smartctl [options] device


       smartmontools-6.2 2013-07-26 r3841

       [This man page is generated for the Linux version of smartmontools.  It
       does not contain info specific to other platforms.]

       smartctl controls the Self-Monitoring, Analysis and Reporting  Technol-
       ogy  (SMART)  system  built into most ATA/SATA and SCSI/SAS hard drives
       and solid-state drives.  The purpose of SMART is to monitor the  relia-
       bility  of  the hard drive and predict drive failures, and to carry out
       different types of drive self-tests.  smartctl also supports some  fea-
       tures  not  related  to  SMART.  This version of smartctl is compatible
       with ACS-2, ATA8-ACS, ATA/ATAPI-7 and earlier standards (see REFERENCES

       smartctl also provides support for polling TapeAlert messages from SCSI
       tape drives and changers.

       The user must specify the device to be controlled  or  interrogated  as
       the  final  argument to smartctl. The command set used by the device is
       often derived from the device path but may  need  help  with  the  '-d'
       option (for more information see the section on "ATA, SCSI command sets
       and SAT" below). Device paths are as follows:

       LINUX:   Use  the  forms  "/dev/hd[a-t]"  for  IDE/ATA   devices,   and
                "/dev/sd[a-z]"  for  SCSI  devices.  For  SCSI Tape Drives and
                Changers with TapeAlert support use  the  devices  "/dev/nst*"
                and  "/dev/sg*".   For  SATA  disks  accessed with libata, use
                "/dev/sd[a-z]" and append "-d ata".  For  disks  behind  3ware
                controllers  you  may  need "/dev/sd[a-z]" or "/dev/twe[0-9]",
                "/dev/twa[0-9]" or "/dev/twl[0-9]":  see  details  below.  For
                disks  behind  HighPoint  RocketRAID  controllers you may need
                "/dev/sd[a-z]".  For disks behind Areca SATA RAID controllers,
                you  need  "/dev/sg[2-9]"  (note  that smartmontools interacts
                with the Areca controllers via a SCSI generic device which  is
                different  than  the  SCSI device used for reading and writing
                data)!  For HP Smart Array RAID controllers, there  are  three
                currently  supported  drivers: cciss, hpsa, and hpahcisr.  For
                disks accessed via the cciss driver the device  nodes  are  of
                the  form  "/dev/cciss/c[0-9]d0".   For disks accessed via the
                hpahcisr and hpsa drivers,  the  device  nodes  you  need  are
                "/dev/sg[0-9]*".  ("lsscsi -g" is helpful in determining which

       Note that the printed output of smartctl displays most numerical values
       in base 10 (decimal), but some values are displayed in base  16  (hexa-
       decimal).  To distinguish them, the base 16 values are always displayed
       with a leading "0x", for example: "0xff". This  man  page  follows  the
       same convention.

       The  options  are grouped below into several categories.  smartctl will
       execute  the  corresponding  commands  in   the   order:   INFORMATION,


       -h, --help, --usage
              Prints a usage message to STDOUT and exits.

       -V, --version, --copyright, --license
              Prints  version,  copyright, license, home page and SVN revision
              information for your copy of smartctl to STDOUT and then  exits.
              Please  include  this  information  if you are reporting bugs or

       -i, --info
              Prints the device model number, serial number, firmware version,
              and  ATA  Standard  version/revision  information.   Says if the
              device supports SMART, and if so, whether SMART support is  cur-
              rently  enabled  or  disabled.   If  the device supports Logical
              Block Address mode (LBA mode) print current user drive  capacity
              in bytes. (If drive is has a user protected area reserved, or is
              "clipped", this may be smaller than the potential maximum  drive
              capacity.)  Indicates if the drive is in the smartmontools data-
              base (see '-v' options below).  If so, the  drive  model  family
              may also be printed. If '-n' (see below) is specified, the power
              mode of the drive is printed.

              [ATA only] [NEW EXPERIMENTAL SMARTCTL FEATURE] Prints  an  anno-
              tated table of the IDENTIFY DEVICE data.  By default, only valid
              words (words not equal to 0x0000 or 0xffff) and nonzero bits and
              bit  fields  are  printed.   This can be changed by the optional
              argument which consists of one or two characters  from  the  set
              'wnvb'.   The  character  'w' enables printing of all 256 words.
              The character 'n'  suppresses  printing  of  bits,  'v'  enables
              printing  of  all bits from valid words, 'b' enables printing of
              all bits.  For example '--identify=n'  (valid  words,  no  bits)
              produces the shortest output and '--identify=wb' (all words, all
              bits) produces the longest output.

       -a, --all
              Prints all SMART information about the disk, or TapeAlert infor-
              mation about the tape drive or changer.  For ATA devices this is
              -l selective -l directory -l scttemp -l scterc -l devstat -l sataphy'.
              and for SCSI, this is equivalent to
              '-H -i -A -l error -l selftest -l background -l sasphy'.

       --scan Scans  for  devices and prints each device name, device type and
              protocol ([ATA] or [SCSI]) info.  May  be  used  in  conjunction
              with  '-d  TYPE'  to  restrict the scan to a specific TYPE.  See
              also info about platform specific device scan and the DEVICESCAN
              directive on smartd(8) man page.

              Same as --scan, but also tries to open each device before print-
              ing device info.  The device open may change the device type due
              to autodetection (see also '-d test').

              This option can be used to create a draft smartd.conf file.  All
              options after '--' are appended to each output line.  For  exam-
              smartctl --scan-open -- -a -W 4,45,50 -m admin@work > smartd.conf

       -g NAME, --get=NAME
              Get  non-SMART  device settings.  See '-s, --set' below for fur-
              ther info.


       -q TYPE, --quietmode=TYPE
              Specifies that smartctl should run in one of the two quiet modes
              described here.  The valid arguments to this option are:

              errorsonly  - only print: For the '-l error' option, if nonzero,
              the number of errors recorded in the SMART  error  log  and  the
              power-on  time when they occurred; For the '-l selftest' option,
              errors recorded in  the  device  self-test  log;  For  the  '-H'
              option,  SMART  "disk failing" status or device Attributes (pre-
              failure or usage) which failed either now or in  the  past;  For
              the  '-A' option, device Attributes (pre-failure or usage) which
              failed either now or in the past.

              silent - print no output.  The only way to learn about what  was
              found  is  to use the exit status of smartctl (see RETURN VALUES

              noserial - Do not print the serial number of the device.

       -d TYPE, --device=TYPE
              Specifies the type of the device.  The valid arguments  to  this
              option are:

              auto  - attempt to guess the device type from the device name or
              from controller type info provided by the  operating  system  or
              from a matching USB ID entry in the drive database.  This is the
              (SAT).   This  is for ATA disks that have a SCSI to ATA Transla-
              tion (SAT) Layer (SATL) between the disk and the operating  sys-
              tem.   SAT  defines  two  ATA PASS THROUGH SCSI commands, one 12
              bytes long and the other 16 bytes long.  The default is  the  16
              byte  variant which can be overridden with either '-d sat,12' or
              '-d sat,16'.

              If '-d sat,auto' is specified, device  type  SAT  (for  ATA/SATA
              disks)  is  only  used  if  the SCSI INQUIRY data reports a SATL
              (VENDOR: "ATA     ").  Otherwise device type SCSI (for  SCSI/SAS
              disks) is used.

              usbcypress - this device type is for ATA disks that are behind a
              Cypress USB to PATA bridge.  This will use the ATACB proprietary
              scsi  pass  through command.  The default SCSI operation code is
              0x24,  but  although  it  can  be  overridden  with  '-d  usbcy-
              press,0xN',  where  N is the scsi operation code, you're running
              the risk of damage to the device or filesystems on it.

              usbjmicron[,p][,x][,PORT] - this device type is for  SATA  disks
              that  are  behind a JMicron USB to PATA/SATA bridge.  The 48-bit
              ATA commands (required e.g. for '-l xerror', see below)  do  not
              work  with  all  of  these bridges and are therefore disabled by
              default.  These commands can be enabled  by  '-d  usbjmicron,x'.
              If  two disks are connected to a bridge with two ports, an error
              message is printed if no PORT is specified.   The  port  can  be
              specified  by  '-d usbjmicron[,x],PORT' where PORT is 0 (master)
              or 1 (slave).  This is not necessary if the device uses  a  port
              multiplier  to  connect  multiple  disks to one port.  The disks
              appear under separate /dev/ice names then.  CAUTION:  Specifying
              ',x'  for  a  device  which  does  not support it results in I/O
              errors and may disconnect the drive.  The same  applies  if  the
              specified PORT does not exist or is not connected to a disk.

