pcreapi


       #include <pcre.h>

PCRE NATIVE API BASIC FUNCTIONS

       pcre *pcre_compile(const char *pattern, int options,
            const char **errptr, int *erroffset,
            const unsigned char *tableptr);

       pcre *pcre_compile2(const char *pattern, int options,
            int *errorcodeptr,
            const char **errptr, int *erroffset,
            const unsigned char *tableptr);

       pcre_extra *pcre_study(const pcre *code, int options,
            const char **errptr);

       void pcre_free_study(pcre_extra *extra);

       int pcre_exec(const pcre *code, const pcre_extra *extra,
            const char *subject, int length, int startoffset,
            int options, int *ovector, int ovecsize);

       int pcre_dfa_exec(const pcre *code, const pcre_extra *extra,
            const char *subject, int length, int startoffset,
            int options, int *ovector, int ovecsize,
            int *workspace, int wscount);

PCRE NATIVE API STRING EXTRACTION FUNCTIONS

       int pcre_copy_named_substring(const pcre *code,
            const char *subject, int *ovector,
            int stringcount, const char *stringname,
            char *buffer, int buffersize);

       int pcre_copy_substring(const char *subject, int *ovector,
            int stringcount, int stringnumber, char *buffer,
            int buffersize);

       int pcre_get_named_substring(const pcre *code,
            const char *subject, int *ovector,
            int stringcount, const char *stringname,
            const char **stringptr);

       int pcre_get_stringnumber(const pcre *code,
            const char *name);

       int pcre_get_stringtable_entries(const pcre *code,
            const char *name, char **first, char **last);

       int pcre_get_substring(const char *subject, int *ovector,
            int stringcount, int stringnumber,
            const char **stringptr);


       void pcre_assign_jit_stack(pcre_extra *extra,
            pcre_jit_callback callback, void *data);

       const unsigned char *pcre_maketables(void);

       int pcre_fullinfo(const pcre *code, const pcre_extra *extra,
            int what, void *where);

       int pcre_refcount(pcre *code, int adjust);

       int pcre_config(int what, void *where);

       const char *pcre_version(void);

       int pcre_pattern_to_host_byte_order(pcre *code,
            pcre_extra *extra, const unsigned char *tables);

PCRE NATIVE API INDIRECTED FUNCTIONS

       void *(*pcre_malloc)(size_t);

       void (*pcre_free)(void *);

       void *(*pcre_stack_malloc)(size_t);

       void (*pcre_stack_free)(void *);

       int (*pcre_callout)(pcre_callout_block *);

PCRE 8-BIT AND 16-BIT LIBRARIES

       From  release  8.30,  PCRE  can  be  compiled as a library for handling
       16-bit character strings as  well  as,  or  instead  of,  the  original
       library that handles 8-bit character strings. To avoid too much compli-
       cation, this document describes the 8-bit versions  of  the  functions,
       with only occasional references to the 16-bit library.

       The  16-bit  functions  operate in the same way as their 8-bit counter-
       parts; they just use different  data  types  for  their  arguments  and
       results, and their names start with pcre16_ instead of pcre_. For every
       option that has UTF8 in its name (for example, PCRE_UTF8), there  is  a
       corresponding 16-bit name with UTF8 replaced by UTF16. This facility is
       in fact just cosmetic; the 16-bit option names define the same bit val-
       ues.

       References to bytes and UTF-8 in this document should be read as refer-
       ences to 16-bit data  quantities  and  UTF-16  when  using  the  16-bit
       library,  unless specified otherwise. More details of the specific dif-
       ferences for the 16-bit library are given in the pcre16 page.

PCRE API OVERVIEW

       PCRE has its own native API, which is described in this document. There
       numbers  for the library. Applications can use these to include support
       for different releases of PCRE.

       In a Windows environment, if you want to statically link an application
       program  against  a  non-dll  pcre.a  file, you must define PCRE_STATIC
       before including pcre.h or pcrecpp.h, because otherwise  the  pcre_mal-
       loc()   and   pcre_free()   exported   functions   will   be   declared
       __declspec(dllimport), with unwanted results.

       The  functions  pcre_compile(),  pcre_compile2(),   pcre_study(),   and
       pcre_exec()  are used for compiling and matching regular expressions in
       a Perl-compatible manner. A sample program that demonstrates  the  sim-
       plest  way  of  using them is provided in the file called pcredemo.c in
       the PCRE source distribution. A listing of this program is given in the
       pcredemo  documentation, and the pcresample documentation describes how
       to compile and run it.

       Just-in-time compiler support is an optional feature of PCRE  that  can
       be built in appropriate hardware environments. It greatly speeds up the
       matching performance of  many  patterns.  Simple  programs  can  easily
       request  that  it  be  used  if available, by setting an option that is
       ignored when it is not relevant. More complicated programs  might  need
       to     make    use    of    the    functions    pcre_jit_stack_alloc(),
       pcre_jit_stack_free(), and pcre_assign_jit_stack() in order to  control
       the  JIT  code's  memory  usage.   These functions are discussed in the
       pcrejit documentation.

       A second matching function, pcre_dfa_exec(), which is not Perl-compati-
       ble,  is  also provided. This uses a different algorithm for the match-
       ing. The alternative algorithm finds all possible matches (at  a  given
       point  in  the  subject), and scans the subject just once (unless there
       are lookbehind assertions). However, this  algorithm  does  not  return
       captured  substrings.  A description of the two matching algorithms and
       their advantages and disadvantages is given in the  pcrematching  docu-
       mentation.

       In  addition  to  the  main compiling and matching functions, there are
       convenience functions for extracting captured substrings from a subject
       string that is matched by pcre_exec(). They are:

         pcre_copy_substring()
         pcre_copy_named_substring()
         pcre_get_substring()
         pcre_get_named_substring()
         pcre_get_substring_list()
         pcre_get_stringnumber()
         pcre_get_stringtable_entries()

       pcre_free_substring() and pcre_free_substring_list() are also provided,
       to free the memory used for extracted strings.

       The function pcre_maketables() is used to  build  a  set  of  character
       tables   in   the   current   locale  for  passing  to  pcre_compile(),
       pcre_exec(), or pcre_dfa_exec(). This is an optional facility  that  is
       The  global  variables  pcre_malloc and pcre_free initially contain the
       entry points of the standard malloc()  and  free()  functions,  respec-
       tively. PCRE calls the memory management functions via these variables,
       so a calling program can replace them if it  wishes  to  intercept  the
       calls. This should be done before calling any PCRE functions.

       The  global  variables  pcre_stack_malloc  and pcre_stack_free are also
       indirections to memory management functions.  These  special  functions
       are  used  only  when  PCRE is compiled to use the heap for remembering
       data, instead of recursive function calls, when running the pcre_exec()
       function.  See  the  pcrebuild  documentation  for details of how to do
       this. It is a non-standard way of building PCRE, for  use  in  environ-
       ments  that  have  limited stacks. Because of the greater use of memory
       management, it runs more slowly. Separate  functions  are  provided  so
       that  special-purpose  external  code  can  be used for this case. When
       used, these functions are always called in a  stack-like  manner  (last
       obtained,  first freed), and always for memory blocks of the same size.
       There is a discussion about PCRE's stack usage in the  pcrestack  docu-
       mentation.

       The global variable pcre_callout initially contains NULL. It can be set
       by the caller to a "callout" function, which PCRE  will  then  call  at
       specified  points during a matching operation. Details are given in the
       pcrecallout documentation.

NEWLINES

       PCRE supports five different conventions for indicating line breaks  in
       strings:  a  single  CR (carriage return) character, a single LF (line-
       feed) character, the two-character sequence CRLF, any of the three pre-
       ceding,  or any Unicode newline sequence. The Unicode newline sequences
       are the three just mentioned, plus the single characters  VT  (vertical
       tab, U+000B), FF (form feed, U+000C), NEL (next line, U+0085), LS (line
       separator, U+2028), and PS (paragraph separator, U+2029).

       Each of the first three conventions is used by at least  one  operating
       system  as its standard newline sequence. When PCRE is built, a default
       can be specified.  The default default is LF, which is the  Unix  stan-
       dard.  When  PCRE  is run, the default can be overridden, either when a
       pattern is compiled, or when it is matched.

       At compile time, the newline convention can be specified by the options
       argument  of  pcre_compile(), or it can be specified by special text at
       the start of the pattern itself; this overrides any other settings. See
       the pcrepattern page for details of the special character sequences.

       In the PCRE documentation the word "newline" is used to mean "the char-
       acter or pair of characters that indicate a line break". The choice  of
       newline  convention  affects  the  handling of the dot, circumflex, and
       dollar metacharacters, the handling of #-comments in /x mode, and, when
       CRLF  is a recognized line ending sequence, the match position advance-
       ment for a non-anchored pattern. There is more detail about this in the
       section on pcre_exec() options below.

       ing, so the same compiled pattern can safely be used by several threads
       at once.

       If the just-in-time optimization feature is being used, it needs  sepa-
       rate  memory stack areas for each thread. See the pcrejit documentation
       for more details.

SAVING PRECOMPILED PATTERNS FOR LATER USE

       The compiled form of a regular expression can be saved and re-used at a
       later  time,  possibly by a different program, and even on a host other
       than the one on which  it  was  compiled.  Details  are  given  in  the
       pcreprecompile  documentation,  which  includes  a  description  of the
       pcre_pattern_to_host_byte_order() function. However, compiling a  regu-
       lar  expression  with one version of PCRE for use with a different ver-
       sion is not guaranteed to work and may cause crashes.

CHECKING BUILD-TIME OPTIONS

       int pcre_config(int what, void *where);

       The function pcre_config() makes it possible for a PCRE client to  dis-
       cover which optional features have been compiled into the PCRE library.
       The pcrebuild documentation has more details about these optional  fea-
       tures.

       The  first  argument  for pcre_config() is an integer, specifying which
       information is required; the second argument is a pointer to a variable
       into  which  the  information  is placed. The returned value is zero on
       success, or the negative error code PCRE_ERROR_BADOPTION if  the  value
       in  the  first argument is not recognized. The following information is
       available:

         PCRE_CONFIG_UTF8

       The output is an integer that is set to one if UTF-8 support is  avail-
       able;  otherwise  it  is  set  to  zero. If this option is given to the
       16-bit  version  of  this  function,  pcre16_config(),  the  result  is
       PCRE_ERROR_BADOPTION.

         PCRE_CONFIG_UTF16

       The output is an integer that is set to one if UTF-16 support is avail-
       able; otherwise it is set to zero. This value should normally be  given
       to the 16-bit version of this function, pcre16_config(). If it is given
       to the 8-bit version of this function, the result is  PCRE_ERROR_BADOP-
       TION.

         PCRE_CONFIG_UNICODE_PROPERTIES

       The  output  is  an  integer  that is set to one if support for Unicode
       character properties is available; otherwise it is set to zero.

