man [section] title
This page describes the conventions that should be employed when writ-
ing man pages for the Linux man-pages project, which documents the
user-space API provided by the Linux kernel and the GNU C library. The
project thus provides most of the pages in Section 2, as well as many
of the pages that appear in Sections 3, 4, 5, and 7 of the man pages on
a Linux system. The conventions described on this page may also be
useful for authors writing man pages for other projects.
Sections of the manual pages
The manual Sections are traditionally defined as follows:
1 Commands (Programs)
Those commands that can be executed by the user from within a
2 System calls
Those functions which must be performed by the kernel.
3 Library calls
Most of the libc functions.
4 Special files (devices)
Files found in /dev.
5 File formats and conventions
The format for /etc/passwd and other human-readable files.
7 Overview, conventions, and miscellaneous
Overviews of various topics, conventions and protocols, char-
acter set standards, and miscellaneous other things.
8 System management commands
Commands like mount(8), many of which only root can execute.
New manual pages should be marked up using the groff an.tmac package
described in man(7). This choice is mainly for consistency: the vast
majority of existing Linux manual pages are marked up using these
Conventions for source file layout
Please limit source code line length to no more than about 75 charac-
ters wherever possible. This helps avoid line-wrapping in some mail
clients when patches are submitted inline.
New sentences should be started on new lines. This makes it easier to
see the effect of patches, which often operate at the level of individ-
section The section number in which the man page should be
placed (e.g., 7).
date The date of the last revision--remember to change this
every time a change is made to the man page, since
this is the most general way of doing version control.
Dates should be written in the form YYYY-MM-DD.
source The source of the command, function, or system call.
For those few man-pages pages in Sections 1 and 8,
probably you just want to write GNU.
For system calls, just write Linux. (An earlier prac-
tice was to write the version number of the kernel
from which the manual page was being written/checked.
However, this was never done consistently, and so was
probably worse than including no version number.
Henceforth, avoid including a version number.)
For library calls that are part of glibc or one of the
other common GNU libraries, just use GNU C Library,
GNU, or an empty string.
For Section 4 pages, use Linux.
In cases of doubt, just write Linux, or GNU.
manual The title of the manual (e.g., for Section 2 and 3
pages in the man-pages package, use Linux Programmer's
Sections within a manual page
The list below shows conventional or suggested sections. Most manual
pages should include at least the highlighted sections. Arrange a new
manual page so that sections are placed in the order shown in the list.
CONFIGURATION [Normally only in Section 4]
OPTIONS [Normally only in Sections 1, 8]
EXIT STATUS [Normally only in Sections 1, 8]
RETURN VALUE [Normally only in Sections 2, 3]
ERRORS [Typically only in Sections 2, 3]
ATTRIBUTES [Normally only in Sections 2, 3]
VERSIONS [Normally only in Sections 2, 3]
NAME The name of this manual page. See man(7) for important
details of the line(s) that should follow the .SH NAME
command. All words in this line (including the word
immediately following the "\-") should be in lowercase,
except where English or technical terminological conven-
tion dictates otherwise.
SYNOPSIS briefly describes the command or function's interface.
For commands, this shows the syntax of the command and
its arguments (including options); boldface is used for
as-is text and italics are used to indicate replaceable
arguments. Brackets () surround optional arguments,
vertical bars (|) separate choices, and ellipses (...)
can be repeated. For functions, it shows any required
data declarations or #include directives, followed by the
Where a feature test macro must be defined in order to
obtain the declaration of a function (or a variable) from
a header file, then the SYNOPSIS should indicate this, as
described in feature_test_macros(7).
CONFIGURATION Configuration details for a device. This section nor-
mally appears only in Section 4 pages.
DESCRIPTION gives an explanation of what the program, function, or
format does. Discuss how it interacts with files and
standard input, and what it produces on standard output
or standard error. Omit internals and implementation
details unless they're critical for understanding the
interface. Describe the usual case; for information on
command-line options of a program use the OPTIONS sec-
When describing new behavior or new flags for a system
call or library function, be careful to note the kernel
or C library version that introduced the change. The
preferred method of noting this information for flags is
as part of a .TP list, in the following form (here, for a
new system call flag):
XYZ_FLAG (since Linux 3.7)
Description of flag...
Including version information is especially useful to
users who are constrained to using older kernel or C
library versions (which is typical in embedded systems,
OPTIONS describes the command-line options accepted by a program
and how they change its behavior. This section should
appear only for Section 1 and 8 manual pages.
EXIT STATUS lists the possible exit status values of a program and
errors. The error list should be in alphabetical order.
ENVIRONMENT lists all environment variables that affect the program
or function and how they affect it.
FILES lists the files the program or function uses, such as
configuration files, startup files, and files the program
directly operates on. Give the full pathname of these
files, and use the installation process to modify the
directory part to match user preferences. For many pro-
grams, the default installation location is in
/usr/local, so your base manual page should use
/usr/local as the base.
ATTRIBUTES A summary of various attributes of the function(s) docu-
mented on this page, broken into subsections. The fol-
lowing subsections are defined:
Multithreading (see pthreads(7))
This subsection notes attributes relating to mul-
* Whether the function is thread-safe.
