lsof


SYNOPSIS
       lsof  [  -?abChKlnNOPRtUvVX  ]  [ -A A ] [ -c c ] [ +c c ] [ +|-d d ] [
       +|-D D ] [ +|-e s ] [ +|-f [cfgGn] ] [ -F [f] ] [ -g [s] ] [ -i [i] ] [
       -k  k  ]  [  +|-L  [l] ] [ +|-m m ] [ +|-M ] [ -o [o] ] [ -p s ] [ +|-r
       [t[m<fmt>]] ] [ -s [p:s] ] [ -S [t] ] [ -T [t] ] [ -u s ] [ +|-w ] [ -x
       [fl] ] [ -z [z] ] [ -Z [Z] ] [ -- ] [names]

DESCRIPTION
       Lsof  revision 4.86 lists on its standard output file information about
       files opened by processes for the following UNIX dialects:

            Apple Darwin 9 and Mac OS X 10.[567]
            FreeBSD 4.9 and 6.4 for x86-based systems
            FreeBSD 8.2, 9.0 and 10.0 for AMD64-based systems
            Linux 2.1.72 and above for x86-based systems
            Solaris 9, 10 and 11

       (See the DISTRIBUTION section of this manual page  for  information  on
       how to obtain the latest lsof revision.)

       An  open file may be a regular file, a directory, a block special file,
       a character special file, an executing text  reference,  a  library,  a
       stream  or  a  network  file  (Internet socket, NFS file or UNIX domain
       socket.)  A specific file or all the files in  a  file  system  may  be
       selected by path.

       Instead  of  a  formatted display, lsof will produce output that can be
       parsed by other programs.  See the -F, option description, and the OUT-
       PUT FOR OTHER PROGRAMS section for more information.

       In  addition to producing a single output list, lsof will run in repeat
       mode.  In repeat mode it will produce output, delay,  then  repeat  the
       output  operation  until stopped with an interrupt or quit signal.  See
       the +|-r [t[m<fmt>]] option description for more information.

OPTIONS
       In the absence of any options, lsof lists all open files  belonging  to
       all active processes.

       If  any  list  request option is specified, other list requests must be
       specifically requested - e.g., if -U is specified for  the  listing  of
       UNIX  socket  files, NFS files won't be listed unless -N is also speci-
       fied; or if a user list is specified with the -u  option,  UNIX  domain
       socket  files,  belonging  to  users  not  in the list, won't be listed
       unless the -U option is also specified.

       Normally list options that are specifically stated  are  ORed  -  i.e.,
       specifying  the  -i option without an address and the -ufoo option pro-
       duces a listing of all network files OR files  belonging  to  processes
       owned by user ``foo''.  The exceptions are:

       1) the `^' (negated) login name or user ID (UID), specified with the -u
          option;

       ing and take effect before any other selection criteria are applied.

       The -a option may be used to AND the selections.  For example, specify-
       ing -a, -U, and -ufoo produces a listing of only UNIX socket files that
       belong to processes owned by user ``foo''.

       Caution:  the  -a option causes all list selection options to be ANDed;
       it can't be used to cause ANDing of selected pairs of selection options
       by  placing it between them, even though its placement there is accept-
       able.  Wherever -a is placed, it causes the  ANDing  of  all  selection
       options.

       Items of the same selection set - command names, file descriptors, net-
       work addresses, process  identifiers,  user  identifiers,  zone  names,
       security  contexts - are joined in a single ORed set and applied before
       the result participates  in  ANDing.   Thus,  for  example,  specifying
       -i@aaa.bbb,  -i@ccc.ddd,  -a,  and -ufff,ggg will select the listing of
       files that belong to either login ``fff'' OR ``ggg'' AND  have  network
       connections to either host aaa.bbb OR ccc.ddd.

       Options  may be grouped together following a single prefix -- e.g., the
       option set ``-a -b -C'' may be stated as -abC.  However,  since  values
       are optional following +|-f, -F, -g, -i, +|-L, -o, +|-r, -s, -S, -T, -x
       and -z.  when you have no values for them be careful that the following
       character isn't ambiguous.  For example, -Fn might represent the -F and
       -n options, or it might represent the n field identifier character fol-
       lowing  the  -F option.  When ambiguity is possible, start a new option
       with a `-' character - e.g., ``-F -n''.  If the next option is  a  file
       name,  follow the possibly ambiguous option with ``--'' - e.g., ``-F --
       name''.

       Either the `+' or the `-' prefix may be applied to a group of  options.
       Options that don't take on separate meanings for each prefix - e.g., -i
       - may be grouped under either prefix.  Thus, for example, ``+M -i'' may
       be  stated  as  ``+Mi''  and  the  group means the same as the separate
       options.  Be careful of prefix grouping when one or more options in the
       group  does  take on separate meanings under different prefixes - e.g.,
       +|-M; ``-iM'' is not the same request as ``-i +M''.  When in doubt, use
       separate options with appropriate prefixes.

       -? -h    These  two  equivalent  options  select  a usage (help) output
                list.  Lsof displays a shortened form of this output  when  it
                detects  an  error in the options supplied to it, after it has
                displayed messages explaining each  error.   (Escape  the  `?'
                character as your shell requires.)

       -a       causes list selection options to be ANDed, as described above.

       -A A     is  available  on  systems configured for AFS whose AFS kernel
                code is implemented via dynamic modules.  It allows  the  lsof
                user  to  specify  A  as an alternate name list file where the
                kernel addresses of the dynamic modules might be  found.   See
                the  lsof  FAQ (The FAQ section gives its location.)  for more
                information about dynamic modules, their symbols, and how they
                tion.

                If  c begins with a `^', then the following characters specify
                a command name whose processes are to be ignored (excluded.)

                If c begins and  ends  with  a  slash  ('/'),  the  characters
                between  the  slashes are interpreted as a regular expression.
                Shell meta-characters in the regular expression must be quoted
                to  prevent  their  interpretation  by the shell.  The closing
                slash may be followed by these modifiers:

                     b    the regular expression is a basic one.
                     i    ignore the case of letters.
                     x    the regular expression is an extended one
                          (default).

                See the lsof FAQ (The FAQ section gives  its  location.)   for
                more information on basic and extended regular expressions.

                The  simple  command  specification  is tested first.  If that
                test fails, the command regular expression is applied.  If the
                simple  command  test succeeds, the command regular expression
                test isn't made.  This may result in ``no  command  found  for
                regex:'' messages when lsof's -V option is specified.

       +c w     defines  the maximum number of initial characters of the name,
                supplied by the UNIX dialect, of the UNIX  command  associated
                with a process to be printed in the COMMAND column.  (The lsof
                default is nine.)

                Note that many UNIX dialects do not supply  all  command  name
                characters to lsof in the files and structures from which lsof
                obtains command name.  Often  dialects  limit  the  number  of
                characters  supplied  in  those  sources.   For example, Linux
                2.4.27 and Solaris 9 both limit  command  name  length  to  16
                characters.

                If w is zero ('0'), all command characters supplied to lsof by
                the UNIX dialect will be printed.

                If w is less than the length of the column title, ``COMMAND'',
                it will be raised to that length.

       -C       disables  the  reporting  of any path name components from the
                kernel's name cache.  See the KERNEL NAME  CACHE  section  for
                more information.

       +d s     causes  lsof  to  search for all open instances of directory s
                and the files and directories it contains at  its  top  level.
                +d does NOT descend the directory tree, rooted at s.  The +D D
                option may be used to request a  full-descent  directory  tree
                search, rooted at directory D.

                Processing  of  the  +d  option does not follow symbolic links
                ``^6,^2''.  (There should be no spaces in the set.)

                The list is an exclusion list if all entries of the set  begin
                with  `^'.   It  is  an inclusion list if no entry begins with
                `^'.  Mixed lists are not permitted.

                A file descriptor number range may be in the set  as  long  as
                neither  member  is  empty,  both members are numbers, and the
                ending member is larger than the starting one - e.g.,  ``0-7''
                or  ``3-10''.   Ranges  may be specified for exclusion if they
                have the  `^'  prefix  -  e.g.,  ``^0-7''  excludes  all  file
                descriptors 0 through 7.

                Multiple  file  descriptor numbers are joined in a single ORed
                set before participating in AND option selection.

                When there are exclusion and inclusion  members  in  the  set,
                lsof  reports  them as errors and exits with a non-zero return
                code.

                See the description of File Descriptor (FD) output  values  in
                the  OUTPUT  section  for  more information on file descriptor
                names.

       +D D     causes lsof to search for all open instances  of  directory  D
                and  all the files and directories it contains to its complete
                depth.

                Processing of the +D option does  not  follow  symbolic  links
                within D unless the -x or -x  l option is also specified.  Nor
                does it search for open files on file system mount  points  on
                subdirectories  of  D  unless  the  -x or -x  f option is also
                specified.

                Note: the authority of the user of this option  limits  it  to
                searching  for  files  that the user has permission to examine
                with the system stat(2) function.

                Further note: lsof may process this option slowly and  require
                a large amount of dynamic memory to do it.  This is because it
                must descend the entire directory tree, rooted at  D,  calling
                stat(2)  for  each  file and directory, building a list of all
                the files it finds, and searching that list for a  match  with
                every  open  file.  When directory D is large, these steps can
                take a long time, so use this option prudently.

       -D D     directs lsof's use of the device cache file.  The use of  this
                option  is  sometimes  restricted.   See the DEVICE CACHE FILE
                section and the sections that follow it for  more  information
                on this option.

                -D  must be followed by a function letter; the function letter
                may optionally be followed by a path  name.   Lsof  recognizes
                these function letters:
                tion on these functions and when they're restricted.

                The ?  function reports the read-only  and  write  paths  that
                lsof can use for the device cache file, the names of any envi-
                ronment variables whose values lsof will examine when  forming
                the  device  cache  file path, and the format for the personal
                device cache file path.  (Escape the  `?'  character  as  your
                shell requires.)

                When  available,  the b, r, and u functions may be followed by
                the  device  cache  file's  path.   The  standard  default  is
                .lsof_hostname  in the home directory of the real user ID that
                executes lsof, but this could have been changed when lsof  was
                configured  and  compiled.   (The  output  of  the  -h  and -?
                options show the current default prefix  -  e.g.,  ``.lsof''.)
                The  suffix,  hostname,  is  the first component of the host's
                name returned by gethostname(2).

                When available, the b function directs lsof  to  build  a  new
                device cache file at the default or specified path.

                The i function directs lsof to ignore the default device cache
                file and obtain its information about devices via direct calls
                to the kernel.

                The  r  function  directs lsof to read the device cache at the
                default or specified path, but prevents it from creating a new
                device  cache  file  when  none  exists or the existing one is
                improperly structured.  The r function, when specified without
                a  path name, prevents lsof from updating an incorrect or out-
                dated device cache file, or creating a new one in  its  place.
                The  r function is always available when it is specified with-
                out a path name argument; it may be restricted by the  permis-
                sions of the lsof process.

                When available, the u function directs lsof to read the device
                cache file at the default or specified path, if possible,  and
                to rebuild it, if necessary.  This is the default device cache
                file function when no -D option has been specified.

       +|-e s   exempts the file system whose path name is s from  being  sub-
                jected  to  kernel  function  calls  that might block.  The +e
                option exempts stat(2), lstat(2) and most  readlink(2)  kernel
                function  calls.   The  -e  option  exempts  only  stat(2) and
                lstat(2) kernel function calls.  Multiple file systems may  be
                specified  with separate +|-e specifications and each may have
                readlink(2) calls exempted or not.