              [NEW EXPERIMENTAL SMARTCTL FEATURE] The Prolific PL2507/3507 USB
              bridges with older firmware support a pass-through command simi-
              lar  to JMicron and work with '-d usbjmicron,0'.  Newer Prolific
              firmware requires a modified command which can  be  selected  by
              '-d  usbjmicron,p'.   Note  that  this  does not yet support the
              SMART status command.

              usbsunplus - this device type is for SATA disks that are  behind
              a SunplusIT USB to SATA bridge.

              marvell  -  [Linux only] interact with SATA disks behind Marvell
              chip-set controllers  (using  the  Marvell  rather  than  libata

              megaraid,N  -  [Linux  only]  the device consists of one or more
              SCSI/SAS disks connected to a MegaRAID controller.  The non-neg-
              ative  integer  N  (in  the range of 0 to 127 inclusive) denotes
              which disk on the controller is monitored.  Use syntax such as:
              smartctl -a -d megaraid,2 /dev/sda
              smartctl -a -d megaraid,0 /dev/sdb
              denotes  which  disk on the controller is monitored.  Use syntax
              such as:
              smartctl -a -d 3ware,2 /dev/sda  [Linux only]
              smartctl -a -d 3ware,0 /dev/twe0
              smartctl -a -d 3ware,1 /dev/twa0
              smartctl -a -d 3ware,1 /dev/twl0 [Linux only]
              smartctl -a -d 3ware,1 /dev/tws0 [FreeBSD only]
              The first two forms,  which  refer  to  devices  /dev/sda-z  and
              /dev/twe0-15, may be used with 3ware series 6000, 7000, and 8000
              series controllers that use the 3x-xxxx driver.  Note  that  the
              /dev/sda-z form is deprecated starting with the Linux 2.6 kernel
              series and may not be supported by the Linux kernel in the  near
              future.   The  final form, which refers to devices /dev/twa0-15,
              must be used with 3ware 9000 series controllers, which  use  the
              3w-9xxx driver.

              The  devices /dev/twl0-15 [Linux] or /dev/tws0-15 [FreeBSD] must
              be used with the 3ware/LSI 9750 series controllers which use the
              3w-sas driver.

              Note  that  if  the special character device nodes /dev/tw[ls]?,
              /dev/twa?  and /dev/twe? do not exist, or exist with the  incor-
              rect  major or minor numbers, smartctl will recreate them on the
              fly.  Typically /dev/twa0 refers to the first  9000-series  con-
              troller,  /dev/twa1 refers to the second 9000 series controller,
              and so on.  The /dev/twl0  devices  refers  to  the  first  9750
              series  controller,  /dev/twl1 resfers to the second 9750 series
              controller, and so on.  Likewise /dev/twe0 refers to  the  first
              6/7/8000-series  controller,  /dev/twe1  refers  to  the  second
              6/7/8000 series controller, and so on.

              Note that for the 6/7/8000  controllers,  any  of  the  physical
              disks  can  be queried or examined using any of the 3ware's SCSI
              logical device  /dev/sd?   entries.   Thus,  if  logical  device
              /dev/sda  is made up of two physical disks (3ware ports zero and
              one) and logical device /dev/sdb is made up of two other  physi-
              cal  disks  (3ware ports two and three) then you can examine the
              SMART data on any of the four physical disks using  either  SCSI
              device  /dev/sda or /dev/sdb.  If you need to know which logical
              SCSI device a particular physical disk (3ware port)  is  associ-
              ated  with, use the dmesg or SYSLOG output to show which SCSI ID
              corresponds to a particular 3ware unit, and then use  the  3ware
              CLI or 3dm tool to determine which ports (physical disks) corre-
              spond to particular 3ware units.

              If the value of N corresponds to a port that does not  exist  on
              the 3ware controller, or to a port that does not physically have
              a disk attached to it, the behavior of smartctl depends upon the
              specific  controller model, firmware, Linux kernel and platform.
              In some cases you will get a warning  message  that  the  device
              does  not  exist.   In  other  cases  you will be presented with
              'void' data for a non-existent device.

              Note that if the /dev/sd? addressing form is  used,  then  older

              areca,N - [FreeBSD, Linux, Windows and Cygwin only]  the  device
              consists  of  one  or more SATA disks connected to an Areca SATA
              RAID controller.  The positive integer N (in the range from 1 to
              24 inclusive) denotes which disk on the controller is monitored.
              On Linux use syntax such as:
              smartctl -a -d areca,2 /dev/sg2
              smartctl -a -d areca,3 /dev/sg3
              The first line above addresses the  second  disk  on  the  first
              Areca RAID controller.  The second line addresses the third disk
              on the second Areca RAID controller.  To help identify the  cor-
              rect device on Linux, use the command:
              cat /proc/scsi/sg/device_hdr /proc/scsi/sg/devices
              to  show  the  SCSI generic devices (one per line, starting with
              /dev/sg0).  The correct SCSI  generic  devices  to  address  for
              smartmontools  are  the ones with the type field equal to 3.  If
              the incorrect device is addressed, please read the warning/error
              messages  carefully.   They  should  provide  hints  about  what
              devices to use.

              Important: the Areca controller must have firmware version  1.46
              or later.  Lower-numbered firmware versions will give (harmless)
              SCSI error messages and no SMART information.

              areca,N/E - [FreeBSD,  Linux,  Windows  and  Cygwin  only]  [NEW
              EXPERIMENTAL  SMARTCTL  FEATURE]  the  device consists of one or
              more SATA or SAS disks connected  to  an  Areca  SAS  RAID  con-
              troller.   The  integer  N  (range 1 to 128) denotes the channel
              (slot) and E (range 1 to 8) denotes the  enclosure.   Important:
              This  requires  Areca  SAS  controller  firmware version 1.51 or

              cciss,N - [FreeBSD and Linux only] the device consists of one or
              more  SCSI/SAS  or  SATA  disks  connected  to a cciss RAID con-
              troller.  The non-negative integer N (in the range from 0 to  15
              inclusive) denotes which disk on the controller is monitored.

              To  look  at disks behind HP Smart Array controllers, use syntax
              such as:
              smartctl -a -d cciss,0 /dev/cciss/c0d0    (cciss driver under Linux)
              smartctl -a -d cciss,0 /dev/sg2    (hpsa or hpahcisr drivers under Linux)

              hpt,L/M/N - [FreeBSD and Linux only] the device consists of  one
              or  more  ATA  disks  connected  to  a HighPoint RocketRAID con-
              troller.  The integer L is the controller id, the integer  M  is
              the channel number, and the integer N is the PMPort number if it
              is available.  The allowed values of L are from 1  to  4  inclu-
              sive,  M are from 1 to 128 inclusive and N from 1 to 4 if PMPort
              available.  And also these values are limited by  the  model  of
              the HighPoint RocketRAID controller.  Use syntax such as:
              smartctl -a -d hpt,1/3 /dev/sda    (under Linux)
              smartctl -a -d hpt,1/2/3 /dev/sda    (under Linux)
              Note  that  the  /dev/sda-z form should be the device node which
              stands for the disks derived from the HighPoint RocketRAID  con-
              even if the device  implements  the  SMART  command  set."   The
              "mandatory" ATA and SMART commands are: (1) ATA IDENTIFY DEVICE,

              The valid arguments to this option are:

              normal  -  exit  on  failure of any mandatory SMART command, and
              ignore all failures of optional SMART  commands.   This  is  the
              default.   Note  that  on  some  devices,  issuing unimplemented
              optional SMART commands doesn't cause an error.  This can result
              in  misleading  smartctl  messages such as "Feature X not imple-
              mented", followed shortly by "Feature X: enabled".  In most such
              cases, contrary to the final message, Feature X is not enabled.

              conservative - exit on failure of any optional SMART command.

              permissive  -  ignore  failure(s)  of  mandatory SMART commands.
              This option may be given more than once.  Each additional use of
              this  option  will  cause  one  more  additional  failure  to be
              ignored.  Note that the use of this option can lead to  messages
              like  "Feature  X not supported", followed shortly by "Feature X
              enable failed".  In a few such cases, contrary to the final mes-
              sage, Feature X is enabled.

              verypermissive - equivalent to giving a large number of '-T per-
              missive' options: ignore failures of  any  number  of  mandatory
              SMART commands.  Please see the note above.

       -b TYPE, --badsum=TYPE
              [ATA only] Specifies the action smartctl should take if a check-
              sum error is detected in the: (1) Device Identity Structure, (2)
              SMART  Self-Test Log Structure, (3) SMART Attribute Value Struc-
              ture, (4) SMART Attribute Threshold Structure, or (5) ATA  Error
              Log Structure.

              The valid arguments to this option are:

              warn  -  report  the incorrect checksum but carry on in spite of
              it.  This is the default.

              exit - exit smartctl.

              ignore - continue silently without issuing a warning.

