KERNEL-COMMAND-LINE(7)        kernel-command-line       KERNEL-COMMAND-LINE(7)

       kernel-command-line - Kernel command line parameters


       The kernel, the initial RAM disk (initrd) and basic userspace
       functionality may be configured at boot via kernel command line
       arguments. In addition, various systemd tools look at the EFI variable
       "SystemdOptions" (if available). Both sources are combined, but the
       kernel command line has higher priority. Please note that the EFI
       variable is only used by systemd tools, and is ignored by the kernel
       and other user space tools, so it is not a replacement for the kernel
       command line.

       For command line parameters understood by the kernel, please see
       kernel-parameters.html[1] and bootparam(7).

       For command line parameters understood by the initial RAM disk, please
       see dracut.cmdline(7), or the documentation of the specific initrd
       implementation of your installation.

       systemd.unit=, rd.systemd.unit=, systemd.dump_core,
       systemd.early_core_pattern=, systemd.crash_chvt, systemd.crash_shell,
       systemd.crash_reboot, systemd.confirm_spawn, systemd.service_watchdogs,
       systemd.show_status, systemd.status_unit_format=, systemd.log_target=,
       systemd.log_level=, systemd.log_location=, systemd.log_color,
       systemd.default_standard_output=, systemd.default_standard_error=,
       systemd.setenv=, systemd.machine_id=, systemd.unified_cgroup_hierarchy,
           Parameters understood by the system and service manager to control
           system behavior. For details, see systemd(1).

       systemd.mask=, systemd.wants=, systemd.debug_shell
           Additional parameters understood by systemd-debug-generator(8), to
           mask or start specific units at boot, or invoke a debug shell on
           tty9., systemd.run_success_action=, systemd.run_failure_action=
           Additional parameters understood by systemd-run-generator(8), to
           run a command line specified on the kernel command line as system
           service after booting up.

           During early boot, the generation of core dump files is disabled
           until a core dump handler (if any) takes over. This parameter
           allows specifying an absolute path where core dump files should be
           stored until a handler is installed. The path should be absolute
           and may contain specifiers, see core(5) for details.

           This parameter is understood by several system tools to control
           whether or not they should restore system state from the previous
           boot. For details, see systemd-backlight@.service(8) and systemd-

           This parameter controls whether the system shall boot up in
           volatile mode. Takes a boolean argument, or the special value
           "state". If false (the default), normal boot mode is selected, the
           root directory and /var are mounted as specified on the kernel
           command line or /etc/fstab, or otherwise configured. If true, full
           state-less boot mode is selected. In this case the root directory
           is mounted as volatile memory file system ("tmpfs"), and only /usr
           is mounted from the file system configured as root device, in
           read-only mode. This enables fully state-less boots were the
           vendor-supplied OS is used as shipped, with only default
           configuration and no stored state in effect, as /etc and /var (as
           well as all other resources shipped in the root file system) are
           reset at boot and lost on shutdown. If this setting is set to
           "state" the root file system is mounted read-only, however /var is
           mounted as a volatile memory file system ("tmpfs"), so that the
           system boots up with the normal configuration applied, but all
           state reset at boot and lost at shutdown. If this setting is set to
           "overlay" the root file system is set up as "overlayfs" mount
           combining the read-only root directory with a writable "tmpfs", so
           that no modifications are made to disk, but the file system may be
           modified nonetheless with all changes being lost at reboot. For
           details, see systemd-volatile-root.service(8) and systemd-fstab-

           Parameter understood by both the kernel and the system and service
           manager to control console log verbosity. For details, see

           Parameter understood by both the kernel and the system and service
           manager to control console log verbosity. For details, see

       -b, rd.emergency, emergency, rd.rescue, rescue, single, s, S, 1, 2, 3,
       4, 5
           Parameters understood by the system and service manager, as
           compatibility and convenience options. For details, see systemd(1).

       locale.LANG=, locale.LANGUAGE=, locale.LC_CTYPE=, locale.LC_NUMERIC=,
       locale.LC_TIME=, locale.LC_COLLATE=, locale.LC_MONETARY=,
       locale.LC_MESSAGES=, locale.LC_PAPER=, locale.LC_NAME=,
       locale.LC_ADDRESS=, locale.LC_TELEPHONE=, locale.LC_MEASUREMENT=,
           Parameters understood by the system and service manager to control
           locale and language settings. For details, see systemd(1).