         PCRE_CONFIG_JIT
         PCRE_CONFIG_NEWLINE

       The  output  is  an integer whose value specifies the default character
       sequence that is recognized as meaning "newline". The four values  that
       are supported are: 10 for LF, 13 for CR, 3338 for CRLF, -2 for ANYCRLF,
       and -1 for ANY.  Though they are derived from ASCII,  the  same  values
       are returned in EBCDIC environments. The default should normally corre-
       spond to the standard sequence for your operating system.

         PCRE_CONFIG_BSR

       The output is an integer whose value indicates what character sequences
       the  \R  escape sequence matches by default. A value of 0 means that \R
       matches any Unicode line ending sequence; a value of 1  means  that  \R
       matches only CR, LF, or CRLF. The default can be overridden when a pat-
       tern is compiled or matched.

         PCRE_CONFIG_LINK_SIZE

       The output is an integer that contains the number  of  bytes  used  for
       internal  linkage  in  compiled  regular  expressions.  For  the  8-bit
       library, the value can be 2, 3, or 4. For the 16-bit library, the value
       is either 2 or 4 and is still a number of bytes. The default value of 2
       is sufficient for all but the most massive patterns,  since  it  allows
       the  compiled  pattern  to  be  up to 64K in size.  Larger values allow
       larger regular expressions to be compiled, at  the  expense  of  slower
       matching.

         PCRE_CONFIG_POSIX_MALLOC_THRESHOLD

       The  output  is  an integer that contains the threshold above which the
       POSIX interface uses malloc() for output vectors. Further  details  are
       given in the pcreposix documentation.

         PCRE_CONFIG_MATCH_LIMIT

       The  output is a long integer that gives the default limit for the num-
       ber of internal matching function calls  in  a  pcre_exec()  execution.
       Further details are given with pcre_exec() below.

         PCRE_CONFIG_MATCH_LIMIT_RECURSION

       The output is a long integer that gives the default limit for the depth
       of  recursion  when  calling  the  internal  matching  function  in   a
       pcre_exec()  execution.  Further  details  are  given  with pcre_exec()
       below.

         PCRE_CONFIG_STACKRECURSE

       The output is an integer that is set to one if internal recursion  when
       running pcre_exec() is implemented by recursive function calls that use
       the stack to remember their state. This is the usual way that  PCRE  is
       compiled. The output is zero if PCRE was compiled to use blocks of data
       on the  heap  instead  of  recursive  function  calls.  In  this  case,
            const unsigned char *tableptr);

       Either of the functions pcre_compile() or pcre_compile2() can be called
       to compile a pattern into an internal form. The only difference between
       the two interfaces is that pcre_compile2() has an additional  argument,
       errorcodeptr,  via  which  a  numerical  error code can be returned. To
       avoid too much repetition, we refer just to pcre_compile()  below,  but
       the information applies equally to pcre_compile2().

       The pattern is a C string terminated by a binary zero, and is passed in
       the pattern argument. A pointer to a single block  of  memory  that  is
       obtained  via  pcre_malloc is returned. This contains the compiled code
       and related data. The pcre type is defined for the returned block; this
       is a typedef for a structure whose contents are not externally defined.
       It is up to the caller to free the memory (via pcre_free) when it is no
       longer required.

       Although  the compiled code of a PCRE regex is relocatable, that is, it
       does not depend on memory location, the complete pcre data block is not
       fully  relocatable, because it may contain a copy of the tableptr argu-
       ment, which is an address (see below).

       The options argument contains various bit settings that affect the com-
       pilation.  It  should be zero if no options are required. The available
       options are described below. Some of them (in  particular,  those  that
       are  compatible with Perl, but some others as well) can also be set and
       unset from within the pattern (see  the  detailed  description  in  the
       pcrepattern  documentation). For those options that can be different in
       different parts of the pattern, the contents of  the  options  argument
       specifies their settings at the start of compilation and execution. The
       PCRE_ANCHORED, PCRE_BSR_xxx, PCRE_NEWLINE_xxx, PCRE_NO_UTF8_CHECK,  and
       PCRE_NO_START_OPTIMIZE  options  can  be set at the time of matching as
       well as at compile time.

       If errptr is NULL, pcre_compile() returns NULL immediately.  Otherwise,
       if  compilation  of  a  pattern fails, pcre_compile() returns NULL, and
       sets the variable pointed to by errptr to point to a textual error mes-
       sage. This is a static string that is part of the library. You must not
       try to free it. Normally, the offset from the start of the  pattern  to
       the  byte  that  was  being  processed when the error was discovered is
       placed in the variable pointed to by erroffset, which must not be  NULL
       (if  it is, an immediate error is given). However, for an invalid UTF-8
       string, the offset is that of the first byte of the failing character.

       Some errors are not detected until the whole pattern has been  scanned;
       in  these  cases,  the offset passed back is the length of the pattern.
       Note that the offset is in bytes, not characters, even in  UTF-8  mode.
       It may sometimes point into the middle of a UTF-8 character.

       If  pcre_compile2()  is  used instead of pcre_compile(), and the error-
       codeptr argument is not NULL, a non-zero error code number is  returned
       via  this argument in the event of an error. This is in addition to the
       textual error message. Error codes and messages are listed below.

         const char *error;
         int erroffset;
         re = pcre_compile(
           "^A.*Z",          /* the pattern */
           0,                /* default options */
           &error,           /* for error message */
           &erroffset,       /* for error offset */
           NULL);            /* use default character tables */

       The  following  names  for option bits are defined in the pcre.h header
       file:

         PCRE_ANCHORED

       If this bit is set, the pattern is forced to be "anchored", that is, it
       is  constrained to match only at the first matching point in the string
       that is being searched (the "subject string"). This effect can also  be
       achieved  by appropriate constructs in the pattern itself, which is the
       only way to do it in Perl.

         PCRE_AUTO_CALLOUT

       If this bit is set, pcre_compile() automatically inserts callout items,
       all  with  number  255, before each pattern item. For discussion of the
       callout facility, see the pcrecallout documentation.

         PCRE_BSR_ANYCRLF
         PCRE_BSR_UNICODE

       These options (which are mutually exclusive) control what the \R escape
       sequence  matches.  The choice is either to match only CR, LF, or CRLF,
       or to match any Unicode newline sequence. The default is specified when
       PCRE is built. It can be overridden from within the pattern, or by set-
       ting an option when a compiled pattern is matched.

         PCRE_CASELESS

       If this bit is set, letters in the pattern match both upper  and  lower
       case  letters.  It  is  equivalent  to  Perl's /i option, and it can be
       changed within a pattern by a (?i) option setting. In UTF-8 mode,  PCRE
       always  understands the concept of case for characters whose values are
       less than 128, so caseless matching is always possible. For  characters
       with  higher  values,  the concept of case is supported if PCRE is com-
       piled with Unicode property support, but not otherwise. If you want  to
       use  caseless  matching  for  characters 128 and above, you must ensure
       that PCRE is compiled with Unicode property support  as  well  as  with
       UTF-8 support.

         PCRE_DOLLAR_ENDONLY

       If  this bit is set, a dollar metacharacter in the pattern matches only
       at the end of the subject string. Without this option,  a  dollar  also
       matches  immediately before a newline at the end of the string (but not
       before any other newlines). The PCRE_DOLLAR_ENDONLY option  is  ignored
       ting of this option.

         PCRE_DUPNAMES

       If  this  bit is set, names used to identify capturing subpatterns need
       not be unique. This can be helpful for certain types of pattern when it
       is  known  that  only  one instance of the named subpattern can ever be
       matched. There are more details of named subpatterns  below;  see  also
       the pcrepattern documentation.

         PCRE_EXTENDED

       If  this  bit  is  set,  white space data characters in the pattern are
       totally ignored except when escaped or inside a character class.  White
       space does not include the VT character (code 11). In addition, charac-
       ters between an unescaped # outside a character class and the next new-
       line,  inclusive,  are  also  ignored.  This is equivalent to Perl's /x
       option, and it can be changed within a pattern by a  (?x)  option  set-
       ting.

       Which  characters  are  interpreted  as  newlines  is controlled by the
       options passed to pcre_compile() or by a special sequence at the  start
       of  the  pattern, as described in the section entitled "Newline conven-
       tions" in the pcrepattern documentation. Note that the end of this type
       of  comment  is  a  literal  newline  sequence  in  the pattern; escape
       sequences that happen to represent a newline do not count.

       This option makes it possible to include  comments  inside  complicated
       patterns.   Note,  however,  that this applies only to data characters.
       White space  characters  may  never  appear  within  special  character
       sequences in a pattern, for example within the sequence (?( that intro-
       duces a conditional subpattern.

         PCRE_EXTRA

       This option was invented in order to turn on  additional  functionality
       of  PCRE  that  is  incompatible with Perl, but it is currently of very
       little use. When set, any backslash in a pattern that is followed by  a
       letter  that  has  no  special  meaning causes an error, thus reserving
       these combinations for future expansion. By  default,  as  in  Perl,  a
       backslash  followed by a letter with no special meaning is treated as a
       literal. (Perl can, however, be persuaded to give an error for this, by
       running  it with the -w option.) There are at present no other features
       controlled by this option. It can also be set by a (?X) option  setting
       within a pattern.

         PCRE_FIRSTLINE

       If  this  option  is  set,  an  unanchored pattern is required to match
       before or at the first  newline  in  the  subject  string,  though  the
       matched text may continue over the newline.

         PCRE_JAVASCRIPT_COMPAT

       set  (assuming  it can find an "a" in the subject), whereas it fails by
       default, for Perl compatibility.

       (3) \U matches an upper case "U" character; by default \U causes a com-
       pile time error (Perl uses \U to upper case subsequent characters).

       (4) \u matches a lower case "u" character unless it is followed by four
       hexadecimal digits, in which case the hexadecimal  number  defines  the
       code  point  to match. By default, \u causes a compile time error (Perl
       uses it to upper case the following character).

       (5) \x matches a lower case "x" character unless it is followed by  two
       hexadecimal  digits,  in  which case the hexadecimal number defines the
       code point to match. By default, as in Perl, a  hexadecimal  number  is
       always expected after \x, but it may have zero, one, or two digits (so,
       for example, \xz matches a binary zero character followed by z).

         PCRE_MULTILINE

       By default, PCRE treats the subject string as consisting  of  a  single
       line  of characters (even if it actually contains newlines). The "start
       of line" metacharacter (^) matches only at the  start  of  the  string,
       while  the  "end  of line" metacharacter ($) matches only at the end of
       the string, or before a terminating newline (unless PCRE_DOLLAR_ENDONLY
       is set). This is the same as Perl.