* Whether the function is a cancellation point.
* Whether the function is async-cancel-safe.
Details of these attributes can be found in
VERSIONS A brief summary of the Linux kernel or glibc versions
where a system call or library function appeared, or
changed significantly in its operation. As a general
rule, every new interface should include a VERSIONS sec-
tion in its manual page. Unfortunately, many existing
manual pages don't include this information (since there
was no policy to do so when they were written). Patches
to remedy this are welcome, but, from the perspective of
programmers writing new code, this information probably
matters only in the case of kernel interfaces that have
been added in Linux 2.4 or later (i.e., changes since
kernel 2.2), and library functions that have been added
to glibc since version 2.1 (i.e., changes since glibc
The syscalls(2) manual page also provides information
about kernel versions in which various system calls first
CONFORMING TO describes any standards or conventions that relate to the
function or command described by the manual page. For a
page in Section 2 or 3, this section should note the
(which it commonly does), terminate the list with a
NOTES provides miscellaneous notes. For Section 2 and 3 man
pages you may find it useful to include subsections (SS)
named Linux Notes and Glibc Notes.
BUGS lists limitations, known defects or inconveniences, and
other questionable activities.
EXAMPLE provides one or more examples describing how this func-
tion, file or command is used. For details on writing
example programs, see Example Programs below.
AUTHORS lists authors of the documentation or program. Use of an
AUTHORS section is strongly discouraged. Generally, it
is better not to clutter every page with a list of (over
time potentially numerous) authors; if you write or sig-
nificantly amend a page, add a copyright notice as a com-
ment in the source file. If you are the author of a
device driver and want to include an address for report-
ing bugs, place this under the BUGS section.
SEE ALSO provides a comma-separated list of related man pages,
ordered by section number and then alphabetically by
name, possibly followed by other related pages or docu-
ments. Do not terminate this with a period.
Where the SEE ALSO list contains many long manual page
names, to improve the visual result of the output, it may
be useful to employ the .ad l (don't right justify) and
.nh (don't hyphenate) directives. Hyphenation of indi-
vidual page names can be prevented by preceding words
with the string "\%".
For functions, the arguments are always specified using italics, even
in the SYNOPSIS section, where the rest of the function is specified in
int myfunction(int argc, char **argv);
Variable names should, like argument names, be specified in italics.
Filenames (whether pathnames, or references to files in the
/usr/include directory) are always in italics (e.g., <stdio.h>), except
in the SYNOPSIS section, where included files are in bold (e.g.,
#include <stdio.h>). When referring to a standard include file under
/usr/include, specify the header file surrounded by angle brackets, in
the usual C way (e.g., <stdio.h>).
Special macros, which are usually in upper case, are in bold (e.g.,
MAXINT). Exception: don't boldface NULL.
Expressions, if not written on a separate indented line, should be
specified in italics. Again, the use of nonbreaking spaces may be
appropriate if the expression is inlined with normal text.
Any reference to the subject of the current manual page should be writ-
ten with the name in bold. If the subject is a function (i.e., this is
a Section 2 or 3 page), then the name should be followed by a pair of
parentheses in Roman (normal) font. For example, in the fcntl(2) man
page, references to the subject of the page would be written as:
fcntl(). The preferred way to write this in the source file is:
.BR fcntl ()
(Using this format, rather than the use of "\fB...\fP()" makes it eas-
ier to write tools that parse man page source files.)
Any reference to another man page should be written with the name in
bold, always followed by the section number, formatted in Roman (nor-
mal) font, without any separating spaces (e.g., intro(2)). The pre-
ferred way to write this in the source file is:
.BR intro (2)
(Including the section number in cross references lets tools like
man2html(1) create properly hyperlinked pages.)
Starting with release 2.59, man-pages follows American spelling conven-
tions; please write all new pages and patches according to these con-
In subsection ("SS") headings capitalize the first word in heading, but
otherwise use lower case, except where English usage (e.g., proper
nouns) or programming language requirements (e.g., identifier names)
Example programs and shell sessions
Manual pages can include example programs demonstrating how to use a
system call or library function. However, note the following:
* Example programs should be written in C.
* An example program is necessary and useful only if it demonstrates
something beyond what can easily be provided in a textual descrip-
tion of the interface. An example program that does nothing other
than call an interface usually serves little purpose.
* Example programs should be fairly short (preferably less than 100
lines; ideally less than 50 lines).
* Example programs should do error checking after system calls and
library function calls.
For some examples of what example programs should look like, see
wait(2) and pipe(2).
If you include a shell session demonstrating the use of a program or
other system feature, boldface the user input text, to distinguish it
from output produced by the system.
Indentation of structure definitions, shell session logs, etc.
When structure definitions, shell session logs, and so on are included
in running text, indent them by 4 spaces (i.e., a block enclosed by
.in +4n and .in).
For canonical examples of how man pages in the man-pages package should
look, see pipe(2) and fcntl(2).
man(1), man2html(1), groff(7), groff_man(7), man(7), mdoc(7)
This page is part of release 3.54 of the Linux man-pages project. A
description of the project, and information about reporting bugs, can
be found at http://www.kernel.org/doc/man-pages/.
Linux 2013-07-24 MAN-PAGES(7)
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