                This option is currently implemented only for Linux.

                CAUTION: this option can easily be mis-applied to  other  than
                the  file system of interest, because it uses path name rather
                than the more reliable device and inode numbers.  (Device  and
                inode  numbers  are  acquired  via  the  potentially  blocking

       +|-f [cfgGn]
                f by itself clarifies how path name arguments are to be inter-
                preted.  When followed by c, f, g, G, or n in any  combination
                it  specifies that the listing of kernel file structure infor-
                mation is to be enabled (`+') or inhibited (`-').

                Normally a path name argument is taken to  be  a  file  system
                name  if  it  matches  a mounted-on directory name reported by
                mount(8), or if it represents a block  device,  named  in  the
                mount  output  and  associated  with a mounted directory name.
                When +f is specified, all path name arguments will be taken to
                be  file  system names, and lsof will complain if any are not.
                This can be useful, for example, when  the  file  system  name
                (mounted-on  device)  isn't  a block device.  This happens for
                some CD-ROM file systems.

                When -f is specified by itself, all path name  arguments  will
                be  taken  to be simple files.  Thus, for example, the ``-f --
                /'' arguments direct lsof to search for open files with a  `/'
                path name, not all open files in the `/' (root) file system.

                Be  careful to make sure +f and -f are properly terminated and
                aren't followed by a character (e.g., of the file or file sys-
                tem  name)  that  might be taken as a parameter.  For example,
                use ``--'' after +f and -f as in these examples.

                     $ lsof +f -- /file/system/name
                     $ lsof -f -- /file/name

                The  listing  of  information  from  kernel  file  structures,
                requested  with the +f [cfgGn] option form, is normally inhib-
                ited, and is not available in whole or part for some  dialects
                - e.g., /proc-based Linux kernels below 2.6.22.  When the pre-
                fix to f is a plus sign (`+'), these characters  request  file
                structure information:

                     c    file structure use count (not Linux)
                     f    file structure address (not Linux)
                     g    file flag abbreviations (Linux 2.6.22 and up)
                     G    file flags in hexadecimal (Linux 2.6.22 and up)
                     n    file structure node address (not Linux)

                When the prefix is minus (`-') the same characters disable the
                listing of the indicated values.

                File  structure  addresses,  use  counts,  flags,   and   node
                addresses  may  be used to detect more readily identical files
                inherited by child processes and identical  files  in  use  by
                different processes.  Lsof column output can be sorted by out-
                put columns holding the values and listed to identify  identi-
                cal  file use, or lsof field output can be parsed by an AWK or
                Perl post-filter script, or by a C program.


                When  the  field selection character list contains only a zero
                (`0'), all fields are selected (except the  raw  device  field
                for compatibility reasons) and the NUL terminator character is
                used.

                Other combinations of fields and their associated field termi-
                nator  character  must  be  set with explicit entries in f, as
                described in the OUTPUT FOR OTHER PROGRAMS section.

                When a field selection character identifies an item lsof  does
                not  normally list - e.g., PPID, selected with -R - specifica-
                tion of the field character - e.g., ``-FR'' - also selects the
                listing of the item.

                When  the  field  selection character list contains the single
                character `?', lsof will display a  help  list  of  the  field
                identification  characters.  (Escape the `?' character as your
                shell requires.)

       -g [s]   excludes or selects the listing of  files  for  the  processes
                whose optional process group IDentification (PGID) numbers are
                in the comma-separated set s - e.g., ``123'' or  ``123,^456''.
                (There should be no spaces in the set.)

                PGID  numbers  that begin with `^' (negation) represent exclu-
                sions.

                Multiple PGID numbers are joined in a single ORed  set  before
                participating  in  AND option selection.  However, PGID exclu-
                sions are applied without ORing  or  ANDing  and  take  effect
                before other selection criteria are applied.

                The -g option also enables the output display of PGID numbers.
                When specified without a PGID set that's all it does.

       -i [i]   selects the listing of files any  of  whose  Internet  address
                matches  the  address specified in i.  If no address is speci-
                fied, this option selects the listing of all Internet and x.25
                (HP-UX) network files.

                If  -i4  or  -i6  is specified with no following address, only
                files of the indicated IP version,  IPv4  or  IPv6,  are  dis-
                played.   (An  IPv6  specification  may  be  used  only if the
                dialects  supports  IPv6,  as  indicated   by   ``[46]''   and
                ``IPv[46]''  in lsof's -h or -?  output.)  Sequentially speci-
                fying -i4, followed by -i6 is the same as specifying  -i,  and
                vice-versa.   Specifying  -i4,  or -i6 after -i is the same as
                specifying -i4 or -i6 by itself.

                Multiple addresses (up to a limit of  100)  may  be  specified
                with  multiple  -i  options.   (A  port number or service name
                range is counted as one address.)  They are joined in a single
                ORed set before participating in AND option selection.
                          applies to all IP versions.
                     protocol is a protocol name - TCP, UDP
                     hostname is an Internet host name.  Unless a
                          specific IP version is specified, open
                          network files associated with host names
                          of all versions will be selected.
                     hostaddr is a numeric Internet IPv4 address in
                          dot form; or an IPv6 numeric address in
                          colon form, enclosed in brackets, if the
                          UNIX dialect supports IPv6.  When an IP
                          version is selected, only its numeric
                          addresses may be specified.
                     service is an /etc/services name - e.g., smtp -
                          or a list of them.
                     port is a port number, or a list of them.

                IPv6 options may be used only if  the  UNIX  dialect  supports
                IPv6.  To see if the dialect supports IPv6, run lsof and spec-
                ify the -h or -?  (help) option.  If the displayed description
                of  the  -i  option contains ``[46]'' and ``IPv[46]'', IPv6 is
                supported.

                IPv4 host names and addresses may not be specified if  network
                file  selection is limited to IPv6 with -i 6.  IPv6 host names
                and addresses may not be specified if network  file  selection
                is  limited  to  IPv4  with  -i  4.  When an open IPv4 network
                file's address is mapped in an IPv6 address, the  open  file's
                type  will be IPv6, not IPv4, and its display will be selected
                by '6', not '4'.

                At least one address component -  4,  6,  protocol,  hostname,
                hostaddr,  or  service - must be supplied.  The `@' character,
                leading the host specification, is always required; as is  the
                `:',  leading the port specification.  Specify either hostname
                or hostaddr.  Specify either service name list or port  number
                list.   If  a service name list is specified, the protocol may
                also need to be specified if the TCP,  UDP  and  UDPLITE  port
                numbers  for  the  service name are different.  Use any case -
                lower or upper - for protocol.

                Service names and port numbers may be combined in a list whose
                entries  are  separated  by  commas  and  whose  numeric range
                entries are separated by minus signs.  There may be no  embed-
                ded spaces, and all service names must belong to the specified
                protocol.  Since service  names  may  contain  embedded  minus
                signs,  the starting entry of a range can't be a service name;
                it can be a port number, however.

                Here are some sample addresses:

                     -i6 - IPv6 only
                     TCP:25 - TCP and port 25
                     @1.2.3.4 - Internet IPv4 host address 1.2.3.4
                     @[3ffe:1ebc::1]:1234 - Internet IPv6 host address

                When  -K  and  -a  are  both specified and the tasks of a main
                process are selected by other options, the main  process  will
                also  be  listed  as though it were a task, but without a task
                ID.  (See the description of the TID column in the OUTPUT sec-
                tion.)

       -k k     specifies  a  kernel  name  list file, k, in place of /vmunix,
                /mach, etc.   -k  is  not  available  under  AIX  on  the  IBM
                RISC/System 6000.

       -l       inhibits the conversion of user ID numbers to login names.  It
                is also useful when login name lookup is working improperly or
                slowly.

       +|-L [l] enables  (`+')  or  disables  (`-')  the  listing of file link
                counts, where they are available - e.g., they aren't available
                for sockets, or most FIFOs and pipes.

                When  +L  is  specified  without  a following number, all link
                counts will be listed.  When -L is specified (the default), no
                link counts will be listed.

                When  +L  is  followed  by  a number, only files having a link
                count less than that number will be listed.   (No  number  may
                follow  -L.)   A specification of the form ``+L1'' will select
                open files that have been unlinked.  A  specification  of  the
                form ``+aL1 <file_system>'' will select unlinked open files on
                the specified file system.

                For other link count comparisons, use field output (-F) and  a
                post-processing script or program.

       +|-m m   specifies  an  alternate kernel memory file or activates mount
                table supplement processing.

                The option form -m m specifies a kernel  memory  file,  m,  in
                place of /dev/kmem or /dev/mem - e.g., a crash dump file.

                The  option  form  +m requests that a mount supplement file be
                written to the standard output file.  All  other  options  are
                silently ignored.

                There  will  be  a  line in the mount supplement file for each
                mounted file system, containing the mounted file system direc-
                tory,  followed by a single space, followed by the device num-
                ber in hexadecimal "0x" format - e.g.,

                     / 0x801

                Lsof can use the mount supplement file to get  device  numbers
                for  file  systems  when  it  can't  get  them  via stat(2) or
                lstat(2).

                The default reporting mode is set by the lsof builder with the
                HASPMAPENABLED #define in the dialect's machine.h header file;
                lsof is distributed with the  HASPMAPENABLED  #define  deacti-
                vated, so portmapper reporting is disabled by default and must
                be requested with +M.  Specifying lsof's -h or -?  option will
                report  the  default  mode.  Disabling portmapper registration
                when it is  already  disabled  or  enabling  it  when  already
                enabled is acceptable.  When portmapper registration reporting
                is enabled, lsof displays the portmapper registration (if any)
                for local TCP, UDP or UDPLITE ports in square brackets immedi-
                ately following the port numbers  or  service  names  -  e.g.,
                ``:1234[name]'' or ``:name[100083]''.  The registration infor-
                mation may be a name or number, depending on what  the  regis-
                tering  program  supplied to the portmapper when it registered
                the port.

                When portmapper registration reporting is  enabled,  lsof  may
                run a little more slowly or even become blocked when access to
                the portmapper becomes  congested  or  stopped.   Reverse  the
                reporting mode to determine if portmapper registration report-
                ing is slowing or blocking lsof.

                For purposes of portmapper registration reporting lsof consid-
                ers  a  TCP,  UDP or UDPLITE port local if: it is found in the
                local part of its containing kernel structure;  or  if  it  is
                located in the foreign part of its containing kernel structure
                and the local and foreign Internet addresses are the same;  or
                if  it is located in the foreign part of its containing kernel
                structure and the foreign Internet address is  INADDR_LOOPBACK
                (127.0.0.1).   This  rule  may  make  lsof ignore some foreign
                ports on machines with multiple interfaces  when  the  foreign
                Internet  address  is  on a different interface from the local
                one.

                See the lsof FAQ (The FAQ section gives  its  location.)   for
                further   discussion   of  portmapper  registration  reporting
                issues.

                Portmapper  registration  reporting  is  supported   only   on
                dialects  that  have  RPC header files.  (Some Linux distribu-
                tions with GlibC 2.14 do not have them.)  When portmapper reg-
                istration  reporting  is  supported, the -h or -?  help output
                will show the +|-M option.