       When  PCRE_MULTILINE  it  is set, the "start of line" and "end of line"
       constructs match immediately following or immediately  before  internal
       newlines  in  the  subject string, respectively, as well as at the very
       start and end. This is equivalent to Perl's /m option, and  it  can  be
       changed within a pattern by a (?m) option setting. If there are no new-
       lines in a subject string, or no occurrences of ^ or $  in  a  pattern,
       setting PCRE_MULTILINE has no effect.

         PCRE_NEWLINE_CR
         PCRE_NEWLINE_LF
         PCRE_NEWLINE_CRLF
         PCRE_NEWLINE_ANYCRLF
         PCRE_NEWLINE_ANY

       These  options  override the default newline definition that was chosen
       when PCRE was built. Setting the first or the second specifies  that  a
       newline  is  indicated  by a single character (CR or LF, respectively).
       Setting PCRE_NEWLINE_CRLF specifies that a newline is indicated by  the
       two-character  CRLF  sequence.  Setting  PCRE_NEWLINE_ANYCRLF specifies
       that any of the three preceding sequences should be recognized. Setting
       PCRE_NEWLINE_ANY  specifies that any Unicode newline sequence should be
       recognized. The Unicode newline sequences are the three just mentioned,
       plus  the  single  characters VT (vertical tab, U+000B), FF (form feed,
       U+000C), NEL (next line, U+0085), LS (line separator, U+2028),  and  PS
       (paragraph  separator, U+2029). For the 8-bit library, the last two are
       recognized only in UTF-8 mode.

       The newline setting in the  options  word  uses  three  bits  that  are
       in patterns are treated as literal data.

       The newline option that is set at compile time becomes the default that
       is used for pcre_exec() and pcre_dfa_exec(), but it can be overridden.

         PCRE_NO_AUTO_CAPTURE

       If this option is set, it disables the use of numbered capturing paren-
       theses  in the pattern. Any opening parenthesis that is not followed by
       ? behaves as if it were followed by ?: but named parentheses can  still
       be  used  for  capturing  (and  they acquire numbers in the usual way).
       There is no equivalent of this option in Perl.

         NO_START_OPTIMIZE

       This is an option that acts at matching time; that is, it is really  an
       option  for  pcre_exec()  or  pcre_dfa_exec().  If it is set at compile
       time, it is remembered with the compiled pattern and assumed at  match-
       ing  time.  For  details  see  the discussion of PCRE_NO_START_OPTIMIZE
       below.

         PCRE_UCP

       This option changes the way PCRE processes \B, \b, \D, \d, \S, \s,  \W,
       \w,  and  some  of  the POSIX character classes. By default, only ASCII
       characters are recognized, but if PCRE_UCP is set,  Unicode  properties
       are  used instead to classify characters. More details are given in the
       section on generic character types in the pcrepattern page. If you  set
       PCRE_UCP,  matching  one of the items it affects takes much longer. The
       option is available only if PCRE has been compiled with  Unicode  prop-
       erty support.

         PCRE_UNGREEDY

       This  option  inverts  the "greediness" of the quantifiers so that they
       are not greedy by default, but become greedy if followed by "?". It  is
       not  compatible  with Perl. It can also be set by a (?U) option setting
       within the pattern.

         PCRE_UTF8

       This option causes PCRE to regard both the pattern and the  subject  as
       strings of UTF-8 characters instead of single-byte strings. However, it
       is available only when PCRE is built to include UTF  support.  If  not,
       the  use  of  this option provokes an error. Details of how this option
       changes the behaviour of PCRE are given in the pcreunicode page.

         PCRE_NO_UTF8_CHECK

       When PCRE_UTF8 is set, the validity of the pattern as a UTF-8 string is
       automatically  checked.  There  is  a  discussion about the validity of
       UTF-8 strings in the pcreunicode page. If an invalid UTF-8 sequence  is
       found,  pcre_compile()  returns an error. If you already know that your
       pattern is valid, and you want to skip this check for performance  rea-
       codes  have  fallen  out of use. To avoid confusion, they have not been
       re-used.

          0  no error
          1  \ at end of pattern
          2  \c at end of pattern
          3  unrecognized character follows \
          4  numbers out of order in {} quantifier
          5  number too big in {} quantifier
          6  missing terminating ] for character class
          7  invalid escape sequence in character class
          8  range out of order in character class
          9  nothing to repeat
         10  [this code is not in use]
         11  internal error: unexpected repeat
         12  unrecognized character after (? or (?-
         13  POSIX named classes are supported only within a class
         14  missing )
         15  reference to non-existent subpattern
         16  erroffset passed as NULL
         17  unknown option bit(s) set
         18  missing ) after comment
         19  [this code is not in use]
         20  regular expression is too large
         21  failed to get memory
         22  unmatched parentheses
         23  internal error: code overflow
         24  unrecognized character after (?<
         25  lookbehind assertion is not fixed length
         26  malformed number or name after (?(
         27  conditional group contains more than two branches
         28  assertion expected after (?(
         29  (?R or (?[+-]digits must be followed by )
         30  unknown POSIX class name
         31  POSIX collating elements are not supported
         32  this version of PCRE is compiled without UTF support
         33  [this code is not in use]
         34  character value in \x{...} sequence is too large
         35  invalid condition (?(0)
         36  \C not allowed in lookbehind assertion
         37  PCRE does not support \L, \l, \N{name}, \U, or \u
         38  number after (?C is > 255
         39  closing ) for (?C expected
         40  recursive call could loop indefinitely
         41  unrecognized character after (?P
         42  syntax error in subpattern name (missing terminator)
         43  two named subpatterns have the same name
         44  invalid UTF-8 string (specifically UTF-8)
         45  support for \P, \p, and \X has not been compiled
         46  malformed \P or \p sequence
         47  unknown property name after \P or \p
         48  subpattern name is too long (maximum 32 characters)
         49  too many named subpatterns (maximum 10000)
         50  [this code is not in use]
         61  number is too big
         62  subpattern name expected
         63  digit expected after (?+
         64  ] is an invalid data character in JavaScript compatibility mode
         65  different names for subpatterns of the same number are
               not allowed
         66  (*MARK) must have an argument
         67  this version of PCRE is not compiled with Unicode property
               support
         68  \c must be followed by an ASCII character
         69  \k is not followed by a braced, angle-bracketed, or quoted name
         70  internal error: unknown opcode in find_fixedlength()
         71  \N is not supported in a class
         72  too many forward references
         73  disallowed Unicode code point (>= 0xd800 && <= 0xdfff)
         74  invalid UTF-16 string (specifically UTF-16)
         75  name is too long in (*MARK), (*PRUNE), (*SKIP), or (*THEN)
         76  character value in \u.... sequence is too large

       The numbers 32 and 10000 in errors 48 and 49  are  defaults;  different
       values may be used if the limits were changed when PCRE was built.

STUDYING A PATTERN

       pcre_extra *pcre_study(const pcre *code, int options
            const char **errptr);

       If  a  compiled  pattern is going to be used several times, it is worth
       spending more time analyzing it in order to speed up the time taken for
       matching.  The function pcre_study() takes a pointer to a compiled pat-
       tern as its first argument. If studying the pattern produces additional
       information  that  will  help speed up matching, pcre_study() returns a
       pointer to a pcre_extra block, in which the study_data field points  to
       the results of the study.

       The  returned  value  from  pcre_study()  can  be  passed  directly  to
       pcre_exec() or pcre_dfa_exec(). However, a pcre_extra block  also  con-
       tains  other  fields  that can be set by the caller before the block is
       passed; these are described below in the section on matching a pattern.

       If studying the  pattern  does  not  produce  any  useful  information,
       pcre_study() returns NULL. In that circumstance, if the calling program
       wants  to  pass  any  of   the   other   fields   to   pcre_exec()   or
       pcre_dfa_exec(), it must set up its own pcre_extra block.

       The  second  argument  of  pcre_study() contains option bits. There are
       three options:

         PCRE_STUDY_JIT_COMPILE
         PCRE_STUDY_JIT_PARTIAL_HARD_COMPILE
         PCRE_STUDY_JIT_PARTIAL_SOFT_COMPILE

       If any of these are set, and the just-in-time  compiler  is  available,
       the  pattern  is  further compiled into machine code that executes much
       The third argument for pcre_study() is a pointer for an error  message.
       If  studying  succeeds  (even  if no data is returned), the variable it
       points to is set to NULL. Otherwise it is set to  point  to  a  textual
       error message. This is a static string that is part of the library. You
       must not try to free it. You should test the  error  pointer  for  NULL
       after calling pcre_study(), to be sure that it has run successfully.

       When  you are finished with a pattern, you can free the memory used for
       the study data by calling pcre_free_study(). This function was added to
       the  API  for  release  8.20. For earlier versions, the memory could be
       freed with pcre_free(), just like the pattern itself. This  will  still
       work  in  cases where JIT optimization is not used, but it is advisable
       to change to the new function when convenient.

       This is a typical way in which pcre_study() is used (except that  in  a
       real application there should be tests for errors):

         int rc;
         pcre *re;
         pcre_extra *sd;
         re = pcre_compile("pattern", 0, &error, &erroroffset, NULL);
         sd = pcre_study(
           re,             /* result of pcre_compile() */
           0,              /* no options */
           &error);        /* set to NULL or points to a message */
         rc = pcre_exec(   /* see below for details of pcre_exec() options */
           re, sd, "subject", 7, 0, 0, ovector, 30);
         ...
         pcre_free_study(sd);
         pcre_free(re);

       Studying a pattern does two things: first, a lower bound for the length
       of subject string that is needed to match the pattern is computed. This
       does not mean that there are any strings of that length that match, but
       it does guarantee that no shorter strings match. The value is  used  by
       pcre_exec()  and  pcre_dfa_exec()  to  avoid  wasting time by trying to
       match strings that are shorter than the lower bound. You can  find  out
       the value in a calling program via the pcre_fullinfo() function.

       Studying a pattern is also useful for non-anchored patterns that do not
       have a single fixed starting character. A bitmap of  possible  starting
       bytes  is  created. This speeds up finding a position in the subject at
       which to start matching. (In 16-bit mode, the bitmap is used for 16-bit
       values less than 256.)

       These  two optimizations apply to both pcre_exec() and pcre_dfa_exec(),
       and the information is also used by the JIT  compiler.   The  optimiza-
       tions can be disabled by setting the PCRE_NO_START_OPTIMIZE option when
       calling pcre_exec() or pcre_dfa_exec(), but if this is done, JIT execu-
       tion  is  also disabled. You might want to do this if your pattern con-
       tains callouts or (*MARK) and you want to make use of these  facilities
       in    cases    where    matching   fails.   See   the   discussion   of
       PCRE_NO_START_OPTIMIZE below.

       code, or use locales, but not try to mix the two.