           Parameters understood by the file system checker services. For
           details, see systemd-fsck@.service(8).

           Parameter understood by the file quota checker service. For
           details, see systemd-quotacheck.service(8).

       systemd.journald.forward_to_syslog=, systemd.journald.forward_to_kmsg=,
       systemd.journald.forward_to_console=, systemd.journald.forward_to_wall=
           Parameters understood by the journal service. For details, see

       vconsole.keymap=, vconsole.keymap_toggle=, vconsole.font=,
       vconsole.font_map=, vconsole.font_unimap=
           Parameters understood by the virtual console setup logic. For
           details, see vconsole.conf(5).

       udev.log_priority=, rd.udev.log_priority=, udev.children_max=,
       rd.udev.children_max=, udev.exec_delay=, rd.udev.exec_delay=,
       udev.event_timeout=, rd.udev.event_timeout=, net.ifnames=,
           Parameters understood by the device event managing daemon. For
           details, see systemd-udevd.service(8).

           May be used to disable the Plymouth boot splash. For details, see

       luks=, rd.luks=, luks.crypttab=, rd.luks.crypttab=,,, luks.uuid=, rd.luks.uuid=, luks.options=,
       rd.luks.options=, luks.key=, rd.luks.key=
           Configures the LUKS full-disk encryption logic at boot. For
           details, see systemd-cryptsetup-generator(8).

       fstab=, rd.fstab=
           Configures the /etc/fstab logic at boot. For details, see systemd-

       root=, rootfstype=, rootflags=, ro, rw
           Configures the root file system and its file system type and mount
           options, as well as whether it shall be mounted read-only or
           read-write initially. For details, see systemd-fstab-generator(8).

       mount.usr=, mount.usrfstype=, mount.usrflags=
           Configures the /usr file system (if required) and its file system
           type and mount options. For details, see systemd-fstab-

       roothash=, systemd.verity=, rd.systemd.verity=,
       systemd.verity_root_data=, systemd.verity_root_hash=
           Configures the integrity protection root hash for the root file
           system, and other related parameters. For details, see systemd-

       systemd.gpt_auto=, rd.systemd.gpt_auto=
           Configures whether GPT based partition auto-discovery shall be
           attempted. For details, see systemd-gpt-auto-generator(8).

           Overwrites the default start job timeout DefaultTimeoutStartSec= at
           boot. For details, see systemd-system.conf(5).

           Overwrites the watchdog device path WatchdogDevice=. For details,
           see systemd-system.conf(5).

           Overrides the CPU affinity mask for the service manager and the
           default for all child processes it forks. This takes precedence
           over CPUAffinity=, see systemd-system.conf(5) for details.

       modules_load=, rd.modules_load=
           Load a specific kernel module early at boot. For details, see

       resume=, resumeflags=
           Enables resume from hibernation using the specified device and
           mount options. All fstab(5)-like paths are supported. For details,
           see systemd-hibernate-resume-generator(8).

           Takes a boolean argument, defaults to on. If off, systemd-
           firstboot.service(8) will not query the user for basic system
           settings, even if the system boots up for the first time and the
           relevant settings are not initialized yet.

       systemd(1), systemd-system.conf(5), bootparam(7), dracut.cmdline(7),
       systemd-debug-generator(8), systemd-fsck@.service(8), systemd-
       quotacheck.service(8), systemd-journald.service(8), systemd-vconsole-
       setup.service(8), systemd-udevd.service(8), plymouth(8), systemd-
       cryptsetup-generator(8), systemd-veritysetup-generator(8), systemd-
       fstab-generator(8), systemd-gpt-auto-generator(8), systemd-volatile-
       root.service(8), systemd-modules-load.service(8), systemd-
       backlight@.service(8), systemd-rfkill.service(8), systemd-hibernate-
       resume-generator(8), systemd-firstboot.service(8), bootctl(1)

        1. kernel-parameters.html

systemd 245                                             KERNEL-COMMAND-LINE(7)
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