd can be configured  at  start-up  using  the  configuration  file
       /etc/smartd.conf  (Windows:  EXEDIR/smartd.conf).  If the configuration
       file is subsequently modified, smartd can be told to re-read  the  con-
       figuration  file  by sending it a HUP signal, for example with the com-
       killall -HUP smartd.

       On startup, if smartd finds a syntax error in the  configuration  file,
       it  will  print  an  error  message and then exit. However if smartd is
       already running, then is told with a HUP signal to re-read the configu-
       ration  file,  and then find a syntax error in this file, it will print
       an error message and  then  continue,  ignoring  the  contents  of  the
       (faulty)  configuration  file,  as  if  the  HUP  signal had never been

       When smartd is running in debug mode, the INT signal  (normally  gener-
       ated  from  a shell with CONTROL-C) is treated in the same way as a HUP
       signal: it makes smartd reload its configuration file. To  exit  smartd
       use CONTROL-\

       On  startup, in the absence of the configuration file /etc/smartd.conf,
       the smartd daemon first scans for all devices that support SMART.   The
       scanning is done as follows:

       LINUX:   Examine  all  entries  "/dev/hd[a-t]" for IDE/ATA devices, and
                "/dev/sd[a-z]", "/dev/sd[a-c][a-z]" for ATA/SATA  or  SCSI/SAS
                devices.  Disks behind RAID controllers are not included.

                [NEW  EXPERIMENTAL  SMARTD  FEATURE] If directive '-d nvme' is
                specified, examine  all  entries  "/dev/nvme[0-99]"  for  NVMe

       smartd  then  monitors  for all possible SMART errors (corresponding to
       the '-a' Directive in the configuration file;  see  the  smartd.conf(5)
       man page).

       -A PREFIX, --attributelog=PREFIX
              Writes   smartd   attribute   information  (normalized  and  raw
              attribute values)  to  files  'PREFIX''MODEL-SERIAL.ata.csv'  or
              'PREFIX''VENDOR-MODEL-SERIAL.scsi.csv'.   At  each  check  cycle
              attributes are logged as a line of semicolon separated  triplets
              of  the  form  "attribute-ID;attribute-norm-value;attribute-raw-
              value;".   For  SCSI  devices  error  counters  and  temperature
              recorded  in the form "counter-name;counter-value;" Each line is
              led by a date string of the form "yyyy-mm-dd HH:MM:SS" (in UTC).

              If this option is not specified, attribute information is  writ-
              ten         to        files        '/var/lib/smartmontools/attr-
              log.MODEL-SERIAL.ata.csv'.   To  disable  attribute  log  files,
              specify  this  option  with  an  empty string argument: '-A ""'.
              MODEL and SERIAL are  build  from  drive  identify  information,
              invalid characters are replaced by underline.

              If    the    PREFIX    has    the    form   '/path/dir/'   (e.g.
              '/var/lib/smartd/'), then files 'MODEL-SERIAL.ata.csv' are  cre-
              ated  in  directory  '/path/dir'.   If  the  PREFIX has the form
              '/path/name' (e.g. '/var/lib/misc/attrlog-'), then files 'nameM-
              ODEL-SERIAL.ata.csv'  are  created  in  directory '/path/'.  The
              path must be absolute, except if debug mode is enabled.

       -B [+]FILE, --drivedb=[+]FILE
              [ATA only] Read the drive database from FILE.  The new  database
              replaces the built in database by default.  If '+' is specified,
              then the new entries prepend the built in entries.   Please  see
              the smartctl(8) man page for further details.

       -c FILE, --configfile=FILE
              Read  smartd configuration Directives from FILE, instead of from
              the     default     location     /etc/smartd.conf      (Windows:
              EXEDIR/smartd.conf).   If  FILE does not exist, then smartd will
              print an error message and exit with nonzero status.  Thus,  '-c
              /etc/smartd.conf'  can  be  used  to verify the existence of the
              default configuration file.

              By using '-' for FILE, the configuration is read  from  standard
              input. This is useful for commands like:
              echo /dev/sdb -m user@home -M test | smartd -c - -q onecheck
              to perform quick and simple checks without a configuration file.

       -C, --capabilities
              [Linux  only] Use libcap-ng to drop unneeded Linux process capa-
              bilities(7).    The    following    capabilities    are    kept:

              Warning: Mail notification does not work when used.