       -n       inhibits the conversion of network numbers to host  names  for
                network  files.   Inhibiting  conversion  may  make  lsof  run
                faster.  It is also useful when host name lookup is not  work-
                ing properly.

       -N       selects the listing of NFS files.

       -o       directs  lsof  to display file offset at all times.  It causes
                the SIZE/OFF output column title  to  be  changed  to  OFFSET.
                Note: on some UNIX dialects lsof can't obtain accurate or con-
                ``0x...''.  An o value of zero (unlimited) directs lsof to use
                the ``0t'' form for all offset output.

                This  option  does  NOT  direct  lsof to display offset at all
                times; specify -o (without a trailing number) to do that.   -o
                o  only  specifies the number of digits after ``0t'' in either
                mixed size and offset or offset-only output.  Thus, for  exam-
                ple, to direct lsof to display offset at all times with a dec-
                imal digit count of 10, use:

                     -o -o 10
                or
                     -oo10

                The default number of digits allowed after ``0t'' is  normally
                8, but may have been changed by the lsof builder.  Consult the
                description of the -o o option in the output of the -h  or  -?
                option to determine the default that is in effect.

       -O       directs  lsof  to  bypass  the strategy it uses to avoid being
                blocked by some kernel operations - i.e., doing them in forked
                child  processes.   See  the  BLOCKS AND TIMEOUTS and AVOIDING
                KERNEL BLOCKS sections for more information on  kernel  opera-
                tions that may block lsof.

                While use of this option will reduce lsof startup overhead, it
                may also cause lsof to hang when the kernel doesn't respond to
                a function.  Use this option cautiously.

       -p s     excludes  or  selects  the  listing of files for the processes
                whose optional process IDentification (PID) numbers are in the
                comma-separated set s - e.g., ``123'' or ``123,^456''.  (There
                should be no spaces in the set.)

                PID numbers that begin with `^'  (negation)  represent  exclu-
                sions.

                Multiple  process  ID  numbers are joined in a single ORed set
                before participating in AND option  selection.   However,  PID
                exclusions are applied without ORing or ANDing and take effect
                before other selection criteria are applied.

       -P       inhibits the conversion of port numbers to port names for net-
                work  files.   Inhibiting  the  conversion may make lsof run a
                little faster.  It is also useful when port name lookup is not
                working properly.

       +|-r [t[m<fmt>]]
                puts  lsof  in  repeat  mode.   There lsof lists open files as
                selected by other options, delays t seconds (default fifteen),
                then  repeats  the  listing, delaying and listing repetitively
                until stopped by a condition defined  by  the  prefix  to  the
                option.

                marker  is  `m'; otherwise the default marker is ``========''.
                The marker is followed by a NL character.

                The optional "m<fmt>" argument  specifies  a  format  for  the
                marker  line.   The  <fmt> characters following `m' are inter-
                preted as a format specification to the strftime(3)  function,
                when  both  it  and the localtime(3) function are available in
                the dialect's C library.  Consult the  strftime(3)  documenta-
                tion  for  what  may appear in its format specification.  Note
                that when field output is requested with the -F option,  <fmt>
                cannot  contain  the  NL  format, ``%n''.  Note also that when
                <fmt> contains spaces or  other  characters  that  affect  the
                shell's  interpretation  of  arguments,  <fmt>  must be quoted
                appropriately.

                Repeat mode reduces lsof startup overhead, so it is more effi-
                cient  to  use this mode than to call lsof repetitively from a
                shell script, for example.

                To use repeat mode most efficiently, accompany +|-r with spec-
                ification  of  other  lsof selection options, so the amount of
                kernel memory access lsof does will  be  kept  to  a  minimum.
                Options  that  filter at the process level - e.g., -c, -g, -p,
                -u - are the most efficient selectors.

                Repeat mode is useful when coupled with field output (see  the
                -F,  option description) and a supervising awk or Perl script,
                or a C program.

       -R       directs lsof to list the Parent Process IDentification  number
                in the PPID column.

       -s [p:s] s  alone  directs  lsof to display file size at all times.  It
                causes the SIZE/OFF output column title to be changed to SIZE.
                If the file does not have a size, nothing is displayed.

                When  followed  by  a  protocol name (p), either TCP or UDP, a
                colon (`:') and a comma-separated protocol  state  name  list,
                the  option  causes  open  TCP and UDP files to be excluded if
                their state name(s) are in the list (s) preceded by a `^';  or
                included if their name(s) are not preceded by a `^'.

                When  an  inclusion  list  is defined, only network files with
                state names in the list will be present in  the  lsof  output.
                Thus,  specifying one state name means that only network files
                with that lone state name will be listed.

                Case is unimportant in the protocol or state names, but  there
                may  be  no spaces and the colon (`:') separating the protocol
                name (p) and the state name list (s) is required.

                If only TCP and UDP files are to be listed, as  controlled  by
                the specified exclusions and inclusions, the -i option must be
                specified, too.  If only a single protocol's files are  to  be
                State  names  vary with UNIX dialects, so it's not possible to
                provide a complete list.  Some common  TCP  state  names  are:
                CLOSED,  IDLE, BOUND, LISTEN, ESTABLISHED, SYN_SENT, SYN_RCDV,
                ESTABLISHED,   CLOSE_WAIT,   FIN_WAIT1,   CLOSING,   LAST_ACK,
                FIN_WAIT_2,  and  TIME_WAIT.   Two  common UDP state names are
                Unbound and Idle.

                See the lsof FAQ (The FAQ section gives  its  location.)   for
                more  information  on  how to use protocol state exclusion and
                inclusion, including examples.

                The -o (without a following decimal digit count) and -s option
                (without  a  following protocol and state name list) are mutu-
                ally exclusive; they can't both be specified.  When neither is
                specified,  lsof displays whatever value - size or offset - is
                appropriate and available for the type of file.

                Since some types of files don't have  true  sizes  -  sockets,
                FIFOs, pipes, etc. - lsof displays for their sizes the content
                amounts in their associated kernel buffers, if possible.

       -S [t]   specifies an optional time-out seconds value for kernel  func-
                tions - lstat(2), readlink(2), and stat(2) - that might other-
                wise deadlock.  The minimum for t is two;  the  default,  fif-
                teen; when no value is specified, the default is used.

                See the BLOCKS AND TIMEOUTS section for more information.

       -T [t]   controls  the  reporting  of  some  TCP/TPI  information, also
                reported by netstat(1), following the network  addresses.   In
                normal  output  the  information  appears in parentheses, each
                item except TCP or TPI state name  identified  by  a  keyword,
                followed by `=', separated from others by a single space:

                     <TCP or TPI state name>
                     QR=<read queue length>
                     QS=<send queue length>
                     SO=<socket options and values>
                     SS=<socket states>
                     TF=<TCP flags and values>
                     WR=<window read length>
                     WW=<window write length>

                Not all values are reported for all UNIX dialects.  Items val-
                ues (when available) are reported after the item name and '='.

                When the field output mode is in effect (See OUTPUT FOR  OTHER
                PROGRAMS.)   each  item  appears as a field with a `T' leading
                character.

                -T with no following key characters disables TCP/TPI  informa-
                tion reporting.

                -T with following characters selects the reporting of specific
                selections may be used with the UNIX dialect.

                When  -T  is used to select information - i.e., it is followed
                by one or more selection characters - the displaying of  state
                is  disabled  by  default,  and it must be explicitly selected
                again in the characters following -T.  (In effect,  then,  the
                default  is equivalent to -Ts.)  For example, if queue lengths
                and state are desired, use -Tqs.

                Socket options, socket states, some socket values,  TCP  flags
                and  one TCP value may be reported (when available in the UNIX
                dialect) in the form of the names that commonly  appear  after
                SO_,  so_,  SS_, TCP_  and TF_ in the dialect's header files -
                most    often    <sys/socket.h>,     <sys/socketvar.h>     and
                <netinet/tcp_var.h>.  Consult those header files for the mean-
                ing of the flags, options, states and values.

                ``SO='' precedes socket options and  values;  ``SS='',  socket
                states; and ``TF='', TCP flags and values.

                If  a flag or option has a value, the value will follow an '='
                and  the  name  --   e.g.,   ``SO=LINGER=5'',   ``SO=QLIM=5'',
                ``TF=MSS=512''.  The following seven values may be reported:

                     Name
                     Reported  Description (Common Symbol)

                     KEEPALIVE keep alive time (SO_KEEPALIVE)
                     LINGER    linger time (SO_LINGER)
                     MSS       maximum segment size (TCP_MAXSEG)
                     PQLEN     partial listen queue connections
                     QLEN      established listen queue connections
                     QLIM      established listen queue limit
                     RCVBUF    receive buffer length (SO_RCVBUF)
                     SNDBUF    send buffer length (SO_SNDBUF)

                Details  on what socket options and values, socket states, and
                TCP flags and values may  be  displayed  for  particular  UNIX
                dialects  may be found in the answer to the ``Why doesn't lsof
                report socket options, socket states, and TCP flags and values
                for  my  dialect?''  and ``Why doesn't lsof report the partial
                listen queue connection count for my dialect?''  questions  in
                the lsof FAQ (The FAQ section gives its location.)

       -t       specifies  that  lsof should produce terse output with process
                identifiers only and no header - e.g., so that the output  may
                be piped to kill(1).  -t selects the -w option.

       -u s     selects the listing of files for the user whose login names or
                user ID numbers are in  the  comma-separated  set  s  -  e.g.,
                ``abe'',  or  ``548,root''.  (There should be no spaces in the
                set.)

                Multiple login names or user ID numbers are joined in a single

       -v       selects the listing of lsof  version  information,  including:
                revision  number;  when  the  lsof binary was constructed; who
                constructed the binary and where; the  name  of  the  compiler
                used  to  construct the lsof binary; the version number of the
                compiler when readily available; the compiler and loader flags
                used  to  construct  the  lsof binary; and system information,
                typically the output of uname's -a option.

       -V       directs lsof to indicate the items it was asked  to  list  and
                failed to find - command names, file names, Internet addresses
                or files, login names, NFS files, PIDs, PGIDs, and UIDs.

                When other options  are  ANDed  to  search  options,  or  com-
                pile-time options restrict the listing of some files, lsof may
                not report that it failed to find a search item when an  ANDed
                option or compile-time option prevents the listing of the open
                file containing the located search item.

                For example, ``lsof -V -iTCP@foobar -a -d 999'' may not report
                a  failure  to locate open files at ``TCP@foobar'' and may not
                list any, if none have a file descriptor  number  of  999.   A
                similar  situation  arises when HASSECURITY and HASNOSOCKSECU-
                RITY are defined at compile time and they prevent the  listing
                of open files.

       +|-w     Enables  (+)  or  disables (-) the suppression of warning mes-
                sages.

                The lsof builder may choose to have warning messages  disabled
                or  enabled  by default.  The default warning message state is
                indicated in the output of the -h or  -?   option.   Disabling
                warning  messages  when  they are already disabled or enabling
                them when already enabled is acceptable.

                The -t option selects the -w option.

       -x [fl]  may accompany the +d and +D options to direct their processing
                to  cross  over symbolic links and|or file system mount points
                encountered when scanning the directory (+d) or directory tree
                (+D).

                If  -x  is  specified by itself without a following parameter,
                cross-over processing of both symbolic links and  file  system
                mount points is enabled.  Note that when -x is specified with-
                out a parameter, the next argument must begin with '-' or '+'.

