MAN(7) Linux Programmer's Manual MAN(7)
man - macros to format man pages
groff -Tascii -man file ...
groff -Tps -man file ...
man [section] title
This manual page explains the groff an.tmac macro package (often called
the man macro package). This macro package should be used by develop-
ers when writing or porting man pages for Linux. It is fairly compati-
ble with other versions of this macro package, so porting man pages
should not be a major problem (exceptions include the NET-2 BSD
release, which uses a totally different macro package called mdoc; see
Note that NET-2 BSD mdoc man pages can be used with groff simply by
specifying the -mdoc option instead of the -man option. Using the
-mandoc option is, however, recommended, since this will automatically
detect which macro package is in use.
For conventions that should be employed when writing man pages for the
Linux man-pages package, see man-pages(7).
The first command in a man page (after comment lines, that is, lines
that start with .\") should be
.TH title section date source manual
For details of the arguments that should be supplied to the TH command,
Note that BSD mdoc-formatted pages begin with the Dd command, not the
Sections are started with .SH followed by the heading name.
The only mandatory heading is NAME, which should be the first section
and be followed on the next line by a one-line description of the pro-
item \- description
It is extremely important that this format is followed, and that there
is a backslash before the single dash which follows the item name.
This syntax is used by the mandb(8) program to create a database of
short descriptions for the whatis(1) and apropos(1) commands. (See
lexgrog(1) for further details on the syntax of the NAME section.)
For a list of other sections that might appear in a manual page, see
The commands to select the type face are:
.BI Bold alternating with italics (especially useful for function spec-
.BR Bold alternating with Roman (especially useful for referring to
other manual pages)
.IB Italics alternating with bold
.IR Italics alternating with Roman
.RB Roman alternating with bold
.RI Roman alternating with italics
.SB Small alternating with bold
.SM Small (useful for acronyms)
Traditionally, each command can have up to six arguments, but the GNU
implementation removes this limitation (you might still want to limit
yourself to 6 arguments for portability's sake). Arguments are delim-
ited by spaces. Double quotes can be used to specify an argument which
contains spaces. All of the arguments will be printed next to each
other without intervening spaces, so that the .BR command can be used
to specify a word in bold followed by a mark of punctuation in Roman.
If no arguments are given, the command is applied to the following line
Other macros and strings
Below are other relevant macros and predefined strings. Unless noted
otherwise, all macros cause a break (end the current line of text).
Many of these macros set or use the "prevailing indent." The "prevail-
ing indent" value is set by any macro with the parameter i below;
macros may omit i in which case the current prevailing indent will be
used. As a result, successive indented paragraphs can use the same
indent without respecifying the indent value. A normal (nonindented)
paragraph resets the prevailing indent value to its default value (0.5
inches). By default, a given indent is measured in ens; try to use ens
or ems as units for indents, since these will automatically adjust to
font size changes. The other key macro definitions are:
.LP Same as .PP (begin a new paragraph).
.P Same as .PP (begin a new paragraph).
.PP Begin a new paragraph and reset prevailing indent.
Relative margin indent
.RS i Start relative margin indent: moves the left margin i to the
right (if i is omitted, the prevailing indent value is used).
A new prevailing indent is set to 0.5 inches. As a result,
all following paragraph(s) will be indented until the corre-
.RE End relative margin indent and restores the previous value of
the prevailing indent.
Indented paragraph macros
.HP i Begin paragraph with a hanging indent (the first line of the
paragraph is at the left margin of normal paragraphs, and the
rest of the paragraph's lines are indented).
.IP x i Indented paragraph with optional hanging tag. If the tag x is
omitted, the entire following paragraph is indented by i. If
the tag x is provided, it is hung at the left margin before
the following indented paragraph (this is just like .TP except
the tag is included with the command instead of being on the
following line). If the tag is too long, the text after the
tag will be moved down to the next line (text will not be lost
or garbled). For bulleted lists, use this macro with \(bu
(bullet) or \(em (em dash) as the tag, and for numbered lists,
use the number or letter followed by a period as the tag; this
simplifies translation to other formats.
.TP i Begin paragraph with hanging tag. The tag is given on the
next line, but its results are like those of the .IP command.
Hypertext link macros
Insert a hypertext link to the URI (URL) url, with all text up
to the following .UE macro as the link text.