       -r TYPE, --report=TYPE
              Intended primarily to help smartmontools  developers  understand
              the  behavior  of smartmontools on non-conforming or poorly con-
              forming hardware.   This  option  reports  details  of  smartctl
              transactions  with  the device.  The option can be used multiple
              times.  When used just once, it shows a record  of  the  ioctl()
              transactions  with  the  device.   When used more than once, the
              detail of these ioctl() transactions  are  reported  in  greater
              detail.  The valid arguments to this option are:
              lowed by a comma then the integer with no spaces.  For  example,
              ataioctl,2  The  default  level is 1, so '-r ataioctl,1' and '-r
              ataioctl' are equivalent.

              For testing purposes, the output of '-r ataioctl,2' can later be
              parsed  by  smartctl  itself if '-' is used as device path argu-
              ment.  The ATA command input parameters, sector data and  return
              values  are reconstructed from the debug report read from stdin.
              Then smartctl internally simulates an ATA device with  the  same
              behaviour. This is does not work for SCSI devices yet.

       -n POWERMODE, --nocheck=POWERMODE
              [ATA  only]  Specifies if smartctl should exit before performing
              any checks when the device is in a low-power  mode.  It  may  be
              used to prevent a disk from being spun-up by smartctl. The power
              mode is ignored by default.  A nonzero exit status  is  returned
              if  the  device  is in one of the specified low-power modes (see
              RETURN VALUES below).

              Note: If this option is used it may also be necessary to specify
              the  device type with the '-d' option.  Otherwise the device may
              spin up due to commands issued during device type autodetection.

              The valid arguments to this option are:

              never - check the device always, but print  the  power  mode  if
              '-i' is specified.

              sleep - check the device unless it is in SLEEP mode.

              standby  -  check  the  device  unless it is in SLEEP or STANDBY
              mode.  In these modes most disks are not  spinning,  so  if  you
              want  to  prevent a disk from spinning up, this is probably what
              you want.

              idle - check the device unless it is in SLEEP, STANDBY  or  IDLE
              mode.  In the IDLE state, most disks are still spinning, so this
              is probably not what you want.


              Note: if multiple options are used to both enable and disable  a
              feature,  then  both  the  enable  and  disable commands will be
              issued.  The enable command will always  be  issued  before  the
              corresponding disable command.

       -s VALUE, --smart=VALUE
              Enables  or  disables  SMART  on device.  The valid arguments to
              this option are on and off.  Note that the command '-s on' (per-
              haps  used  with with the '-o on' and '-S on' options) should be
              placed in a start-up script for your  machine,  for  example  in
              rc.local  or rc.sysinit. In principle the SMART feature settings
              are preserved over power-cycling, but  it  doesn't  hurt  to  be
              specification, but was never  part  of  any  ATA  specification.
              However  it is implemented and used by many vendors. [Good docu-
              mentation can be found in IBM's Official Published Disk Specifi-
              cations.   For  example the IBM Travelstar 40GNX Hard Disk Drive
              Specifications (Revision 1.1, 22 April 2002, Publication # 1541,
              Document S07N-7715-02) page 164. You can also read the SFF-8035i
              Specification -- see REFERENCES below.]  You can tell  if  auto-
              matic  offline  testing  is  supported by seeing if this command
              enables and disables it, as indicated by the 'Auto Offline  Data
              Collection'  part  of  the  SMART capabilities report (displayed
              with '-c').

              SMART provides three basic categories  of  testing.   The  first
              category,  called "online" testing, has no effect on the perfor-
              mance of the device.  It is turned on by the '-s on' option.

              The second category of testing is called "offline" testing. This
              type  of test can, in principle, degrade the device performance.
              The '-o on' option causes this offline  testing  to  be  carried
              out, automatically, on a regular scheduled basis.  Normally, the
              disk will suspend offline testing while disk accesses are taking
              place, and then automatically resume it when the disk would oth-
              erwise be idle, so in practice it has little effect.  Note  that
              a one-time offline test can also be carried out immediately upon
              receipt of a user command.  See the '-t offline'  option  below,
              which  causes  a one-time offline test to be carried out immedi-

              The choice (made by the SFF-8035i and ATA specification authors)
              of  the  word testing for these first two categories is unfortu-
              nate, and often leads to confusion.  In  fact  these  first  two
              categories  of  online  and offline testing could have been more
              accurately described as online and offline data collection.

              The results of this automatic or immediate offline testing (data
              collection) are reflected in the values of the SMART Attributes.
              Thus, if problems or errors are detected, the  values  of  these
              Attributes will go below their failure thresholds; some types of
              errors may also appear in the SMART error log. These are visible
              with the '-A' and '-l error' options respectively.

              Some  SMART  attribute  values  are updated only during off-line
              data collection activities; the rest are updated  during  normal
              operation of the device or during both normal operation and off-
              line testing.  The Attribute value table produced  by  the  '-A'
              option  indicates this in the UPDATED column.  Attributes of the
              first type are labeled "Offline" and Attributes  of  the  second
              type are labeled "Always".

              The  third  category of testing (and the only category for which
              the word 'testing' is really an appropriate  choice)  is  "self"
              testing.   This  third  type  of test is only performed (immedi-
              ately) when a command to run it is issued.  The  '-t'  and  '-X'
              options  can  be  used  to  carry out and abort such self-tests;
              [ATA]  Enables  or disables SMART autosave of device vendor-spe-
              cific Attributes. The valid arguments to this option are on  and
              off.   Note  that  this  feature  is preserved across disk power
              cycles, so you should only need to issue it once.

              The ATA standard does not specify  a  method  to  check  whether
              SMART  autosave  is  enabled.  Unlike  SCSI (below), smartctl is
              unable to print a warning if autosave is disabled.

              [SCSI] For SCSI devices this toggles the  value  of  the  Global
              Logging  Target  Save  Disabled  (GLTSD) bit in the Control Mode
              Page. Some disk manufacturers set this bit by default. This pre-
              vents  error counters, power-up hours and other useful data from
              being placed in non-volatile storage, so  these  values  may  be
              reset  to zero the next time the device is power-cycled.  If the
              GLTSD bit is set then 'smartctl -a' will issue a warning. Use on
              to  clear  the GLTSD bit and thus enable saving counters to non-
              volatile storage. For extreme streaming-video type  applications
              you might consider using off to set the GLTSD bit.

       -g NAME, --get=NAME, -s NAME[,VALUE], --set=NAME[,VALUE]
              Gets/sets  non-SMART  device  settings.   Note  that the '--set'
              option shares its short option '-s' with '--smart'.  Valid argu-
              ments are:

              all - Gets all values. This is equivalent to
              '-g aam -g apm -g lookahead -g security -g wcache'

              aam[,N|off]  -  [ATA only] Gets/sets the Automatic Acoustic Man-
              agement (AAM) feature (if supported).  A value of 128  sets  the
              most  quiet  (slowest)  mode and 254 the fastest (loudest) mode,
              'off' disables AAM.  Devices may  support  intermediate  levels.
              Values  below  128 are defined as vendor specific (0) or retired
              (1 to 127).  Note that the AAM feature was declared obsolete  in
              ATA ACS-2 Revision 4a (Dec 2010).

              apm[,N|off] - [ATA only] Gets/sets the Advanced Power Management
              (APM) feature on device (if supported).  If a  value  between  1
              and  254  is provided, it will attempt to enable APM and set the
              specified value, 'off' disables APM.  Note the  actual  behavior
              depends  on  the  drive,  for example some drives disable APM if
              their value is set above 128.  Values below 128 are supposed  to
              allow  drive  spindown,  values  128 and above adjust only head-
              parking frequency, although the actual behavior defined is  also

              lookahead[,on|off]  -  [ATA  only] Gets/sets the read look-ahead
              feature (if supported).  Read look-ahead is usually  enabled  by

              security  -  [ATA  only] Gets the status of ATA Security feature
              (if supported).  If ATA Security is enabled an ATA user password
              is set.  The drive will be locked on next reset then.

              hours.   Value  255  specifies  21 minutes and 15 seconds.  Some
              drives may use a vendor specific interpretation for the  values.
              Note  that  there  is no get option because ATA standards do not
              specify a method to read the standby timer.

              standby,now - [ATA only] Places the drive in the  STANDBY  mode.
              This  usually  spins down the drive.  The setting of the standby
              timer is not affected.

              wcache[,on|off] - [ATA] Gets/sets the volatile write cache  fea-
              ture  (if  supported).   The  write  cache is usually enabled by

              wcache[,on|off] - [SCSI]  [NEW  EXPERIMENTAL  SMARTCTL  FEATURE]
              Gets/sets  the  'Write  Cache  Enable' (WCE) bit (if supported).
              The write cache is usually enabled by default.

              wcreorder[,on|off] - [ATA only] [NEW EXPERIMENTAL SMARTCTL  FEA-
              TURE]  Gets/sets  Write  Cache  Reordering.   If  it is disabled
              (off), disk write scheduling is executed on a first-in-first-out
              (FIFO)  basis.  If  Write Cache Reordering is enabled (on), then
              disk write scheduling may be reordered by the  drive.  If  write
              cache  is  disabled, the current Write Cache Reordering state is
              remembered but has no effect on  non-cached  writes,  which  are
              always  written in the order received.  The state of Write Cache
              Reordering has no effect on either NCQ or LCQ queued commands.

              rcache[,on|off] - [SCSI only] [NEW  EXPERIMENTAL  SMARTCTL  FEA-
              TURE]  Gets/sets the 'Read Cache Disable' (RCE) bit. 'Off' value
              disables read cache (if supported).  The read cache  is  usually
              enabled by default.