                The optional 'f' parameter enables  file  system  mount  point
                cross-over  processing; 'l', symbolic link cross-over process-
                ing.

                The -x option may not be supplied without also supplying a  +d
                or +D option.


                By  default  use  of readx() is disabled.  On AIX 5L and above
                lsof may need setuid-root permission to  perform  the  actions
                this option requests.

                The  lsof builder may specify that the -X option be restricted
                to processes whose real UID is root.  If that has  been  done,
                the  -X  option  will  not appear in the -h or -?  help output
                unless the real UID of the lsof process is root.  The  default
                lsof  distribution allows any UID to specify -X, so by default
                it will appear in the help output.

                When AIX readx() use is disabled, lsof  may  not  be  able  to
                report  information  for  all text and loader file references,
                but it may also avoid exacerbating  an  AIX  kernel  directory
                search kernel error, known as the Stale Segment ID bug.

                The  readx()  function,  used  by lsof or any other program to
                access some sections of kernel virtual memory, can trigger the
                Stale  Segment ID bug.  It can cause the kernel's dir_search()
                function to believe erroneously that part of an in-memory copy
                of  a file system directory has been zeroed.  Another applica-
                tion process, distinct from lsof, asking the kernel to  search
                the   directory   -   e.g.,  by  using  open(2)  -  can  cause
                dir_search() to loop forever,  thus  hanging  the  application
                process.

                Consult  the  lsof  FAQ  (The FAQ section gives its location.)
                and the 00README file of the lsof distribution for a more com-
                plete  description  of the Stale Segment ID bug, its APAR, and
                methods for defining readx() use when compiling lsof.

           Linux:
                This Linux option requests that lsof  skip  the  reporting  of
                information  on  all  open  TCP, UDP and UDPLITE IPv4 and IPv6
                files.

                This Linux option is  most  useful  when  the  system  has  an
                extremely large number of open TCP, UDP and UDPLITE files, the
                processing of whose  information  in  the  /proc/net/tcp*  and
                /proc/net/udp*  files  would  take lsof a long time, and whose
                reporting is not of interest.

                Use this option with care and only when you are sure that  the
                information  you  want  lsof  to display isn't associated with
                open TCP, UDP or UDPLITE socket files.

           Solaris 10 and above:
                This Solaris 10 and above option  requests  the  reporting  of
                cached  paths for files that have been deleted - i.e., removed
                with rm(1) or unlink(2).

                The cached path is followed by the  string  `` (deleted)''  to
                indicate  that  the path by which the file was opened has been
                umn.

                The -z option may be followed by a zone name, z.  That  causes
                lsof to list only open files for processes in that zone.  Mul-
                tiple -z z option and argument pairs may be specified to  form
                a list of named zones.  Any open file of any process in any of
                the zones will be listed, subject to other  conditions  speci-
                fied by other options and arguments.

       -Z [Z]   specifies how SELinux security contexts are to be handled.  It
                and 'Z' field output  character  support  are  inhibited  when
                SELinux  is  disabled in the running Linux kernel.  See OUTPUT
                FOR OTHER PROGRAMS for more information on the 'Z' field  out-
                put character.

                Without  a following argument - e.g., NO Z - the option speci-
                fies that security contexts are to  be  listed  in  the  SECU-
                RITY-CONTEXT output column.

                The  -Z  option may be followed by a wildcard security context
                name, Z.  That causes lsof to list only open  files  for  pro-
                cesses  in  that  security  context.  Multiple -Z Z option and
                argument pairs may be specified to form  a  list  of  security
                contexts.  Any open file of any process in any of the security
                contexts will be listed, subject to other conditions specified
                by  other  options and arguments.  Note that Z can be A:B:C or
                *:B:C or A:B:* or *:*:C to match against the A:B:C context.

       --       The double minus sign option is a marker that signals the  end
                of  the  keyed options.  It may be used, for example, when the
                first file name begins with a minus sign.  It may also be used
                when  the absence of a value for the last keyed option must be
                signified by the presence of a minus  sign  in  the  following
                option and before the start of the file names.

       names    These  are  path  names  of  specific files to list.  Symbolic
                links are resolved before use.  The first name  may  be  sepa-
                rated from the preceding options with the ``--'' option.

                If  a name is the mounted-on directory of a file system or the
                device of the file system, lsof will list all the  files  open
                on  the file system.  To be considered a file system, the name
                must match a mounted-on directory name in mount(8) output,  or
                match  the name of a block device associated with a mounted-on
                directory name.  The +|-f option may be used to force lsof  to
                consider a name a file system identifier (+f) or a simple file
                (-f).

                If name is a path to a directory that is  not  the  mounted-on
                directory name of a file system, it is treated just as a regu-
                lar file is treated - i.e., its listing is restricted to  pro-
                cesses  that  have  it open as a file or as a process-specific
                directory, such as the root or current working directory.   To
                request that lsof look for open files inside a directory name,
                place of the file's absolute path - e.g.,  /tmp/file  -  won't
                work  because  lsof must match the characters you specify with
                what it finds in the kernel UNIX domain socket structures.

                If a name is a Linux UNIX domain socket name, in one case lsof
                is  able  to  search  for  it  by its device and inode number,
                allowing name to be a relative path.  The case  requires  that
                the absolute path -- i.e., one beginning with a slash ('/') be
                used by the process that created  the  socket,  and  hence  be
                stored  in  the /proc/net/unix file; and it requires that lsof
                be able to obtain the device and  node  numbers  of  both  the
                absolute  path  in  /proc/net/unix  and  name  via  successful
                stat(2) system calls.  When those  conditions  are  met,  lsof
                will  be  able  to search for the UNIX domain socket when some
                path to it is is specified in name.  Thus, for example, if the
                path  is  /dev/log,  and  an lsof search is initiated when the
                working directory is /dev, then name could be ./log.

                If a name is none of the above, lsof will list any open  files
                whose device and inode match that of the specified path name.

                If  you  have also specified the -b option, the only names you
                may safely specify are file systems for which your mount table
                supplies  alternate  device  numbers.  See the AVOIDING KERNEL
                BLOCKS and ALTERNATE DEVICE NUMBERS sections for more informa-
                tion.

                Multiple  file  names  are  joined in a single ORed set before
                participating in AND option selection.

AFS
       Lsof supports the recognition of AFS files for these dialects (and  AFS
       versions):

            AIX 4.1.4 (AFS 3.4a)
            HP-UX 9.0.5 (AFS 3.4a)
            Linux 1.2.13 (AFS 3.3)
            Solaris 2.[56] (AFS 3.4a)

       It may recognize AFS files on other versions of these dialects, but has
       not been tested there.  Depending on how AFS is implemented,  lsof  may
       recognize  AFS files in other dialects, or may have difficulties recog-
       nizing AFS files in the supported dialects.

       Lsof may have trouble identifying all aspects of AFS files in supported
       dialects  when  AFS  kernel  support is implemented via dynamic modules
       whose addresses do not appear in the kernel's variable name  list.   In
       that  case,  lsof  may  have to guess at the identity of AFS files, and
       might not be able to obtain volume information from the kernel that  is
       needed  for  calculating AFS volume node numbers.  When lsof can't com-
       pute volume node numbers, it reports blank in the NODE column.

       The -A A option is available in some dialect  implementations  of  lsof
       for specifying the name list file where dynamic module kernel addresses
       Lsof  has  three features that may cause security concerns.  First, its
       default compilation mode allows anyone to list all open files with  it.
       Second,  by default it creates a user-readable and user-writable device
       cache file in the home directory of the  real  user  ID  that  executes
       lsof.   (The  list-all-open-files and device cache features may be dis-
       abled when lsof is compiled.)  Third, its -k and -m options name alter-
       nate kernel name list or memory files.

       Restricting  the  listing  of  all open files is controlled by the com-
       pile-time HASSECURITY and HASNOSOCKSECURITY options.  When  HASSECURITY
       is  defined, lsof will allow only the root user to list all open files.
       The non-root user may list only open files of processes with  the  same
       user  IDentification  number  as  the  real  user ID number of the lsof
       process (the one that its user logged on with).

       However, if HASSECURITY and HASNOSOCKSECURITY are both defined,  anyone
       may  list  open  socket  files,  provided they are selected with the -i
       option.

       When HASSECURITY is not defined, anyone may list all open files.

       Help output, presented in response to the -h or -?  option,  gives  the
       status of the HASSECURITY and HASNOSOCKSECURITY definitions.

       See  the Security section of the 00README file of the lsof distribution
       for information on building lsof with the HASSECURITY and  HASNOSOCKSE-
       CURITY options enabled.

       Creation and use of a user-readable and user-writable device cache file
       is controlled by the compile-time HASDCACHE  option.   See  the  DEVICE
       CACHE  FILE  section and the sections that follow it for details on how
       its path is formed.  For security considerations  it  is  important  to
       note  that  in the default lsof distribution, if the real user ID under
       which lsof is executed is root, the device cache file will  be  written
       in  root's  home  directory  - e.g., / or /root.  When HASDCACHE is not
       defined, lsof does not write or attempt to read a device cache file.

       When HASDCACHE is defined, the lsof help output, presented in  response
       to the -h, -D?, or -?  options, will provide device cache file handling
       information.  When HASDCACHE is not defined, the -h or -?  output  will
       have no -D option description.

       Before  you  decide to disable the device cache file feature - enabling
       it improves the performance of lsof by reducing the startup overhead of
       examining  all the nodes in /dev (or /devices) - read the discussion of
       it in the 00DCACHE file of the lsof distribution and the lsof FAQ  (The
       FAQ section gives its location.)

       WHEN  IN DOUBT, YOU CAN TEMPORARILY DISABLE THE USE OF THE DEVICE CACHE
       FILE WITH THE -Di OPTION.

       When lsof user declares alternate kernel name list or memory files with
       the  -k  and  -m options, lsof checks the user's authority to read them
       with access(2).  This is intended to  prevent  whatever  special  power
       able in the COMMAND column (``\x20'') and printable elsewhere.

       For some dialects  -  if  HASSETLOCALE  is  defined  in  the  dialect's
       machine.h  header  file - lsof will print the extended 8 bit characters
       of a language locale.  The lsof process must  be  supplied  a  language
       locale environment variable (e.g., LANG) whose value represents a known
       language locale in which the extended characters are considered  print-
       able  by  isprint(3).  Otherwise lsof considers the extended characters
       non-printable and prints them according to its rules for  non-printable
       characters, stated above.  Consult your dialect's setlocale(3) man page
       for the names of other environment variables that may be used in  place
       of LANG - e.g., LC_ALL, LC_CTYPE, etc.

       Lsof's  language  locale support for a dialect also covers wide charac-
       ters - e.g., UTF-8 - when HASSETLOCALE and HASWIDECHAR are  defined  in
       the  dialect's  machine.h  header  file,  and  when a suitable language
       locale has been defined in the appropriate environment variable for the
       lsof  process.  Wide characters are printable under those conditions if
       iswprint(3) reports them to be.  If  HASSETLOCALE,  HASWIDECHAR  and  a
       suitable language locale aren't defined, or if iswprint(3) reports wide
       characters that aren't printable, lsof considers  the  wide  characters
       non-printable  and  prints  each of their 8 bits according to its rules
       for non-printable characters, stated above.

       Consult the answers to the "Language locale support" questions  in  the
       lsof FAQ (The FAQ section gives its location.) for more information.