       -d, --debug
              Runs  smartd  in  "debug" mode. In this mode, it displays status
              information to STDOUT rather than logging it to SYSLOG and  does
              not  fork(2) into the background and detach from the controlling
              terminal.  In this mode, smartd also prints more verbose  infor-
              mation  about  what  it is doing than when operating in "daemon"
              mode. In this mode, the INT signal (normally  generated  from  a
              terminal  with  CONTROL-C) makes smartd reload its configuration
              file.  Please use CONTROL-\ to exit

       -D, --showdirectives
              Prints a list (to STDOUT) of all the possible  Directives  which
              may  appear in the configuration file /etc/smartd.conf, and then
              exits.  These Directives are described in the smartd.conf(5) man
              page.   They  may appear in the configuration file following the
              device name.

       -h, --help, --usage
              Prints usage message to STDOUT and exits.

       -i N, --interval=N
              Sets the interval between disk checks to N seconds, where N is a
              decimal integer.  The minimum allowed value is ten and the maxi-
              mum is the largest positive integer that can be  represented  on
              your system (often 2^31-1).  The default is 1800 seconds.

              Note  that the superuser can make smartd check the status of the
              disks at any time by sending it the SIGUSR1 signal, for  example
              with the command:
              kill -SIGUSR1 <pid>
              where  <pid>  is  the process id number of smartd.  One may also
              killall -USR1 smartd
              for the same purpose.

       -l FACILITY, --logfacility=FACILITY
              Uses syslog facility FACILITY to log the messages  from  smartd.
              Here  FACILITY  is one of local0, local1, ..., local7, or daemon
              [default].  If this command-line option is  not  used,  then  by
              default messages from smartd are logged to the facility daemon.

              If you would like to have smartd messages logged somewhere other
              than the default location, include (for example) '-l local3'  in
              its  start  up argument list.  Tell the syslog daemon to log all
              messages    from    facility    local3    to    (for    example)

              For more detailed information, please refer to the man pages for
              the local syslog daemon, typically syslogd(8),  syslog-ng(8)  or

       -n, --no-fork
              Do  not  fork into background; this is useful when executed from
              modern init methods like initng, minit, supervise or systemd.

       -p NAME, --pidfile=NAME
              Writes pidfile NAME containing  the  smartd  Process  ID  number
              (PID).   To  avoid  symlink  attacks  make sure the directory to
              which pidfile is written is only  writable  for  root.   Without
              this  option,  or if the --debug option is given, no PID file is
              written on startup.  If smartd is killed with a maskable  signal
              then the pidfile is removed.

       -q WHEN, --quit=WHEN
              Specifies  when,  if  ever, smartd should exit.  The valid argu-
              ments are to this option are:

              nodev - Exit if there are no  devices  to  monitor,  or  if  any
              errors  are found at startup in the configuration file.  This is
              the default.

              errors - Exit if there are no devices  to  monitor,  or  if  any
              errors  are  found in the configuration file /etc/smartd.conf at
              startup or whenever it is reloaded.

              nodevstartup - Exit if  there  are  no  devices  to  monitor  at
              startup.   But  continue to run if no devices are found whenever
              the configuration file is reloaded.

              never - Only exit if a fatal error occurs (no  remaining  system
              memory,  invalid  command line arguments). In this mode, even if
              there are no devices to monitor, or if  the  configuration  file
              /etc/smartd.conf  has errors, smartd will continue to run, wait-
              ing to load a configuration file listing valid devices.

              onecheck - Start smartd in debug mode,  then  register  devices,
              then  check  device's SMART status once, and then exit with zero
              exit status if all of these steps worked correctly.

              This last option is intended for 'distribution-writers' who want
              to create automated scripts to determine whether or not to auto-
              matically start up smartd after installing smartmontools.  After
              starting  smartd  with  this  command-line option, the distribu-
              tion's install scripts should wait a reasonable length  of  time
              (say ten seconds).  If smartd has not exited with zero status by
              that time, the script should send smartd a  SIGTERM  or  SIGKILL
              and  assume  that smartd will not operate correctly on the host.
              Conversely, if smartd exits with zero status, then it is safe to
              run smartd in normal daemon mode. If smartd is unable to monitor
              any devices or encounters other problems  then  it  will  return
              with non-zero exit status.

              showtests  -  Start smartd in debug mode, then register devices,
              then write a list of future scheduled self tests to stdout,  and
              then  exit  with  zero  exit status if all of these steps worked
              correctly.  Device's SMART status is not checked.

              This option is intended to test whether the  '-s  REGEX'  direc-
              tives  in  smartd.conf  will have the desired effect. The output
              lists the next test schedules, limited to 5 tests per  type  and
              device.  This  is  followed  by  a  summary of all tests of each
              device within the next 90 days.

