SWAPON(2)                  Linux Programmer's Manual                 SWAPON(2)

       swapon, swapoff - start/stop swapping to file/device

       #include <unistd.h>
       #include <sys/swap.h>

       int swapon(const char *path, int swapflags);
       int swapoff(const char *path);

       swapon()  sets  the  swap area to the file or block device specified by
       path.  swapoff() stops swapping to the file or block  device  specified
       by path.

       If the SWAP_FLAG_PREFER flag is specified in the swapon() swapflags ar-
       gument, the new swap area will have a  higher  priority  than  default.
       The priority is encoded within swapflags as:


       If  the  SWAP_FLAG_DISCARD  flag is specified in the swapon() swapflags
       argument, freed swap pages will be discarded before they are reused, if
       the  swap device supports the discard or trim operation.  (This may im-
       prove performance on some Solid State Devices, but often it does  not.)
       See also NOTES.

       These  functions  may  be used only by a privileged process (one having
       the CAP_SYS_ADMIN capability).

       Each swap area has a priority, either high or low.  The default  prior-
       ity  is low.  Within the low-priority areas, newer areas are even lower
       priority than older areas.

       All priorities set with swapflags are high-priority,  higher  than  de-
       fault.   They  may  have  any  nonnegative  value chosen by the caller.
       Higher numbers mean higher priority.

       Swap pages are allocated from areas in priority order, highest priority
       first.   For areas with different priorities, a higher-priority area is
       exhausted before using a lower-priority area.  If  two  or  more  areas
       have the same priority, and it is the highest priority available, pages
       are allocated on a round-robin basis between them.

       As of Linux 1.3.6, the kernel usually follows these  rules,  but  there
       are exceptions.

       On  success,  zero is returned.  On error, -1 is returned, and errno is
       set appropriately.

       EBUSY  (for swapon()) The specified path is already  being  used  as  a
              swap area.

       EINVAL The  file  path exists, but refers neither to a regular file nor
              to a block device;

       EINVAL (swapon()) The indicated path does not contain a valid swap sig-
              nature or resides on an in-memory filesystem such as tmpfs(5).

       EINVAL (since Linux 3.4)
              (swapon()) An invalid flag value was specified in flags.

       EINVAL (swapoff()) path is not currently a swap area.

       ENFILE The system-wide limit on the total number of open files has been

       ENOENT The file path does not exist.

       ENOMEM The system has insufficient memory to start swapping.

       EPERM  The caller does not have the CAP_SYS_ADMIN capability.  Alterna-
              tively, the maximum number of swap files are already in use; see
              NOTES below.

       These functions are Linux-specific and should not be used  in  programs
       intended  to be portable.  The second swapflags argument was introduced
       in Linux 1.3.2.

       The partition or path must be prepared with mkswap(8).

       There is an upper limit on the number of swap files that may  be  used,
       defined  by  the  kernel constant MAX_SWAPFILES.  Before kernel 2.4.10,
       MAX_SWAPFILES has the value 8; since kernel 2.4.10, it  has  the  value
       32.  Since kernel 2.6.18, the limit is decreased by 2 (thus: 30) if the
       kernel is built with the CONFIG_MIGRATION option  (which  reserves  two
       swap  table entries for the page migration features of mbind(2) and mi-
       grate_pages(2)).  Since kernel 2.6.32, the limit is  further  decreased
       by 1 if the kernel is built with the CONFIG_MEMORY_FAILURE option.

       Discard of swap pages was introduced in kernel 2.6.29, then made condi-
       tional on the SWAP_FLAG_DISCARD flag in kernel 2.6.36, which still dis-
       cards  the  entire swap area when swapon() is called, even if that flag
       bit is not set.

       mkswap(8), swapoff(8), swapon(8)

       This page is part of release 5.05 of the Linux  man-pages  project.   A
       description  of  the project, information about reporting bugs, and the
       latest    version    of    this    page,    can     be     found     at

Linux                             2017-09-15                         SWAPON(2)
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