       Lsof dynamically sizes the output columns each time it runs, guarantee-
       ing that each column is a minimum size.  It also guarantees  that  each
       column is separated from its predecessor by at least one space.

       COMMAND    contains  the  first nine characters of the name of the UNIX
                  command associated with the process.  If a non-zero w  value
                  is  specified  to  the  +c w option, the column contains the
                  first w characters of the name of the UNIX  command  associ-
                  ated with the process up to the limit of characters supplied
                  to lsof by the UNIX dialect.  (See the description of the +c
                  w  command  or  the  lsof FAQ for more information.  The FAQ
                  section gives its location.)

                  If w is less than the length of  the  column  title,  ``COM-
                  MAND'', it will be raised to that length.

                  If  a zero w value is specified to the +c w option, the col-
                  umn contains all the characters of the name of the UNIX com-
                  mand associated with the process.

                  All  command name characters maintained by the kernel in its
                  structures are displayed in field output  when  the  command
                  name  descriptor  (`c')  is  specified.   See the OUTPUT FOR
                  OTHER COMMANDS section for information  on  selecting  field
                  output and the associated command name descriptor.

       PID        is the Process IDentification number of the process.
       SECURITY-CONTEXT
                  is the  SELinux  security  context.   This  column  must  be
                  selected  with  the  -Z  option.  Note that the -Z option is
                  inhibited when SELinux is disabled in the running Linux ker-
                  nel.

       PPID       is  the Parent Process IDentification number of the process.
                  It is only displayed when the -R option has been specified.

       PGID       is the process group IDentification number  associated  with
                  the  process.   It  is only displayed when the -g option has
                  been specified.

       USER       is the user ID number or login name of the user to whom  the
                  process  belongs,  usually  the  same  as reported by ps(1).
                  However, on Linux USER is the user ID number or  login  that
                  owns  the  directory  in  /proc where lsof finds information
                  about the process.  Usually that is the same value  reported
                  by  ps(1),  but  may differ when the process has changed its
                  effective user ID.   (See  the  -l  option  description  for
                  information  on  when a user ID number or login name is dis-
                  played.)

       FD         is the File Descriptor number of the file or:

                       cwd  current working directory;
                       Lnn  library references (AIX);
                       err  FD information error (see NAME column);
                       jld  jail directory (FreeBSD);
                       ltx  shared library text (code and data);
                       Mxx  hex memory-mapped type number xx.
                       m86  DOS Merge mapped file;
                       mem  memory-mapped file;
                       mmap memory-mapped device;
                       pd   parent directory;
                       rtd  root directory;
                       tr   kernel trace file (OpenBSD);
                       txt  program text (code and data);
                       v86  VP/ix mapped file;

                  FD is followed by one of these  characters,  describing  the
                  mode under which the file is open:

                       r for read access;
                       w for write access;
                       u for read and write access;
                       space if mode unknown and no lock
                            character follows;
                       `-' if mode unknown and lock
                            character follows.

                  The  mode character is followed by one of these lock charac-
                  ters, describing the type of lock applied to the file:


                  See the LOCKS section  for  more  information  on  the  lock
                  information character.

                  The  FD column contents constitutes a single field for pars-
                  ing in post-processing scripts.

       TYPE       is the type of the node associated with  the  file  -  e.g.,
                  GDIR, GREG, VDIR, VREG, etc.

                  or ``IPv4'' for an IPv4 socket;

                  or  ``IPv6''  for  an  open  IPv6 network file - even if its
                  address is IPv4, mapped in an IPv6 address;

                  or ``ax25'' for a Linux AX.25 socket;

                  or ``inet'' for an Internet domain socket;

                  or ``lla'' for a HP-UX link level access file;

                  or ``rte'' for an AF_ROUTE socket;

                  or ``sock'' for a socket of unknown domain;

                  or ``unix'' for a UNIX domain socket;

                  or ``x.25'' for an HP-UX x.25 socket;

                  or ``BLK'' for a block special file;

                  or ``CHR'' for a character special file;

                  or ``DEL'' for a Linux map file that has been deleted;

                  or ``DIR'' for a directory;

                  or ``DOOR'' for a VDOOR file;

                  or ``FIFO'' for a FIFO special file;

                  or ``KQUEUE'' for a BSD style kernel event queue file;

                  or ``LINK'' for a symbolic link file;

                  or ``MPB'' for a multiplexed block file;

                  or ``MPC'' for a multiplexed character file;

                  or ``NOFD'' for a Linux /proc/<PID>/fd directory that  can't
                  be  opened -- the directory path appears in the NAME column,
                  followed by an error message;

                  or ``PAS'' for a /proc/as file;

                  or ``PETY'' for a /proc executable type (etype);

                  or ``PFD'' for a /proc file descriptor;

                  or ``PFDR'' for a /proc file descriptor directory;

                  or ``PFIL'' for an executable /proc file;

                  or ``PFPR'' for a /proc FP register set;

                  or ``PGD'' for a /proc/pagedata file;

                  or ``PGID'' for a /proc group notifier file;

                  or ``PIPE'' for pipes;

                  or ``PLC'' for a /proc/lwpctl file;

                  or ``PLDR'' for a /proc/lpw directory;

                  or ``PLDT'' for a /proc/ldt file;

                  or ``PLPI'' for a /proc/lpsinfo file;

                  or ``PLST'' for a /proc/lstatus file;

                  or ``PLU'' for a /proc/lusage file;

                  or ``PLWG'' for a /proc/gwindows file;

                  or ``PLWI'' for a /proc/lwpsinfo file;

                  or ``PLWS'' for a /proc/lwpstatus file;

                  or ``PLWU'' for a /proc/lwpusage file;

                  or ``PLWX'' for a /proc/xregs file'

                  or ``PMAP'' for a /proc map file (map);

                  or ``PMEM'' for a /proc memory image file;

                  or ``PNTF'' for a /proc process notifier file;

                  or ``POBJ'' for a /proc/object file;

                  or ``PODR'' for a /proc/object directory;

                  or ``POLP'' for an old format  /proc  light  weight  process
                  file;

                  or ``POPF'' for an old format /proc PID file;

                  or ``PSIN'' for a /proc/psinfo file;

                  or ``PSTA'' for a /proc status file;

                  or ``PSXSEM'' for a POSIX semaphore file;

                  or ``PSXSHM'' for a POSIX shared memory file;

                  or ``PUSG'' for a /proc/usage file;

                  or ``PW'' for a /proc/watch file;

                  or ``PXMP'' for a /proc/xmap file;

                  or ``REG'' for a regular file;

                  or ``SMT'' for a shared memory transport file;

                  or ``STSO'' for a stream socket;

                  or ``UNNM'' for an unnamed type file;

                  or  ``XNAM'' for an OpenServer Xenix special file of unknown
                  type;

                  or ``XSEM'' for an OpenServer Xenix semaphore file;

                  or ``XSD'' for an OpenServer Xenix shared data file;

                  or the four type number octets  if  the  corresponding  name
                  isn't known.

       FILE-ADDR  contains  the  kernel file structure address when f has been
                  specified to +f;

       FCT        contains the file  reference  count  from  the  kernel  file
                  structure when c has been specified to +f;

       FILE-FLAG  when  g  or  G has been specified to +f, this field contains
                  the contents of the f_flag[s]  member  of  the  kernel  file
                  structure  and  the kernel's per-process open file flags (if
                  available); `G' causes them to be displayed in  hexadecimal;
                  `g',  as  short-hand  names; two lists may be displayed with
                  entries separated by commas, the lists separated by a  semi-
                  colon (`;'); the first list may contain short-hand names for
                  f_flag[s] values from the following table:

                       AIO       asynchronous I/O (e.g., FAIO)
                       AP        append
                       ASYN      asynchronous I/O (e.g., FASYNC)
                       BAS       block, test, and set in use
                       BKIU      block if in use
                       BL        use block offsets
                       BSK       block seek
                       DTY       must be a directory
                       EVO       event only
                       EX        open for exec
                       EXCL      exclusive open
                       FSYN      synchronous writes
                       GCDF      defer during unp_gc() (AIX)
                       GCMK      mark during unp_gc() (AIX)
                       GTTY      accessed via /dev/tty
                       HUP       HUP in progress
                       KERN      kernel
                       KIOC      kernel-issued ioctl
                       LCK       has lock
                       LG        large file
                       MBLK      stream message block
                       MK        mark
                       MNT       mount
                       MSYN      multiplex synchronization
                       NATM      don't update atime
                       NB        non-blocking I/O
                       NBDR      no BDRM check
                       NBIO      SYSV non-blocking I/O
                       NBF       n-buffering in effect
                       NC        no cache
                       ND        no delay
                       NDSY      no data synchronization
                       NET       network
                       NFLK      don't follow links
                       NMFS      NM file system
                       NOTO      disable background stop
                       NSH       no share
                       NTTY      no controlling TTY
                       OLRM      OLR mirror
                       PAIO      POSIX asynchronous I/O
                       PP        POSIX pipe
                       R         read
                       RC        file and record locking cache
                       REV       revoked
                       RSH       shared read
                       RSYN      read synchronization
                       RW        read and write access
                       SL        shared lock
                       SNAP      cooked snapshot
                       SOCK      socket
                       SQSH      Sequent shared set on open
                       SQSV      Sequent SVM set on open
                       SQR       Sequent set repair on open
                       SQS1      Sequent full shared open
                       SQS2      Sequent partial shared open
                       STPI      stop I/O
                       SWR       synchronous read
                       SYN       file integrity while writing
                       TCPM      avoid TCP collision
                       TR        truncate
                       W         write

                  the second list (after the semicolon) may contain short-hand
                  names  for  kernel per-process open file flags from this ta-
                  ble:

                       ALLC      allocated
                       BR        the file has been read
                       BHUP      activity stopped by SIGHUP
                       BW        the file has been written
                       CLSG      closing
                       CX        close-on-exec (see fcntl(F_SETFD))
                       LCK       lock was applied
                       MP        memory-mapped
                       OPIP      open pending - in progress
                       RSVW      reserved wait
                       SHMT      UF_FSHMAT set (AIX)
                       USE       in use (multi-threaded)

       NODE-ID    (or INODE-ADDR for some dialects) contains a unique  identi-
                  fier  for  the  file node (usually the kernel vnode or inode
                  address, but also occasionally a concatenation of device and
                  node number) when n has been specified to +f;

       DEVICE     contains  the  device  numbers,  separated  by commas, for a
                  character special, block special, regular, directory or  NFS
                  file;

                  or  ``memory''  for  a  memory  file system node under Tru64
                  UNIX;

                  or the address of the private data area of a Solaris  socket
                  stream;

                  or  a kernel reference address that identifies the file (The
                  kernel reference address may be used for FIFO's,  for  exam-
                  ple.);

                  or  the  base address or device name of a Linux AX.25 socket
                  device.

                  Usually only the lower thirty two bits of Tru64 UNIX  kernel
                  addresses are displayed.

       SIZE, SIZE/OFF, or OFFSET
                  is  the  size  of  the  file or the file offset in bytes.  A
                  value is displayed in this column only if it  is  available.
                  Lsof displays whatever value - size or offset - is appropri-
                  ate for the type of the file and the version of lsof.