       -H, --health
              Check: Ask the device to report its SMART health status or pend-
              ing TapeAlert messages.  SMART status is  based  on  information
              that  it  has gathered from online and offline tests, which were
              used to determine/update  its  SMART  vendor-specific  Attribute
              values.  TapeAlert  status  is obtained by reading the TapeAlert
              log page.

              If the device reports failing health status, this  means  either
              that the device has already failed, or that it is predicting its
              own failure within the next 24 hours.  If this happens, use  the
              '-a'  option  to get more information, and get your data off the
              disk and to someplace safe as soon as you can.

       -c, --capabilities
              [ATA only] Prints only the generic  SMART  capabilities.   These
              show what SMART features are implemented and how the device will
              respond to some of the different SMART commands.  For example it
              shows  if the device logs errors, if it supports offline surface

       -A, --attributes
              [ATA]  Prints  only  the  vendor specific SMART Attributes.  The
              Attributes are numbered from 1 to 253 and  have  specific  names
              and ID numbers. For example Attribute 12 is "power cycle count":
              how many times has the disk been powered up.

              Each Attribute has a "Raw"  value,  printed  under  the  heading
              "RAW_VALUE",  and a "Normalized" value printed under the heading
              "VALUE".  [Note: smartctl prints these values in  base-10.]   In
              the  example  just given, the "Raw Value" for Attribute 12 would
              be the actual number of times that  the  disk  has  been  power-
              cycled,  for example 365 if the disk has been turned on once per
              day for exactly one year.  Each vendor uses their own  algorithm
              to convert this "Raw" value to a "Normalized" value in the range
              from 1 to 254.  Please keep in mind that smartctl  only  reports
              the  different  Attribute  types, values, and thresholds as read
              from the device.  It does not carry out the  conversion  between
              "Raw"  and  "Normalized"  values:  this  is  done  by the disk's

              The conversion from Raw value to a quantity with physical  units
              is  not specified by the SMART standard. In most cases, the val-
              ues printed by smartctl are sensible.  For example the  tempera-
              ture Attribute generally has its raw value equal to the tempera-
              ture in Celsius.  However in some cases vendors use unusual con-
              ventions.  For example the Hitachi disk on my laptop reports its
              power-on hours in minutes, not hours. Some IBM disks track three
              temperatures rather than one, in their raw values.  And so on.

              Each  Attribute  also has a Threshold value (whose range is 0 to
              255) which is printed under the heading "THRESH".  If  the  Nor-
              malized value is less than or equal to the Threshold value, then
              the Attribute is said to have failed.  If  the  Attribute  is  a
              pre-failure Attribute, then disk failure is imminent.

              Each  Attribute also has a "Worst" value shown under the heading
              "WORST".  This is the smallest (closest to failure)  value  that
              the disk has recorded at any time during its lifetime when SMART
              was enabled.  [Note however that some vendors firmware may actu-
              ally   increase   the   "Worst"   value   for  some  "rate-type"

              The Attribute table printed  out  by  smartctl  also  shows  the
              "TYPE"  of  the  Attribute.  Attributes  are one of two possible
              types: Pre-failure or Old age.  Pre-failure Attributes are  ones
              which, if less than or equal to their threshold values, indicate
              pending disk failure.  Old age, or usage  Attributes,  are  ones
              which  indicate end-of-product life from old-age or normal aging
              and wearout, if the Attribute value is less than or equal to the
              threshold.   Please  note: the fact that an Attribute is of type
              'Pre-fail' does not mean that your disk is about  to  fail!   It
              only  has  this  meaning  if  the Attribute's current Normalized
              value is less than or equal to the threshold value.
              "Always" and the latter are labeled "Offline".

              So  to  summarize:  the  Raw  Attribute values are the ones that
              might have a real physical interpretation, such as  "Temperature
              Celsius",  "Hours",  or  "Start-Stop Cycles".  Each manufacturer
              converts these, using their detailed  knowledge  of  the  disk's
              operations  and failure modes, to Normalized Attribute values in
              the range 1-254.  The current and  worst  (lowest  measured)  of
              these  Normalized Attribute values are stored on the disk, along
              with a Threshold value that the manufacturer has determined will
              indicate that the disk is going to fail, or that it has exceeded
              its design age or aging limit.  smartctl does not calculate  any
              of the Attribute values, thresholds, or types, it merely reports
              them from the SMART data on the device.

              Note that starting with ATA/ATAPI-4, revision 4, the meaning  of
              these  Attribute  fields has been made entirely vendor-specific.
              However most newer ATA/SATA disks seem to respect their meaning,
              so we have retained the option of printing the Attribute values.

              Solid-state  drives  use  different  meanings  for  some  of the
              attributes.  In this case the attribute name printed by smartctl
              is  incorrect  unless  the drive is already in the smartmontools
              drive database.

              [SCSI] For SCSI devices the "attributes" are obtained  from  the
              temperature and start-stop cycle counter log pages. Certain ven-
              dor specific attributes are listed if recognised. The attributes
              are  output  in a relatively free format (compared with ATA disk

       -f FORMAT, --format=FORMAT
              [ATA only] Selects the output format of the attributes:

              old - Old smartctl format. This is the default unless  the  '-x'
              option is specified.

              brief  -  New  format  which fits into 80 colums (except in some
              rare cases).  This format also decodes four additional attribute
              flags.  This is the default if the '-x' option is specified.

              hex,id - Print all attribute IDs as hexadecimal numbers.

              hex,val - Print all normalized values as hexadecimal numbers.

              hex - Same as '-f hex,id -f hex,val'.

       -l TYPE, --log=TYPE
              Prints  either the SMART Error Log, the SMART Self-Test Log, the
              SMART Selective Self-Test Log [ATA only], the Log Directory [ATA
              only],  or  the  Background  Scan  Results Log [SCSI only].  The
              valid arguments to this option are:

              error - [ATA] prints the Summary SMART error log.   SMART  disks
                 ILI:   (packet command-set specific)
                 MC:    Media Changed
                 MCR:   Media Change Request
                 NM:    No Media
                 obs:   obsolete
                 TK0NF: TracK 0 Not Found
                 UNC:   UNCorrectable Error in Data
                 WP:    Media is Write Protected
              In addition, up to the last  five  commands  that  preceded  the
              error are listed, along with a timestamp measured from the start
              of the corresponding power cycle. This is displayed in the  form
              Dd+HH:MM:SS.msec  where D is the number of days, HH is hours, MM
              is minutes, SS is seconds and msec is milliseconds.  [Note: this
              time  stamp wraps after 2^32 milliseconds, or 49 days 17 hours 2
              minutes and 47.296 seconds.]  The key  ATA  disk  registers  are
              also  recorded in the log.  The final column of the error log is
              a text-string description of the ATA command defined by the Com-
              mand  Register  (CR) and Feature Register (FR) values.  Commands
              that are obsolete in the most current spec are listed like this:
              READ LONG (w/ retry) [OBS-4], indicating that the command became
              obsolete with or in the  ATA-4  specification.   Similarly,  the
              notation  [RET-N] is used to indicate that a command was retired
              in the ATA-N specification.  Some commands are  not  defined  in
              any version of the ATA specification but are in common use none-
              theless; these are marked [NS], meaning non-standard.

              The ATA Specification (ATA-5 Revision  1c,  Section
              says:  "Error  log  structures  shall  include  UNC errors, IDNF
              errors for which the address requested was valid, servo  errors,
              write  fault  errors,  etc.  Error log data structures shall not
              include errors attributed to the receipt of faulty commands such
              as  command codes not implemented by the device or requests with
              invalid parameters or invalid  addresses."  The  definitions  of
              these terms are:
              UNC (UNCorrectable): data is uncorrectable.  This refers to data
              which has been read from the  disk,  but  for  which  the  Error
              Checking  and  Correction  (ECC)  codes  are  inconsistent.   In
              effect, this means that the data can not be read.
              IDNF (ID Not Found): user-accessible address could not be found.
              For READ LOG type commands, IDNF can also indicate that a device
              data log structure checksum was incorrect.