       PCRE contains an internal set of tables that are used  when  the  final
       argument  of  pcre_compile()  is  NULL.  These  are sufficient for many
       applications.  Normally, the internal tables recognize only ASCII char-
       acters. However, when PCRE is built, it is possible to cause the inter-
       nal tables to be rebuilt in the default "C" locale of the local system,
       which may cause them to be different.

       The  internal tables can always be overridden by tables supplied by the
       application that calls PCRE. These may be created in a different locale
       from  the  default.  As more and more applications change to using Uni-
       code, the need for this locale support is expected to die away.

       External tables are built by calling  the  pcre_maketables()  function,
       which  has no arguments, in the relevant locale. The result can then be
       passed to pcre_compile() or pcre_exec()  as  often  as  necessary.  For
       example,  to  build  and use tables that are appropriate for the French
       locale (where accented characters with  values  greater  than  128  are
       treated as letters), the following code could be used:

         setlocale(LC_CTYPE, "fr_FR");
         tables = pcre_maketables();
         re = pcre_compile(..., tables);

       The  locale  name "fr_FR" is used on Linux and other Unix-like systems;
       if you are using Windows, the name for the French locale is "french".

       When pcre_maketables() runs, the tables are built  in  memory  that  is
       obtained  via  pcre_malloc. It is the caller's responsibility to ensure
       that the memory containing the tables remains available for as long  as
       it is needed.

       The pointer that is passed to pcre_compile() is saved with the compiled
       pattern, and the same tables are used via this pointer by  pcre_study()
       and normally also by pcre_exec(). Thus, by default, for any single pat-
       tern, compilation, studying and matching all happen in the same locale,
       but different patterns can be compiled in different locales.

       It  is  possible to pass a table pointer or NULL (indicating the use of
       the internal tables) to pcre_exec(). Although  not  intended  for  this
       purpose,  this facility could be used to match a pattern in a different
       locale from the one in which it was compiled. Passing table pointers at
       run time is discussed below in the section on matching a pattern.

INFORMATION ABOUT A PATTERN

       int pcre_fullinfo(const pcre *code, const pcre_extra *extra,
            int what, void *where);

       The  pcre_fullinfo() function returns information about a compiled pat-
       tern. It replaces the pcre_info() function, which was removed from  the
       library at version 8.30, after more than 10 years of obsolescence.

         PCRE_ERROR_BADOPTION      the value of what was invalid

       The "magic number" is placed at the start of each compiled  pattern  as
       an  simple check against passing an arbitrary memory pointer. The endi-
       anness error can occur if a compiled pattern is saved and reloaded on a
       different  host.  Here  is a typical call of pcre_fullinfo(), to obtain
       the length of the compiled pattern:

         int rc;
         size_t length;
         rc = pcre_fullinfo(
           re,               /* result of pcre_compile() */
           sd,               /* result of pcre_study(), or NULL */
           PCRE_INFO_SIZE,   /* what is required */
           &length);         /* where to put the data */

       The possible values for the third argument are defined in  pcre.h,  and
       are as follows:

         PCRE_INFO_BACKREFMAX

       Return  the  number  of  the highest back reference in the pattern. The
       fourth argument should point to an int variable. Zero  is  returned  if
       there are no back references.

         PCRE_INFO_CAPTURECOUNT

       Return  the  number of capturing subpatterns in the pattern. The fourth
       argument should point to an int variable.

         PCRE_INFO_DEFAULT_TABLES

       Return a pointer to the internal default character tables within  PCRE.
       The  fourth  argument should point to an unsigned char * variable. This
       information call is provided for internal use by the pcre_study() func-
       tion.  External  callers  can  cause PCRE to use its internal tables by
       passing a NULL table pointer.

         PCRE_INFO_FIRSTBYTE

       Return information about the first data unit of any matched string, for
       a  non-anchored  pattern.  (The name of this option refers to the 8-bit
       library, where data units are bytes.) The fourth argument should  point
       to an int variable.

       If  there  is  a  fixed first value, for example, the letter "c" from a
       pattern such as (cat|cow|coyote), its value is returned. In  the  8-bit
       library,  the  value is always less than 256; in the 16-bit library the
       value can be up to 0xffff.

       If there is no fixed first value, and if either

       (a) the pattern was compiled with the PCRE_MULTILINE option, and  every
       branch starts with "^", or
       in any matching string, a pointer to the table is  returned.  Otherwise
       NULL  is returned. The fourth argument should point to an unsigned char
       * variable.

         PCRE_INFO_HASCRORLF

       Return 1 if the pattern contains any explicit  matches  for  CR  or  LF
       characters,  otherwise  0.  The  fourth argument should point to an int
       variable. An explicit match is either a literal CR or LF character,  or
       \r or \n.

         PCRE_INFO_JCHANGED

       Return  1  if  the (?J) or (?-J) option setting is used in the pattern,
       otherwise 0. The fourth argument should point to an int variable.  (?J)
       and (?-J) set and unset the local PCRE_DUPNAMES option, respectively.

         PCRE_INFO_JIT

       Return  1  if  the pattern was studied with one of the JIT options, and
       just-in-time compiling was successful. The fourth argument should point
       to  an  int variable. A return value of 0 means that JIT support is not
       available in this version of PCRE, or that the pattern was not  studied
       with  a JIT option, or that the JIT compiler could not handle this par-
       ticular pattern. See the pcrejit documentation for details of what  can
       and cannot be handled.

         PCRE_INFO_JITSIZE

       If  the  pattern was successfully studied with a JIT option, return the
       size of the JIT compiled code, otherwise return zero. The fourth  argu-
       ment should point to a size_t variable.

         PCRE_INFO_LASTLITERAL

       Return  the value of the rightmost literal data unit that must exist in
       any matched string, other than at its start, if such a value  has  been
       recorded. The fourth argument should point to an int variable. If there
       is no such value, -1 is returned. For anchored patterns, a last literal
       value  is recorded only if it follows something of variable length. For
       example, for the pattern /^a\d+z\d+/ the returned value is "z", but for
       /^a\dz\d/ the returned value is -1.

         PCRE_INFO_MAXLOOKBEHIND

       Return  the  number of characters (NB not bytes) in the longest lookbe-
       hind assertion in the pattern. Note that the simple assertions  \b  and
       \B  require a one-character lookbehind. This information is useful when
       doing multi-segment matching using the partial matching facilities.

         PCRE_INFO_MINLENGTH

       If the pattern was studied and a minimum length  for  matching  subject
       strings  was  computed,  its  value is returned. Otherwise the returned
       ses. The names are just an additional way of identifying the  parenthe-
       ses, which still acquire numbers. Several convenience functions such as
       pcre_get_named_substring() are provided for  extracting  captured  sub-
       strings  by  name. It is also possible to extract the data directly, by
       first converting the name to a number in order to  access  the  correct
       pointers in the output vector (described with pcre_exec() below). To do
       the conversion, you need  to  use  the  name-to-number  map,  which  is
       described by these three values.

       The map consists of a number of fixed-size entries. PCRE_INFO_NAMECOUNT
       gives the number of entries, and PCRE_INFO_NAMEENTRYSIZE gives the size
       of  each  entry;  both  of  these  return  an int value. The entry size
       depends on the length of the longest name. PCRE_INFO_NAMETABLE  returns
       a pointer to the first entry of the table. This is a pointer to char in
       the 8-bit library, where the first two bytes of each entry are the num-
       ber  of  the capturing parenthesis, most significant byte first. In the
       16-bit library, the pointer points to 16-bit data units, the  first  of
       which  contains  the  parenthesis  number. The rest of the entry is the
       corresponding name, zero terminated.

       The names are in alphabetical order. Duplicate names may appear if  (?|
       is used to create multiple groups with the same number, as described in
       the section on duplicate subpattern numbers in  the  pcrepattern  page.
       Duplicate  names  for  subpatterns with different numbers are permitted
       only if PCRE_DUPNAMES is set. In all cases  of  duplicate  names,  they
       appear  in  the table in the order in which they were found in the pat-
       tern. In the absence of (?| this is the  order  of  increasing  number;
       when (?| is used this is not necessarily the case because later subpat-
       terns may have lower numbers.

       As a simple example of the name/number table,  consider  the  following
       pattern after compilation by the 8-bit library (assume PCRE_EXTENDED is
       set, so white space - including newlines - is ignored):

         (?<date> (?<year>(\d\d)?\d\d) -
         (?<month>\d\d) - (?<day>\d\d) )

       There are four named subpatterns, so the table has  four  entries,  and
       each  entry  in the table is eight bytes long. The table is as follows,
       with non-printing bytes shows in hexadecimal, and undefined bytes shown
       as ??:

         00 01 d  a  t  e  00 ??
         00 05 d  a  y  00 ?? ??
         00 04 m  o  n  t  h  00
         00 02 y  e  a  r  00 ??

       When  writing  code  to  extract  data from named subpatterns using the
       name-to-number map, remember that the length of the entries  is  likely
       to be different for each compiled pattern.

         PCRE_INFO_OKPARTIAL

       Return  1  if  the  pattern  can  be  used  for  partial  matching with
       other words, they are the options that will be in force  when  matching
       starts.  For  example, if the pattern /(?im)abc(?-i)d/ is compiled with
       the PCRE_EXTENDED option, the result is PCRE_CASELESS,  PCRE_MULTILINE,
       and PCRE_EXTENDED.

       A  pattern  is  automatically  anchored by PCRE if all of its top-level
       alternatives begin with one of the following:

         ^     unless PCRE_MULTILINE is set
         \A    always
         \G    always
         .*    if PCRE_DOTALL is set and there are no back
                 references to the subpattern in which .* appears

       For such patterns, the PCRE_ANCHORED bit is set in the options returned
       by pcre_fullinfo().

         PCRE_INFO_SIZE

       Return  the size of the compiled pattern in bytes (for both libraries).
       The fourth argument should point to a size_t variable. This value  does
       not  include  the  size  of  the  pcre  structure  that  is returned by
       pcre_compile(). The value that is passed as the argument  to  pcre_mal-
       loc()  when pcre_compile() is getting memory in which to place the com-
       piled data is the value returned by this option plus the  size  of  the
       pcre  structure. Studying a compiled pattern, with or without JIT, does
       not alter the value returned by this option.

         PCRE_INFO_STUDYSIZE

       Return the size in bytes of the data block pointed to by the study_data
       field  in  a  pcre_extra  block.  If pcre_extra is NULL, or there is no
       study data, zero is returned. The fourth argument  should  point  to  a
       size_t  variable. The study_data field is set by pcre_study() to record
       information that will speed  up  matching  (see  the  section  entitled
       "Studying a pattern" above). The format of the study_data block is pri-
       vate, but its length is made available via this option so that  it  can
       be  saved  and  restored  (see  the  pcreprecompile  documentation  for
       details).

