lsof


SYNOPSIS
       lsof [ -?abChlnNOPRtUvVX ] [ -A A ] [ -c c ] [ +c c ] [ +|-d d ] [ +|-D
       D ] [ +|-f [cfgGn] ] [ -F [f] ] [ -g [s] ] [ -i [i] ] [ -k k ]  [  +|-L
       [l] ] [ +|-m m ] [ +|-M ] [ -o [o] ] [ -p s ] [ +|-r [t[m<fmt>]] ] [ -s
       [p:s] ] [ -S [t] ] [ -T [t] ] [ -u s ] [ +|-w ] [ -x [fl] ] [ -z [z]  ]
       [ -Z [Z] ] [ -- ] [names]

DESCRIPTION
       Lsof  revision 4.81 lists on its standard output file information about
       files opened by processes for the following UNIX dialects:

            AIX 5.3
            FreeBSD 4.9 for x86-based systems
            FreeBSD 7.0 and 8.0 for AMD64-based systems
            Linux 2.1.72 and above for x86-based systems
            Solaris 9 and 10

       (See the DISTRIBUTION section of this manual page  for  information  on
       how to obtain the latest lsof revision.)

       An  open file may be a regular file, a directory, a block special file,
       a character special file, an executing text  reference,  a  library,  a
       stream  or  a  network  file  (Internet socket, NFS file or UNIX domain
       socket.)  A specific file or all the files in  a  file  system  may  be
       selected by path.

       Instead  of  a  formatted display, lsof will produce output that can be
       parsed by other programs.  See the -F, option description, and the OUT-
       PUT FOR OTHER PROGRAMS section for more information.

       In  addition to producing a single output list, lsof will run in repeat
       mode.  In repeat mode it will produce output, delay,  then  repeat  the
       output  operation  until stopped with an interrupt or quit signal.  See
       the +|-r [t[m<fmt>]] option description for more information.

OPTIONS
       In the absence of any options, lsof lists all open files  belonging  to
       all active processes.

       If  any  list  request option is specified, other list requests must be
       specifically requested - e.g., if -U is specified for  the  listing  of
       UNIX  socket  files, NFS files won't be listed unless -N is also speci-
       fied; or if a user list is specified with the -u  option,  UNIX  domain
       socket  files,  belonging  to  users  not  in the list, won't be listed
       unless the -U option is also specified.

       Normally list options that are specifically stated  are  ORed  -  i.e.,
       specifying  the  -i option without an address and the -ufoo option pro-
       duces a listing of all network files OR files  belonging  to  processes
       owned by user ``foo''.  The exceptions are:

       1)                                                                      the
                                                                               `^'
                                                                               -u
                                                                               option;

       2)                                                                      the
                                                                               `^'
                                                                               (negated)
                                                                               process
                                                                               ID
                                                                               (PID),
                                                                               spec-
                                                                               i-
                                                                               fied
                                                                               with
                                                                               the
                                                                               -p
                                                                               option;

       3)                                                                      the
                                                                               `^'
                                                                               (negated)
                                                                               process
                                                                               group
                                                                               ID
                                                                               (PGID),
                                                                               spec-
                                                                               i-
                                                                               fied
                                                                               with
                                                                               the
                                                                               -g
                                                                               option;

       4)                                                                      the
                                                                               `^'
                                                                               (negated)
                                                                               com-
                                                                               mand,
                                                                               spec-
                                                                               i-
                                                                               fied
                                                                               with
                                                                               the
                                                                               -c
                                                                               option;

       5)                                                                      the
                                                                               ('^')
                                                                               negated
                                                                               TCP
                                                                               or
                                                                               UDP
                                                                               pro-
                                                                               to-
                                                                               col

       ing and take effect before any other selection criteria are applied.

       The -a option may be used to AND the selections.  For example, specify-
       ing -a, -U, and -ufoo produces a listing of only UNIX socket files that
       belong to processes owned by user ``foo''.

       Caution: the -a option causes all list selection options to  be  ANDed;
       it can't be used to cause ANDing of selected pairs of selection options
       by placing it between them, even though its placement there is  accept-
       able.   Wherever  -a  is  placed, it causes the ANDing of all selection
       options.

       Items of the same selection set - command names, file descriptors, net-
       work  addresses,  process  identifiers,  user  identifiers, zone names,
       security contexts - are joined in a single ORed set and applied  before
       the  result  participates  in  ANDing.   Thus,  for example, specifying
       -i@aaa.bbb, -i@ccc.ddd, -a, and -ufff,ggg will select  the  listing  of
       files  that  belong to either login ``fff'' OR ``ggg'' AND have network
       connections to either host aaa.bbb OR ccc.ddd.

       Options may be grouped together following a single prefix -- e.g.,  the
       option  set  ``-a -b -C'' may be stated as -abC.  However, since values
       are optional following +|-f, -F, -g, -i, +|-L, -o, +|-r, -s, -S, -T, -x
       and -z.  when you have no values for them be careful that the following
       character isn't ambiguous.  For example, -Fn might represent the -F and
       -n options, or it might represent the n field identifier character fol-
       lowing the -F option.  When ambiguity is possible, start a  new  option
       with  a  `-' character - e.g., ``-F -n''.  If the next option is a file
       name, follow the possibly ambiguous option with ``--'' - e.g., ``-F  --
       name''.

       Either  the `+' or the `-' prefix may be applied to a group of options.
       Options that don't take on separate meanings for each prefix - e.g., -i
       - may be grouped under either prefix.  Thus, for example, ``+M -i'' may
       be stated as ``+Mi'' and the group  means  the  same  as  the  separate
       options.  Be careful of prefix grouping when one or more options in the
       group does take on separate meanings under different prefixes  -  e.g.,
       +|-M; ``-iM'' is not the same request as ``-i +M''.  When in doubt, use
       separate options with appropriate prefixes.

       -? -h    These two equivalent options  select  a  usage  (help)  output
                list.   Lsof  displays a shortened form of this output when it
                detects an error in the options supplied to it, after  it  has
                displayed  messages  explaining  each  error.  (Escape the `?'
                character as your shell requires.)

       -a       This option causes list selection  options  to  be  ANDed,  as
                described above.

       -A A     This  option  is available on systems configured for AFS whose
                AFS kernel code is implemented via dynamic modules.  It allows
                the  lsof  user  to  specify  A as an alternate name list file
                where the kernel addresses of the  dynamic  modules  might  be
                found.  See the lsof FAQ (The FAQ section gives its location.)
                They are joined in a single ORed set before  participating  in
                AND option selection.

                If  c begins with a '^', then the following characters specify
                a command name whose processes are to be ignored (excluded.)

                If c begins and  ends  with  a  slash  ('/'),  the  characters
                between  the  slashes are interpreted as a regular expression.
                Shell meta-characters in the regular expression must be quoted
                to  prevent  their  interpretation  by the shell.  The closing
                slash may be followed by these modifiers:

                     b    the regular expression is a basic one.
                     i    ignore the case of letters.
                     x    the regular expression is an extended one
                          (default).

                See the lsof FAQ (The FAQ section gives  its  location.)   for
                more information on basic and extended regular expressions.

                The  simple  command  specification  is tested first.  If that
                test fails, the command regular expression is applied.  If the
                simple  command  test succeeds, the command regular expression
                test isn't made.  This may result in ``no  command  found  for
                regex:'' messages when lsof's -V option is specified.

       +c w     This  option  defines the maximum number of initial characters
                of the name, supplied by the UNIX dialect, of the UNIX command
                associated with a process to be printed in the COMMAND column.
                (The lsof default is nine.)

                Note that many UNIX dialects do not supply  all  command  name
                characters to lsof in the files and structures from which lsof
                obtains command name.  Often  dialects  limit  the  number  of
                characters  supplied  in  those  sources.   For example, Linux
                2.4.27 and Solaris 9 both limit  command  name  length  to  16
                characters.

                If w is zero ('0'), all command characters supplied to lsof by
                the UNIX dialect will be printed.

                If w is less than the length of the column title, ``COMMAND'',
                it will be raised to that length.

       -C       This option disables the reporting of any path name components
                from the kernel's name cache.  See the KERNEL NAME CACHE  sec-
                tion for more information.

       +d s     This  option  causes  lsof to search for all open instances of
                directory s and the files and directories it contains  at  its
                top  level.   This option does NOT descend the directory tree,
                rooted at s.  The +D  D  option  may  be  used  to  request  a
                full-descent directory tree search, rooted at directory D.

                descriptors are specified in the comma-separated set s - e.g.,
                ``cwd,1,3'', ``^6,^2''.  (There should be  no  spaces  in  the
                set.)

                The  list is an exclusion list if all entries of the set begin
                with '^'.  It is an inclusion list if  no  entry  begins  with
                '^'.  Mixed lists are not permitted.

                A  file  descriptor  number range may be in the set as long as
                neither member is empty, both members  are  numbers,  and  the
                ending  member is larger than the starting one - e.g., ``0-7''
                or ``3-10''.  Ranges may be specified for  exclusion  if  they
                have  the  '^'  prefix  -  e.g.,  ``^0-7''  excludes  all file
                descriptors 0 through 7.

                Multiple file descriptor numbers are joined in a  single  ORed
                set before participating in AND option selection.

                When  there  are  exclusion  and inclusion members in the set,
                lsof reports them as errors and exits with a  non-zero  return
                code.

                See  the  description of File Descriptor (FD) output values in
                the OUTPUT section for more  information  on  file  descriptor
                names.

       +D D     This  option  causes  lsof to search for all open instances of
                directory D and all the files and directories it  contains  to
                its complete depth.

                Processing  of  the  +D  option does not follow symbolic links
                within D unless the -x or -x  l option is also specified.  Nor
                does  it  search for open files on file system mount points on
                subdirectories of D unless the -x or  -x   f  option  is  also
                specified.

                Note:  the  authority  of the user of this option limits it to
                searching for files that the user has  permission  to  examine
                with the system stat(2) function.

                Further  note: lsof may process this option slowly and require
                a large amount of dynamic memory to do it.  This is because it
                must  descend  the entire directory tree, rooted at D, calling
                stat(2) for each file and directory, building a  list  of  all
                the  files  it finds, and searching that list for a match with
                every open file.  When directory D is large, these  steps  can
                take a long time, so use this option prudently.

       -D D     This  option directs lsof's use of the device cache file.  The
                use of this option is sometimes restricted.   See  the  DEVICE
                CACHE  FILE  section  and the sections that follow it for more
                information on this option.

                -D must be followed by a function letter; the function  letter
                accompanies  -h  or  -?   option output.  See the DEVICE CACHE
                FILE section and the sections that follow it for more informa-
                tion on these functions and when they're restricted.

                The  ?   function  reports  the read-only and write paths that
                lsof can use for the device cache file, the names of any envi-
                ronment  variables whose values lsof will examine when forming
                the device cache file path, and the format  for  the  personal
                device  cache  file  path.   (Escape the `?' character as your
                shell requires.)

                When available, the b, r, and u functions may be  followed  by
                the  device  cache  file's  path.   The  standard  default  is
                .lsof_hostname in the home directory of the real user ID  that
                executes  lsof, but this could have been changed when lsof was
                configured and  compiled.   (The  output  of  the  -h  and  -?
                options  show  the  current default prefix - e.g., ``.lsof''.)
                The suffix, hostname, is the first  component  of  the  host's
                name returned by gethostname(2).