                  On some UNIX dialects lsof can't obtain accurate or  consis-
                  tent  file  offset information from its kernel data sources,
                  sometimes just for particular kinds of files  (e.g.,  socket
                  files.)  In other cases, files don't have true sizes - e.g.,
                  sockets, FIFOs, pipes - so lsof displays for their sizes the
                  content  amounts it finds in their kernel buffer descriptors
                  the column may contain both a size and an offset (i.e.,  its
                  title is SIZE/OFF).

                  If the -o option is specified, lsof always displays the file
                  offset (or nothing if no offset is available) and labels the
                  column  OFFSET.   The  offset  always  begins with ``0t'' or
                  ``0x'' as described above.

                  The lsof user can control the switch from ``0t''  to  ``0x''
                  with  the  -o  o  option.   Consult its description for more
                  information.

                  If the -s option is specified, lsof always displays the file
                  size  (or  nothing  if  no size is available) and labels the
                  column SIZE.  The -o and -s options are mutually  exclusive;
                  they can't both be specified.

                  For  files that don't have a fixed size - e.g., don't reside
                  on a disk device - lsof will display appropriate information
                  about  the  current  size  or  position of the file if it is
                  available in the kernel structures that define the file.

       NLINK      contains the file link count when +L has been specified;

       NODE       is the node number of a local file;

                  or the inode number of an NFS file in the server host;

                  or the Internet protocol type - e. g, ``TCP'';

                  or ``STR'' for a stream;

                  or ``CCITT'' for an HP-UX x.25 socket;

                  or the IRQ or inode number of a Linux AX.25 socket device.

       NAME       is the name of the mount point and file system on which  the
                  file resides;

                  or  the  name of a file specified in the names option (after
                  any symbolic links have been resolved);

                  or the name of a character special or block special device;

                  or the local and remote  Internet  addresses  of  a  network
                  file;  the  local  host  name  or IP number is followed by a
                  colon (':'), the  port,  ``->'',  and  the  two-part  remote
                  address;  IP  addresses may be reported as numbers or names,
                  depending on the +|-M, -n, and -P  options;  colon-separated
                  IPv6   numbers   are   enclosed  in  square  brackets;  IPv4
                  INADDR_ANY and IPv6 IN6_IS_ADDR_UNSPECIFIED  addresses,  and
                  zero  port  numbers  are represented by an asterisk ('*'); a
                  UDP destination address may be followed  by  the  amount  of
                  time  elapsed since the last packet was sent to the destina-
                  information, and a bound vnode address;

                  or the local and remote mount point names of an NFS file;

                  or ``STR'', followed by the stream name;

                  or a stream character device name, followed  by  ``->''  and
                  the  stream name or a list of stream module names, separated
                  by ``->'';

                  or ``STR:'' followed by the SCO OpenServer stream device and
                  module names, separated by ``->'';

                  or  system  directory name, `` -- '', and as many components
                  of the path name as lsof can find in the kernel's name cache
                  for selected dialects (See the KERNEL NAME CACHE section for
                  more information.);

                  or ``PIPE->'', followed by a Solaris kernel pipe destination
                  address;

                  or  ``COMMON:'',  followed  by  the vnode device information
                  structure's device name, for a Solaris common vnode;

                  or the address family, followed by a slash  (`/'),  followed
                  by  fourteen  comma-separated  bytes  of  a non-Internet raw
                  socket address;

                  or the HP-UX x.25 local address,  followed  by  the  virtual
                  connection  number  (if any), followed by the remote address
                  (if any);

                  or ``(dead)'' for disassociated Tru64 UNIX files - typically
                  terminal  files  that  have  been flagged with the TIOCNOTTY
                  ioctl and closed by daemons;

                  or ``rd=<offset>'' and ``wr=<offset>'' for the values of the
                  read and write offsets of a FIFO;

                  or  ``clone n:/dev/event'' for SCO OpenServer file clones of
                  the /dev/event device, where n is the minor device number of
                  the file;

                  or  ``(socketpair:  n)'' for a Solaris 2.6, 8, 9  or 10 UNIX
                  domain socket, created by the socketpair(3N)  network  func-
                  tion;

                  or  ``no  PCB'' for socket files that do not have a protocol
                  block associated  with  them,  optionally  followed  by  ``,
                  CANTSENDMORE''  if  sending on the socket has been disabled,
                  or ``, CANTRCVMORE'' if receiving on  the  socket  has  been
                  disabled (e.g., by the shutdown(2) function);

                  or the local and remote addresses of a Linux IPX socket file
                  for Linux SCTP sockets.

       For dialects that support a ``namefs'' file system, allowing  one  file
       to   be   attached   to   another   with  fattach(3C),  lsof  will  add
       ``(FA:<address1><direction><address2>)''   to    the    NAME    column.
       <address1> and <address2> are hexadecimal vnode addresses.  <direction>
       will be ``<-'' if <address2> has been fattach'ed to  this  vnode  whose
       address  is  <address1>; and ``->'' if <address1>, the vnode address of
       this vnode, has been fattach'ed to <address2>.  <address1> may be omit-
       ted if it already appears in the DEVICE column.

       Lsof  may  add  two  parenthetical  notes  to  the NAME column for open
       Solaris 10 files: ``(?)'' if lsof considers the path name of  question-
       able  accuracy;  and  ``(deleted)'' if the -X option has been specified
       and lsof detects the open file's path name has been  deleted.   Consult
       the  lsof  FAQ (The FAQ section gives its location.)  for more informa-
       tion on these NAME column additions.

LOCKS
       Lsof can't adequately report the wide  variety  of  UNIX  dialect  file
       locks  in a single character.  What it reports in a single character is
       a compromise between the information it finds in  the  kernel  and  the
       limitations of the reporting format.

       Moreover, when a process holds several byte level locks on a file, lsof
       only reports the status of the first lock it encounters.  If  it  is  a
       byte level lock, then the lock character will be reported in lower case
       - i.e., `r', `w', or `x'  -  rather  than  the  upper  case  equivalent
       reported for a full file lock.

       Generally  lsof  can  only  report  on locks held by local processes on
       local files.  When a local process sets a lock on  a  remotely  mounted
       (e.g.,  NFS)  file,  the  remote  server  host usually records the lock
       state.  One exception is Solaris - at some patch levels of 2.3, and  in
       all  versions  above  2.4,  the  Solaris  kernel records information on
       remote locks in local structures.

       Lsof has trouble reporting locks for some UNIX dialects.   Consult  the
       BUGS section of this manual page or the lsof FAQ (The FAQ section gives
       its location.)  for more information.

OUTPUT FOR OTHER PROGRAMS
       When the -F option is specified, lsof produces output that is  suitable
       for  processing by another program - e.g, an awk or Perl script, or a C
       program.

       Each unit of information is output in a field that is identified with a
       leading character and terminated by a NL (012) (or a NUL (000) if the 0
       (zero) field identifier character is specified.)  The data of the field
       follows  immediately  after  the  field  identification  character  and
       extends to the field terminator.

       It is possible to think of field output as process and  file  sets.   A
       process  set  begins  with a field whose identifier is `p' (for process
       When the NUL (000) field terminator has been selected with the 0 (zero)
       field  identifier character, lsof ends each process and file set with a
       NL (012) character.

       Lsof always produces one field, the PID (`p') field.  All other  fields
       may  be declared optionally in the field identifier character list that
       follows the -F option.  When a field selection character identifies  an
       item lsof does not normally list - e.g., PPID, selected with -R - spec-
       ification of the field character - e.g., ``-FR''  -  also  selects  the
       listing of the item.

       It is entirely possible to select a set of fields that cannot easily be
       parsed - e.g., if the field descriptor field is not selected, it may be
       difficult  to  identify  file sets.  To help you avoid this difficulty,
       lsof supports the -F option; it selects the output of all  fields  with
       NL  terminators  (the  -F0 option pair selects the output of all fields
       with NUL terminators).  For compatibility reasons neither  -F  nor  -F0
       select the raw device field.

       These  are  the  fields  that  lsof will produce.  The single character
       listed first is the field identifier.

            a    file access mode
            c    process command name (all characters from proc or
                 user structure)
            C    file structure share count
            d    file's device character code
            D    file's major/minor device number (0x<hexadecimal>)
            f    file descriptor
            F    file structure address (0x<hexadecimal>)
            G    file flaGs (0x<hexadecimal>; names if +fg follows)
            g    process group ID
            i    file's inode number
            K    tasK ID
            k    link count
            l    file's lock status
            L    process login name
            m    marker between repeated output
            n    file name, comment, Internet address
            N    node identifier (ox<hexadecimal>
            o    file's offset (decimal)
            p    process ID (always selected)
            P    protocol name
            r    raw device number (0x<hexadecimal>)
            R    parent process ID
            s    file's size (decimal)
            S    file's stream identification
            t    file's type
            T    TCP/TPI information, identified by prefixes (the
                 `=' is part of the prefix):
                     QR=<read queue size>
                     QS=<send queue size>
                     SO=<socket options and values> (not all dialects)
                     SS=<socket states> (not all dialects)

            1-9  dialect-specific field identifiers (The output
                 of -F? identifies the information to be found
                 in dialect-specific fields.)

       You can get on-line help information  on  these  characters  and  their
       descriptions by specifying the -F?  option pair.  (Escape the `?' char-
       acter as your shell requires.)  Additional information on field content
       can be found in the OUTPUT section.

       As  an  example,  ``-F pcfn'' will select the process ID (`p'), command
       name (`c'), file descriptor (`f') and file name (`n') fields with an NL
       field terminator character; ``-F pcfn0'' selects the same output with a
       NUL (000) field terminator character.

       Lsof doesn't produce all fields for every process  or  file  set,  only
       those  that  are  available.   Some fields are mutually exclusive: file
       device characters and file major/minor device numbers; file inode  num-
       ber  and  protocol name; file name and stream identification; file size
       and offset.  One or the other member of these mutually  exclusive  sets
       will appear in field output, but not both.

       Normally  lsof ends each field with a NL (012) character.  The 0 (zero)
       field identifier character may be specified to change the field  termi-
       nator  character  to  a  NUL  (000).  A NUL terminator may be easier to
       process with xargs (1), for example, or  with  programs  whose  quoting
       mechanisms  may  not  easily  cope  with the range of characters in the
       field output.  When the NUL field terminator is in use, lsof ends  each
       process and file set with a NL (012).

       Three aids to producing programs that can process lsof field output are
       included in the lsof distribution.  The  first  is  a  C  header  file,
       lsof_fields.h, that contains symbols for the field identification char-
       acters, indexes for storing them in a table,  and  explanation  strings
       that may be compiled into programs.  Lsof uses this header file.

       The  second  aid  is a set of sample scripts that process field output,
       written in awk, Perl 4, and Perl 5.  They're  located  in  the  scripts
       subdirectory of the lsof distribution.

       The  third aid is the C library used for the lsof test suite.  The test
       suite is written in C and uses field output  to  validate  the  correct
       operation  of lsof.  The library can be found in the tests/LTlib.c file
       of the  lsof  distribution.   The  library  uses  the  first  aid,  the
       lsof_fields.h header file.

BLOCKS AND TIMEOUTS
       Lsof  can  be blocked by some kernel functions that it uses - lstat(2),
       readlink(2), and stat(2).  These functions are stalled in  the  kernel,
       for  example,  when  the  hosts  where  mounted NFS file systems reside
       become inaccessible.

