gzip [ -acdfhlLnNrtvV19 ] [-S suffix] [ name ...  ]
       gunzip [ -acfhlLnNrtvV ] [-S suffix] [ name ...  ]
       zcat [ -fhLV ] [ name ...  ]

       Gzip  reduces  the  size  of  the  named  files using Lempel-Ziv coding
       (LZ77).  Whenever possible, each file  is  replaced  by  one  with  the
       extension .gz, while keeping the same ownership modes, access and modi-
       fication times.  (The default extension is -gz for VMS,  z  for  MSDOS,
       OS/2  FAT, Windows NT FAT and Atari.)  If no files are specified, or if
       a file name is "-", the standard input is compressed  to  the  standard
       output.  Gzip will only attempt to compress regular files.  In particu-
       lar, it will ignore symbolic links.

       If the compressed file name is too long for its file system, gzip trun-
       cates  it.   Gzip  attempts to truncate only the parts of the file name
       longer than 3 characters.  (A part is delimited by dots.) If  the  name
       consists  of  small  parts  only,  the longest parts are truncated. For
       example, if file names are limited to 14 characters, gzip.msdos.exe  is
       compressed to gzi.msd.exe.gz.  Names are not truncated on systems which
       do not have a limit on file name length.

       By default, gzip keeps the original file name and timestamp in the com-
       pressed  file.  These  are used when decompressing the file with the -N
       option. This is useful when the compressed file name was  truncated  or
       when the time stamp was not preserved after a file transfer.

       Compressed  files  can be restored to their original form using gzip -d
       or gunzip or zcat.  If the original name saved in the  compressed  file
       is not suitable for its file system, a new name is constructed from the
       original one to make it legal.

       gunzip takes a list of files on its command line and replaces each file
       whose  name ends with .gz, -gz, .z, -z, or _z (ignoring case) and which
       begins with the correct magic number with an uncompressed file  without
       the  original extension.  gunzip also recognizes the special extensions
       .tgz and .taz as shorthands for .tar.gz and .tar.Z respectively.   When
       compressing, gzip uses the .tgz extension if necessary instead of trun-
       cating a file with a .tar extension.

       gunzip can currently decompress files created by gzip,  zip,  compress,
       compress  -H  or pack.  The detection of the input format is automatic.
       When using the first two formats, gunzip checks a 32 bit CRC. For pack,
       gunzip checks the uncompressed length. The standard compress format was
       not designed to allow consistency checks. However gunzip  is  sometimes
       able  to detect a bad .Z file. If you get an error when uncompressing a
       .Z file, do not assume that the .Z file is correct simply  because  the
       standard  uncompress  does  not complain. This generally means that the
       standard uncompress does not check its  input,  and  happily  generates
       garbage  output.   The  SCO compress -H format (lzh compression method)
       does not include a CRC but also allows some consistency checks.

       .gz suffix or not.

       Gzip uses the Lempel-Ziv algorithm used in zip and PKZIP.   The  amount
       of  compression  obtained depends on the size of the input and the dis-
       tribution of common substrings.  Typically, text such as source code or
       English  is  reduced  by  60-70%.  Compression is generally much better
       than that achieved by LZW (as used in  compress),  Huffman  coding  (as
       used in pack), or adaptive Huffman coding (compact).

       Compression  is  always  performed,  even  if  the  compressed  file is
       slightly larger than the original. The worst case expansion  is  a  few
       bytes  for  the  gzip  file header, plus 5 bytes every 32K block, or an
       expansion ratio of 0.015% for large files. Note that the actual  number
       of  used  disk blocks almost never increases.  gzip preserves the mode,
       ownership and timestamps of files when compressing or decompressing.

       The gzip file format is specified in P. Deutsch, GZIP file format spec-
       ification version 4.3, <ftp://ftp.isi.edu/in-notes/rfc1952.txt>, Inter-
       net RFC 1952 (May 1996).  The zip deflation format is specified  in  P.
       Deutsch,  DEFLATE  Compressed  Data  Format  Specification version 1.3,
       <ftp://ftp.isi.edu/in-notes/rfc1951.txt>, Internet RFC 1951 (May 1996).

       -a --ascii
              Ascii text mode: convert end-of-lines using  local  conventions.
              This  option  is  supported  only  on some non-Unix systems. For
              MSDOS, CR LF is converted to LF when compressing, and LF is con-
              verted to CR LF when decompressing.