                When  available,  the  b  function directs lsof to build a new
                device cache file at the default or specified path.

                The i function directs lsof to ignore the default device cache
                file and obtain its information about devices via direct calls
                to the kernel.

                The r function directs lsof to read the device  cache  at  the
                default or specified path, but prevents it from creating a new
                device cache file when none exists  or  the  existing  one  is
                improperly structured.  The r function, when specified without
                a path name, prevents lsof from updating an incorrect or  out-
                dated  device  cache file, or creating a new one in its place.
                The r function is always available when it is specified  with-
                out  a path name argument; it may be restricted by the permis-
                sions of the lsof process.

                When available, the u function directs lsof to read the device
                cache  file at the default or specified path, if possible, and
                to rebuild it, if necessary.  This is the default device cache
                file function when no -D option has been specified.

       +|-f [cfgGn]
                f by itself clarifies how path name arguments are to be inter-
                preted.  When followed by c, f, g, G, or n in any  combination
                it  specifies that the listing of kernel file structure infor-
                mation is to be enabled (`+') or inhibited (`-').

                Normally a path name argument is taken to  be  a  file  system
                name  if  it  matches  a mounted-on directory name reported by
                mount(8), or if it represents a block  device,  named  in  the
                mount  output  and  associated  with a mounted directory name.
                When +f is specified, all path name arguments will be taken to
                be  file  system names, and lsof will complain if any are not.
                use ``--'' after +f and -f as in these examples.

                     $ lsof +f -- /file/system/name
                     $ lsof -f -- /file/name

                The  listing  of  information  from  kernel  file  structures,
                requested  with the +f [cfgGn] option form, is normally inhib-
                ited, and is not available in whole or part for some  dialects
                - e.g., /proc-based Linux kernels below 2.6.22.  When the pre-
                fix to f is a plus sign (`+'), these characters  request  file
                structure information:

                     c    file structure use count (not Linux)
                     f    file structure address (not Linux)
                     g    file flag abbreviations (Linux 2.6.22 and up)
                     G    file flags in hexadecimal (Linux 2.6.22 and up)
                     n    file structure node address (not Linux)

                When the prefix is minus (`-') the same characters disable the
                listing of the indicated values.

                File  structure  addresses,  use  counts,  flags,   and   node
                addresses  may  be used to detect more readily identical files
                inherited by child processes and identical  files  in  use  by
                different processes.  Lsof column output can be sorted by out-
                put columns holding the values and listed to identify  identi-
                cal  file use, or lsof field output can be parsed by an AWK or
                Perl post-filter script, or by a C program.

       -F f     This option specifies a character list, f,  that  selects  the
                fields to be output for processing by another program, and the
                character that terminates each output field.  Each field to be
                output  is  specified with a single character in f.  The field
                terminator defaults to NL, but may be changed  to  NUL  (000).
                See the OUTPUT FOR OTHER PROGRAMS section for a description of
                the field  identification  characters  and  the  field  output
                process.

                When the field selection character list is empty, all standard
                fields are selected (except the  raw  device  field,  security
                context  and  zone field for compatibility reasons) and the NL
                field terminator is used.

                When the field selection character list contains only  a  zero
                (`0'),  all  fields  are selected (except the raw device field
                for compatibility reasons) and the NUL terminator character is
                used.

                Other combinations of fields and their associated field termi-
                nator character must be set with explicit  entries  in  f,  as
                described in the OUTPUT FOR OTHER PROGRAMS section.

                When  a field selection character identifies an item lsof does
                not normally list - e.g., PPID, selected with -R -  specifica-

                PGID numbers that begin with `^' (negation)  represent  exclu-
                sions.

                Multiple  PGID  numbers are joined in a single ORed set before
                participating in AND option selection.  However,  PGID  exclu-
                sions  are  applied  without  ORing  or ANDing and take effect
                before other selection criteria are applied.

                The -g option also enables the output display of PGID numbers.
                When specified without a PGID set that's all it does.

       -i [i]   This option selects the listing of files any of whose Internet
                address matches the address specified in i.  If no address  is
                specified, this option selects the listing of all Internet and
                x.25 (HP-UX) network files.

                If -i4 or -i6 is specified with  no  following  address,  only
                files  of  the  indicated  IP  version, IPv4 or IPv6, are dis-
                played.  (An IPv6  specification  may  be  used  only  if  the
                dialects   supports   IPv6,   as  indicated  by  ``[46]''  and
                ``IPv[46]'' in lsof's -h or -?  output.)  Sequentially  speci-
                fying  -i4,  followed by -i6 is the same as specifying -i, and
                vice-versa.  Specifying -i4, or -i6 after -i is  the  same  as
                specifying -i4 or -i6 by itself.

                Multiple  addresses  (up  to  a limit of 100) may be specified
                with multiple -i options.  (A  port  number  or  service  name
                range is counted as one address.)  They are joined in a single
                ORed set before participating in AND option selection.

                An Internet address is specified in the form (Items in  square
                brackets are optional.):

                [46][protocol][@hostname|hostaddr][:service|port]

                where:
                     46 specifies the IP version, IPv4 or IPv6
                          that applies to the following address.
                          '6' may be be specified only if the UNIX
                          dialect supports IPv6.  If neither '4' nor
                          '6' is specified, the following address
                          applies to all IP versions.
                     protocol is a protocol name - TCP, UDP
                     hostname is an Internet host name.  Unless a
                          specific IP version is specified, open
                          network files associated with host names
                          of all versions will be selected.
                     hostaddr is a numeric Internet IPv4 address in
                          dot form; or an IPv6 numeric address in
                          colon form, enclosed in brackets, if the
                          UNIX dialect supports IPv6.  When an IP
                          version is selected, only its numeric
                          addresses may be specified.

                and  addresses  may not be specified if network file selection
                is limited to IPv4 with -i  4.   When  an  open  IPv4  network
                file's  address  is mapped in an IPv6 address, the open file's
                type will be IPv6, not IPv4, and its display will be  selected
                by '6', not '4'.

                At  least one address component - 4, 6, protocol, ,IR hostname
                , hostaddr, or service - must be supplied.  The `@' character,
                leading  the host specification, is always required; as is the
                `:', leading the port specification.  Specify either  hostname
                or  hostaddr.  Specify either service name list or port number
                list.  If a service name list is specified, the  protocol  may
                also  need  to  be  specified if the TCP, UDP and UDPLITE port
                numbers for the service name are different.  Use  any  case  -
                lower or upper - for protocol.

                Service names and port numbers may be combined in a list whose
                entries are  separated  by  commas  and  whose  numeric  range
                entries  are separated by minus signs.  There may be no embed-
                ded spaces, and all service names must belong to the specified
                protocol.   Since  service  names  may  contain embedded minus
                signs, the starting entry of a range can't be a service  name;
                it can be a port number, however.

                Here are some sample addresses:

                     -i6 - IPv6 only
                     TCP:25 - TCP and port 25
                     @1.2.3.4 - Internet IPv4 host address 1.2.3.4
                     @[3ffe:1ebc::1]:1234 - Internet IPv6 host address
                          3ffe:1ebc::1, port 1234
                     UDP:who - UDP who service port
                     TCP@lsof.itap:513 - TCP, port 513 and host name lsof.itap
                     tcp@foo:1-10,smtp,99 - TCP, ports 1 through 10,
                          service name smtp, port 99, host name foo
                     tcp@bar:1-smtp - TCP, ports 1 through smtp, host bar
                     :time - either TCP, UDP or UDPLITE time service port

       -k k     This  option specifies a kernel name list file, k, in place of
                /vmunix, /mach, etc.  This option is not available  under  AIX
                on the IBM RISC/System 6000.

       -l       This  option  inhibits  the  conversion  of user ID numbers to
                login names.  It is also useful  when  login  name  lookup  is
                working improperly or slowly.

       +|-L [l] This  option  enables  (`+')  or disables (`-') the listing of
                file link counts, where they are available - e.g., they aren't
                available for sockets, or most FIFOs and pipes.

                When  +L  is  specified  without  a following number, all link
                counts will be listed.  When -L is specified (the default), no
                link counts will be listed.


                The option form -m m specifies a kernel  memory  file,  m,  in
                place of /dev/kmem or /dev/mem - e.g., a crash dump file.

                The  option  form  +m requests that a mount supplement file be
                written to the standard output file.  All  other  options  are
                silently ignored.

                There  will  be  a  line in the mount supplement file for each
                mounted file system, containing the mounted file system direc-
                tory,  followed by a single space, followed by the device num-
                ber in hexadecimal "0x" format - e.g.,

                     / 0x801

                Lsof can use the mount supplement file to get  device  numbers
                for  file  systems  when  it  can't  get  them  via stat(2) or
                lstat(2).

                The option form +m m identifies m as a mount supplement file.

                Note: the +m and +m m options are not available for  all  sup-
                ported dialects.  Check the output of lsof's -h or -?  options
                to see if the +m and +m m options are available.

       +|-M     Enables (+) or disables (-) the reporting of portmapper regis-
                trations  for  local  TCP, UDP and UDPLITE ports.  The default
                reporting mode is set by the lsof builder with the  HASPMAPEN-
                ABLED  #define in the dialect's machine.h header file; lsof is
                distributed with the HASPMAPENABLED  #define  deactivated,  so
                portmapper  reporting  is  disabled  by  default  and  must be
                requested with +M.  Specifying lsof's -h or  -?   option  will
                report  the  default  mode.  Disabling portmapper registration
                when it is  already  disabled  or  enabling  it  when  already
                enabled is acceptable.

                When  portmapper  registration reporting is enabled, lsof dis-
                plays the portmapper registration (if any) for local TCP,  UDP
                or  UDPLITE ports in square brackets immediately following the
                port numbers or  service  names  -  e.g.,  ``:1234[name]''  or
                ``:name[100083]''.  The registration information may be a name
                or number, depending on what the registering program  supplied
                to the portmapper when it registered the port.

                When  portmapper  registration  reporting is enabled, lsof may
                run a little more slowly or even become blocked when access to
                the  portmapper  becomes  congested  or  stopped.  Reverse the
                reporting mode to determine if portmapper registration report-
                ing is slowing or blocking lsof.

                For purposes of portmapper registration reporting lsof consid-
                ers a TCP, UDP or UDPLITE port local if: it is  found  in  the
                local  part  of  its  containing kernel structure; or if it is
                located in the foreign part of its containing kernel structure

       -n       This option inhibits the conversion of network numbers to host
                names for network files.  Inhibiting conversion may make  lsof
                run  faster.   It  is also useful when host name lookup is not
                working properly.

       -N       This option selects the listing of NFS files.

       -o       This option directs lsof to display file offset at all  times.
                It  causes  the  SIZE/OFF output column title to be changed to
                OFFSET.  Note: on some UNIX dialects lsof can't  obtain  accu-
                rate  or  consistent  file  offset information from its kernel
                data sources, sometimes just for  particular  kinds  of  files
                (e.g.,  socket  files.)  Consult the lsof FAQ (The FAQ section
                gives its location.)  for more information.