       Lsof attempts to break these blocks with timers  and  child  processes,
       but  the  techniques are not wholly reliable.  When lsof does manage to
       break a block, it will report the break with  an  error  message.   The
       Lsof  can  also be directed to avoid the protection of timers and child
       processes when using the kernel functions that might block by  specify-
       ing  the  -O  option.  While this will allow lsof to start up with less
       overhead, it exposes lsof completely  to  the  kernel  situations  that
       might block it.  Use this option cautiously.

AVOIDING KERNEL BLOCKS
       You  can use the -b option to tell lsof to avoid using kernel functions
       that would block.  Some cautions apply.

       First, using this option  usually  requires  that  your  system  supply
       alternate device numbers in place of the device numbers that lsof would
       normally obtain with the lstat(2) and stat(2)  kernel  functions.   See
       the  ALTERNATE DEVICE NUMBERS section for more information on alternate
       device numbers.

       Second, you can't specify names for lsof to locate unless they're  file
       system  names.  This is because lsof needs to know the device and inode
       numbers of files listed with names in the  lsof  options,  and  the  -b
       option  prevents  lsof  from obtaining them.  Moreover, since lsof only
       has device numbers for the file systems that have alternates, its abil-
       ity  to  locate  files on file systems depends completely on the avail-
       ability and accuracy of the alternates.  If no  alternates  are  avail-
       able,  or  if  they're incorrect, lsof won't be able to locate files on
       the named file systems.

       Third, if the names of your file system directories that  lsof  obtains
       from  your  system's mount table are symbolic links, lsof won't be able
       to resolve the links.  This is because the -b  option  causes  lsof  to
       avoid  the  kernel  readlink(2)  function  it  uses to resolve symbolic
       links.

       Finally, using the -b option causes lsof to issue warning messages when
       it  needs  to use the kernel functions that the -b option directs it to
       avoid.  You can suppress these messages by specifying  the  -w  option,
       but  if  you do, you won't see the alternate device numbers reported in
       the warning messages.

ALTERNATE DEVICE NUMBERS
       On some dialects, when lsof has to break a block because it  can't  get
       information  about  a  mounted file system via the lstat(2) and stat(2)
       kernel functions, or because you specified  the  -b  option,  lsof  can
       obtain  some of the information it needs - the device number and possi-
       bly the file system type - from the system mount table.  When  that  is
       possible,  lsof  will  report  the device number it obtained.  (You can
       suppress the report by specifying the -w option.)

       You can assist this process if your mount table is  supported  with  an
       /etc/mtab  or /etc/mnttab file that contains an options field by adding
       a ``dev=xxxx'' field for mount points that do not  have  one  in  their
       options  strings.  Note: you must be able to edit the file - i.e., some
       mount tables like recent Solaris /etc/mnttab or Linux /proc/mounts  are
       read-only and can't be modified.


       There's an advantage to having ``dev=xxxx'' entries in your mount table
       file,  especially  for  file  systems  that are mounted from remote NFS
       servers.  When a remote server crashes and you  want  to  identify  its
       users  by  running  lsof  on one of its clients, lsof probably won't be
       able to get output from the lstat(2) and stat(2) functions for the file
       system.   If  it  can  obtain  the file system's device number from the
       mount table, it will be able to display the files open on  the  crashed
       NFS server.

       Some  dialects  that  do not use an ASCII /etc/mtab or /etc/mnttab file
       for the mount table may still provide an alternative device  number  in
       their internal mount tables.  This includes AIX, Apple Darwin, FreeBSD,
       NetBSD, OpenBSD, and Tru64 UNIX.  Lsof knows how to obtain the alterna-
       tive  device  number for these dialects and uses it when its attempt to
       lstat(2) or stat(2) the file system is blocked.

       If you're not sure your dialect supplies alternate device  numbers  for
       file  systems from its mount table, use this lsof incantation to see if
       it reports any alternate device numbers:

              lsof -b

       Look for standard error file warning  messages  that  begin  ``assuming
       "dev=xxxx" from ...''.

KERNEL NAME CACHE
       Lsof  is  able  to  examine the kernel's name cache or use other kernel
       facilities (e.g., the ADVFS  4.x  tag_to_path()  function  under  Tru64
       UNIX)  on  some dialects for most file system types, excluding AFS, and
       extract recently used path name components from it.  (AFS  file  system
       path  lookups don't use the kernel's name cache; some Solaris VxFS file
       system operations apparently don't use it, either.)

       Lsof reports the complete paths it finds in the NAME column.   If  lsof
       can't  report  all  components in a path, it reports in the NAME column
       the file system name, followed by a space, two `-' characters,  another
       space,  and  the  name  components it has located, separated by the `/'
       character.

       When lsof is run in repeat mode - i.e., with the -r option specified  -
       the  extent  to  which  it can report path name components for the same
       file may vary from cycle to cycle.  That's because other  running  pro-
       cesses  can  cause the kernel to remove entries from its name cache and
       replace them with others.

       Lsof's use of the kernel name cache to identify the paths of files  can
       lead  it to report incorrect components under some circumstances.  This
       can happen when the kernel name cache uses device and node number as  a
       key  (e.g., SCO OpenServer) and a key on a rapidly changing file system
       is reused.  If the UNIX dialect's kernel doesn't purge the  name  cache
       entry  for a file when it is unlinked, lsof may find a reference to the
       wrong entry in the cache.  The lsof FAQ  (The  FAQ  section  gives  its
       location.)  has more information on this situation.
            Solaris
            Tru64 UNIX

       Lsof can't report path name components for these dialects:

            AIX

       If you want to know why lsof can't report path name components for some
       dialects, see the lsof FAQ (The FAQ section gives its location.)

DEVICE CACHE FILE
       Examining all members of the /dev (or /devices) node tree with  stat(2)
       functions  can  be  time  consuming.  What's more, the information that
       lsof needs - device number, inode number, and path - rarely changes.

       Consequently, lsof normally maintains an ASCII text file of cached /dev
       (or  /devices) information (exception: the /proc-based Linux lsof where
       it's not needed.)  The local system administrator who builds  lsof  can
       control  the  way  the device cache file path is formed, selecting from
       these options:

            Path from the -D option;
            Path from an environment variable;
            System-wide path;
            Personal path (the default);
            Personal path, modified by an environment variable.

       Consult the output of the -h, -D? , or -?  help options for the current
       state  of  device  cache  support.   The  help output lists the default
       read-mode device cache file path that is  in  effect  for  the  current
       invocation  of  lsof.   The  -D?  option output lists the read-only and
       write device cache file paths, the names of any applicable  environment
       variables, and the personal device cache path format.

       Lsof  can  detect  that the current device cache file has been acciden-
       tally or maliciously modified by integrity checks, including the compu-
       tation  and verification of a sixteen bit Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC)
       sum on the file's contents.  When lsof senses something wrong with  the
       file, it issues a warning and attempts to remove the current cache file
       and create a new copy, but only to a path that the process can  legiti-
       mately write.

       The  path  from which a lsof process may attempt to read a device cache
       file may not be the same as the  path  to  which  it  can  legitimately
       write.   Thus when lsof senses that it needs to update the device cache
       file, it may choose a different path for writing it from the path  from
       which it read an incorrect or outdated version.

       If  available,  the -Dr option will inhibit the writing of a new device
       cache file.  (It's always available when specified without a path  name
       argument.)

       When  a  new  device  is added to the system, the device cache file may
       need to be recreated.  Since lsof compares  the  mtime  of  the  device
       istrator when lsof is installed.

       The first and rarer permission is setuid-root.  It  comes  into  effect
       when  lsof  is executed; its effective UID is then root, while its real
       (i.e., that of the logged-on user) UID is not.  The  lsof  distribution
       recommends that versions for these dialects run setuid-root.

            HP-UX 11.11 and 11.23
            Linux

       The  second and more common permission is setgid.  It comes into effect
       when the effective  group  IDentification  number  (GID)  of  the  lsof
       process  is  set  to  one that can access kernel memory devices - e.g.,
       ``kmem'', ``sys'', or ``system''.

       An lsof process that has setgid permission usually surrenders the  per-
       mission  after it has accessed the kernel memory devices.  When it does
       that, lsof can allow more liberal device cache  path  formations.   The
       lsof  distribution recommends that versions for these dialects run set-
       gid and be allowed to surrender setgid permission.

            AIX 5.[12] and 5.3-ML1
            Apple Darwin 7.x Power Macintosh systems
            FreeBSD 4.x, 4.1x, 5.x and [6789].x for x86-based systems
            FreeBSD 5.x and [6789].x for Alpha, AMD64 and Sparc64-based
                systems
            HP-UX 11.00
            NetBSD 1.[456], 2.x and 3.x for Alpha, x86, and SPARC-based
                systems
            NEXTSTEP 3.[13] for NEXTSTEP architectures
            OpenBSD 2.[89] and 3.[0-9] for x86-based systems
            OPENSTEP 4.x
            SCO OpenServer Release 5.0.6 for x86-based systems
            SCO|Caldera UnixWare 7.1.4 for x86-based systems
            Solaris 2.6, 8, 9 and 10
            Tru64 UNIX 5.1

       (Note: lsof for AIX 5L and above needs setuid-root permission if its -X
       option is used.)

       Lsof for these dialects does not support a device cache, so the permis-
       sions given to the executable don't apply to the device cache file.

            Linux

DEVICE CACHE FILE PATH FROM THE -D OPTION
       The -D option provides limited means for specifying  the  device  cache
       file  path.  Its ?  function will report the read-only and write device
       cache file paths that lsof will use.

       When the -D b, r, and u functions are available, you can  use  them  to
       request  that the cache file be built in a specific location (b[path]);
       read but not rebuilt (r[path]); or read and rebuilt (u[path]).  The  b,
       r,  and  u  functions  are  restricted under some conditions.  They are
       from the kernel with the stat(2) function and build a device cache file
       at the indicated path.

       When  available,  the  r  function  tells lsof to read the device cache
       file, but not update it.  When a  path  argument  accompanies  -Dr,  it
       names  the  device cache file path.  The r function is always available
       when it is specified without a path name argument.  If lsof is not run-
       ning  setuid-root  and  surrenders  its  setgid permission, a path name
       argument may accompany the r function.

       When available, the u function tells lsof to attempt to  read  and  use
       the  device  cache file.  If it can't read the file, or if it finds the
       contents of the file incorrect or outdated, it  will  read  information
       from  the kernel, and attempt to write an updated version of the device
       cache file, but only to a path it considers  legitimate  for  the  lsof
       process effective and real UIDs.

DEVICE CACHE PATH FROM AN ENVIRONMENT VARIABLE
       Lsof's  second  choice for the device cache file is the contents of the
       LSOFDEVCACHE environment variable.  It avoids this choice if  the  lsof
       process is setuid-root, or the real UID of the process is root.

       A  further  restriction  applies to a device cache file path taken from
       the LSOFDEVCACHE environment variable: lsof will  not  write  a  device
       cache file to the path if the lsof process doesn't surrender its setgid
       permission.  (See the LSOF PERMISSIONS THAT AFFECT  DEVICE  CACHE  FILE
       ACCESS  section for information on implementations that don't surrender
       their setgid permission.)

       The local system administrator can disable the use of the  LSOFDEVCACHE
       environment  variable  or  change its name when building lsof.  Consult
       the output of -D?  for the environment variable's name.

SYSTEM-WIDE DEVICE CACHE PATH
       The local system administrator may choose to have a system-wide  device
       cache file when building lsof.  That file will generally be constructed
       by a special system administration procedure when the system is  booted
       or  when  the contents of /dev or /devices) changes.  If defined, it is
       lsof's third device cache file path choice.