              If the command that caused the error was a READ  or  WRITE  com-
              mand,  then  the  Logical Block Address (LBA) at which the error
              occurred will be printed in base 10 and base 16.  The LBA  is  a
              linear  address,  which  counts  512-byte  sectors  on the disk,
              starting from zero.  (Because of the limitations  of  the  SMART
              error  log, if the LBA is greater than 0xfffffff, then either no
              error log entry will be made, or the error log entry  will  have
              an  incorrect  LBA.  This  may happen for drives with a capacity
              greater than 128 GiB or 137 GB.) On Linux systems the  smartmon-
              tools  web  page  has  instructions about how to convert the LBA
              address to the name of the disk file  containing  the  erroneous
              disk sector.
              sufficient space to log the contents of the 48-bit LBA  register
              set introduced with ATA-6.  It also supports logs with more than
              one sector.  Each sector holds up to 4 log entries.  The  actual
              number of log sectors is vendor specific, typical values for HDD
              are 2 (Samsung), 5 (Seagate) or 6 (WD).

              Only the 8 most recent error log entries are printed by default.
              This number can be changed by the optional parameter NUM.

              If  ',error'  is  appended  and the Extended Comprehensive SMART
              error log is not supported, the Summary SMART self-test  log  is

              Please  note  that  recent  drives may report errors only in the
              Extended Comprehensive SMART error log.  The Summary SMART error
              log may be reported as supported but is always empty then.

              selftest - [ATA] prints the SMART self-test log.  The disk main-
              tains a self-test log showing the results  of  the  self  tests,
              which  can  be  run  using the '-t' option described below.  For
              each of the most recent twenty-one self-tests, the log shows the
              type  of  test  (short or extended, off-line or captive) and the
              final status of the test.  If the test did not complete success-
              fully,  then the percentage of the test remaining is shown.  The
              time at which the test took place, measured  in  hours  of  disk
              lifetime,  is  also  printed. [Note: this time stamp wraps after
              2^16 hours, or 2730 days and 16 hours, or about 7.5  years.]  If
              any errors were detected, the Logical Block Address (LBA) of the
              first error is printed in decimal notation.   On  Linux  systems
              the smartmontools web page has instructions about how to convert
              this LBA address to the name of the  disk  file  containing  the
              erroneous block.

              selftest  -  [SCSI]  the  self-test  log for a SCSI device has a
              slightly different format than for an ATA device.  For  each  of
              the most recent twenty self-tests, it shows the type of test and
              the status (final or in progress) of the  test.  SCSI  standards
              use  the  terms "foreground" and "background" (rather than ATA's
              corresponding "captive" and "off-line") and "short"  and  "long"
              (rather  than  ATA's  corresponding  "short"  and "extended") to
              describe the type of the test.  The printed  segment  number  is
              only  relevant when a test fails in the third or later test seg-
              ment.  It identifies the test that failed and consists of either
              the  number  of  the segment that failed during the test, or the
              number of the test that failed and the number of the segment  in
              which  the  test  was  run,  using  a  vendor-specific method of
              putting both numbers into a  single  byte.   The  Logical  Block
              Address (LBA) of the first error is printed in hexadecimal nota-
              tion.  On Linux systems the smartmontools web page has  instruc-
              tions  about  how to convert this LBA address to the name of the
              disk file containing the erroneous block.  If provided, the SCSI
              Sense Key (SK), Additional Sense Code (ASC) and Additional Sense
              Code Qualifier (ASQ) are also printed. The self tests can be run
              using the '-t' option described below (using the ATA test termi-
              If ',selftest' is appended and the Extended SMART self-test  log
              is not supported, the old SMART self-test log is printed.

              selective  -  [ATA only] Please see the '-t select' option below
              for a description of selective self-tests.  The selective  self-
              test  log  shows  the start/end Logical Block Addresses (LBA) of
              each of the five test spans, and their current test status.   If
              the  span  is being tested or the remainder of the disk is being
              read-scanned, the  current  65536-sector  block  of  LBAs  being
              tested  is  also  displayed.   The  selective self-test log also
              shows if a read-scan of the remainder of the disk will  be  car-
              ried  out  after  the selective self-test has completed (see '-t
              afterselect' option) and the time delay before  restarting  this
              read-scan if it is interrupted (see '-t pending' option).

              directory[,gs]  -  [ATA only] if the device supports the General
              Purpose Logging feature set (ATA-6 and above) then  this  prints
              the  Log  Directory  (the  log at address 0).  The Log Directory
              shows what logs are available and their length in  sectors  (512
              bytes).   The  contents  of the logs at address 1 [Summary SMART
              error log] and at address 6 [SMART self-test log] may be printed
              using  the  previously-described error and selftest arguments to
              this option.  If your version of smartctl  supports  48-bit  ATA
              commands,  both the General Purpose Log (GPL) and SMART Log (SL)
              directories are printed in one combined table. The output can be
              restricted  to  the  GPL directory or SL directory by '-l direc-
              tory,q' or '-l directory,s' respectively.

              background - [SCSI only] the background scan results log outputs
              information derived from Background Media Scans (BMS) done after
              power up and/or periodically (e.g. every  24  hours)  on  recent
              SCSI  disks. If supported, the BMS status is output first, indi-
              cating whether a background scan is currently underway  (and  if
              so  a progress percentage), the amount of time the disk has been
              powered up and the number of scans already completed. Then there
              is  a  header and a line for each background scan "event". These
              will typically be either recovered or unrecoverable errors. That
              latter  group may need some attention. There is a description of
              the background scan mechanism in section 4.18 of SBC-3  revision
              6 (see ).

              scttemp,  scttempsts,  scttemphist  - [ATA only] prints the disk
              temperature information provided by the SMART Command  Transport
              (SCT) commands.  The option 'scttempsts' prints current tempera-
              ture and temperature ranges returned by the SCT Status  command,
              'scttemphist' prints temperature limits and the temperature his-
              tory table returned by the SCT Data Table command, and 'scttemp'
              prints  both.  The temperature values are preserved across power
              cycles.  The logging interval can be  configured  with  the  '-l
              scttempint,N[,p]'  option,  see  below.   The  SCT commands were
              introduced in ATA8-ACS and were also  supported  by  many  ATA-7

              scttempint,N[,p] - [ATA only] clears the SCT temperature history
              values. Values of 0 disable the feature, other values less  than
              65  are probably not supported. For RAID configurations, this is
              typically set to 70,70 deciseconds.

              devstat[,PAGE] - [ATA only] prints values  and  descriptions  of
              the ATA Device Statistics log pages (General Purpose Log address
              0x04).  If no PAGE number is specified, entries  from  all  sup-
              ported  pages  are printed.  If PAGE 0 is specified, the list of
              supported pages is printed.  Device Statistics was introduced in
              ACS-2 and is only supported by some recent devices (e.g. Hitachi
              7K3000, Intel 320, 330, 520 and 710 Series SSDs,  Crucial/Micron
              m4 SSDs).

              sataphy[,reset]  - [SATA only] prints values and descriptions of
              the SATA Phy Event Counters (General Purpose Log address  0x11).
              If '-l sataphy,reset' is specified, all counters are reset after
              reading the values.  This  also  works  for  SATA  devices  with
              Packet interface like CD/DVD drives.

              sasphy[,reset]  -  [SAS  (SCSI) only] prints values and descrip-
              tions of the SAS (SSP) Protocol  Specific  log  page  (log  page
              0x18).   If  '-l  sasphy,reset'  is  specified, all counters are
              reset after reading the values.

              gplog,ADDR[,FIRST[-LAST|+SIZE]] - [ATA only] prints a  hex  dump
              of any log accessible via General Purpose Logging (GPL) feature.
              The log address ADDR is the hex address listed in the log direc-
              tory  (see  '-l  directory'  above).   The  range of log sectors
              (pages)  can  be  specified  by  decimal  values  FIRST-LAST  or
              FIRST+SIZE.   FIRST defaults to 0, SIZE defaults to 1.  LAST can
              be set to 'max' to specify the last page of the log.

              smartlog,ADDR[,FIRST[-LAST|+SIZE]] - [ATA  only]  prints  a  hex
              dump  of any log accessible via SMART Read Log command.  See '-l
              gplog,...' above for parameter syntax.

              For example, all these commands:
                smartctl -l gplog,0x80,10-15 /dev/sda
                smartctl -l gplog,0x80,10+6 /dev/sda
                smartctl -l smartlog,0x80,10-15 /dev/sda
              print pages 10-15 of log 0x80 (first host vendor specific log).