                The -o and -s options are mutually exclusive; they can't  both
                be  specified.  When neither is specified, lsof displays what-
                ever value - size or offset - is appropriate and available for
                the type of the file.

       -o o     This  option  defines  the  number of decimal digits (o) to be
                printed after the ``0t'' for a file offset before the form  is
                switched to ``0x...''.  An o value of zero (unlimited) directs
                lsof to use the ``0t'' form for all offset output.

                This option does NOT direct lsof  to  display  offset  at  all
                times;  specify  -o  (without  a  trailing number) to do that.
                This option only specifies the number of digits  after  ``0t''
                in  either mixed size and offset or offset-only output.  Thus,
                for example, to direct lsof to display  offset  at  all  times
                with a decimal digit count of 10, use:

                     -o -o 10
                or
                     -oo10

                The  default number of digits allowed after ``0t'' is normally
                8, but may have been changed by the lsof builder.  Consult the
                description  of  the -o o option in the output of the -h or -?
                option to determine the default that is in effect.

       -O       This option directs lsof to bypass the  strategy  it  uses  to
                avoid  being  blocked  by some kernel operations - i.e., doing
                them in forked child processes.  See the BLOCKS  AND  TIMEOUTS
                and  AVOIDING  KERNEL  BLOCKS sections for more information on
                kernel operations that may block lsof.

                While use of this option will reduce lsof startup overhead, it
                may also cause lsof to hang when the kernel doesn't respond to
                a function.  Use this option cautiously.

       -p s     This option excludes or selects the listing of files  for  the
                processes  whose optional process IDentification (PID) numbers
                are  in  the  comma-separated  set  s  -  e.g.,   ``123''   or
                lsof  run  a  little faster.  It is also useful when port name
                lookup is not working properly.

       +|-r [t[m<fmt>]]
                This option puts lsof in repeat mode.  There lsof  lists  open
                files  as selected by other options, delays t seconds (default
                fifteen), then  repeats  the  listing,  delaying  and  listing
                repetitively  until stopped by a condition defined by the pre-
                fix to the option.

                If the prefix is a `-', repeat mode is endless.  Lsof must  be
                terminated with an interrupt or quit signal.

                If  the prefix is `+', repeat mode will end the first cycle no
                open files are listed - and of course  when  lsof  is  stopped
                with  an  interrupt  or  quit  signal.   When repeat mode ends
                because no files are listed, the process  exit  code  will  be
                zero  if  any  open  files were ever listed; one, if none were
                ever listed.

                Lsof marks the end of each listing:  if  field  output  is  in
                progress  (the  -F,  option  has  been specified), the default
                marker is `m'; otherwise the default marker  is  ``========''.
                The marker is followed by a NL character.

                The  optional  "m<fmt>"  argument  specifies  a format for the
                marker line.  The <fmt> characters following  `m'  are  inter-
                preted  as a format specification to the strftime(3) function,
                when both it and the localtime(3) function  are  available  in
                the  dialect's  C library.  Consult the strftime(3) documenta-
                tion for what may appear in its  format  specification.   Note
                that  when field output is requested with the -F option, <fmt>
                cannot contain the NL format, ``%n''.   Note  also  that  when
                <fmt>  contains  spaces  or  other  characters that affect the
                shell's interpretation of  arguments,  <fmt>  must  be  quoted
                appropriately.

                Repeat mode reduces lsof startup overhead, so it is more effi-
                cient to use this mode than to call lsof repetitively  from  a
                shell script, for example.

                To use repeat mode most efficiently, accompany +|-r with spec-
                ification of other lsof selection options, so  the  amount  of
                kernel  memory  access  lsof  does  will be kept to a minimum.
                Options that filter at the process level - e.g., -c,  -g,  -p,
                -u - are the most efficient selectors.

                Repeat  mode is useful when coupled with field output (see the
                -F, option description) and a supervising awk or Perl  script,
                or a C program.

       -R       This  option directs lsof to list the Parent Process IDentifi-
                cation number in the PPID column.

                Thus, specifying one state name means that only network  files
                with that lone state name wil be listed.

                Case  is unimportant in the protocol or state names, but there
                may be no spaces and the colon (`:') separating  the  protocol
                name (p) and the state name list (s) is required.

                If  only  TCP and UDP files are to be listed, as controlled by
                the specified exclusions and inclusions, the -i option must be
                specified,  too.   If only a single protocol's files are to be
                listed, add its name as an argument to the -i option.

                For example, to list only network files with TCP state LISTEN,
                use:

                     -iTCP -sTCP:LISTEN

                Or,  for  example,  to  list network files with all UDP states
                except Idle, use:

                     -iUDP -sUDP:Idle

                State names vary with UNIX dialects, so it's not  possible  to
                provide  a  complete  list.   Some common TCP state names are:
                CLOSED, IDLE, BOUND, LISTEN, ESTABLISHED, SYN_SENT,  SYN_RCDV,
                ESTABLISHED,   CLOSE_WAIT,   FIN_WAIT1,   CLOSING,   LAST_ACK,
                FIN_WAIT_2, and TIME_WAIT.  Two common  UDP  state  names  are
                Unbound and Idle.

                See  the  lsof  FAQ (The FAQ section gives its location.)  for
                more information on how to use protocol  state  exclusion  and
                inclusion, including examples.

                The -o (without a following decimal digit count) and -s option
                (without a following protocol and state name list)  are  mutu-
                ally exclusive; they can't both be specified.  When neither is
                specified, lsof displays whatever value - size or offset -  is
                appropriate and available for the type of file.

                Since  some  types  of  files don't have true sizes - sockets,
                FIFOs, pipes, etc. - lsof displays for their sizes the content
                amounts in their associated kernel buffers, if possible.

       -S [t]   This  option  specifies an optional time-out seconds value for
                kernel functions - lstat(2), readlink(2), and stat(2)  -  that
                might  otherwise  deadlock.   The  minimum  for  t is two; the
                default, fifteen; when no value is specified, the  default  is
                used.

                See the BLOCKS AND TIMEOUTS section for more information.

       -T [t]   This  option  controls  the reporting of some TCP/TPI informa-
                tion, also  reported  by  netstat(1),  following  the  network
                addresses.  In normal output the information appears in paren-

                Not all values are reported for all UNIX dialects.  Items val-
                ues (when available) are reported after the item name and '='.

                When  the field output mode is in effect (See OUTPUT FOR OTHER
                PROGRAMS.)  each item appears as a field with  a  `T'  leading
                character.

                -T  with no following key characters disables TCP/TPI informa-
                tion reporting.

                -T with following characters selects the reporting of specific
                TCP/TPI information:

                     f    selects reporting of socket options,
                          states and values, and TCP flags and
                          values.
                     q    selects queue length reporting.
                     s    selects connection state reporting.
                     w    selects window size reporting.

                Not  all selections are enabled for some UNIX dialects.  State
                may be selected for all dialects and is reported  by  default.
                The  -h  or  -?   help output for the -T option will show what
                selections may be used with the UNIX dialect.

                When -T is used to select information - i.e., it  is  followed
                by  one or more selection characters - the displaying of state
                is disabled by default, and it  must  be  explicitly  selected
                again  in  the characters following -T.  (In effect, then, the
                default is equivalent to -Ts.)  For example, if queue  lengths
                and state are desired, use -Tqs.

                Socket  options,  socket states, some socket values, TCP flags
                and one TCP value may be reported (when available in the  UNIX
                dialect)  in  the form of the names that commonly appear after
                SO_, so_, SS_, TCP_  and TF_ in the dialect's header  files  -
                most     often     <sys/socket.h>,    <sys/socketvar.h>    and
                <netinet/tcp_var.h>.  Consult those header files for the mean-
                ing of the flags, options, states and values.

                ``SO=''  precedes  socket  options and values; ``SS='', socket
                states; and ``TF='', TCP flags and values.

                If a flag or option has a value, the value will follow an  '='
                and   the   name   --  e.g.,  ``SO=LINGER=5'',  ``SO=QLIM=5'',
                ``TF=MSS=512''.  The following seven values may be reported:

                     Name
                     Reported  Description (Common Symbol)

                     KEEPALIVE keep alive time (SO_KEEPALIVE)
                     LINGER    linger time (SO_LINGER)
                     MSS       maximum segment size (TCP_MAXSEG)

                the lsof FAQ (The FAQ section gives its location.)

       -t       This option specifies that lsof should  produce  terse  output
                with  process  identifiers  only and no header - e.g., so that
                the output may be piped to kill(1).  This option  selects  the
                -w option.

       -u s     This  option  selects  the listing of files for the user whose
                login names or user ID numbers are in the comma-separated  set
                s  - e.g., ``abe'', or ``548,root''.  (There should be no spa-
                ces in the set.)

                Multiple login names or user ID numbers are joined in a single
                ORed set before participating in AND option selection.

                If  a login name or user ID is preceded by a `^', it becomes a
                negation - i.e., files of processes owned by the login name or
                user ID will never be listed.  A negated login name or user ID
                selection is neither ANDed nor ORed with other selections;  it
                is applied before all other selections and absolutely excludes
                the listing of the files of  the  process.   For  example,  to
                direct  lsof to exclude the listing of files belonging to root
                processes, specify ``-u^root'' or ``-u^0''.

       -U       This option selects the listing of UNIX domain socket files.

       -v       This option selects the listing of lsof  version  information,
                including:  revision  number;  when  the  lsof binary was con-
                structed; who constructed the binary and where;  the  name  of
                the  compiler  used  to construct the lsof binary; the version
                number of the compiler when readily  available;  the  compiler
                and loader flags used to construct the lsof binary; and system
                information, typically the output of uname's -a option.

       -V       This option directs lsof to indicate the items it was asked to
                list  and failed to find - command names, file names, Internet
                addresses or files, login names, NFS files, PIDs,  PGIDs,  and
                UIDs.

                When  other  options  are  ANDed  to  search  options, or com-
                pile-time options restrict the listing of some files, lsof may
                not  report that it failed to find a search item when an ANDed
                option or compile-time option prevents the listing of the open
                file containing the located search item.

                For example, ``lsof -V -iTCP@foobar -a -d 999'' may not report
                a failure to locate open files at ``TCP@foobar'' and  may  not
                list  any,  if  none  have a file descriptor number of 999.  A
                similar situation arises when HASSECURITY  and  HASNOSOCKSECU-
                RITY  are defined at compile time and they prevent the listing
                of open files.

       +|-w     Enables (+) or disables (-) the suppression  of  warning  mes-
                sages.
                or directory tree (+D).

                If -x is specified by itself without  a  following  parameter,
                cross-over  processing  of both symbolic links and file system
                mount points is enabled.  Note that when -x is specified with-
                out a parameter, the next argument must begin with '-' or '+'.

                The  optional  'f'  parameter  enables file system mount point
                cross-over processing; 'l', symbolic link cross-over  process-
                ing.

                The  -x option may not be supplied without also supplying a +d
                or +D option.

       -X       This is a dialect-specific option.

           AIX:
                This IBM AIX RISC/System 6000 option requests the reporting of
                executed text file and shared library references.