REFERENCE COUNTS

       int pcre_refcount(pcre *code, int adjust);

       The pcre_refcount() function is used to maintain a reference  count  in
       the data block that contains a compiled pattern. It is provided for the
       benefit of applications that  operate  in  an  object-oriented  manner,
       where different parts of the application may be using the same compiled
       pattern, but you want to free the block when they are all done.

       When a pattern is compiled, the reference count field is initialized to
       zero.   It is changed only by calling this function, whose action is to
       add the adjust value (which may be positive or  negative)  to  it.  The
       yield of the function is the new value. However, the value of the count

       The  function pcre_exec() is called to match a subject string against a
       compiled pattern, which is passed in the code argument. If the  pattern
       was  studied,  the  result  of  the study should be passed in the extra
       argument. You can call pcre_exec() with the same code and  extra  argu-
       ments  as  many  times as you like, in order to match different subject
       strings with the same pattern.

       This function is the main matching facility  of  the  library,  and  it
       operates  in  a  Perl-like  manner. For specialist use there is also an
       alternative matching function, which is described below in the  section
       about the pcre_dfa_exec() function.

       In  most applications, the pattern will have been compiled (and option-
       ally studied) in the same process that calls pcre_exec().  However,  it
       is possible to save compiled patterns and study data, and then use them
       later in different processes, possibly even on different hosts.  For  a
       discussion about this, see the pcreprecompile documentation.

       Here is an example of a simple call to pcre_exec():

         int rc;
         int ovector[30];
         rc = pcre_exec(
           re,             /* result of pcre_compile() */
           NULL,           /* we didn't study the pattern */
           "some string",  /* the subject string */
           11,             /* the length of the subject string */
           0,              /* start at offset 0 in the subject */
           0,              /* default options */
           ovector,        /* vector of integers for substring information */
           30);            /* number of elements (NOT size in bytes) */

   Extra data for pcre_exec()

       If  the  extra argument is not NULL, it must point to a pcre_extra data
       block. The pcre_study() function returns such a block (when it  doesn't
       return  NULL), but you can also create one for yourself, and pass addi-
       tional information in it. The pcre_extra block contains  the  following
       fields (not necessarily in this order):

         unsigned long int flags;
         void *study_data;
         void *executable_jit;
         unsigned long int match_limit;
         unsigned long int match_limit_recursion;
         void *callout_data;
         const unsigned char *tables;
         unsigned char **mark;

       In  the  16-bit  version  of  this  structure,  the mark field has type
       "PCRE_UCHAR16 **".

       The flags field is used to specify which of the other fields  are  set.
       returned  by pcre_study(), together with the appropriate flag bits. You
       should not set these yourself, but you may add to the block by  setting
       other fields and their corresponding flag bits.

       The match_limit field provides a means of preventing PCRE from using up
       a vast amount of resources when running patterns that are not going  to
       match,  but  which  have  a very large number of possibilities in their
       search trees. The classic example is a pattern that uses nested  unlim-
       ited repeats.

       Internally,  pcre_exec() uses a function called match(), which it calls
       repeatedly (sometimes recursively). The limit  set  by  match_limit  is
       imposed  on the number of times this function is called during a match,
       which has the effect of limiting the amount of  backtracking  that  can
       take place. For patterns that are not anchored, the count restarts from
       zero for each position in the subject string.

       When pcre_exec() is called with a pattern that was successfully studied
       with  a  JIT  option, the way that the matching is executed is entirely
       different.  However, there is still the possibility of runaway matching
       that goes on for a very long time, and so the match_limit value is also
       used in this case (but in a different way) to limit how long the match-
       ing can continue.

       The  default  value  for  the  limit can be set when PCRE is built; the
       default default is 10 million, which handles all but the  most  extreme
       cases.  You  can  override  the  default by suppling pcre_exec() with a
       pcre_extra    block    in    which    match_limit    is    set,     and
       PCRE_EXTRA_MATCH_LIMIT  is  set  in  the  flags  field. If the limit is
       exceeded, pcre_exec() returns PCRE_ERROR_MATCHLIMIT.

       The match_limit_recursion field is similar to match_limit, but  instead
       of limiting the total number of times that match() is called, it limits
       the depth of recursion. The recursion depth is a  smaller  number  than
       the  total number of calls, because not all calls to match() are recur-
       sive.  This limit is of use only if it is set smaller than match_limit.

       Limiting the recursion depth limits the amount of  machine  stack  that
       can  be used, or, when PCRE has been compiled to use memory on the heap
       instead of the stack, the amount of heap memory that can be used.  This
       limit  is not relevant, and is ignored, when matching is done using JIT
       compiled code.

       The default value for match_limit_recursion can be  set  when  PCRE  is
       built;  the  default  default  is  the  same  value  as the default for
       match_limit. You can override the default by suppling pcre_exec()  with
       a   pcre_extra   block  in  which  match_limit_recursion  is  set,  and
       PCRE_EXTRA_MATCH_LIMIT_RECURSION is set in  the  flags  field.  If  the
       limit is exceeded, pcre_exec() returns PCRE_ERROR_RECURSIONLIMIT.

       The  callout_data  field is used in conjunction with the "callout" fea-
       ture, and is described in the pcrecallout documentation.

       The tables field  is  used  to  pass  a  character  tables  pointer  to
       tracking  control verbs such as (*MARK:NAME), and the execution ends up
       with a name to pass back, a pointer to the  name  string  (zero  termi-
       nated)  is  placed  in  the  variable pointed to by the mark field. The
       names are within the compiled pattern; if you wish  to  retain  such  a
       name  you must copy it before freeing the memory of a compiled pattern.
       If there is no name to pass back, the variable pointed to by  the  mark
       field  is  set  to NULL. For details of the backtracking control verbs,
       see the section entitled "Backtracking control" in the pcrepattern doc-
       umentation.

   Option bits for pcre_exec()

       The  unused  bits of the options argument for pcre_exec() must be zero.
       The only bits that may  be  set  are  PCRE_ANCHORED,  PCRE_NEWLINE_xxx,
       PCRE_NOTBOL,    PCRE_NOTEOL,    PCRE_NOTEMPTY,   PCRE_NOTEMPTY_ATSTART,
       PCRE_NO_START_OPTIMIZE,  PCRE_NO_UTF8_CHECK,   PCRE_PARTIAL_HARD,   and
       PCRE_PARTIAL_SOFT.

       If  the  pattern  was successfully studied with one of the just-in-time
       (JIT) compile options, the only supported options for JIT execution are
       PCRE_NO_UTF8_CHECK,     PCRE_NOTBOL,     PCRE_NOTEOL,    PCRE_NOTEMPTY,
       PCRE_NOTEMPTY_ATSTART, PCRE_PARTIAL_HARD, and PCRE_PARTIAL_SOFT. If  an
       unsupported  option  is  used, JIT execution is disabled and the normal
       interpretive code in pcre_exec() is run.

         PCRE_ANCHORED

       The PCRE_ANCHORED option limits pcre_exec() to matching  at  the  first
       matching  position.  If  a  pattern was compiled with PCRE_ANCHORED, or
       turned out to be anchored by virtue of its contents, it cannot be  made
       unachored at matching time.

         PCRE_BSR_ANYCRLF
         PCRE_BSR_UNICODE

       These options (which are mutually exclusive) control what the \R escape
       sequence matches. The choice is either to match only CR, LF,  or  CRLF,
       or  to  match  any Unicode newline sequence. These options override the
       choice that was made or defaulted when the pattern was compiled.

         PCRE_NEWLINE_CR
         PCRE_NEWLINE_LF
         PCRE_NEWLINE_CRLF
         PCRE_NEWLINE_ANYCRLF
         PCRE_NEWLINE_ANY

       These options override  the  newline  definition  that  was  chosen  or
       defaulted  when the pattern was compiled. For details, see the descrip-
       tion of pcre_compile()  above.  During  matching,  the  newline  choice
       affects  the  behaviour  of the dot, circumflex, and dollar metacharac-
       ters. It may also alter the way the match position is advanced after  a
       match failure for an unanchored pattern.

       When  PCRE_NEWLINE_CRLF,  PCRE_NEWLINE_ANYCRLF,  or PCRE_NEWLINE_ANY is
       acter after the first failure.

       An explicit match for CR of LF is either a literal appearance of one of
       those  characters,  or  one  of the \r or \n escape sequences. Implicit
       matches such as [^X] do not count, nor does \s (which includes  CR  and
       LF in the characters that it matches).

       Notwithstanding  the above, anomalous effects may still occur when CRLF
       is a valid newline sequence and explicit \r or \n escapes appear in the
       pattern.

         PCRE_NOTBOL

       This option specifies that first character of the subject string is not
       the beginning of a line, so the  circumflex  metacharacter  should  not
       match  before it. Setting this without PCRE_MULTILINE (at compile time)
       causes circumflex never to match. This option affects only  the  behav-
       iour of the circumflex metacharacter. It does not affect \A.

         PCRE_NOTEOL

       This option specifies that the end of the subject string is not the end
       of a line, so the dollar metacharacter should not match it nor  (except
       in  multiline mode) a newline immediately before it. Setting this with-
       out PCRE_MULTILINE (at compile time) causes dollar never to match. This
       option  affects only the behaviour of the dollar metacharacter. It does
       not affect \Z or \z.

         PCRE_NOTEMPTY

       An empty string is not considered to be a valid match if this option is
       set.  If  there are alternatives in the pattern, they are tried. If all
       the alternatives match the empty string, the entire  match  fails.  For
       example, if the pattern

         a?b?

       is  applied  to  a  string not beginning with "a" or "b", it matches an
       empty string at the start of the subject. With PCRE_NOTEMPTY set,  this
       match is not valid, so PCRE searches further into the string for occur-
       rences of "a" or "b".

         PCRE_NOTEMPTY_ATSTART

       This is like PCRE_NOTEMPTY, except that an empty string match  that  is
       not  at  the  start  of  the  subject  is  permitted. If the pattern is
       anchored, such a match can occur only if the pattern contains \K.

       Perl    has    no    direct    equivalent    of    PCRE_NOTEMPTY     or
       PCRE_NOTEMPTY_ATSTART,  but  it  does  make a special case of a pattern
       match of the empty string within its split() function, and  when  using
       the  /g  modifier.  It  is  possible  to emulate Perl's behaviour after
       matching a null string by first trying the match again at the same off-
       set  with  PCRE_NOTEMPTY_ATSTART  and  PCRE_ANCHORED,  and then if that
       searches the subject for that character, and fails  immediately  if  it
       cannot  find  it,  without actually running the main matching function.
       This means that a special item such as (*COMMIT) at the start of a pat-
       tern  is  not  considered until after a suitable starting point for the
       match has been found. When callouts or (*MARK) items are in use,  these
       "start-up" optimizations can cause them to be skipped if the pattern is
       never actually used. The start-up optimizations are in  effect  a  pre-
       scan of the subject that takes place before the pattern is run.