              The hex dump format is compatible with  the  'xxd  -r'  command.
              This command:
                smartctl -l gplog,0x11 /dev/sda | grep ^0 | xxd -r >log.bin
              writes  a binary representation of the one sector log 0x11 (SATA
              Phy Event Counters) to file log.bin.

              ssd - [ATA] prints the Solid State Device Statistics  log  page.
              This has the same effect as '-l devstat,7', see above.

              ssd  -  [SCSI]  prints  the  Solid  State  Media percentage used
              endurance indicator. A value of 0  indicates  as  new  condition
              while  100 indicates the device is at the end of its lifetime as
              set '012345rvwz'. The characters '0' to '5' select the byte 0 to
              5 from the 48-bit raw value, 'r' selects the  reserved  byte  of
              the  attribute data block, 'v' selects the normalized value, 'w'
              selects the worst value  and  'z'  inserts  a  zero  byte.   The
              default  BYTEORDER is '543210' for all 48-bit formats, 'r543210'
              for the 54-bit formats, and '543210wv' for the  64-bit  formats.
              For  example,  '-v  5,raw48:012345'  prints  the  raw  value  of
              attribute 5 with big endian instead of little endian byte order-

              The  NAME  is  a  string of letters, digits and underscore.  Its
              length should not exceed 23 characters.  The '-P showall' option
              reports an error if this is the case.

              -v  help  -  Prints (to STDOUT) a list of all valid arguments to
              this option, then exits.

              Valid arguments for FORMAT are:

              raw8 - Print the Raw value as six 8-bit unsigned  base-10  inte-
              gers.   This  may  be useful for decoding the meaning of the Raw

              raw16 - Print the Raw value as  three  16-bit  unsigned  base-10
              integers.   This  may  be useful for decoding the meaning of the
              Raw value.

              raw48 - Print the Raw value as a 48-bit unsigned  base-10  inte-
              ger.  This is the default for most attributes.

              hex48  -  Print  the Raw value as a 12 digit hexadecimal number.
              This may be useful for decoding the meaning of the Raw value.

              raw56 - Print the Raw value as a 54-bit unsigned  base-10  inte-
              ger.   This  includes the reserved byte which follows the 48-bit
              raw value.

              hex56 - Print the Raw value as a 14  digit  hexadecimal  number.
              This  includes  the  reserved  byte which follows the 48-bit raw

              raw64 - Print the Raw value as a 64-bit unsigned  base-10  inte-
              ger.   This  includes  two  bytes  from the normalized and worst
              attribute value.  This raw format is used by  some  SSD  devices
              with Indilinx controller.

              hex64  -  Print  the Raw value as a 16 digit hexadecimal number.
              This includes two bytes from the normalized and worst  attribute
              value.   This raw format is used by some SSD devices with Indil-
              inx controller.

              min2hour - Raw Attribute is power-on time in minutes.   Its  raw
              value  will  be displayed in the form "Xh+Ym".  Here X is hours,
              and Y is minutes in the  range  0-59  inclusive.   Y  is  always
              always  printed  with  two  digits,  for example "06" or "31" or

              msec24hour32 - Raw Attribute is power-on time measured in 32-bit
              hours  and  24-bit milliseconds since last hour update.  It will
              be displayed in the form "Xh+Ym+Z.Ms".  Here X is  hours,  Y  is
              minutes, Z is seconds and M is milliseconds.

              tempminmax  -  Raw Attribute is the disk temperature in Celsius.
              Info about Min/Max temperature is printed if available.  This is
              the  default for Attributes 190 and 194.  The recording interval
              (lifetime, last power cycle, last soft  reset)  of  the  min/max
              values is device specific.

              temp10x  -  Raw  Attribute  is ten times the disk temperature in

              raw16(raw16) - Print the raw attribute as a 16-bit value and two
              optional  16-bit values if these words are nonzero.  This is the
              default for Attributes 5 and 196.

              raw16(avg16) - Raw attribute is spin-up time.  It is printed  as
              a  16-bit  value  and  an optional "Average" 16-bit value if the
              word is nonzero.  This is the default for Attribute 3.

              raw24(raw8) - Print the raw attribute  as  a  24-bit  value  and
              three optional 8-bit values if these bytes are nonzero.  This is
              the default for Attribute 9.

              raw24/raw24 - Raw Attribute  contains  two  24-bit  values.  The
              first is the number of load cycles.  The second is the number of
              unload cycles.  The difference between these two values  is  the
              number  of  times  that  the  drive was unexpectedly powered off
              (also called an emergency unload).  As  a  rule  of  thumb,  the
              mechanical  stress created by one emergency unload is equivalent
              to that created by one hundred normal unloads.

              raw24/raw32 - Raw attribute is an error rate which consists of a
              24-bit error count and a 32-bit total count.

              The following old arguments to '-v' are also still valid:

              9,minutes - same as: 9,min2hour,Power_On_Minutes.

              9,seconds - same as: 9,sec2hour,Power_On_Seconds.

              9,halfminutes - same as: 9,halfmin2hour,Power_On_Half_Minutes.

              9,temp - same as: 9,tempminmax,Temperature_Celsius.

              192,emergencyretractcyclect          -          same         as:

              193,loadunload - same as: 193,raw24/raw24.
              tor Count) is not reset if uncorrectable sectors are reallocated
              (see smartd.conf(5) man page).

              198,offlinescanuncsectorct    -    same    as:    198,raw48,Off-

              200,writeerrorcount - same as: 200,raw48,Write_Error_Count.

              201,detectedtacount - same as: 201,raw48,Detected_TA_Count.

              220,temp - same as: 220,tempminmax,Temperature_Celsius.

              Note: a table of hard drive models, listing which Attribute cor-
              responds    to     temperature,     can     be     found     at:

       -F TYPE, --firmwarebug=TYPE
              [ATA  only]  Modifies the behavior of smartctl to compensate for
              some known and understood device firmware or driver  bug.   This
              option may be used multiple times.  The valid arguments are:

              none  - Assume that the device firmware obeys the ATA specifica-
              tions.  This is the default, unless the device has  presets  for
              '-F'  in  the  drive database.  Using this option on the command
              line will over-ride any preset values.

              nologdir - Suppresses read attempts of SMART or  GP  Log  Direc-
              tory.   Support  for  all  standard  logs  is assumed without an
              actual check.  Some Intel SSDs may freeze if log  address  0  is

              samsung - In some Samsung disks (example: model SV4012H Firmware
              Version: RM100-08) some of the two- and four-byte quantities  in
              the  SMART data structures are byte-swapped (relative to the ATA
              specification).  Enabling this option tells smartctl to evaluate
              these  quantities  in byte-reversed order.  Some signs that your
              disk needs this option are (1) no self-test  log  printed,  even
              though  you  have  run self-tests; (2) very large numbers of ATA
              errors reported in the ATA error log; (3) strange and impossible
              values for the ATA error log timestamps.

              samsung2  -  In  some  Samsung  disks  the  number of ATA errors
              reported is byte swapped.  Enabling this option  tells  smartctl
              to  evaluate this quantity in byte-reversed order. An indication
              that your Samsung disk needs this option is that  the  self-test
              log  is  printed correctly, but there are a very large number of
              errors in the SMART error log.  This is because the error  count
              is  byte  swapped.   Thus  a disk with five errors (0x0005) will
              appear to have 20480 errors (0x5000).

              samsung3 - Some Samsung disks (at least  SP2514N  with  Firmware
              VF100-37) report a self-test still in progress with 0% remaining
              when the test was already completed. Enabling this option  modi-
              fies  the  output of the self-test execution status (see options
              [ATA  only]  Specifies  whether  smartctl  should use any preset
              options that are available for this drive. By  default,  if  the
              drive is recognized in the smartmontools database, then the pre-
              sets are used.

              smartctl can automatically set  appropriate  options  for  known
              drives.   For  example,  the  Maxtor 4D080H4 uses Attribute 9 to
              stores power-on time in minutes whereas  most  drives  use  that
              Attribute to store the power-on time in hours.  The command-line
              option '-v 9,minutes' ensures that smartctl correctly interprets
              Attribute 9 in this case, but that option is preset for the Max-
              tor 4D080H4 and so need not be specified  by  the  user  on  the
              smartctl command line.

              The  argument  show  will show any preset options for your drive
              and the argument showall will  show  all  known  drives  in  the
              smartmontools  database,  along  with  their preset options.  If
              there are no presets for your drive and you think  there  should
              be  (for example, a -v or -F option is needed to get smartctl to
              display correct values) then please  contact  the  smartmontools
              developers  so  that this information can be added to the smart-
              montools database.  Contact information is at the  end  of  this
              man page.

              The valid arguments to this option are:

              use  - if a drive is recognized, then use the stored presets for
              it.  This is the default. Note that presets  will  NOT  override
              additional  Attribute interpretation ('-v N,something') command-
              line options or explicit '-F' command-line options..

              ignore - do not use presets.

              show - show if the drive is recognized in the database,  and  if
              so, its presets, then exit.

              showall  -  list all recognized drives, and the presets that are
              set for them, then exit.  This also checks  the  drive  database
              regular expressions and settings for syntax errors.