                WARNING: because this option uses the kernel readx() function,
                its use on a  busy  AIX  system  might  cause  an  application
                process  to  hang  so completely that it can neither be killed
                nor stopped.  I have never seen this happen or had a report of
                its  happening,  but  I think there is a remote possibility it
                could happen.

                By default use of readx() is disabled.  On AIX  5L  and  above
                lsof  may  need  setuid-root permission to perform the actions
                this option requests.

                The lsof builder may specify that the -X option be  restricted
                to  processes  whose real UID is root.  If that has been done,
                the -X option will not appear in the -h  or  -?   help  output
                unless  the real UID of the lsof process is root.  The default
                lsof distribution allows any UID to specify -X, so by  default
                it will appear in the help output.

                When  AIX  readx()  use  is  disabled, lsof may not be able to
                report information for all text and  loader  file  references,
                but  it  may  also  avoid exacerbating an AIX kernel directory
                search kernel error, known as the Stale Segment ID bug.

                The readx() function, used by lsof or  any  other  program  to
                access some sections of kernel virtual memory, can trigger the
                Stale Segment ID bug.  It can cause the kernel's  dir_search()
                function to believe erroneously that part of an in-memory copy
                of a file system directory has been zeroed.  Another  applica-
                tion  process, distinct from lsof, asking the kernel to search
                the  directory  -  e.g.,  by  using  open(2)   -   can   cause
                dir_search()  to  loop  forever,  thus hanging the application
                process.

                Consult the lsof FAQ (The FAQ  section  gives  its  location.)
                /proc/net/udp* files would take lsof a long  time,  and  whose
                reporting is not of interest.

                Use  this option with care and only when you are sure that the
                information you want lsof to  display  isn't  associated  with
                open TCP, UDP or UDPLITE socket files.

           Solaris 10 and above:
                This  Solaris  10  and  above option requests the reporting of
                cached paths for files that have been deleted - i.e.,  removed
                with rm(1) or unlink(2).

                The  cached  path  is followed by the string `` (deleted)'' to
                indicate that the path by which the file was opened  has  been
                deleted.

                Because  intervening  changes made to the path - i.e., renames
                with mv(1) or rename(2) - are not recorded in the cached path,
                what  lsof  reports  is  only  the  path by which the file was
                opened, not its possibly different final path.

       -z [z]   specifies how Solaris 10 and higher zone information is to  be
                handled.

                Without  a following argument - e.g., NO z - the option speci-
                fies that zone names are to be listed in the ZONE output  col-
                umn.

                The  -z option may be followed by a zone name, z.  That causes
                lsof to list only open files for processes in that zone.  Mul-
                tiple  -z z option and argument pairs may be specified to form
                a list of named zones.  Any open file of any process in any of
                the  zones  will be listed, subject to other conditions speci-
                fied by other options and arguments.

       -Z [Z]   specifies how SELinux security contexts  are  to  be  handled.
                This  option and 'Z' field output character support are inhib-
                ited when SELinux is disabled in  the  running  Linux  kernel.
                See  OUTPUT FOR OTHER PROGRAMS for more information on the 'Z'
                field output character.

                Without a following argument - e.g., NO Z - the option  speci-
                fies  that  security  contexts  are  to be listed in the SECU-
                RITY-CONTEXT output column.

                The -Z option may be followed by a wildcard  security  context
                name,  Z.   That  causes lsof to list only open files for pro-
                cesses in that security context.  Multiple  -Z  Z  option  and
                argument  pairs  may  be  specified to form a list of security
                contexts.  Any open file of any process in any of the security
                contexts will be listed, subject to other conditions specified
                by other options and arguments.  Note that Z can be  A:B:C  or
                *:B:C or A:B:* or *:*:C to match against the A:B:C context.

                device  of  the file system, lsof will list all the files open
                on the file system.  To be considered a file system, the  name
                must  match a mounted-on directory name in mount(8) output, or
                match the name of a block device associated with a  mounted-on
                directory  name.  The +|-f option may be used to force lsof to
                consider a name a file system identifier (+f) or a simple file
                (-f).

                If  name  is  a path to a directory that is not the mounted-on
                directory name of a file system, it is treated just as a regu-
                lar  file is treated - i.e., its listing is restricted to pro-
                cesses that have it open as a file or  as  a  process-specific
                directory,  such as the root or current working directory.  To
                request that lsof look for open files inside a directory name,
                use the +d s and +D D options.

                If  a name is the base name of a family of multiplexed files -
                e. g, AIX's /dev/pt[cs] - lsof will list  all  the  associated
                multiplexed  files  on  the  device  that  are  open  -  e.g.,
                /dev/pt[cs]/1, /dev/pt[cs]/2, etc.

                If a name is a UNIX domain  socket  name,  lsof  will  usually
                search for it by the characters of the name alone - exactly as
                it is specified and is recorded in the  kernel  socket  struc-
                ture.   (See  the next paragraph for an exception to that rule
                for Linux.)  Specifying a relative path - e.g.,  ./file  -  in
                place  of  the  file's absolute path - e.g., /tmp/file - won't
                work because lsof must match the characters you  specify  with
                what it finds in the kernel UNIX domain socket structures.

                If a name is a Linux UNIX domain socket name, in one case lsof
                is able to search for it  by  its  device  and  inode  number,
                allowing  name  to be a relative path.  The case requires that
                the absolute path -- i.e., one beginning with a slash ('/') be
                used  by  the  process  that  created the socket, and hence be
                stored in the /proc/net/unix file; and it requires  that  lsof
                be  able  to  obtain  the  device and node numbers of both the
                absolute  path  in  /proc/net/unix  and  name  via  successful
                stat(2)  system  calls.   When  those conditions are met, lsof
                will be able to search for the UNIX domain  socket  when  some
                path to it is is specified in name.  Thus, for example, if the
                path is /dev/log, and an lsof search  is  initiated  when  the
                working directory is /dev, then name could be ./log.

                If  a name is none of the above, lsof will list any open files
                whose device and inode match that of the specified path name.

                If you have also specified the -b option, the only  names  you
                may safely specify are file systems for which your mount table
                supplies alternate device numbers.  See  the  AVOIDING  KERNEL
                BLOCKS and ALTERNATE DEVICE NUMBERS sections for more informa-
                tion.

                Multiple file names are joined in a  single  ORed  set  before

       not  been  tested there.  Depending on how AFS is implemented, lsof may
       recognize AFS files in other dialects, or may have difficulties  recog-
       nizing AFS files in the supported dialects.

       Lsof may have trouble identifying all aspects of AFS files in supported
       dialects when AFS kernel support is  implemented  via  dynamic  modules
       whose  addresses  do not appear in the kernel's variable name list.  In
       that case, lsof may have to guess at the identity  of  AFS  files,  and
       might  not be able to obtain volume information from the kernel that is
       needed for calculating AFS volume node numbers.  When lsof  can't  com-
       pute volume node numbers, it reports blank in the NODE column.

       The  -A  A  option is available in some dialect implementations of lsof
       for specifying the name list file where dynamic module kernel addresses
       may  be found.  When this option is available, it will be listed in the
       lsof help output, presented in response to the -h or -?

       See the lsof FAQ (The FAQ section gives its location.)  for more infor-
       mation  about  dynamic modules, their symbols, and how they affect lsof
       options.

       Because AFS path lookups don't seem to participate in the kernel's name
       cache  operations,  lsof  can't  identify  path name components for AFS
       files.

SECURITY
       Lsof has three features that may cause security concerns.   First,  its
       default  compilation mode allows anyone to list all open files with it.
       Second, by default it creates a user-readable and user-writable  device
       cache  file  in  the  home  directory of the real user ID that executes
       lsof.  (The list-all-open-files and device cache features may  be  dis-
       abled when lsof is compiled.)  Third, its -k and -m options name alter-
       nate kernel name list or memory files.

       Restricting the listing of all open files is  controlled  by  the  com-
       pile-time  HASSECURITY and HASNOSOCKSECURITY options.  When HASSECURITY
       is defined, lsof will allow only the root user to list all open  files.
       The  non-root  user may list only open files of processes with the same
       user IDentification number as the real  user  ID  number  of  the  lsof
       process (the one that its user logged on with).

       However,  if HASSECURITY and HASNOSOCKSECURITY are both defined, anyone
       may list open socket files, provided they  are  selected  with  the  -i
       option.

       When HASSECURITY is not defined, anyone may list all open files.

       Help  output,  presented in response to the -h or -?  option, gives the
       status of the HASSECURITY and HASNOSOCKSECURITY definitions.

       See the Security section of the 00README file of the lsof  distribution
       for  information on building lsof with the HASSECURITY and HASNOSOCKSE-
       CURITY options enabled.

       have no -D option description.

       Before you decide to disable the device cache file feature  -  enabling
       it improves the performance of lsof by reducing the startup overhead of
       examining all the nodes in /dev (or /devices) - read the discussion  of
       it  in the 00DCACHE file of the lsof distribution and the lsof FAQ (The
       FAQ section gives its location.)

       WHEN IN DOUBT, YOU CAN TEMPORARILY DISABLE THE USE OF THE DEVICE  CACHE
       FILE WITH THE -Di OPTION.

       When lsof user declares alternate kernel name list or memory files with
       the -k and -m options, lsof checks the user's authority  to  read  them
       with  access(2).   This  is  intended to prevent whatever special power
       lsof's modes might confer on it from letting it read files not normally
       accessible via the authority of the real user ID.

OUTPUT
       This  section  describes the information lsof lists for each open file.
       See the OUTPUT FOR OTHER PROGRAMS section for additional information on
       output that can be processed by another program.

       Lsof  only  outputs printable (declared so by isprint(3)) 8 bit charac-
       ters.  Non-printable characters are printed in one of three forms:  the
       C  ``\[bfrnt]'' form; the control character `^' form (e.g., ``^@''); or
       hexadecimal leading ``\x'' form (e.g., ``\xab'').  Space is  non-print-
       able in the COMMAND column (``\x20'') and printable elsewhere.

       For  some  dialects  -  if  HASSETLOCALE  is  defined  in the dialect's
       machine.h header file - lsof will print the extended 8  bit  characters
       of  a  language  locale.   The lsof process must be supplied a language
       locale environment variable (e.g., LANG) whose value represents a known
       language  locale in which the extended characters are considered print-
       able by isprint(3).  Otherwise lsof considers the  extended  characters
       non-printable  and prints them according to its rules for non-printable
       characters, stated above.  Consult your dialect's setlocale(3) man page
       for  the names of other environment variables that may be used in place
       of LANG - e.g., LC_ALL, LC_CTYPE, etc.

       Lsof's language locale support for a dialect also covers  wide  charac-
       ters  -  e.g., UTF-8 - when HASSETLOCALE and HASWIDECHAR are defined in
       the dialect's machine.h header  file,  and  when  a  suitable  language
       locale has been defined in the appropriate environment variable for the
       lsof process.  Wide characters are printable under those conditions  if
       iswprint(3)  reports  them  to  be.  If HASSETLOCALE, HASWIDECHAR and a
       suitable language locale aren't defined, or if iswprint(3) reports wide
       characters  that  aren't  printable, lsof considers the wide characters
       non-printable and prints each of their 8 bits according  to  its  rules
       for non-printable characters, stated above.