       -r TYPE, --report=TYPE
              Intended primarily to help smartmontools  developers  understand
              the  behavior  of smartmontools on non-conforming or poorly-con-
              forming hardware.  This option reports details of smartd  trans-
              actions with the device.  The option can be used multiple times.
              When used just once, it shows a record of the  ioctl()  transac-
              tions  with the device.  When used more than once, the detail of
              these ioctl() transactions are reported in greater detail.   The
              valid arguments to this option are:

              ioctl - report all ioctl() transactions.

              ataioctl - report only ioctl() transactions with ATA devices.

              scsiioctl - report only ioctl() transactions with SCSI devices.

              nvmeioctl  -  [FreeBSD,  Linux,  Windows  and  Cygwin only] [NEW
              EXPERIMENTAL SMARTD FEATURE] report  only  ioctl()  transactions
              with NVMe devices.

              Any argument may include a positive integer to specify the level
              of detail that should be reported.  The argument should be  fol-
              lowed  by a comma then the integer with no spaces.  For example,
              ataioctl,2 The default level is 1, so '-r  ataioctl,1'  and  '-r
              ataioctl' are equivalent.

       -s PREFIX, --savestates=PREFIX
              Reads/writes   smartd  state  information  from/to  files  'PRE-
              FIX''MODEL-SERIAL.ata.state'          or           'PREFIX''VEN-
              DOR-MODEL-SERIAL.scsi.state'.   This preserves SMART attributes,
              drive min and max temperatures (-W directive), info  about  last
              sent warning email (-m directive), and the time of next check of
              the self-test REGEXP (-s directive) across boot cycles.

              If this option is not specified, state information is maintained
              in  files '/var/lib/smartmontools/smartd.MODEL-SERIAL.ata.state'
              for   ATA   devices   and    '/var/lib/smartmontools/smartd.VEN-
              DOR-MODEL-SERIAL.scsi.state' for SCSI devices.  To disable state
              files, specify this option with an empty  string  argument:  '-s
              ""'.   MODEL  and  SERIAL are build from drive identify informa-
              tion, invalid characters are replaced by underline.

              If   the   PREFIX    has    the    form    '/path/dir/'    (e.g.
              '/var/lib/smartd/'),  then  files  'MODEL-SERIAL.ata.state'  are
              created in directory '/path/dir'.  If the PREFIX  has  the  form
              '/path/name' (e.g. '/var/lib/misc/smartd-'), then files 'nameMO-
              DEL-SERIAL.ata.state' are created in  directory  '/path/'.   The
              path must be absolute, except if debug mode is enabled.

              The  state  information  files  are  read on smartd startup. The
              files are always (re)written  after  reading  the  configuration
              file,  before  rereading the configuration file (SIGHUP), before
              smartd shutdown, and after a check forced by  SIGUSR1.  After  a
              normal  check  cycle,  a  file is only rewritten if an important
              change (which usually results in a SYSLOG output) occurred.

       -w PATH, --warnexec=PATH
              Run the executable PATH  instead  of  the  default  script  when
              smartd  needs  to  send warning messages.  PATH must point to an
              executable  binary  file  or  script.   The  default  script  is

       -V, --version, --license, --copyright
              Prints  version,  copyright, license, home page and SVN revision
              information for your copy of smartd to STDOUT  and  then  exits.
              Please  include  this  information  if you are reporting bugs or

       Runs the daemon in forked mode. This is the normal way to  run  smartd.
       Entries are logged to SYSLOG.

       smartd -d -i 30
       Run  in foreground (debug) mode, checking the disk status every 30 sec-

       smartd -q onecheck
       Registers devices, and checks the status of the devices  exactly  once.
       The exit status (the shell $?  variable) will be zero if all went well,
       and nonzero if no devices were  detected  or  some  other  problem  was

       The syntax of the smartd.conf(5) file is discussed separately.

       smartd  will  make  log  entries at loglevel LOG_INFO if the Normalized
       SMART Attribute values have changed, as reported using the '-t',  '-p',
       or '-u' Directives. For example:
       'Device: /dev/sda, SMART Attribute: 194 Temperature_Celsius changed from 94 to 93'
       Note  that in this message, the value given is the 'Normalized' not the
       'Raw' Attribute value (the disk temperature in this case  is  about  22
       Celsius).   The  '-R' and '-r' Directives modify this behavior, so that
       the information is printed with the Raw values as well, for example:
       'Device: /dev/sda, SMART Attribute: 194 Temperature_Celsius changed from 94 [Raw 22] to 93 [Raw 23]'
       Here the Raw values are the actual disk temperatures in  Celsius.   The
       way  in which the Raw values are printed, and the names under which the
       Attributes are reported, is governed by the  various  '-v  Num,Descrip-
       tion' Directives described previously.