       The  PCRE_NO_START_OPTIMIZE option disables the start-up optimizations,
       possibly causing performance to suffer,  but  ensuring  that  in  cases
       where  the  result is "no match", the callouts do occur, and that items
       such as (*COMMIT) and (*MARK) are considered at every possible starting
       position  in  the  subject  string. If PCRE_NO_START_OPTIMIZE is set at
       compile time,  it  cannot  be  unset  at  matching  time.  The  use  of
       PCRE_NO_START_OPTIMIZE disables JIT execution; when it is set, matching
       is always done using interpretively.

       Setting PCRE_NO_START_OPTIMIZE can change the  outcome  of  a  matching
       operation.  Consider the pattern

         (*COMMIT)ABC

       When  this  is  compiled, PCRE records the fact that a match must start
       with the character "A". Suppose the subject  string  is  "DEFABC".  The
       start-up  optimization  scans along the subject, finds "A" and runs the
       first match attempt from there. The (*COMMIT) item means that the  pat-
       tern  must  match the current starting position, which in this case, it
       does. However, if the same match  is  run  with  PCRE_NO_START_OPTIMIZE
       set,  the  initial  scan  along the subject string does not happen. The
       first match attempt is run starting  from  "D"  and  when  this  fails,
       (*COMMIT)  prevents  any  further  matches  being tried, so the overall
       result is "no match". If the pattern is studied,  more  start-up  opti-
       mizations  may  be  used. For example, a minimum length for the subject
       may be recorded. Consider the pattern

         (*MARK:A)(X|Y)

       The minimum length for a match is one  character.  If  the  subject  is
       "ABC",  there  will  be  attempts  to  match "ABC", "BC", "C", and then
       finally an empty string.  If the pattern is studied, the final  attempt
       does  not take place, because PCRE knows that the subject is too short,
       and so the (*MARK) is never encountered.  In this  case,  studying  the
       pattern  does  not  affect the overall match result, which is still "no
       match", but it does affect the auxiliary information that is returned.

         PCRE_NO_UTF8_CHECK

       When PCRE_UTF8 is set at compile time, the validity of the subject as a
       UTF-8  string is automatically checked when pcre_exec() is subsequently
       called.  The entire string is checked before any other processing takes
       place.  The  value  of  startoffset  is  also checked to ensure that it
       points to the start of a UTF-8 character. There is a  discussion  about
       the  validity  of  UTF-8 strings in the pcreunicode page. If an invalid
       do this for the second and subsequent calls to pcre_exec() if  you  are
       making  repeated  calls  to  find  all  the matches in a single subject
       string. However, you should be  sure  that  the  value  of  startoffset
       points  to  the  start of a character (or the end of the subject). When
       PCRE_NO_UTF8_CHECK is set, the effect of passing an invalid string as a
       subject  or  an invalid value of startoffset is undefined. Your program
       may crash.

         PCRE_PARTIAL_HARD
         PCRE_PARTIAL_SOFT

       These options turn on the partial matching feature. For backwards  com-
       patibility,  PCRE_PARTIAL is a synonym for PCRE_PARTIAL_SOFT. A partial
       match occurs if the end of the subject string is reached  successfully,
       but  there  are not enough subject characters to complete the match. If
       this happens when PCRE_PARTIAL_SOFT (but not PCRE_PARTIAL_HARD) is set,
       matching  continues  by  testing any remaining alternatives. Only if no
       complete match can be found is PCRE_ERROR_PARTIAL returned  instead  of
       PCRE_ERROR_NOMATCH.  In  other  words,  PCRE_PARTIAL_SOFT says that the
       caller is prepared to handle a partial match, but only if  no  complete
       match can be found.

       If  PCRE_PARTIAL_HARD  is  set, it overrides PCRE_PARTIAL_SOFT. In this
       case, if a partial match  is  found,  pcre_exec()  immediately  returns
       PCRE_ERROR_PARTIAL,  without  considering  any  other  alternatives. In
       other words, when PCRE_PARTIAL_HARD is set, a partial match is  consid-
       ered to be more important that an alternative complete match.

       In  both  cases,  the portion of the string that was inspected when the
       partial match was found is set as the first matching string. There is a
       more  detailed  discussion  of partial and multi-segment matching, with
       examples, in the pcrepartial documentation.

   The string to be matched by pcre_exec()

       The subject string is passed to pcre_exec() as a pointer in subject,  a
       length  in  bytes in length, and a starting byte offset in startoffset.
       If this is  negative  or  greater  than  the  length  of  the  subject,
       pcre_exec()  returns  PCRE_ERROR_BADOFFSET. When the starting offset is
       zero, the search for a match starts at the beginning  of  the  subject,
       and this is by far the most common case. In UTF-8 mode, the byte offset
       must point to the start of a UTF-8 character (or the end  of  the  sub-
       ject).  Unlike  the pattern string, the subject may contain binary zero
       bytes.

       A non-zero starting offset is useful when searching for  another  match
       in  the same subject by calling pcre_exec() again after a previous suc-
       cess.  Setting startoffset differs from just passing over  a  shortened
       string  and  setting  PCRE_NOTBOL  in the case of a pattern that begins
       with any kind of lookbehind. For example, consider the pattern

         \Biss\B

       which finds occurrences of "iss" in the middle of  words.  (\B  matches
       first   trying   the   match   again  at  the  same  offset,  with  the
       PCRE_NOTEMPTY_ATSTART and  PCRE_ANCHORED  options,  and  then  if  that
       fails,  advancing  the  starting  offset  and  trying an ordinary match
       again. There is some code that demonstrates how to do this in the pcre-
       demo sample program. In the most general case, you have to check to see
       if the newline convention recognizes CRLF as a newline, and if so,  and
       the current character is CR followed by LF, advance the starting offset
       by two characters instead of one.

       If a non-zero starting offset is passed when the pattern  is  anchored,
       one attempt to match at the given offset is made. This can only succeed
       if the pattern does not require the match to be at  the  start  of  the
       subject.

   How pcre_exec() returns captured substrings

       In  general, a pattern matches a certain portion of the subject, and in
       addition, further substrings from the subject  may  be  picked  out  by
       parts  of  the  pattern.  Following the usage in Jeffrey Friedl's book,
       this is called "capturing" in what follows, and the  phrase  "capturing
       subpattern"  is  used for a fragment of a pattern that picks out a sub-
       string. PCRE supports several other kinds of  parenthesized  subpattern
       that do not cause substrings to be captured.

       Captured substrings are returned to the caller via a vector of integers
       whose address is passed in ovector. The number of elements in the  vec-
       tor  is  passed in ovecsize, which must be a non-negative number. Note:
       this argument is NOT the size of ovector in bytes.

       The first two-thirds of the vector is used to pass back  captured  sub-
       strings,  each  substring using a pair of integers. The remaining third
       of the vector is used as workspace by pcre_exec() while  matching  cap-
       turing  subpatterns, and is not available for passing back information.
       The number passed in ovecsize should always be a multiple of three.  If
       it is not, it is rounded down.

       When  a  match  is successful, information about captured substrings is
       returned in pairs of integers, starting at the  beginning  of  ovector,
       and  continuing  up  to two-thirds of its length at the most. The first
       element of each pair is set to the byte offset of the  first  character
       in  a  substring, and the second is set to the byte offset of the first
       character after the end of a substring. Note: these values  are  always
       byte offsets, even in UTF-8 mode. They are not character counts.

       The  first  pair  of  integers, ovector[0] and ovector[1], identify the
       portion of the subject string matched by the entire pattern.  The  next
       pair  is  used for the first capturing subpattern, and so on. The value
       returned by pcre_exec() is one more than the highest numbered pair that
       has  been  set.  For example, if two substrings have been captured, the
       returned value is 3. If there are no capturing subpatterns, the  return
       value from a successful match is 1, indicating that just the first pair
       of offsets has been set.

       If a capturing subpattern is matched repeatedly, it is the last portion
       There  are  some  cases where zero is returned (indicating vector over-
       flow) when in fact the vector is exactly the right size for  the  final
       match. For example, consider the pattern

         (a)(?:(b)c|bd)

       If  a  vector of 6 elements (allowing for only 1 captured substring) is
       given with subject string "abd", pcre_exec() will try to set the second
       captured string, thereby recording a vector overflow, before failing to
       match "c" and backing up  to  try  the  second  alternative.  The  zero
       return,  however,  does  correctly  indicate that the maximum number of
       slots (namely 2) have been filled. In similar cases where there is tem-
       porary  overflow,  but  the final number of used slots is actually less
       than the maximum, a non-zero value is returned.

       The pcre_fullinfo() function can be used to find out how many capturing
       subpatterns  there  are  in  a  compiled pattern. The smallest size for
       ovector that will allow for n captured substrings, in addition  to  the
       offsets of the substring matched by the whole pattern, is (n+1)*3.

       It  is  possible for capturing subpattern number n+1 to match some part
       of the subject when subpattern n has not been used at all. For example,
       if  the  string  "abc"  is  matched against the pattern (a|(z))(bc) the
       return from the function is 4, and subpatterns 1 and 3 are matched, but
       2  is  not.  When  this happens, both values in the offset pairs corre-
       sponding to unused subpatterns are set to -1.

       Offset values that correspond to unused subpatterns at the end  of  the
       expression  are  also  set  to  -1. For example, if the string "abc" is
       matched against the pattern (abc)(x(yz)?)? subpatterns 2 and 3 are  not
       matched.  The  return  from the function is 2, because the highest used
       capturing subpattern number is 1, and the offsets for  for  the  second
       and  third  capturing subpatterns (assuming the vector is large enough,
       of course) are set to -1.

       Note: Elements in the first two-thirds of ovector that  do  not  corre-
       spond  to  capturing parentheses in the pattern are never changed. That
       is, if a pattern contains n capturing parentheses, no more  than  ovec-
       tor[0]  to ovector[2n+1] are set by pcre_exec(). The other elements (in
       the first two-thirds) retain whatever values they previously had.

       Some convenience functions are provided  for  extracting  the  captured
       substrings as separate strings. These are described below.

   Error return values from pcre_exec()

       If  pcre_exec()  fails, it returns a negative number. The following are
       defined in the header file:

         PCRE_ERROR_NOMATCH        (-1)

       The subject string did not match the pattern.

         PCRE_ERROR_NULL           (-2)

       pattern that was compiled in an environment of one endianness is run in
       an environment with the other endianness. This is the error  that  PCRE
       gives when the magic number is not present.

         PCRE_ERROR_UNKNOWN_OPCODE (-5)

       While running the pattern match, an unknown item was encountered in the
       compiled pattern. This error could be caused by a bug  in  PCRE  or  by
       overwriting of the compiled pattern.