       Consult  the  answers to the "Language locale support" questions in the
       lsof FAQ (The FAQ section gives its location.) for more information.

       Lsof dynamically sizes the output columns each time it runs, guarantee-
                  If  w  is  less  than the length of the column title, ``COM-
                  MAND'', it will be raised to that length.

                  If a zero w value is specified to the +c w option, the  col-
                  umn contains all the characters of the name of the UNIX com-
                  mand associated with the process.

                  All command name characters maintained by the kernel in  its
                  structures  are  displayed  in field output when the command
                  name descriptor (`c') is  specified.   See  the  OUTPUT  FOR
                  OTHER  COMMANDS  section  for information on selecting field
                  output and the associated command name descriptor.

       PID        is the Process IDentification number of the process.

       ZONE       is the Solaris 10 and higher zone name.  This column must be
                  selected with the -z option.

       SECURITY-CONTEXT
                  is  the  SELinux  security  context.   This  column  must be
                  selected with the -Z option.  Note that  the  -Z  option  is
                  inhibited when SELinux is disabled in the running Linux ker-
                  nel.

       PPID       is the Parent Process IDentification number of the  process.
                  It is only displayed when the -R option has been specified.

       PGID       is  the  process group IDentification number associated with
                  the process.  It is only displayed when the  -g  option  has
                  been specified.

       USER       is  the user ID number or login name of the user to whom the
                  process belongs, usually the  same  as  reported  by  ps(1).
                  However,  on  Linux USER is the user ID number or login that
                  owns the directory in /proc  where  lsof  finds  information
                  about  the process.  Usually that is the same value reported
                  by ps(1), but may differ when the process  has  changed  its
                  effective  user  ID.   (See  the  -l  option description for
                  information on when a user ID number or login name  is  dis-
                  played.)

       FD         is the File Descriptor number of the file or:

                       cwd  current working directory;
                       Lnn  library references (AIX);
                       err  FD information error (see NAME column);
                       jld  jail directory (FreeBSD);
                       ltx  shared library text (code and data);
                       Mxx  hex memory-mapped type number xx.
                       m86  DOS Merge mapped file;
                       mem  memory-mapped file;
                       mmap memory-mapped device;
                       pd   parent directory;
                       rtd  root directory;
                       `-' if mode unknown and lock
                            character follows.

                  The mode character is followed by one of these lock  charac-
                  ters, describing the type of lock applied to the file:

                       N for a Solaris NFS lock of unknown type;
                       r for read lock on part of the file;
                       R for a read lock on the entire file;
                       w for a write lock on part of the file;
                       W for a write lock on the entire file;
                       u for a read and write lock of any length;
                       U for a lock of unknown type;
                       x  for an SCO OpenServer Xenix lock on part      of the
                  file;
                       X for an SCO OpenServer Xenix lock on  the       entire
                  file;
                       space if there is no lock.

                  See  the  LOCKS  section  for  more  information on the lock
                  information character.

                  The FD column contents constitutes a single field for  pars-
                  ing in post-processing scripts.

       TYPE       is  the  type  of  the node associated with the file - e.g.,
                  GDIR, GREG, VDIR, VREG, etc.

                  or ``IPv4'' for an IPv4 socket;

                  or ``IPv6'' for an open IPv6 network  file  -  even  if  its
                  address is IPv4, mapped in an IPv6 address;

                  or ``ax25'' for a Linux AX.25 socket;

                  or ``inet'' for an Internet domain socket;

                  or ``lla'' for a HP-UX link level access file;

                  or ``rte'' for an AF_ROUTE socket;

                  or ``sock'' for a socket of unknown domain;

                  or ``unix'' for a UNIX domain socket;

                  or ``x.25'' for an HP-UX x.25 socket;

                  or ``BLK'' for a block special file;

                  or ``CHR'' for a character special file;

                  or ``DEL'' for a Linux map file that has been deleted;

                  or ``DIR'' for a directory;

                  or  ``NOFD'' for a Linux /proc/<PID>/fd directory that can't
                  be opened -- the directory path appears in the NAME  column,
                  followed by an error message;

                  or ``PAS'' for a /proc/as file;

                  or ``PAXV'' for a /proc/auxv file;

                  or ``PCRE'' for a /proc/cred file;

                  or ``PCTL'' for a /proc control file;

                  or ``PCUR'' for the current /proc process;

                  or ``PCWD'' for a /proc current working directory;

                  or ``PDIR'' for a /proc directory;

                  or ``PETY'' for a /proc executable type (etype);

                  or ``PFD'' for a /proc file descriptor;

                  or ``PFDR'' for a /proc file descriptor directory;

                  or ``PFIL'' for an executable /proc file;

                  or ``PFPR'' for a /proc FP register set;

                  or ``PGD'' for a /proc/pagedata file;

                  or ``PGID'' for a /proc group notifier file;

                  or ``PIPE'' for pipes;

                  or ``PLC'' for a /proc/lwpctl file;

                  or ``PLDR'' for a /proc/lpw directory;

                  or ``PLDT'' for a /proc/ldt file;

                  or ``PLPI'' for a /proc/lpsinfo file;

                  or ``PLST'' for a /proc/lstatus file;

                  or ``PLU'' for a /proc/lusage file;

                  or ``PLWG'' for a /proc/gwindows file;

                  or ``PLWI'' for a /proc/lwpsinfo file;

                  or ``PLWS'' for a /proc/lwpstatus file;

                  or ``PLWU'' for a /proc/lwpusage file;

                  or  ``POLP''  for  an  old format /proc light weight process
                  file;

                  or ``POPF'' for an old format /proc PID file;

                  or ``POPG'' for an old format /proc page data file;

                  or ``PORT'' for a SYSV named pipe;

                  or ``PREG'' for a /proc register file;

                  or ``PRMP'' for a /proc/rmap file;

                  or ``PRTD'' for a /proc root directory;

                  or ``PSGA'' for a /proc/sigact file;

                  or ``PSIN'' for a /proc/psinfo file;

                  or ``PSTA'' for a /proc status file;

                  or ``PSXSEM'' for a POSIX semaphore file;

                  or ``PSXSHM'' for a POSIX shared memory file;

                  or ``PUSG'' for a /proc/usage file;

                  or ``PW'' for a /proc/watch file;

                  or ``PXMP'' for a /proc/xmap file;

                  or ``REG'' for a regular file;

                  or ``SMT'' for a shared memory transport file;

                  or ``STSO'' for a stream socket;

                  or ``UNNM'' for an unnamed type file;

                  or ``XNAM'' for an OpenServer Xenix special file of  unknown
                  type;

                  or ``XSEM'' for an OpenServer Xenix semaphore file;

                  or ``XSD'' for an OpenServer Xenix shared data file;

                  or  the  four  type  number octets if the corresponding name
                  isn't known.

       FILE-ADDR  contains the kernel file structure address when f  has  been
                  specified to +f;

       FCT        contains  the  file  reference  count  from  the kernel file
                       AP        append
                       ASYN      asynchronous I/O (e.g., FASYNC)
                       BAS       block, test, and set in use
                       BKIU      block if in use
                       BL        use block offsets
                       BSK       block seek
                       CA        copy avoid
                       CIO       concurrent I/O
                       CLON      clone
                       CLRD      CL read
                       CR        create
                       DF        defer
                       DFI       defer IND
                       DFLU      data flush
                       DIR       direct
                       DLY       delay
                       DOCL      do clone
                       DSYN      data-only integrity
                       DTY       must be a directory
                       EVO       event only
                       EX        open for exec
                       EXCL      exclusive open
                       FSYN      synchronous writes
                       GCDF      defer during unp_gc() (AIX)
                       GCMK      mark during unp_gc() (AIX)
                       GTTY      accessed via /dev/tty
                       HUP       HUP in progress
                       KERN      kernel
                       KIOC      kernel-issued ioctl
                       LCK       has lock
                       LG        large file
                       MBLK      stream message block
                       MK        mark
                       MNT       mount
                       MSYN      multiplex synchronization
                       NATM      don't update atime
                       NB        non-blocking I/O
                       NBDR      no BDRM check
                       NBIO      SYSV non-blocking I/O
                       NBF       n-buffering in effect
                       NC        no cache
                       ND        no delay
                       NDSY      no data synchronization
                       NET       network
                       NFLK      don't follow links
                       NMFS      NM file system
                       NOTO      disable background stop
                       NSH       no share
                       NTTY      no controlling TTY
                       OLRM      OLR mirror
                       PAIO      POSIX asynchronous I/O
                       PP        POSIX pipe
                       R         read
                       RC        file and record locking cache
                       STPI      stop I/O
                       SWR       synchronous read
                       SYN       file integrity while writing
                       TCPM      avoid TCP collision
                       TR        truncate
                       W         write
                       WKUP      parallel I/O synchronization
                       WTG       parallel I/O synchronization
                       VH        vhangup pending
                       VTXT      virtual text
                       XL        exclusive lock

                  this  list of names was derived from F* #define's in dialect
                  header  files   <fcntl.h>,   <linux</fs.h>,   <sys/fcntl.c>,
                  <sys/fcntlcom.h>,  and  <sys/file.h>;  see the lsof.h header
                  file for a list showing the correspondence between the above
                  short-hand names and the header file definitions;

                  the second list (after the semicolon) may contain short-hand
                  names for kernel per-process open file flags from  this  ta-
                  ble:

                       ALLC      allocated
                       BR        the file has been read
                       BHUP      activity stopped by SIGHUP
                       BW        the file has been written
                       CLSG      closing
                       CX        close-on-exec (see fcntl(F_SETFD))
                       LCK       lock was applied
                       MP        memory-mapped
                       OPIP      open pending - in progress
                       RSVW      reserved wait
                       SHMT      UF_FSHMAT set (AIX)
                       USE       in use (multi-threaded)

       NODE-ID    (or  INODE-ADDR for some dialects) contains a unique identi-
                  fier for the file node (usually the kernel  vnode  or  inode
                  address, but also occasionally a concatenation of device and
                  node number) when n has been specified to +f;

       DEVICE     contains the device numbers,  separated  by  commas,  for  a
                  character  special, block special, regular, directory or NFS
                  file;

                  or ``memory'' for a memory  file  system  node  under  Tru64
                  UNIX;

                  or  the address of the private data area of a Solaris socket
                  stream;

                  or a kernel reference address that identifies the file  (The
                  kernel  reference  address may be used for FIFO's, for exam-
                  ple.);

                  On  some UNIX dialects lsof can't obtain accurate or consis-
                  tent file offset information from its kernel  data  sources,
                  sometimes  just  for particular kinds of files (e.g., socket
                  files.)  In other cases, files don't have true sizes - e.g.,
                  sockets, FIFOs, pipes - so lsof displays for their sizes the
                  content amounts it finds in their kernel buffer  descriptors
                  (e.g.,  socket  buffer  size counts or TCP/IP window sizes.)
                  Consult the lsof FAQ (The FAQ section gives  its  location.)
                  for more information.