       Please see the smartctl manual page for further explanation of the dif-
       ferences between Normalized and Raw Attribute values.

       smartd will make log entries at loglevel LOG_CRIT if a SMART  Attribute
       has failed, for example:
       'Device: /dev/sdc, Failed SMART Attribute: 5 Reallocated_Sector_Ct'
        This  loglevel  is  used  for  reporting  enabled  by  the  '-H', -f',
       '-l selftest', and '-l error' Directives. Entries reporting failure  of
       SMART  Prefailure  Attributes should not be ignored: they mean that the
       disk is failing.  Use the smartctl utility to investigate.

       When smartd makes log entries, these are time-stamped.  The time stamps
       are  in  the  computer's  local time zone, which is generally set using
       either the environment variable 'TZ' or using a time-zone file such  as
       /etc/localtime.   You  may  wish to change the timezone while smartd is
       running (for example, if you carry a laptop  to  a  new  time-zone  and
       don't  reboot  it).  Due to a bug in the tzset(3) function of many unix
       standard C libraries, the time-zone stamps of smartd might not  change.
       For some systems, smartd will work around this problem if the time-zone
       is set using /etc/localtime. The work-around fails if the time-zone  is
       set using the 'TZ' variable (or a file that it points to).

       The exit status (return value) of smartd can have the following values:

       0:     Daemon startup successful, or smartd was killed by a SIGTERM (or
              in debug mode, a SIGQUIT).

       1:     Commandline did not parse.

       2:     There was a syntax error in the config file.

       3:     Forking the daemon failed.

       4:     Couldn't create PID file.

       5:     Config file does not exist (only returned  in  conjunction  with
              the '-c' option).

       6:     Config file exists, but cannot be read.

       8:     smartd ran out of memory during startup.

       10:    An inconsistency was found in smartd's internal data structures.
              This should never happen.  It must be due to either a coding  or
              compiler  bug.   Please  report  such  failures to smartmontools
              developers, see REPORTING BUGS below.

       16:    A device explicitly listed in /etc/smartd.conf  can't  be  moni-

       17:    smartd didn't find any devices to monitor.

       254:   When in daemon mode, smartd received a SIGINT or SIGQUIT.  (Note
              that in debug mode, SIGINT has the same effect  as  SIGHUP,  and
              makes smartd reload its configuration file. SIGQUIT has the same
              effect as SIGTERM and causes smartd to exit with zero exit  sta-

       132 and above
              smartd  was  killed  by  a  signal that is not explicitly listed
              above.  The exit status is then 128 plus the signal number.  For
              example  if smartd is killed by SIGKILL (signal 9) then the exit
              status is 137.

              full path of this executable.

              configuration file (see smartd.conf(5) man page).

              script  run  on   warnings   (see   '-M   exec'   directive   on
              smartd.conf(5) man page).

              plugin  directory  for smartd warning script (see '-m' directive
              on smartd.conf(5) man page).

              drive database (see '-B' option).

              optional local drive database (see '-B' option).

       Bruce Allen (project initiator),
       Christian Franke  (project  manager,  Windows  port  and  all  sort  of
       Douglas Gilbert (SCSI subsystem),
       Volker Kuhlmann (moderator of support and database mailing list),
       Gabriele Pohl (wiki & development team support),
       Alex Samorukov (FreeBSD port and more, new Trac wiki).

       Many  other  individuals  have  made contributions and corrections, see
       AUTHORS, ChangeLog and repository files.

       The first smartmontools code was derived from the  smartsuite  package,
       written by Michael Cornwell and Andre Hedrick.

       To submit a bug report, create a ticket in smartmontools wiki:
       Alternatively send the info to the smartmontools support mailing list:

       smartd.conf(5), smartctl(8).

       Please  see  the following web site for more info: http://www.smartmon-

       An introductory article about smartmontools is  Monitoring  Hard  Disks
       with  SMART,  by Bruce Allen, Linux Journal, January 2004, pages 74-77.
       This is online.

       If you would like to understand better how SMART  works,  and  what  it
       does,  a good place to start is with Sections 4.8 and 6.54 of the first
       volume of the 'AT Attachment  with  Packet  Interface-7'  (ATA/ATAPI-7)
       specification  Revision  4b.   This  documents  the SMART functionality
       which the smartmontools utilities provide access to.

       The functioning of SMART was originally defined by the SFF-8035i  revi-
       sion 2 and the SFF-8055i revision 1.4 specifications.  These are publi-
       cations of the Small Form Factors (SFF) Committee.

       Links to these and other documents may be found on the  Links  page  of
       the smartmontools Wiki at .

       smartmontools-6.6 2016-05-31 r4324
       $Id: 4299 2016-04-16 19:45:57Z chrfranke $

smartmontools-6.6                 2016-05-31                         SMARTD(8)
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