         PCRE_ERROR_NOMEMORY       (-6)

       If  a  pattern contains back references, but the ovector that is passed
       to pcre_exec() is not big enough to remember the referenced substrings,
       PCRE  gets  a  block of memory at the start of matching to use for this
       purpose. If the call via pcre_malloc() fails, this error is given.  The
       memory is automatically freed at the end of matching.

       This  error  is also given if pcre_stack_malloc() fails in pcre_exec().
       This can happen only when PCRE has been compiled with  --disable-stack-
       for-recursion.

         PCRE_ERROR_NOSUBSTRING    (-7)

       This  error is used by the pcre_copy_substring(), pcre_get_substring(),
       and  pcre_get_substring_list()  functions  (see  below).  It  is  never
       returned by pcre_exec().

         PCRE_ERROR_MATCHLIMIT     (-8)

       The  backtracking  limit,  as  specified  by the match_limit field in a
       pcre_extra structure (or defaulted) was reached.  See  the  description
       above.

         PCRE_ERROR_CALLOUT        (-9)

       This error is never generated by pcre_exec() itself. It is provided for
       use by callout functions that want to yield a distinctive  error  code.
       See the pcrecallout documentation for details.

         PCRE_ERROR_BADUTF8        (-10)

       A  string  that contains an invalid UTF-8 byte sequence was passed as a
       subject, and the PCRE_NO_UTF8_CHECK option was not set. If the size  of
       the  output  vector  (ovecsize)  is  at least 2, the byte offset to the
       start of the the invalid UTF-8 character is placed in  the  first  ele-
       ment,  and  a  reason  code is placed in the second element. The reason
       codes are listed in the following section.  For backward compatibility,
       if  PCRE_PARTIAL_HARD is set and the problem is a truncated UTF-8 char-
       acter  at  the  end  of  the   subject   (reason   codes   1   to   5),
       PCRE_ERROR_SHORTUTF8 is returned instead of PCRE_ERROR_BADUTF8.

         PCRE_ERROR_BADUTF8_OFFSET (-11)

       This  code  is  no  longer  in  use.  It was formerly returned when the
       PCRE_PARTIAL option was used with a compiled pattern  containing  items
       that  were  not  supported  for  partial  matching.  From  release 8.00
       onwards, there are no restrictions on partial matching.

         PCRE_ERROR_INTERNAL       (-14)

       An unexpected internal error has occurred. This error could  be  caused
       by a bug in PCRE or by overwriting of the compiled pattern.

         PCRE_ERROR_BADCOUNT       (-15)

       This error is given if the value of the ovecsize argument is negative.

         PCRE_ERROR_RECURSIONLIMIT (-21)

       The internal recursion limit, as specified by the match_limit_recursion
       field in a pcre_extra structure (or defaulted)  was  reached.  See  the
       description above.

         PCRE_ERROR_BADNEWLINE     (-23)

       An invalid combination of PCRE_NEWLINE_xxx options was given.

         PCRE_ERROR_BADOFFSET      (-24)

       The value of startoffset was negative or greater than the length of the
       subject, that is, the value in length.

         PCRE_ERROR_SHORTUTF8      (-25)

       This error is returned instead of PCRE_ERROR_BADUTF8 when  the  subject
       string  ends with a truncated UTF-8 character and the PCRE_PARTIAL_HARD
       option is set.  Information  about  the  failure  is  returned  as  for
       PCRE_ERROR_BADUTF8.  It  is in fact sufficient to detect this case, but
       this special error code for PCRE_PARTIAL_HARD precedes the  implementa-
       tion  of returned information; it is retained for backwards compatibil-
       ity.

         PCRE_ERROR_RECURSELOOP    (-26)

       This error is returned when pcre_exec() detects a recursion loop within
       the  pattern. Specifically, it means that either the whole pattern or a
       subpattern has been called recursively for the second time at the  same
       position in the subject string. Some simple patterns that might do this
       are detected and faulted at compile time, but more  complicated  cases,
       in particular mutual recursions between two different subpatterns, can-
       not be detected until run time.

         PCRE_ERROR_JIT_STACKLIMIT (-27)

       This error is returned when a pattern  that  was  successfully  studied
       using  a  JIT compile option is being matched, but the memory available
       for the just-in-time processing stack is  not  large  enough.  See  the
       so that it runs on the new host.

       Error numbers -16 to -20, -22, and -30 are not used by pcre_exec().

   Reason codes for invalid UTF-8 strings

       This  section  applies  only  to  the  8-bit library. The corresponding
       information for the 16-bit library is given in the pcre16 page.

       When pcre_exec() returns either PCRE_ERROR_BADUTF8 or PCRE_ERROR_SHORT-
       UTF8,  and  the size of the output vector (ovecsize) is at least 2, the
       offset of the start of the invalid UTF-8 character  is  placed  in  the
       first output vector element (ovector[0]) and a reason code is placed in
       the second element (ovector[1]). The reason codes are  given  names  in
       the pcre.h header file:

         PCRE_UTF8_ERR1
         PCRE_UTF8_ERR2
         PCRE_UTF8_ERR3
         PCRE_UTF8_ERR4
         PCRE_UTF8_ERR5

       The  string  ends  with a truncated UTF-8 character; the code specifies
       how many bytes are missing (1 to 5). Although RFC 3629 restricts  UTF-8
       characters  to  be  no longer than 4 bytes, the encoding scheme (origi-
       nally defined by RFC 2279) allows for  up  to  6  bytes,  and  this  is
       checked first; hence the possibility of 4 or 5 missing bytes.

         PCRE_UTF8_ERR6
         PCRE_UTF8_ERR7
         PCRE_UTF8_ERR8
         PCRE_UTF8_ERR9
         PCRE_UTF8_ERR10

       The two most significant bits of the 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th, or 6th byte of
       the character do not have the binary value 0b10 (that  is,  either  the
       most significant bit is 0, or the next bit is 1).

         PCRE_UTF8_ERR11
         PCRE_UTF8_ERR12

       A  character that is valid by the RFC 2279 rules is either 5 or 6 bytes
       long; these code points are excluded by RFC 3629.

         PCRE_UTF8_ERR13

       A 4-byte character has a value greater than 0x10fff; these code  points
       are excluded by RFC 3629.

         PCRE_UTF8_ERR14

       A  3-byte  character  has  a  value in the range 0xd800 to 0xdfff; this
       range of code points are reserved by RFC 3629 for use with UTF-16,  and
       so are excluded from UTF-8.
         PCRE_UTF8_ERR20

       The two most significant bits of the first byte of a character have the
       binary  value 0b10 (that is, the most significant bit is 1 and the sec-
       ond is 0). Such a byte can only validly occur as the second  or  subse-
       quent byte of a multi-byte character.

         PCRE_UTF8_ERR21

       The  first byte of a character has the value 0xfe or 0xff. These values
       can never occur in a valid UTF-8 string.

EXTRACTING CAPTURED SUBSTRINGS BY NUMBER

       int pcre_copy_substring(const char *subject, int *ovector,
            int stringcount, int stringnumber, char *buffer,
            int buffersize);

       int pcre_get_substring(const char *subject, int *ovector,
            int stringcount, int stringnumber,
            const char **stringptr);

       int pcre_get_substring_list(const char *subject,
            int *ovector, int stringcount, const char ***listptr);

       Captured substrings can be  accessed  directly  by  using  the  offsets
       returned  by  pcre_exec()  in  ovector.  For convenience, the functions
       pcre_copy_substring(),    pcre_get_substring(),    and    pcre_get_sub-
       string_list()  are  provided for extracting captured substrings as new,
       separate, zero-terminated strings. These functions identify  substrings
       by  number.  The  next section describes functions for extracting named
       substrings.

       A substring that contains a binary zero is correctly extracted and  has
       a  further zero added on the end, but the result is not, of course, a C
       string.  However, you can process such a string  by  referring  to  the
       length  that  is  returned  by  pcre_copy_substring() and pcre_get_sub-
       string().  Unfortunately, the interface to pcre_get_substring_list() is
       not  adequate for handling strings containing binary zeros, because the
       end of the final string is not independently indicated.

       The first three arguments are the same for all  three  of  these  func-
       tions:  subject  is  the subject string that has just been successfully
       matched, ovector is a pointer to the vector of integer offsets that was
       passed to pcre_exec(), and stringcount is the number of substrings that
       were captured by the match, including the substring  that  matched  the
       entire regular expression. This is the value returned by pcre_exec() if
       it is greater than zero. If pcre_exec() returned zero, indicating  that
       it  ran out of space in ovector, the value passed as stringcount should
       be the number of elements in the vector divided by three.

       The functions pcre_copy_substring() and pcre_get_substring() extract  a
       single  substring,  whose  number  is given as stringnumber. A value of
       zero extracts the substring that matched the  entire  pattern,  whereas
         PCRE_ERROR_NOSUBSTRING    (-7)

       There is no substring whose number is stringnumber.

       The  pcre_get_substring_list()  function  extracts  all  available sub-
       strings and builds a list of pointers to them. All this is  done  in  a
       single block of memory that is obtained via pcre_malloc. The address of
       the memory block is returned via listptr, which is also  the  start  of
       the  list  of  string pointers. The end of the list is marked by a NULL
       pointer. The yield of the function is zero if all  went  well,  or  the
       error code

         PCRE_ERROR_NOMEMORY       (-6)

       if the attempt to get the memory block failed.

       When  any of these functions encounter a substring that is unset, which
       can happen when capturing subpattern number n+1 matches  some  part  of
       the  subject, but subpattern n has not been used at all, they return an
       empty string. This can be distinguished from a genuine zero-length sub-
       string  by inspecting the appropriate offset in ovector, which is nega-
       tive for unset substrings.

       The two convenience functions pcre_free_substring() and  pcre_free_sub-
       string_list()  can  be  used  to free the memory returned by a previous
       call  of  pcre_get_substring()  or  pcre_get_substring_list(),  respec-
       tively.  They  do  nothing  more  than  call the function pointed to by
       pcre_free, which of course could be called directly from a  C  program.
       However,  PCRE is used in some situations where it is linked via a spe-
       cial  interface  to  another  programming  language  that  cannot   use
       pcre_free  directly;  it is for these cases that the functions are pro-
       vided.

EXTRACTING CAPTURED SUBSTRINGS BY NAME

       int pcre_get_stringnumber(const pcre *code,
            const char *name);

       int pcre_copy_named_substring(const pcre *code,
            const char *subject, int *ovector,
            int stringcount, const char *stringname,
            char *buffer, int buffersize);

       int pcre_get_named_substring(const pcre *code,
            const char *subject, int *ovector,
            int stringcount, const char *stringname,
            const char **stringptr);

       To extract a substring by name, you first have to find associated  num-
       ber.  For example, for this pattern

         (a+)b(?<xxx>\d+)...

       the number of the subpattern called "xxx" is 2. If the name is known to
       named functions that extract by number. As these are described  in  the
       previous  section,  they  are not re-described here. There are just two
       differences:

       First, instead of a substring number, a substring name is  given.  Sec-
       ond, there is an extra argument, given at the start, which is a pointer
       to the compiled pattern. This is needed in order to gain access to  the
       name-to-number translation table.