                  The  file  size  is displayed in decimal; the offset is nor-
                  mally displayed in decimal with a leading ``0t'' if it  con-
                  tains 8 digits or less; in hexadecimal with a leading ``0x''
                  if it is longer than 8 digits.  (Consult  the  -o  o  option
                  description  for information on when 8 might default to some
                  other value.)

                  Thus the leading ``0t'' and ``0x'' identify an  offset  when
                  the  column may contain both a size and an offset (i.e., its
                  title is SIZE/OFF).

                  If the -o option is specified, lsof always displays the file
                  offset (or nothing if no offset is available) and labels the
                  column OFFSET.  The offset  always  begins  with  ``0t''  or
                  ``0x'' as described above.

                  The  lsof  user can control the switch from ``0t'' to ``0x''
                  with the -o o option.   Consult  its  description  for  more
                  information.

                  If the -s option is specified, lsof always displays the file
                  size (or nothing if no size is  available)  and  labels  the
                  column  SIZE.  The -o and -s options are mutually exclusive;
                  they can't both be specified.

                  For files that don't have a fixed size - e.g., don't  reside
                  on a disk device - lsof will display appropriate information
                  about the current size or position of  the  file  if  it  is
                  available in the kernel structures that define the file.

       NLINK      contains the file link count when +L has been specified;

       NODE       is the node number of a local file;

                  or the inode number of an NFS file in the server host;

                  or the Internet protocol type - e. g, ``TCP'';

                  or ``STR'' for a stream;

                  or ``CCITT'' for an HP-UX x.25 socket;

                  or the IRQ or inode number of a Linux AX.25 socket device.

                  depending  on  the +|-M, -n, and -P options; colon-separated
                  IPv6  numbers  are  enclosed  in   square   brackets;   IPv4
                  INADDR_ANY  and  IPv6 IN6_IS_ADDR_UNSPECIFIED addresses, and
                  zero port numbers are represented by an  asterisk  ('*');  a
                  UDP  destination  address  may  be followed by the amount of
                  time elapsed since the last packet was sent to the  destina-
                  tion;  TCP, UDP and UDPLITE remote addresses may be followed
                  by  TCP/TPI  information  in  parentheses  -  state   (e.g.,
                  ``(ESTABLISHED)'',  ``(Unbound)''),  queue sizes, and window
                  sizes (not all dialects) - in a fashion similar to what net-
                  stat(1)  reports;  see  the  -T  option  description  or the
                  description of the TCP/TPI field in OUTPUT  FOR  OTHER  PRO-
                  GRAMS  for more information on state, queue size, and window
                  size;

                  or the address or name of a  UNIX  domain  socket,  possibly
                  including a stream clone device name, a file system object's
                  path name, local and foreign kernel addresses,  socket  pair
                  information, and a bound vnode address;

                  or the local and remote mount point names of an NFS file;

                  or ``STR'', followed by the stream name;

                  or  a  stream  character device name, followed by ``->'' and
                  the stream name or a list of stream module names,  separated
                  by ``->'';

                  or ``STR:'' followed by the SCO OpenServer stream device and
                  module names, separated by ``->'';

                  or system directory name, `` -- '', and as  many  components
                  of the path name as lsof can find in the kernel's name cache
                  for selected dialects (See the KERNEL NAME CACHE section for
                  more information.);

                  or ``PIPE->'', followed by a Solaris kernel pipe destination
                  address;

                  or ``COMMON:'', followed by  the  vnode  device  information
                  structure's device name, for a Solaris common vnode;

                  or  the  address family, followed by a slash (`/'), followed
                  by fourteen comma-separated  bytes  of  a  non-Internet  raw
                  socket address;

                  or  the  HP-UX  x.25  local address, followed by the virtual
                  connection number (if any), followed by the  remote  address
                  (if any);

                  or ``(dead)'' for disassociated Tru64 UNIX files - typically
                  terminal files that have been  flagged  with  the  TIOCNOTTY
                  ioctl and closed by daemons;

                  block  associated  with  them,  optionally  followed  by ``,
                  CANTSENDMORE'' if sending on the socket has  been  disabled,
                  or  ``,  CANTRCVMORE''  if  receiving on the socket has been
                  disabled (e.g., by the shutdown(2) function);

                  or the local and remote addresses of a Linux IPX socket file
                  in  the  form <net>:[<node>:]<port>, followed in parentheses
                  by the transmit and receive queue sizes, and the  connection
                  state;

                  or  ``dgram''  or ``stream'' for the type UnixWare 7.1.1 and
                  above in-kernel UNIX domain sockets,  followed  by  a  colon
                  (':')  and  the  local path name when available, followed by
                  ``->'' and the remote path name or kernel socket address  in
                  hexadecimal when available.

       For  dialects  that support a ``namefs'' file system, allowing one file
       to  be  attached  to  another   with   fattach(3C),   lsof   will   add
       ``(FA:<address1><direction><address2>)''    to    the    NAME   column.
       <address1> and <address2> are hexadecimal vnode addresses.  <direction>
       will  be  ``<-''  if <address2> has been fattach'ed to this vnode whose
       address is <address1>; and ``->'' if <address1>, the vnode  address  of
       this vnode, has been fattach'ed to <address2>.  <address1> may be omit-
       ted if it already appears in the DEVICE column.

       Lsof may add two parenthetical  notes  to  the  NAME  column  for  open
       Solaris  10 files: ``(?)'' if lsof considers the path name of question-
       able accuracy; and ``(deleted)'' if the -X option  has  been  specified
       and  lsof  detects the open file's path name has been deleted.  Consult
       the lsof FAQ (The FAQ section gives its location.)  for  more  informa-
       tion on these NAME column additions.

LOCKS
       Lsof  can't  adequately  report  the  wide variety of UNIX dialect file
       locks in a single character.  What it reports in a single character  is
       a  compromise  between  the  information it finds in the kernel and the
       limitations of the reporting format.

       Moreover, when a process holds several byte level locks on a file, lsof
       only  reports  the  status of the first lock it encounters.  If it is a
       byte level lock, then the lock character will be reported in lower case
       -  i.e.,  `r',  `w',  or  `x'  -  rather than the upper case equivalent
       reported for a full file lock.

       Generally lsof can only report on locks  held  by  local  processes  on
       local  files.   When  a local process sets a lock on a remotely mounted
       (e.g., NFS) file, the remote  server  host  usually  records  the  lock
       state.   One exception is Solaris - at some patch levels of 2.3, and in
       all versions above 2.4,  the  Solaris  kernel  records  information  on
       remote locks in local structures.

       Lsof  has  trouble reporting locks for some UNIX dialects.  Consult the
       BUGS section of this manual page or the lsof FAQ (The FAQ section gives
       its location.)  for more information.
       It  is  possible  to think of field output as process and file sets.  A
       process set begins with a field whose identifier is  `p'  (for  process
       IDentifier  (PID)).   It extends to the beginning of the next PID field
       or the beginning of the first file set of the process, whichever  comes
       first.   Included  in the process set are fields that identify the com-
       mand, the process group IDentification (PGID) number, and the  user  ID
       (UID) number or login name.

       A  file  set  begins  with  a  field  whose identifier is `f' (for file
       descriptor).  It is followed by lines that describe the  file's  access
       mode, lock state, type, device, size, offset, inode, protocol, name and
       stream module names.  It extends to the beginning of the next  file  or
       process set, whichever comes first.

       When the NUL (000) field terminator has been selected with the 0 (zero)
       field identifier character, lsof ends each process and file set with  a
       NL (012) character.

       Lsof  always produces one field, the PID (`p') field.  All other fields
       may be declared optionally in the field identifier character list  that
       follows  the -F option.  When a field selection character identifies an
       item lsof does not normally list - e.g., PPID, selected with -R - spec-
       ification  of  the  field  character - e.g., ``-FR'' - also selects the
       listing of the item.

       It is entirely possible to select a set of fields that cannot easily be
       parsed - e.g., if the field descriptor field is not selected, it may be
       difficult to identify file sets.  To help you  avoid  this  difficulty,
       lsof  supports  the -F option; it selects the output of all fields with
       NL terminators (the -F0 option pair selects the output  of  all  fields
       with  NUL  terminators).   For compatibility reasons neither -F nor -F0
       select the raw device field.

       These are the fields that lsof  will  produce.   The  single  character
       listed first is the field identifier.

            a    file access mode
            c    process command name (all characters from proc or
                 user structure)
            C    file structure share count
            d    file's device character code
            D    file's major/minor device number (0x<hexadecimal>)
            f    file descriptor
            F    file structure address (0x<hexadecimal>)
            G    file flaGs (0x<hexadecimal>; names if +fg follows)
            i    file's inode number
            k    link count
            l    file's lock status
            L    process login name
            m    marker between repeated output
            n    file name, comment, Internet address
            N    node identifier (ox<hexadecimal>
            o    file's offset (decimal)
            p    process ID (always selected)
                     SS=<socket states> (not all dialects)
                     ST=<connection state>
                     TF=<TCP flags and values> (not all dialects)
                     WR=<window read size>  (not all dialects)
                     WW=<window write size>  (not all dialects)
                 (TCP/TPI information isn't reported for all supported
                   UNIX dialects. The -h or -? help output for the
                   -T option will show what TCP/TPI reporting can be
                   requested.)
            u    process user ID
            z    Solaris 10 and higher zone name
            Z    SELinux security context (inhibited when SELinux is disabled)
            0    use NUL field terminator character in place of NL
            1-9  dialect-specific field identifiers (The output
                 of -F? identifies the information to be found
                 in dialect-specific fields.)

       You  can  get  on-line  help  information on these characters and their
       descriptions by specifying the -F?  option pair.  (Escape the `?' char-
       acter as your shell requires.)  Additional information on field content
       can be found in the OUTPUT section.

       As an example, ``-F pcfn'' will select the process  ID  (`p'),  command
       name (`c'), file descriptor (`f') and file name (`n') fields with an NL
       field terminator character; ``-F pcfn0'' selects the same output with a
       NUL (000) field terminator character.

       Lsof  doesn't  produce  all  fields for every process or file set, only
       those that are available.  Some fields  are  mutually  exclusive:  file
       device  characters and file major/minor device numbers; file inode num-
       ber and protocol name; file name and stream identification;  file  size
       and  offset.   One or the other member of these mutually exclusive sets
       will appear in field output, but not both.

       Normally lsof ends each field with a NL (012) character.  The 0  (zero)
       field  identifier character may be specified to change the field termi-
       nator character to a NUL (000).  A NUL  terminator  may  be  easier  to
       process  with  xargs  (1),  for example, or with programs whose quoting
       mechanisms may not easily cope with the  range  of  characters  in  the
       field  output.  When the NUL field terminator is in use, lsof ends each
       process and file set with a NL (012).

       Three aids to producing programs that can process lsof field output are
       included  in  the  lsof  distribution.   The  first is a C header file,
       lsof_fields.h, that contains symbols for the field identification char-
       acters,  indexes  for  storing them in a table, and explanation strings
       that may be compiled into programs.  Lsof uses this header file.

       The second aid is a set of sample scripts that  process  field  output,
       written  in  awk,  Perl  4, and Perl 5.  They're located in the scripts
       subdirectory of the lsof distribution.