              The  '-P  showall'  option takes up to two optional arguments to
              match a specific drive type and firmware version. The command:
                smartctl -P showall
              lists all entries, the command:
                smartctl -P showall 'MODEL'
              lists all entries matching MODEL, and the command:
                smartctl -P showall 'MODEL' 'FIRMWARE'
              lists all entries for this MODEL and a  specific  FIRMWARE  ver-

       -B [+]FILE, --drivedb=[+]FILE
              [ATA  only] Read the drive database from FILE.  The new database
              replaces the built in database by default.  If '+' is specified,
              then the new entries prepend the built in entries.
              allowed.  Example:

                /* Full entry: */
                  "Model family",    // Info about model family/series.
                  "MODEL1.*REGEX",   // Regular expression to match model of device.
                  "VERSION.*REGEX",  // Regular expression to match firmware version(s).
                  "Some warning",    // Warning message.
                  "-v 9,minutes"     // String of preset -v and -F options.
                /* Minimal entry: */
                  "",                // No model family/series info.
                  "MODEL2.*REGEX",   // Regular expression to match model of device.
                  "",                // All firmware versions.
                  "",                // No warning.
                  ""                 // No options preset.
                /* USB ID entry: */
                  "USB: Device; Bridge", // Info about USB device and bridge name.
                  "0x1234:0xabcd",   // Regular expression to match vendor:product ID.
                  "0x0101",          // Regular expression to match bcdDevice.
                  "",                // Not used.
                  "-d sat"           // String with device type option.
                /* ... */


       -t TEST, --test=TEST
              Executes TEST immediately.  The '-C' option can be used in  con-
              junction with this option to run the short or long (and also for
              ATA devices, selective or conveyance) self-tests in captive mode
              (known  as  "foreground mode" for SCSI devices).  Note that only
              one test type can be run at a time, so only one test type should
              be  specified per command line.  Note also that if a computer is
              shutdown or power cycled during  a  self-test,  no  harm  should
              result.   The  self-test  will  either be aborted or will resume

              All '-t TEST' commands can be given during normal system  opera-
              tion unless captive mode ('-C' option) is used.  A running self-
              test can, however, degrade performance of the  drive.   Frequent
              I/O  requests from the operating system increase the duration of
              a test.  These impacts may vary from device to device.

              If a test failure occurs then the  device  may  discontinue  the
              testing and report the result immediately.

              The valid arguments to this option are:

              offline - [ATA] runs SMART Immediate Offline Test.  This immedi-
              so you should not try to track the progress  of  the  test  with
              '-c', as it will abort the test.

              offline  -  [SCSI]  runs the default self test in foreground. No
              entry is placed in the self test log.

              short - [ATA] runs SMART Short Self Test (usually under ten min-
              utes).  This command can be given during normal system operation
              (unless run in captive mode - see the '-C' option below).   This
              is  a  test  in a different category than the immediate or auto-
              matic offline tests.  The "Self" tests check the electrical  and
              mechanical  performance  as  well as the read performance of the
              disk.  Their results are reported in the Self  Test  Error  Log,
              readable with the '-l selftest' option.  Note that on some disks
              the progress of the self-test can be monitored by watching  this
              log  during  the self-test; with other disks use the '-c' option
              to monitor progress.

              short - [SCSI] runs the "Background short" self-test.

              long - [ATA] runs SMART Extended Self Test  (tens  of  minutes).
              This  is  a  longer  and more thorough version of the Short Self
              Test described above.  Note that this command can be given  dur-
              ing  normal  system  operation (unless run in captive mode - see
              the '-C' option below).

              long - [SCSI] runs the "Background long" self-test.

              conveyance - [ATA only] runs a SMART Conveyance Self Test  (min-
              utes).   This  self-test  routine is intended to identify damage
              incurred during transporting of the device. This self-test  rou-
              tine should take on the order of minutes to complete.  Note that
              this command can be given during normal system operation (unless
              run in captive mode - see the '-C' option below).

              select,N-M,  select,N+SIZE  -  [ATA only] runs a SMART Selective
              Self Test, to test a  range  of  disk  Logical  Block  Addresses
              (LBAs), rather than the entire disk.  Each range of LBAs that is
              checked is called a "span" and is specified by  a  starting  LBA
              (N)  and  an  ending LBA (M) with N less than or equal to M. The
              range can also be specified as N+SIZE. A span at the  end  of  a
              disk can be specified by N-max.

              For example the commands:
                smartctl -t select,10-20 /dev/hda
                smartctl -t select,10+11 /dev/hda
              both  runs  a  self  test  on one span consisting of LBAs ten to
              twenty (inclusive). The command:
                smartctl -t select,100000000-max /dev/hda
              run a self test from LBA 100000000 up to the end  of  the  disk.
              The  '-t'  option  can  be given up to five times, to test up to
              five spans.  For example the command:
                smartctl -t select,0-100 -t select,1000-2000 /dev/hda
              runs a self test on two spans.  The first span consists  of  101
              particular range of Logical Block Addresses (LBAs).

              Selective  self-tests  can be run during normal system operation
              (unless done in captive mode - see the '-C' option below).

              The following variants of the selective  self-test  command  use
              spans  based on the ranges from past tests already stored on the

              select,redo[+SIZE] - [ATA only] redo the  last  SMART  Selective
              Self  Test using the same LBA range. The starting LBA is identi-
              cal to the LBA used by last test, same for ending LBA  unless  a
              new span size is specified by optional +SIZE argument.

              For example the commands:
                smartctl -t select,10-20 /dev/hda
                smartctl -t select,redo /dev/hda
                smartctl -t select,redo+20 /dev/hda
              have the same effect as:
                smartctl -t select,10-20 /dev/hda
                smartctl -t select,10-20 /dev/hda
                smartctl -t select,10-29 /dev/hda

              select,next[+SIZE] - [ATA only] runs a SMART Selective Self Test
              on the LBA range which follows the range of the last  test.  The
              starting  LBA  is set to (ending LBA +1) of the last test. A new
              span size may be specified by the optional +SIZE argument.

              For example the commands:
                smartctl -t select,0-999 /dev/hda
                smartctl -t select,next /dev/hda
                smartctl -t select,next+2000 /dev/hda
              have the same effect as:
                smartctl -t select,0-999 /dev/hda
                smartctl -t select,1000-1999 /dev/hda
                smartctl -t select,2000-3999 /dev/hda

              If the last test ended at the last LBA  of  the  disk,  the  new
              range  starts at LBA 0. The span size of the last span of a disk
              is adjusted such that the total number of  spans  to  check  the
              full   disk   will   not  be  changed  by  future  uses  of  '-t

              select,cont[+SIZE] - [ATA only] performs a 'redo' (above) if the
              self  test  status reports that the last test was aborted by the
              host. Otherwise it run the 'next' (above) test.

              afterselect,on - [ATA only] perform an offline read scan after a
              Selective  self-test  has  completed.  This  option must be used
              together with one or more of the select,N-M  options  above.  If
              the  LBAs  that  have  been specified in the Selective self-test
              pass the test with no errors found, then read scan the remainder
              of  the  disk.   If the device is powered-cycled while this read
              scan is in progress, the read scan will be automatically resumed
              after  a Selective self-test, then resume the test automatically
              N minutes after power-up.  This option must be use together with
              one  or  more of the select,N-M options above. The value of this
              option is preserved between selective self-tests.

              vendor,N - [ATA only] issues the ATA command SMART EXECUTE  OFF-
              LINE  IMMEDIATE  with subcommand N in LBA LOW register. The sub-
              command is specified as a hex value in the range 0x00  to  0xff.
              Subcommands 0x40-0x7e and 0x90-0xff are reserved for vendor spe-
              cific use, see table 61 of T13/1699-D  Revision  6a  (ATA8-ACS).
              Note that the subcommands 0x00-0x04,0x7f,0x81-0x84 are supported
              by other smartctl options (e.g. 0x01: '-t  short',  0x7f:  '-X',
              0x82: '-C -t long').

              WARNING:  Only  run  subcommands documented by the vendor of the

              Example for Intel (X18/X25-M G2, 320, 520 and 710  Series)  SSDs
              only:  The  subcommand  0x40 ('-t vendor,0x40') clears the timed
              workload related SMART attributes (226, 227,  228).   Note  that
              the  raw  values  of these attributes are held at 65535 (0xffff)
              until the workload timer reaches 60 minutes.

              force - start new self-test even if another test is already run-
              ning.  By default a running self-test will not be interrupted to
              begin another test.

       -C, --captive
              [ATA] Runs self-tests in captive mode.  This has no effect  with
              '-t offline' or if the '-t' option is not used.

              WARNING:  Tests  run  in captive mode may busy out the drive for
              the length of the test.  Only run captive tests on drives  with-
              out any mounted partitions!

              [SCSI] Runs the self-test in "Foreground" mode.