       These  functions call pcre_get_stringnumber(), and if it succeeds, they
       then call pcre_copy_substring() or pcre_get_substring(),  as  appropri-
       ate.  NOTE:  If PCRE_DUPNAMES is set and there are duplicate names, the
       behaviour may not be what you want (see the next section).

       Warning: If the pattern uses the (?| feature to set up multiple subpat-
       terns  with  the  same number, as described in the section on duplicate
       subpattern numbers in the pcrepattern page, you  cannot  use  names  to
       distinguish  the  different subpatterns, because names are not included
       in the compiled code. The matching process uses only numbers. For  this
       reason,  the  use of different names for subpatterns of the same number
       causes an error at compile time.

DUPLICATE SUBPATTERN NAMES

       int pcre_get_stringtable_entries(const pcre *code,
            const char *name, char **first, char **last);

       When a pattern is compiled with the  PCRE_DUPNAMES  option,  names  for
       subpatterns  are not required to be unique. (Duplicate names are always
       allowed for subpatterns with the same number, created by using the  (?|
       feature.  Indeed,  if  such subpatterns are named, they are required to
       use the same names.)

       Normally, patterns with duplicate names are such that in any one match,
       only  one of the named subpatterns participates. An example is shown in
       the pcrepattern documentation.

       When   duplicates   are   present,   pcre_copy_named_substring()    and
       pcre_get_named_substring()  return the first substring corresponding to
       the given name that is set. If  none  are  set,  PCRE_ERROR_NOSUBSTRING
       (-7)  is  returned;  no  data  is returned. The pcre_get_stringnumber()
       function returns one of the numbers that are associated with the  name,
       but it is not defined which it is.

       If  you want to get full details of all captured substrings for a given
       name, you must use  the  pcre_get_stringtable_entries()  function.  The
       first argument is the compiled pattern, and the second is the name. The
       third and fourth are pointers to variables which  are  updated  by  the
       function. After it has run, they point to the first and last entries in
       the name-to-number table  for  the  given  name.  The  function  itself
       returns  the  length  of  each entry, or PCRE_ERROR_NOSUBSTRING (-7) if
       there are none. The format of the table is described above in the  sec-
       tion  entitled  Information about a pattern above.  Given all the rele-
       vant entries for the name, you can extract each of their  numbers,  and

       What you have to do is to insert a callout right at the end of the pat-
       tern.   When your callout function is called, extract and save the cur-
       rent matched substring. Then return  1,  which  forces  pcre_exec()  to
       backtrack  and  try other alternatives. Ultimately, when it runs out of
       matches, pcre_exec() will yield PCRE_ERROR_NOMATCH.

OBTAINING AN ESTIMATE OF STACK USAGE

       Matching certain patterns using pcre_exec() can use a  lot  of  process
       stack,  which  in  certain  environments can be rather limited in size.
       Some users find it helpful to have an estimate of the amount  of  stack
       that  is  used  by  pcre_exec(),  to help them set recursion limits, as
       described in the pcrestack documentation. The estimate that  is  output
       by pcretest when called with the -m and -C options is obtained by call-
       ing pcre_exec with the values NULL, NULL, NULL, -999, and -999 for  its
       first five arguments.

       Normally,  if  its  first  argument  is  NULL,  pcre_exec() immediately
       returns the negative error code PCRE_ERROR_NULL, but with this  special
       combination  of  arguments,  it returns instead a negative number whose
       absolute value is the approximate stack frame size in bytes.  (A  nega-
       tive  number  is  used so that it is clear that no match has happened.)
       The value is approximate because in  some  cases,  recursive  calls  to
       pcre_exec() occur when there are one or two additional variables on the
       stack.

       If PCRE has been compiled to use the heap  instead  of  the  stack  for
       recursion,  the  value  returned  is  the  size  of  each block that is
       obtained from the heap.

MATCHING A PATTERN: THE ALTERNATIVE FUNCTION

       int pcre_dfa_exec(const pcre *code, const pcre_extra *extra,
            const char *subject, int length, int startoffset,
            int options, int *ovector, int ovecsize,
            int *workspace, int wscount);

       The function pcre_dfa_exec()  is  called  to  match  a  subject  string
       against  a  compiled pattern, using a matching algorithm that scans the
       subject string just once, and does not backtrack.  This  has  different
       characteristics  to  the  normal  algorithm, and is not compatible with
       Perl. Some of the features of PCRE patterns are not  supported.  Never-
       theless,  there are times when this kind of matching can be useful. For
       a discussion of the two matching algorithms, and  a  list  of  features
       that  pcre_dfa_exec() does not support, see the pcrematching documenta-
       tion.

       The arguments for the pcre_dfa_exec() function  are  the  same  as  for
       pcre_exec(), plus two extras. The ovector argument is used in a differ-
       ent way, and this is described below. The other  common  arguments  are
       used  in  the  same way as for pcre_exec(), so their description is not
       repeated here.

           re,             /* result of pcre_compile() */
           NULL,           /* we didn't study the pattern */
           "some string",  /* the subject string */
           11,             /* the length of the subject string */
           0,              /* start at offset 0 in the subject */
           0,              /* default options */
           ovector,        /* vector of integers for substring information */
           10,             /* number of elements (NOT size in bytes) */
           wspace,         /* working space vector */
           20);            /* number of elements (NOT size in bytes) */

   Option bits for pcre_dfa_exec()

       The unused bits of the options argument  for  pcre_dfa_exec()  must  be
       zero.  The  only  bits  that  may  be  set are PCRE_ANCHORED, PCRE_NEW-
       LINE_xxx,        PCRE_NOTBOL,        PCRE_NOTEOL,        PCRE_NOTEMPTY,
       PCRE_NOTEMPTY_ATSTART,       PCRE_NO_UTF8_CHECK,      PCRE_BSR_ANYCRLF,
       PCRE_BSR_UNICODE, PCRE_NO_START_OPTIMIZE, PCRE_PARTIAL_HARD,  PCRE_PAR-
       TIAL_SOFT,  PCRE_DFA_SHORTEST,  and PCRE_DFA_RESTART.  All but the last
       four of these are  exactly  the  same  as  for  pcre_exec(),  so  their
       description is not repeated here.

         PCRE_PARTIAL_HARD
         PCRE_PARTIAL_SOFT

       These  have the same general effect as they do for pcre_exec(), but the
       details are slightly  different.  When  PCRE_PARTIAL_HARD  is  set  for
       pcre_dfa_exec(),  it  returns PCRE_ERROR_PARTIAL if the end of the sub-
       ject is reached and there is still at least  one  matching  possibility
       that requires additional characters. This happens even if some complete
       matches have also been found. When PCRE_PARTIAL_SOFT is set, the return
       code PCRE_ERROR_NOMATCH is converted into PCRE_ERROR_PARTIAL if the end
       of the subject is reached, there have been  no  complete  matches,  but
       there  is  still  at least one matching possibility. The portion of the
       string that was inspected when the longest partial match was  found  is
       set  as  the  first  matching  string  in  both cases.  There is a more
       detailed discussion of partial and multi-segment matching,  with  exam-
       ples, in the pcrepartial documentation.

         PCRE_DFA_SHORTEST

       Setting  the  PCRE_DFA_SHORTEST option causes the matching algorithm to
       stop as soon as it has found one match. Because of the way the alterna-
       tive  algorithm  works, this is necessarily the shortest possible match
       at the first possible matching point in the subject string.

         PCRE_DFA_RESTART

       When pcre_dfa_exec() returns a partial match, it is possible to call it
       again,  with  additional  subject characters, and have it continue with
       the same match. The PCRE_DFA_RESTART option requests this action;  when
       it  is  set,  the workspace and wscount options must reference the same
       vector as before because data about the match so far is  left  in  them
       after a partial match. There is more discussion of this facility in the
       is matched against the string

         This is <something> <something else> <something further> no more

       the three matched strings are

         <something>
         <something> <something else>
         <something> <something else> <something further>

       On success, the yield of the function is a number  greater  than  zero,
       which  is  the  number of matched substrings. The substrings themselves
       are returned in ovector. Each string uses two elements;  the  first  is
       the  offset  to  the start, and the second is the offset to the end. In
       fact, all the strings have the same start  offset.  (Space  could  have
       been  saved by giving this only once, but it was decided to retain some
       compatibility with the way pcre_exec() returns data,  even  though  the
       meaning of the strings is different.)

       The strings are returned in reverse order of length; that is, the long-
       est matching string is given first. If there were too many  matches  to
       fit  into ovector, the yield of the function is zero, and the vector is
       filled with the longest matches.  Unlike  pcre_exec(),  pcre_dfa_exec()
       can use the entire ovector for returning matched strings.

   Error returns from pcre_dfa_exec()

       The  pcre_dfa_exec()  function returns a negative number when it fails.
       Many of the errors are the same  as  for  pcre_exec(),  and  these  are
       described  above.   There are in addition the following errors that are
       specific to pcre_dfa_exec():

         PCRE_ERROR_DFA_UITEM      (-16)

       This return is given if pcre_dfa_exec() encounters an item in the  pat-
       tern  that  it  does not support, for instance, the use of \C or a back
       reference.

         PCRE_ERROR_DFA_UCOND      (-17)

       This return is given if pcre_dfa_exec()  encounters  a  condition  item
       that  uses  a back reference for the condition, or a test for recursion
       in a specific group. These are not supported.

         PCRE_ERROR_DFA_UMLIMIT    (-18)

       This return is given if pcre_dfa_exec() is called with an  extra  block
       that  contains  a  setting  of the match_limit or match_limit_recursion
       fields. This is not supported (these fields  are  meaningless  for  DFA
       matching).

         PCRE_ERROR_DFA_WSSIZE     (-19)

       This  return  is  given  if  pcre_dfa_exec()  runs  out of space in the
       plausibility checks are made on the contents of  the  workspace,  which
       should  contain  data about the previous partial match. If any of these
       checks fail, this error is given.

SEE ALSO

       pcre16(3),  pcrebuild(3),  pcrecallout(3),  pcrecpp(3)(3),   pcrematch-
       ing(3), pcrepartial(3), pcreposix(3), pcreprecompile(3), pcresample(3),
       pcrestack(3).

AUTHOR

       Philip Hazel
       University Computing Service
       Cambridge CB2 3QH, England.

REVISION

       Last updated: 17 June 2012
       Copyright (c) 1997-2012 University of Cambridge.



PCRE 8.31                         04 May 2012                       PCREAPI(3)
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