       The third aid is the C library used for the lsof test suite.  The  test
       suite  is  written  in  C and uses field output to validate the correct
       break  a  block,  it  will report the break with an error message.  The
       messages may be suppressed with the -t and -w options.

       The default timeout value may be displayed with the -h or  -?   option,
       and it may be changed with the -S [t] option.  The minimum for t is two
       seconds, but you should avoid small values, since slow  system  respon-
       siveness  can  cause  short timeouts to expire unexpectedly and perhaps
       stop lsof before it can produce any output.

       When lsof has to break a block during its access of mounted file system
       information,  it  normally  continues,  although  with less information
       available to display about open files.

       Lsof can also be directed to avoid the protection of timers  and  child
       processes  when using the kernel functions that might block by specify-
       ing the -O option.  While this will allow lsof to start  up  with  less
       overhead,  it  exposes  lsof  completely  to the kernel situations that
       might block it.  Use this option cautiously.

AVOIDING KERNEL BLOCKS
       You can use the -b option to tell lsof to avoid using kernel  functions
       that would block.  Some cautions apply.

       First,  using  this  option  usually  requires  that your system supply
       alternate device numbers in place of the device numbers that lsof would
       normally  obtain  with  the lstat(2) and stat(2) kernel functions.  See
       the ALTERNATE DEVICE NUMBERS section for more information on  alternate
       device numbers.

       Second,  you can't specify names for lsof to locate unless they're file
       system names.  This is because lsof needs to know the device and  inode
       numbers  of  files  listed  with  names in the lsof options, and the -b
       option prevents lsof from obtaining them.  Moreover,  since  lsof  only
       has device numbers for the file systems that have alternates, its abil-
       ity to locate files on file systems depends completely  on  the  avail-
       ability  and  accuracy  of the alternates.  If no alternates are avail-
       able, or if they're incorrect, lsof won't be able to  locate  files  on
       the named file systems.

       Third,  if  the names of your file system directories that lsof obtains
       from your system's mount table are symbolic links, lsof won't  be  able
       to  resolve  the  links.   This is because the -b option causes lsof to
       avoid the kernel readlink(2)  function  it  uses  to  resolve  symbolic
       links.

       Finally, using the -b option causes lsof to issue warning messages when
       it needs to use the kernel functions that the -b option directs  it  to
       avoid.   You  can  suppress these messages by specifying the -w option,
       but if you do, you won't see the alternate device numbers  reported  in
       the warning messages.

ALTERNATE DEVICE NUMBERS
       On  some  dialects, when lsof has to break a block because it can't get
       information about a mounted file system via the  lstat(2)  and  stat(2)

       You may also be able to supply device numbers using the  +m  and  +m  m
       options, provided they are supported by your dialect.  Check the output
       of lsof's -h or -?  options to see if the  +m  and  +m  m  options  are
       available.

       The  ``xxxx'' portion of the field is the hexadecimal value of the file
       system's device number.  (Consult the st_dev field of the output of the
       lstat(2) and stat(2) functions for the appropriate values for your file
       systems.)  Here's an example from a Sun Solaris 2.6 /etc/mnttab  for  a
       file system remotely mounted via NFS:

            nfs  ignore,noquota,dev=2a40001

       There's an advantage to having ``dev=xxxx'' entries in your mount table
       file, especially for file systems that  are  mounted  from  remote  NFS
       servers.   When  a  remote  server crashes and you want to identify its
       users by running lsof on one of its clients,  lsof  probably  won't  be
       able to get output from the lstat(2) and stat(2) functions for the file
       system.  If it can obtain the file  system's  device  number  from  the
       mount  table,  it will be able to display the files open on the crashed
       NFS server.

       Some dialects that do not use an ASCII /etc/mtab  or  /etc/mnttab  file
       for  the  mount table may still provide an alternative device number in
       their internal mount tables.  This includes AIX, Apple Darwin, FreeBSD,
       NetBSD, OpenBSD, and Tru64 UNIX.  Lsof knows how to obtain the alterna-
       tive device number for these dialects and uses it when its  attempt  to
       lstat(2) or stat(2) the file system is blocked.

       If  you're  not sure your dialect supplies alternate device numbers for
       file systems from its mount table, use this lsof incantation to see  if
       it reports any alternate device numbers:

              lsof -b

       Look  for  standard  error  file warning messages that begin ``assuming
       "dev=xxxx" from ...''.

KERNEL NAME CACHE
       Lsof is able to examine the kernel's name cache  or  use  other  kernel
       facilities  (e.g.,  the  ADVFS  4.x  tag_to_path() function under Tru64
       UNIX) on some dialects for most file system types, excluding  AFS,  and
       extract  recently  used path name components from it.  (AFS file system
       path lookups don't use the kernel's name cache; some Solaris VxFS  file
       system operations apparently don't use it, either.)

       Lsof  reports  the complete paths it finds in the NAME column.  If lsof
       can't report all components in a path, it reports in  the  NAME  column
       the  file system name, followed by a space, two `-' characters, another
       space, and the name components it has located,  separated  by  the  `/'
       character.

       When  lsof is run in repeat mode - i.e., with the -r option specified -
       location.)  has more information on this situation.

       Lsof can report path name components for these dialects:

            FreeBSD
            HP-UX
            Linux
            NetBSD
            NEXTSTEP
            OpenBSD
            OPENSTEP
            SCO OpenServer
            SCO|Caldera UnixWare
            Solaris
            Tru64 UNIX

       Lsof can't report path name components for these dialects:

            AIX

       If you want to know why lsof can't report path name components for some
       dialects, see the lsof FAQ (The FAQ section gives its location.)

DEVICE CACHE FILE
       Examining  all members of the /dev (or /devices) node tree with stat(2)
       functions can be time consuming.  What's  more,  the  information  that
       lsof needs - device number, inode number, and path - rarely changes.

       Consequently, lsof normally maintains an ASCII text file of cached /dev
       (or /devices) information (exception: the /proc-based Linux lsof  where
       it's  not  needed.)  The local system administrator who builds lsof can
       control the way the device cache file path is  formed,  selecting  from
       these options:

            Path from the -D option;
            Path from an environment variable;
            System-wide path;
            Personal path (the default);
            Personal path, modified by an environment variable.

       Consult the output of the -h, -D? , or -?  help options for the current
       state of device cache support.   The  help  output  lists  the  default
       read-mode  device  cache  file  path  that is in effect for the current
       invocation of lsof.  The -D?  option output  lists  the  read-only  and
       write  device cache file paths, the names of any applicable environment
       variables, and the personal device cache path format.

       Lsof can detect that the current device cache file  has  been  acciden-
       tally or maliciously modified by integrity checks, including the compu-
       tation and verification of a sixteen bit Cyclic Redundancy Check  (CRC)
       sum  on the file's contents.  When lsof senses something wrong with the
       file, it issues a warning and attempts to remove the current cache file
       and  create a new copy, but only to a path that the process can legiti-
       mately write.
       need  to  be  recreated.   Since  lsof compares the mtime of the device
       cache file with the mtime and ctime of the /dev  (or  /devices)  direc-
       tory, it usually detects that a new device has been added; in that case
       lsof issues a warning message and attempts to rebuild the device  cache
       file.

       Whenever  lsof writes a device cache file, it sets its ownership to the
       real UID of the executing process, and its permission  modes  to  0600,
       this restricting its reading and writing to the file's owner.

LSOF PERMISSIONS THAT AFFECT DEVICE CACHE FILE ACCESS
       Two  permissions  of  the  lsof executable affect its ability to access
       device cache files.  The permissions are set by the local system admin-
       istrator when lsof is installed.

       The  first  and  rarer permission is setuid-root.  It comes into effect
       when lsof is executed; its effective UID is then root, while  its  real
       (i.e.,  that  of the logged-on user) UID is not.  The lsof distribution
       recommends that versions for these dialects run setuid-root.

            HP-UX 11.11 and 11.23
            Linux

       The second and more common permission is setgid.  It comes into  effect
       when  the  effective  group  IDentification  number  (GID)  of the lsof
       process is set to one that can access kernel  memory  devices  -  e.g.,
       ``kmem'', ``sys'', or ``system''.

       An  lsof process that has setgid permission usually surrenders the per-
       mission after it has accessed the kernel memory devices.  When it  does
       that,  lsof  can  allow more liberal device cache path formations.  The
       lsof distribution recommends that versions for these dialects run  set-
       gid and be allowed to surrender setgid permission.

            AIX 5.[12] and 5.3-ML1
            Apple Darwin 7.x Power Macintosh systems
            FreeBSD 4.x, 4.1x, 5.x and [67].x for x86-based systems
            FreeBSD 5.x and [67].x for Alpha, AMD64 and Sparc64-based
                systems
            HP-UX 11.00
            NetBSD 1.[456], 2.x and 3.x for Alpha, x86, and SPARC-based
                systems
            NEXTSTEP 3.[13] for NEXTSTEP architectures
            OpenBSD 2.[89] and 3.[0-9] for x86-based systems
            OPENSTEP 4.x
            SCO OpenServer Release 5.0.6 for x86-based systems
            SCO|Caldera UnixWare 7.1.4 for x86-based systems
            Solaris 2.6, 8, 9 and 10
            Tru64 UNIX 5.1

       (Note: lsof for AIX 5L and above needs setuid-root permission if its -X
       option is used.)

       Lsof for these dialects does not support a device cache, so the permis-
       r, and u functions are restricted  under  some  conditions.   They  are
       restricted  when  the  lsof process is setuid-root.  The path specified
       with the r function is always read-only, even when it is available.

       The b, r, and u functions are also restricted  when  the  lsof  process
       runs setgid and lsof doesn't surrender the setgid permission.  (See the
       LSOF PERMISSIONS THAT AFFECT DEVICE CACHE FILE  ACCESS  section  for  a
       list of implementations that normally don't surrender their setgid per-
       mission.)

       A further -D function, i (for ignore), is always available.

       When available, the b function tells lsof to  read  device  information
       from the kernel with the stat(2) function and build a device cache file
       at the indicated path.

       When available, the r function tells lsof  to  read  the  device  cache
       file,  but  not  update  it.   When a path argument accompanies -Dr, it
       names the device cache file path.  The r function is  always  available
       when it is specified without a path name argument.  If lsof is not run-
       ning setuid-root and surrenders its  setgid  permission,  a  path  name
       argument may accompany the r function.

       When  available,  the  u function tells lsof to attempt to read and use
       the device cache file.  If it can't read the file, or if it  finds  the
       contents  of  the  file incorrect or outdated, it will read information
       from the kernel, and attempt to write an updated version of the  device
       cache  file,  but  only  to a path it considers legitimate for the lsof
       process effective and real UIDs.

DEVICE CACHE PATH FROM AN ENVIRONMENT VARIABLE
       Lsof's second choice for the device cache file is the contents  of  the
       LSOFDEVCACHE  environment  variable.  It avoids this choice if the lsof
       process is setuid-root, or the real UID of the process is root.

       A further restriction applies to a device cache file  path  taken  from
       the  LSOFDEVCACHE  environment  variable:  lsof will not write a device
       cache file to the path if the lsof process doesn't surrender its setgid
       permission.   (See  the  LSOF PERMISSIONS THAT AFFECT DEVICE CACHE FILE
       ACCESS section for information on implementations that don't  surrender
       their setgid permission.)