       -X, --abort
              Aborts  non-captive  SMART  Self  Tests.  Note that this command
              will abort the Offline Immediate Test routine only if your  disk
              has the "Abort Offline collection upon new command" capability.

ATA, SCSI command sets and SAT
       In  the past there has been a clear distinction between storage devices
       that used the ATA and SCSI command sets.  This  distinction  was  often
       reflected  in their device naming and hardware. Now various SCSI trans-
       ports (e.g. SAS, FC and iSCSI) can  interconnect  to  both  SCSI  disks
       (e.g.  FC  and  SAS) and ATA disks (especially SATA). USB and IEEE 1394
       storage devices use the SCSI command set externally but  almost  always
       contain  ATA  or  SATA disks (or flash). The storage subsystems in some
       operating systems have started to remove the  distinction  between  ATA
       and SCSI in their device naming policies.

       99%  of  operations  that  an  OS  performs  on a disk involve the SCSI
       interest is in the "pass-through" option.

       The relevance to smartmontools (and hence smartctl) is that its  inter-
       actions  with disks fall solidly into the "1%" category. So even if the
       OS can happily treat (and name) a disk as "SCSI",  smartmontools  needs
       to  detect the native command set and act accordingly.  As more storage
       manufacturers (including external SATA drives) comply with SAT,  smart-
       montools is able to automatically distinguish the native command set of
       the device. In some cases the '-d sat' option is needed on the  command

       There are also virtual disks which typically have no useful information
       to convey to smartmontools, but could conceivably  in  the  future.  An
       example  of  a virtual disk is the OS's view of a RAID 1 box. There are
       most likely two SATA disks inside a RAID 1 box. Addressing  those  SATA
       disks  from  a  distant  OS  is  a challenge for smartmontools. Another
       approach is running a tool like smartmontools inside  the  RAID  1  box
       (e.g.   a Network Attached Storage (NAS) box) and fetching the logs via
       a browser.

       smartctl -a /dev/hda
       Print a large amount of SMART information for drive /dev/hda  which  is
       typically an ATA (IDE) or SATA disk in Linux.

       smartctl -a /dev/sdb
       Print a large amount of SMART information for drive /dev/sdb . This may
       be a SCSI disk or an ATA (SATA) disk.

       smartctl -s off /dev/hdd
       Disable SMART monitoring and data log collection on drive /dev/hdd .

       smartctl --smart=on --offlineauto=on --saveauto=on /dev/hda
       Enable SMART on drive /dev/hda, enable automatic offline testing  every
       four  hours, and enable autosaving of SMART Attributes.  This is a good
       start-up line for your system's init files.  You can issue this command
       on a running system.

       smartctl -t long /dev/hdc
       Begin an extended self-test of drive /dev/hdc.  You can issue this com-
       mand on a running system.  The results can be seen in the self-test log
       visible with the '-l selftest' option after it has completed.

       smartctl -s on -t offline /dev/hda
       Enable  SMART on the disk, and begin an immediate offline test of drive
       /dev/hda.  You can issue this command on a running system.  The results
       are  only  used  to  update the SMART Attributes, visible with the '-A'
       option.  If any device errors occur, they are logged to the SMART error
       log, which can be seen with the '-l error' option.

       smartctl -A -v 9,minutes /dev/hda
       Shows  the  vendor  Attributes,  when the disk stores its power-on time
       internally in minutes rather than hours.

       Examine all SMART data for the first ATA disk connected to a 3ware RAID
       controller card.

       smartctl -a -d 3ware,0 /dev/twe0
       Examine all SMART data for the first ATA disk connected to a 3ware RAID
       6000/7000/8000 controller card.

       smartctl -a -d 3ware,0 /dev/twa0
       Examine all SMART data for the first ATA disk connected to a 3ware RAID
       9000 controller card.

       smartctl -a -d 3ware,0 /dev/twl0
       Examine all SMART data for the first SATA (not SAS) disk connected to a
       3ware RAID 9750 controller card.

       smartctl -t short -d 3ware,3 /dev/sdb
       Start  a  short self-test on the fourth ATA disk connected to the 3ware
       RAID controller card which is the second SCSI device /dev/sdb.

       smartctl -t long -d areca,4 /dev/sg2
       Start a long self-test on the fourth SATA disk connected  to  an  Areca
       RAID controller addressed by /dev/sg2.

       smartctl -a -d hpt,1/3 /dev/sda (under Linux)
       smartctl -a -d hpt,1/3 /dev/hptrr (under FreeBSD)
       Examine  all  SMART  data for the (S)ATA disk directly connected to the
       third channel of the first HighPoint RocketRAID controller card.

       smartctl -t short -d hpt,1/1/2 /dev/sda (under Linux)
       smartctl -t short -d hpt,1/1/2 /dev/hptrr (under FreeBSD)
       Start a short self-test on the (S)ATA disk connected to  second  pmport
       on the first channel of the first HighPoint RocketRAID controller card.

       smartctl -t select,10-100 -t select,30-300 -t afterselect,on -t pending,45 /dev/hda
       Run  a  selective self-test on LBAs 10 to 100 and 30 to 300.  After the
       these LBAs have been tested, read-scan the remainder of the  disk.   If
       the  disk is power-cycled during the read-scan, resume the scan 45 min-
       utes after power to the device is restored.

       smartctl -a -d cciss,0 /dev/cciss/c0d0
       Examine all SMART data for the first SCSI disk  connected  to  a  cciss
       RAID controller card.

       The return values of smartctl are defined by a bitmask.  If all is well
       with the disk, the return value (exit status) of  smartctl  is  0  (all
       bits  turned  off).  If a problem occurs, or an error, potential error,
       or fault is detected, then a non-zero  status  is  returned.   In  this
       case,  the  eight different bits in the return value have the following
       meanings for ATA disks; some of these values may also be  returned  for
       SCSI disks.

       Bit 0: Command line did not parse.

       Bit 5: SMART  status  check  returned  "DISK OK" but we found that some
              (usage or prefail) Attributes have been  <=  threshold  at  some
              time in the past.

       Bit 6: The device error log contains records of errors.

       Bit 7: The device self-test log contains records of errors.  [ATA only]
              Failed self-tests outdated by a newer successful extended  self-
              test are ignored.

       To  test  within  the  shell  for whether or not the different bits are
       turned on or off, you can use the following type of construction  (this
       is bash syntax):
       smartstat=$(($? & 8))
       This  looks at only at bit 3 of the exit status $?  (since 8=2^3).  The
       shell variable  $smartstat  will  be  nonzero  if  SMART  status  check
       returned "disk failing" and zero otherwise.

       This bash script prints all status bits:
       for ((i=0; i<8; i++)); do
         echo "Bit $i: $((status & 2**i && 1))"

       The  TapeAlert  log  page  flags are cleared for the initiator when the
       page is read. This means that each alert  condition  is  reported  only
       once  by  smartctl for each initiator for each activation of the condi-

       Bruce Allen
       University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee Physics Department
       Christian Franke (Windows interface, C++  redesign,  most  enhancements
       since 2009)

       The following have made large contributions to smartmontools:
       Casper Dik (Solaris SCSI interface)
       Douglas Gilbert (SCSI subsystem)
       Guido Guenther (Autoconf/Automake packaging)
       Geoffrey Keating (Darwin ATA interface)
       Eduard Martinescu (FreeBSD interface)
       Frederic L. W. Meunier (Web site and Mailing list)
       Gabriele Pohl (Web site and Wiki, conversion from CVS to SVN)
       Keiji Sawada (Solaris ATA interface)
       Manfred Schwarb (Drive database)
       Sergey Svishchev (NetBSD interface)
       David Snyder and Sergey Svishchev (OpenBSD interface)
       Phil Williams (User interface and drive database) .

       Please  see  the following web site for updates, further documentation,
       bug reports and patches:

       smartd(8), badblocks(8), ide-smart(8).

       An introductory article about smartmontools is  Monitoring  Hard  Disks
       with  SMART,  by Bruce Allen, Linux Journal, January 2004, pages 74-77.
       This is online.

       If you would like to understand better how SMART  works,  and  what  it
       does,  a good place to start is with Sections 4.8 and 6.54 of the first
       volume of the 'AT Attachment  with  Packet  Interface-7'  (ATA/ATAPI-7)
       specification  Revision  4b.   This  documents  the SMART functionality
       which the smartmontools utilities provide access to.

       The functioning of SMART was originally defined by the SFF-8035i  revi-
       sion 2 and the SFF-8055i revision 1.4 specifications.  These are publi-
       cations of the Small Form Factors (SFF) Committee.

       Links to these and other documents may be found on the  Links  page  of
       the  smartmontools  Wiki  at
       tools/wiki/Links .

       $Id: 3832 2013-07-20 14:49:31Z chrfranke $

smartmontools-6.2                 2013-07-26                       SMARTCTL(8)
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