       You can tell that a system-wide device cache file is in effect for your
       local installation by examining the lsof help option output - i.e., the
       output from the -h or -?  option.

       Lsof will never write to the system-wide  device  cache  file  path  by
       default.   It  must  be  explicitly  named  with  a  -D  function  in a
       root-owned procedure.  Once the file has been  written,  the  procedure
       must  change  its permission modes to 0644 (owner-read and owner-write,
       group-read, and other-read).

PERSONAL DEVICE CACHE PATH (DEFAULT)
       The default device cache file path of  the  lsof  distribution  is  one
       recorded  in  the  home  directory  of the real UID that executes lsof.
       Added to the home directory is a second  path  component  of  the  form

       The device cache file belongs to  the  user  ID  and  is  readable  and
       writable  by  the  user ID alone - i.e., its modes are 0600.  Each dis-
       tinct real user ID on a given host that executes lsof  has  a  distinct
       device  cache file.  The hostname part of the path distinguishes device
       cache files in an NFS-mounted home directory into  which  device  cache
       files are written from several different hosts.

       The  personal device cache file path formed by this method represents a
       device cache file that lsof will attempt to read, and will  attempt  to
       write  should  it not exist or should its contents be incorrect or out-
       dated.

       The -Dr option without a path name argument will inhibit the writing of
       a new device cache file.

       The -D?  option will list the format specification for constructing the
       personal device cache file.  The conversions used in the format  speci-
       fication are described in the 00DCACHE file of the lsof distribution.

MODIFIED PERSONAL DEVICE CACHE PATH
       If  this  option is defined by the local system administrator when lsof
       is built, the LSOFPERSDCPATH environment variable contents may be  used
       to add a component of the personal device cache file path.

       The  LSOFPERSDCPATH  variable  contents are inserted in the path at the
       place marked by the local system administrator with the ``%p''  conver-
       sion  in  the HASPERSDC format specification of the dialect's machine.h
       header file.  (It's placed  right  after  the  home  directory  in  the
       default lsof distribution.)

       Thus, for example, if LSOFPERSDCPATH contains ``LSOF'', the home direc-
       tory is ``/Homes/abe'', the host name is ``lsof.itap.purdue.edu'',  and
       the  HASPERSDC  format is the default (``%h/%p.lsof_%L''), the modified
       personal device cache file path is:

            /Homes/abe/LSOF/.lsof_vic

       The LSOFPERSDCPATH  environment  variable  is  ignored  when  the  lsof
       process is setuid-root or when the real UID of the process is root.

       Lsof  will  not  write to a modified personal device cache file path if
       the lsof process doesn't surrender setgid permission.   (See  the  LSOF
       PERMISSIONS  THAT AFFECT DEVICE CACHE FILE ACCESS section for a list of
       implementations that normally don't surrender their setgid permission.)

       If, for example, you want to create a sub-directory of personal  device
       cache  file  paths  by using the LSOFPERSDCPATH environment variable to
       name it, and lsof doesn't surrender its  setgid  permission,  you  will
       have  to  allow  lsof to create device cache files at the standard per-
       sonal path and move them to your subdirectory with shell commands.

       The local system administrator may: disable this option  when  lsof  is
       built;  change the name of the environment variable from LSOFPERSDCPATH
       list.

       It  returns a zero (0) if no errors were detected and if it was able to
       list some information about all the specified search arguments.

       When lsof cannot open access to /dev (or /devices) or one of its subdi-
       rectories, or get information on a file in them with stat(2), it issues
       a warning message and continues.  That lsof will issue warning messages
       about inaccessible files in /dev (or /devices) is indicated in its help
       output - requested with the -h or >B -?  options -  with the message:

            Inaccessible /dev warnings are enabled.

       The warning message may be suppressed with the -w option.  It may  also
       have been suppressed by the system administrator when lsof was compiled
       by the setting of the WARNDEVACCESS definition.  In this case, the out-
       put from the help options will include the message:

            Inaccessible /dev warnings are disabled.

       Inaccessible  device  warning messages usually disappear after lsof has
       created a working device cache file.

EXAMPLES
       For a more extensive set of examples, documented more  fully,  see  the
       00QUICKSTART file of the lsof distribution.

       To list all open files, use:

              lsof

       To list all open Internet, x.25 (HP-UX), and UNIX domain files, use:

              lsof -i -U

       To  list all open IPv4 network files in use by the process whose PID is
       1234, use:

              lsof -i 4 -a -p 1234

       Presuming the UNIX dialect supports IPv6, to list only open  IPv6  net-
       work files, use:

              lsof -i 6

       To  list all files using any protocol on ports 513, 514, or 515 of host
       wonderland.cc.purdue.edu, use:

              lsof -i @wonderland.cc.purdue.edu:513-515

       To list all files using any protocol on any port of  mace.cc.purdue.edu
       (cc.purdue.edu is the default domain), use:

              lsof -i @mace
              lsof /u/abe/foo

       To send a SIGHUP to the processes that have /u/abe/bar open, use:

              kill -HUP `lsof -t /u/abe/bar`

       To find any open file, including an open UNIX domain socket file,  with
       the name /dev/log, use:

              lsof /dev/log

       To  find  processes  with  open  files  on  the  NFS  file system named
       /nfs/mount/point whose server is inaccessible, and presuming your mount
       table supplies the device number for /nfs/mount/point, use:

              lsof -b /nfs/mount/point

       To do the preceding search with warning messages suppressed, use:

              lsof -bw /nfs/mount/point

       To ignore the device cache file, use:

              lsof -Di

       To  obtain  PID  and  command  name field output for each process, file
       descriptor, file device number, and file inode number for each file  of
       each process, use:

              lsof -FpcfDi

       To  list  the files at descriptors 1 and 3 of every process running the
       lsof command for login ID ``abe'' every 10 seconds, use:

              lsof -c lsof -a -d 1 -d 3 -u abe -r10

       To list the current working directory of processes  running  a  command
       that is exactly four characters long and has an 'o' or 'O' in character
       three, use this regular expression form of the -c c option:

              lsof -c /^..o.$/i -a -d cwd

       To find an IP version 4 socket file by its associated numeric  dot-form
       address, use:

              lsof -i@128.210.15.17

       To  find  an  IP  version 6 socket file (when the UNIX dialect supports
       IPv6) by its associated numeric colon-form address, use:

              lsof -i@[0:1:2:3:4:5:6:7]

       To find an IP version 6 socket file (when  the  UNIX  dialect  supports
       IPv6)  by  an  associated  numeric colon-form address that has a run of

BUGS
       Since  lsof  reads  kernel  memory  in its search for open files, rapid
       changes in kernel memory may produce unpredictable results.

       When a file has multiple record locks, the lock status character  (fol-
       lowing  the  file  descriptor) is derived from a test of the first lock
       structure, not from any combination of the individual record locks that
       might be described by multiple lock structures.

       Lsof can't search for files with restrictive access permissions by name
       unless it is installed with root set-UID permission.  Otherwise  it  is
       limited  to  searching for files to which its user or its set-GID group
       (if any) has access permission.

       The display of the destination address of a raw socket (e.g., for ping)
       depends on the UNIX operating system.  Some dialects store the destina-
       tion address in the raw socket's protocol control block, some do not.

       Lsof can't always represent Solaris device numbers in the same way that
       ls(1)  does.   For example, the major and minor device numbers that the
       lstat(2) and stat(2) functions report for the directory on which CD-ROM
       files  are mounted (typically /cdrom) are not the same as the ones that
       it reports for the device on which CD-ROM files are mounted  (typically
       /dev/sr0).  (Lsof reports the directory numbers.)

       The  support for /proc file systems is available only for BSD and Tru64
       UNIX dialects, Linux, and dialects derived from SYSV R4 -  e.g.,  Free-
       BSD, NetBSD, OpenBSD, Solaris, UnixWare.

       Some  /proc  file  items - device number, inode number, and file size -
       are unavailable in some dialects.  Searching for files in a /proc  file
       system may require that the full path name be specified.

       No  text (txt) file descriptors are displayed for Linux processes.  All
       entries for files other than the current working  directory,  the  root
       directory, and numerical file descriptors are labeled mem descriptors.

       Lsof  can't  search  for  Tru64 UNIX named pipes by name, because their
       kernel implementation of lstat(2) returns an improper device number for
       a named pipe.

       Lsof  can't  report  fully or correctly on HP-UX 9.01, 10.20, and 11.00
       locks because of insufficient access to kernel data or  errors  in  the
       kernel  data.   See  the lsof FAQ (The FAQ section gives its location.)
       for details.

       The AIX SMT file type is a fabrication.  It's made up for  file  struc-
       tures  whose type (15) isn't defined in the AIX /usr/include/sys/file.h
       header file.  One way to create  such  file  structures  is  to  run  X
       clients with the DISPLAY variable set to ``:0.0''.

       The  +|-f[cfgGn]  option is not supported under /proc-based Linux lsof,
       because it doesn't read kernel structures from kernel memory.
       LSOFPERSDCPATH    defines the middle component of a  modified  personal
                         device  cache  file  path.  See the MODIFIED PERSONAL
                         DEVICE CACHE PATH section for more information.

FAQ
       Frequently-asked questions and their answers (an FAQ) are available  in
       the 00FAQ file of the lsof distribution.

       That file is also available via anonymous ftp from lsof.itap.purdue.edu
       at pub/tools/unix/lsofFAQ.  The URL is:

              ftp://lsof.itap.purdue.edu/pub/tools/unix/lsof/FAQ

FILES
       /dev/kmem         kernel virtual memory device

       /dev/mem          physical memory device

       /dev/swap         system paging device

       .lsof_hostname    lsof's device cache file (The  suffix,  hostname,  is
                         the  first  component  of the host's name returned by
                         gethostname(2).)

AUTHORS
       Lsof was written by Victor A. Abell <abe@purdue.edu> of Purdue  Univer-
       sity.   Many  others  have  contributed to lsof.  They're listed in the
       00CREDITS file of the lsof distribution.

DISTRIBUTION
       The latest distribution of lsof is available via anonymous ftp from the
       host  lsof.itap.purdue.edu.   You'll  find the lsof distribution in the
       pub/tools/unix/lsof directory.

       You can also use this URL:

              ftp://lsof.itap.purdue.edu/pub/tools/unix/lsof

       Lsof is also mirrored elsewhere.  When you access  lsof.itap.purdue.edu
       and change to its pub/tools/unix/lsof directory, you'll be given a list
       of some mirror sites.  The pub/tools/unix/lsof directory also  contains
       a  more  complete list in its mirrors file.  Use mirrors with caution -
       not all mirrors always have the latest lsof revision.

       Some pre-compiled Lsof  executables  are  available  on  lsof.itap.pur-
       due.edu, but their use is discouraged - it's better that you build your
       own from the sources.  If you feel you must  use  a  pre-compiled  exe-
       cutable,  please  read  the cautions that appear in the README files of
       the pub/tools/unix/lsof/binaries subdirectories and in the 00* files of
       the distribution.

       More  information  on  the  lsof  distribution  can  be  found  in  its
       README.lsof_<version> file.  If you intend to get the lsof distribution
       and build it, please read README.lsof_<version> and the other 00* files

                                 Revision-4.86                         LSOF(8)
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