       The  local system administrator can disable the use of the LSOFDEVCACHE
       environment variable or change its name when  building  lsof.   Consult
       the output of -D?  for the environment variable's name.

SYSTEM-WIDE DEVICE CACHE PATH
       The  local system administrator may choose to have a system-wide device
       cache file when building lsof.  That file will generally be constructed
       by  a special system administration procedure when the system is booted
       or when the contents of /dev or /devices) changes.  If defined,  it  is
       lsof's third device cache file path choice.

       You can tell that a system-wide device cache file is in effect for your
       Added  to  the  home  directory  is a second path component of the form
       .lsof_hostname.

       This is lsof's fourth device cache file path choice, and is usually the
       default.  If a system-wide device cache file path was defined when lsof
       was built, this fourth choice will be applied when lsof can't find  the
       system-wide  device  cache  file.   This is the only time lsof uses two
       paths when reading the device cache file.

       The hostname part of the second component is the base name of the  exe-
       cuting  host,  as returned by gethostname(2).  The base name is defined
       to be the characters preceding the first  `.'   in  the  gethostname(2)
       output, or all the gethostname(2) output if it contains no `.'.

       The  device  cache  file  belongs  to  the  user ID and is readable and
       writable by the user ID alone - i.e., its modes are  0600.   Each  dis-
       tinct  real  user  ID on a given host that executes lsof has a distinct
       device cache file.  The hostname part of the path distinguishes  device
       cache  files  in  an NFS-mounted home directory into which device cache
       files are written from several different hosts.

       The personal device cache file path formed by this method represents  a
       device  cache  file that lsof will attempt to read, and will attempt to
       write should it not exist or should its contents be incorrect  or  out-
       dated.

       The -Dr option without a path name argument will inhibit the writing of
       a new device cache file.

       The -D?  option will list the format specification for constructing the
       personal  device cache file.  The conversions used in the format speci-
       fication are described in the 00DCACHE file of the lsof distribution.

MODIFIED PERSONAL DEVICE CACHE PATH
       If this option is defined by the local system administrator  when  lsof
       is  built, the LSOFPERSDCPATH environment variable contents may be used
       to add a component of the personal device cache file path.

       The LSOFPERSDCPATH variable contents are inserted in the  path  at  the
       place  marked by the local system administrator with the ``%p'' conver-
       sion in the HASPERSDC format specification of the  dialect's  machine.h
       header  file.   (It's  placed  right  after  the  home directory in the
       default lsof distribution.)

       Thus, for example, if LSOFPERSDCPATH contains ``LSOF'', the home direc-
       tory  is ``/Homes/abe'', the host name is ``lsof.itap.purdue.edu'', and
       the HASPERSDC format is the default (``%h/%p.lsof_%L''),  the  modified
       personal device cache file path is:

            /Homes/abe/LSOF/.lsof_vic

       The  LSOFPERSDCPATH  environment  variable  is  ignored  when  the lsof
       process is setuid-root or when the real UID of the process is root.

       built; change the name of the environment variable from  LSOFPERSDCPATH
       to  something else; change the HASPERSDC format to include the personal
       path component in another place; or exclude the personal path component
       entirely.   Consult  the  output of the -D?  option for the environment
       variable's name and the HASPERSDC format specification.

DIAGNOSTICS
       Errors are identified with messages on the standard error file.

       Lsof returns a one (1) if any error was detected, including the failure
       to locate command names, file names, Internet addresses or files, login
       names, NFS files, PIDs, PGIDs, or UIDs it was asked to list.  If the -V
       option  is  specified, lsof will indicate the search items it failed to
       list.

       It returns a zero (0) if no errors were detected and if it was able  to
       list some information about all the specified search arguments.

       When lsof cannot open access to /dev (or /devices) or one of its subdi-
       rectories, or get information on a file in them with stat(2), it issues
       a warning message and continues.  That lsof will issue warning messages
       about inaccessible files in /dev (or /devices) is indicated in its help
       output - requested with the -h or >B -?  options -  with the message:

            Inaccessible /dev warnings are enabled.

       The  warning message may be suppressed with the -w option.  It may also
       have been suppressed by the system administrator when lsof was compiled
       by the setting of the WARNDEVACCESS definition.  In this case, the out-
       put from the help options will include the message:

            Inaccessible /dev warnings are disabled.

       Inaccessible device warning messages usually disappear after  lsof  has
       created a working device cache file.

EXAMPLES
       For  a  more  extensive set of examples, documented more fully, see the
       00QUICKSTART file of the lsof distribution.

       To list all open files, use:

              lsof

       To list all open Internet, x.25 (HP-UX), and UNIX domain files, use:

              lsof -i -U

       To list all open IPv4 network files in use by the process whose PID  is
       1234, use:

              lsof -i 4 -a -p 1234

       Presuming  the  UNIX dialect supports IPv6, to list only open IPv6 net-
              lsof -i @mace

       To list all open files for login name ``abe'',  or  user  ID  1234,  or
       process 456, or process 123, or process 789, use:

              lsof -p 456,123,789 -u 1234,abe

       To list all open files on device /dev/hd4, use:

              lsof /dev/hd4

       To find the process that has /u/abe/foo open, use:

              lsof /u/abe/foo

       To send a SIGHUP to the processes that have /u/abe/bar open, use:

              kill -HUP `lsof -t /u/abe/bar`

       To  find any open file, including an open UNIX domain socket file, with
       the name /dev/log, use:

              lsof /dev/log

       To find processes  with  open  files  on  the  NFS  file  system  named
       /nfs/mount/point whose server is inaccessible, and presuming your mount
       table supplies the device number for /nfs/mount/point, use:

              lsof -b /nfs/mount/point

       To do the preceding search with warning messages suppressed, use:

              lsof -bw /nfs/mount/point

       To ignore the device cache file, use:

              lsof -Di

       To obtain PID and command name field  output  for  each  process,  file
       descriptor,  file device number, and file inode number for each file of
       each process, use:

              lsof -FpcfDi

       To list the files at descriptors 1 and 3 of every process  running  the
       lsof command for login ID ``abe'' every 10 seconds, use:

              lsof -c lsof -a -d 1 -d 3 -u abe -r10

       To  list  the  current working directory of processes running a command
       that is exactly four characters long and has an 'o' or 'O' in character
       three, use this regular expression form of the -c c option:

              lsof -c /^..o.$/i -a -d cwd

       IPv6) by an associated numeric colon-form address that  has  a  run  of
       zeroes in it - e.g., the loop-back address - use:

              lsof -i@[::1]

       To  obtain  a  repeat  mode marker line that contains the current time,
       use:

              lsof -rm====%T====

       To add spaces to the previous marker line, use:

              lsof -r "m==== %T ===="

BUGS
       Since lsof reads kernel memory in its  search  for  open  files,  rapid
       changes in kernel memory may produce unpredictable results.

       When  a file has multiple record locks, the lock status character (fol-
       lowing the file descriptor) is derived from a test of  the  first  lock
       structure, not from any combination of the individual record locks that
       might be described by multiple lock structures.

       Lsof can't search for files with restrictive access permissions by name
       unless  it  is installed with root set-UID permission.  Otherwise it is
       limited to searching for files to which its user or its  set-GID  group
       (if any) has access permission.

       The display of the destination address of a raw socket (e.g., for ping)
       depends on the UNIX operating system.  Some dialects store the destina-
       tion address in the raw socket's protocol control block, some do not.

       Lsof can't always represent Solaris device numbers in the same way that
       ls(1) does.  For example, the major and minor device numbers  that  the
       lstat(2) and stat(2) functions report for the directory on which CD-ROM
       files are mounted (typically /cdrom) are not the same as the ones  that
       it  reports for the device on which CD-ROM files are mounted (typically
       /dev/sr0).  (Lsof reports the directory numbers.)

       The support for /proc file systems is available only for BSD and  Tru64
       UNIX  dialects,  Linux, and dialects derived from SYSV R4 - e.g., Free-
       BSD, NetBSD, OpenBSD, Solaris, UnixWare.

       Some /proc file items - device number, inode number, and  file  size  -
       are  unavailable in some dialects.  Searching for files in a /proc file
       system may require that the full path name be specified.

       No text (txt) file descriptors are displayed for Linux processes.   All
       entries  for  files  other than the current working directory, the root
       directory, and numerical file descriptors are labeled mem descriptors.

       Lsof can't search for Tru64 UNIX named pipes  by  name,  because  their
       kernel implementation of lstat(2) returns an improper device number for
       a named pipe.
       because it doesn't read kernel structures from kernel memory.

ENVIRONMENT
       Lsof may access these environment variables.

       LANG              defines  a language locale.  See setlocale(3) for the
                         names of other variables that can be used in place of
                         LANG - e.g., LC_ALL, LC_TYPE, etc.

       LSOFDEVCACHE      defines  the  path  to  a device cache file.  See the
                         DEVICE CACHE PATH FROM AN ENVIRONMENT  VARIABLE  sec-
                         tion for more information.

       LSOFPERSDCPATH    defines  the  middle component of a modified personal
                         device cache file path.  See  the  MODIFIED  PERSONAL
                         DEVICE CACHE PATH section for more information.

FAQ
       Frequently-asked  questions and their answers (an FAQ) are available in
       the 00FAQ file of the lsof distribution.

       That file is also available via anonymous ftp from lsof.itap.purdue.edu
       at pub/tools/unix/lsofFAQ.  The URL is:

              ftp://lsof.itap.purdue.edu/pub/tools/unix/lsof/FAQ

FILES
       /dev/kmem         kernel virtual memory device

       /dev/mem          physical memory device

       /dev/swap         system paging device

       .lsof_hostname    lsof's  device  cache  file (The suffix, hostname, is
                         the first component of the host's  name  returned  by
                         gethostname(2).)

AUTHORS
       Lsof  was written by Victor A. Abell <abe@purdue.edu> of Purdue Univer-
       sity.  Many others have contributed to lsof.   They're  listed  in  the
       00CREDITS file of the lsof distribution.

DISTRIBUTION
       The latest distribution of lsof is available via anonymous ftp from the
       host lsof.itap.purdue.edu.  You'll find the lsof  distribution  in  the
       pub/tools/unix/lsof directory.

       You can also use this URL:

              ftp://lsof.itap.purdue.edu/pub/tools/unix/lsof

       Lsof  is also mirrored elsewhere.  When you access lsof.itap.purdue.edu
       and change to its pub/tools/unix/lsof directory, you'll be given a list
       of  some mirror sites.  The pub/tools/unix/lsof directory also contains
       and build it, please read README.lsof_<version> and the other 00* files
       of the distribution before sending questions to the author.

SEE ALSO
       Not  all  the following manual pages may exist in every UNIX dialect to
       which lsof has been ported.

       access(2), awk(1), crash(1), fattach(3C),  ff(1),  fstat(8),  fuser(1),
       gethostname(2),   isprint(3),  kill(1),  localtime(3),  lstat(2),  mod-
       load(8), mount(8), netstat(1), ofiles(8L), perl(1), ps(1), readlink(2),
       setlocale(3), stat(2), strftime(3), time(2), uname(1).



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