TOUPPER(3)                 Linux Programmer's Manual                TOUPPER(3)

       toupper, tolower, toupper_l, tolower_l - convert uppercase or lowercase

       #include <ctype.h>

       int toupper(int c);
       int tolower(int c);

       int toupper_l(int c, locale_t locale);
       int tolower_l(int c, locale_t locale);

   Feature Test Macro Requirements for glibc (see feature_test_macros(7)):

       toupper_l(), tolower_l():
           Since glibc 2.10:
                  _XOPEN_SOURCE >= 700
           Before glibc 2.10:

       These functions convert lowercase letters to uppercase, and vice versa.

       If c is a lowercase letter, toupper() returns its uppercase equivalent,
       if an uppercase representation exists in the  current  locale.   Other-
       wise,  it  returns c.  The toupper_l() function performs the same task,
       but uses the locale referred to by the locale handle locale.

       If c is an uppercase letter, tolower() returns  its  lowercase  equiva-
       lent, if a lowercase representation exists in the current locale.  Oth-
       erwise, it returns c.  The tolower_l() function performs the same task,
       but uses the locale referred to by the locale handle locale.

       If  c  is neither an unsigned char value nor EOF, the behavior of these
       functions is undefined.

       The behavior of toupper_l() and tolower_l() is undefined if  locale  is
       the special locale object LC_GLOBAL_LOCALE (see duplocale(3)) or is not
       a valid locale object handle.

       The value returned is that of the converted letter, or c if the conver-
       sion was not possible.

       For  an  explanation  of  the  terms  used  in  this  section,  see at-

       |Interface                | Attribute     | Value   |
       |toupper(), tolower(),    | Thread safety | MT-Safe |
       |toupper_l(), tolower_l() |               |         |
       toupper(), tolower(): C89, C99, 4.3BSD, POSIX.1-2001, POSIX.1-2008.

       toupper_l(), tolower_l(): POSIX.1-2008.

       The standards require that the argument c for these functions is either
       EOF or a value that is representable in the type unsigned char.  If the
       argument c is of type char, it must be cast to unsigned char, as in the
       following example:

           char c;
           res = toupper((unsigned char) c);

       This  is  necessary  because char may be the equivalent signed char, in
       which case a byte where the top bit is set would be sign extended  when
       converting  to  int,  yielding a value that is outside the range of un-
       signed char.

       The details of what constitutes an uppercase or lowercase letter depend
       on the locale.  For example, the default "C" locale does not know about
       umlauts, so no conversion is done for them.

       In some non-English locales, there are lowercase letters with no corre-
       sponding uppercase equivalent; the German sharp s is one example.

       isalpha(3),  newlocale(3), setlocale(3), towlower(3), towupper(3), use-
       locale(3), locale(7)

       This page is part of release 5.05 of the Linux  man-pages  project.   A
       description  of  the project, information about reporting bugs, and the
       latest    version    of    this    page,    can     be     found     at

GNU                               2017-09-15                        TOUPPER(3)
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