.UE [trailer] Terminate the link text of the preceding .UR macro,
with the optional trailer (if present, usually a closing paren-
thesis and/or end-of-sentence punctuation) immediately follow-
ing. For non-HTML output devices (e.g., man -Tutf8), the link
text is followed by the URL in angle brackets; if there is no
link text, the URL is printed as its own link text, surrounded
by angle brackets. (Angle brackets may not be available on all
output devices.) For the HTML output device, the link text is
hyperlinked to the URL; if there is no link text, the URL is
printed as its own link text.
These macros have been supported since GNU Troff 1.20 (2009-01-05) and
Heirloom Doctools Troff since 160217 (2016-02-17).
.DT Reset tabs to default tab values (every 0.5 inches); does not
cause a break.
.PD d Set inter-paragraph vertical distance to d (if omitted,
d=0.4v); does not cause a break.
.SS t Subheading t (like .SH, but used for a subsection inside a
The man package has the following predefined strings:
\*R Registration Symbol: (R)
\*S Change to default font size
\*(Tm Trademark Symbol: tm
\*(lq Left angled double quote: "
\*(rq Right angled double quote: "
Although technically man is a troff macro package, in reality a large
number of other tools process man page files that don't implement all
of troff's abilities. Thus, it's best to avoid some of troff's more
exotic abilities where possible to permit these other tools to work
correctly. Avoid using the various troff preprocessors (if you must,
go ahead and use tbl(1), but try to use the IP and TP commands instead
for two-column tables). Avoid using computations; most other tools
can't process them. Use simple commands that are easy to translate to
other formats. The following troff macros are believed to be safe
(though in many cases they will be ignored by translators): \", ., ad,
bp, br, ce, de, ds, el, ie, if, fi, ft, hy, ig, in, na, ne, nf, nh, ps,
so, sp, ti, tr.
You may also use many troff escape sequences (those sequences beginning
with \). When you need to include the backslash character as normal
text, use \e. Other sequences you may use, where x or xx are any char-
acters and N is any digit, include: \', \`, \-, \., \", \%, \*x, \*(xx,
\(xx, \$N, \nx, \n(xx, \fx, and \f(xx. Avoid using the escape
sequences for drawing graphics.
Do not use the optional parameter for bp (break page). Use only posi-
tive values for sp (vertical space). Don't define a macro (de) with
the same name as a macro in this or the mdoc macro package with a dif-
ferent meaning; it's likely that such redefinitions will be ignored.
Every positive indent (in) should be paired with a matching negative
indent (although you should be using the RS and RE macros instead).
The condition test (if,ie) should only have 't' or 'n' as the condi-
tion. Only translations (tr) that can be ignored should be used. Font
changes (ft and the \f escape sequence) should only have the values 1,
2, 3, 4, R, I, B, P, or CW (the ft command may also have no parame-
If you use capabilities beyond these, check the results carefully on
several tools. Once you've confirmed that the additional capability is
safe, let the maintainer of this document know about the safe command
or sequence that should be added to this list.
By all means include full URLs (or URIs) in the text itself; some tools
such as man2html(1) can automatically turn them into hypertext links.
You can also use the UR and UE macros to identify links to related
information. If you include URLs, use the full URL (e.g.,
<http://www.kernel.org>) to ensure that tools can automatically find
Tools processing these files should open the file and examine the first
nonwhitespace character. A period (.) or single quote (') at the
beginning of a line indicates a troff-based file (such as man or mdoc).
A left angle bracket (<) indicates an SGML/XML-based file (such as HTML
or Docbook). Anything else suggests simple ASCII text (e.g., a "cat-
Many man pages begin with '\" followed by a space and a list of charac-
ters, indicating how the page is to be preprocessed. For portability's
sake to non-troff translators we recommend that you avoid using any-
thing other than tbl(1), and Linux can detect that automatically. How-
ever, you might want to include this information so your man page can
be handled by other (less capable) systems. Here are the definitions
of the preprocessors invoked by these characters:
Most of the macros describe formatting (e.g., font type and spacing)
instead of marking semantic content (e.g., this text is a reference to
another page), compared to formats like mdoc and DocBook (even HTML has
more semantic markings). This situation makes it harder to vary the
man format for different media, to make the formatting consistent for a
given media, and to automatically insert cross-references. By sticking
to the safe subset described above, it should be easier to automate
transitioning to a different reference page format in the future.
The Sun macro TX is not implemented.
apropos(1), groff(1), lexgrog(1), man(1), man2html(1), groff_mdoc(7),
whatis(1), groff_man(7), groff_www(7), man-pages(7), mdoc(7)
This page is part of release 4.15 of the Linux man-pages project. A
description of the project, information about reporting bugs, and the
latest version of this page, can be found at
Linux 2017-09-15 MAN(7)
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