       -c --stdout --to-stdout
              Write  output on standard output; keep original files unchanged.
              If there are several input  files,  the  output  consists  of  a
              sequence  of  independently compressed members. To obtain better
              compression, concatenate  all  input  files  before  compressing

       -d --decompress --uncompress

       -f --force
              Force compression or decompression even if the file has multiple
              links or the corresponding file already exists, or if  the  com-
              pressed data is read from or written to a terminal. If the input
              data is not in a format recognized by gzip, and  if  the  option
              --stdout  is  also  given, copy the input data without change to
              the standard output: let zcat behave  as  cat.   If  -f  is  not
              given,  and  when not running in the background, gzip prompts to
              verify whether an existing file should be overwritten.

       -h --help
              Display a help screen and quit.

       -l --list

              In combination with the --verbose option, the  following  fields
              are also displayed:

                  method: compression method
                  crc: the 32-bit CRC of the uncompressed data
                  date & time: time stamp for the uncompressed file

              The  compression  methods  currently supported are deflate, com-
              press, lzh (SCO compress -H) and pack.   The  crc  is  given  as
              ffffffff for a file not in gzip format.

              With  --name,  the  uncompressed name,  date and time  are those
              stored within the compress file if present.

              With --verbose, the size totals and compression  ratio  for  all
              files  is  also  displayed,  unless some sizes are unknown. With
              --quiet, the title and totals lines are not displayed.

       -L --license
              Display the gzip license and quit.

       -n --no-name
              When compressing, do not save the original file  name  and  time
              stamp by default. (The original name is always saved if the name
              had to be truncated.) When decompressing,  do  not  restore  the
              original  file name if present (remove only the gzip suffix from
              the compressed file name) and do not restore the  original  time
              stamp if present (copy it from the compressed file). This option
              is the default when decompressing.

       -N --name
              When compressing, always save the original file  name  and  time
              stamp;  this  is  the  default.  When decompressing, restore the
              original file name and time stamp if  present.  This  option  is
              useful on systems which have a limit on file name length or when
              the time stamp has been lost after a file transfer.

       -q --quiet
              Suppress all warnings.

       -r --recursive
              Travel the directory structure recursively. If any of  the  file
              names  specified  on the command line are directories, gzip will
              descend into the directory and compress all the files  it  finds
              there (or decompress them in the case of gunzip ).

       -S .suf --suffix .suf
              Use  suffix  .suf  instead  of .gz. Any suffix can be given, but
              suffixes other than .z and .gz should be avoided to avoid confu-
              sion when files are transferred to other systems.  A null suffix
              forces gunzip to  try decompression on all given  files  regard-
              less of suffix, as in:

       -V --version
              Version. Display the version number and compilation options then

       -# --fast --best
              Regulate the speed of compression using the specified  digit  #,
              where  -1  or  --fast  indicates  the fastest compression method
              (less compression) and -9 or --best indicates the  slowest  com-
              pression  method  (best  compression).   The default compression
              level is -6 (that is, biased towards high compression at expense
              of speed).

       Multiple  compressed  files  can  be concatenated. In this case, gunzip
       will extract all members at once. For example:

             gzip -c file1  > foo.gz
             gzip -c file2 >> foo.gz


             gunzip -c foo

       is equivalent to

             cat file1 file2

       In case of damage to one member of a .gz file, other members can  still
       be  recovered  (if the damaged member is removed). However, you can get
       better compression by compressing all members at once:

             cat file1 file2 | gzip > foo.gz

       compresses better than

             gzip -c file1 file2 > foo.gz

       If you want to recompress concatenated files to get better compression,

             gzip -cd old.gz | gzip > new.gz

       If a compressed file consists of several members, the uncompressed size
       and CRC reported by the --list option applies to the last member  only.
       If you need the uncompressed size for all members, you can use:

             gzip -cd file.gz | wc -c

       If  you  wish  to create a single archive file with multiple members so
       that members can later be extracted independently, use an archiver such
       as  tar or zip. GNU tar supports the -z option to invoke gzip transpar-
       ently. gzip is designed as a complement to tar, not as a replacement.

       press(1), pack(1), compact(1)

       The gzip file format is specified in P. Deutsch, GZIP file format spec-
       ification version 4.3, <ftp://ftp.isi.edu/in-notes/rfc1952.txt>, Inter-
       net RFC 1952 (May 1996).  The zip deflation format is specified  in  P.
       Deutsch,  DEFLATE  Compressed  Data  Format  Specification version 1.3,
       <ftp://ftp.isi.edu/in-notes/rfc1951.txt>, Internet RFC 1951 (May 1996).

       Exit status is normally 0; if an error occurs, exit status is 1.  If  a
       warning occurs, exit status is 2.

       Usage: gzip [-cdfhlLnNrtvV19] [-S suffix] [file ...]
              Invalid options were specified on the command line.

       file: not in gzip format
              The file specified to gunzip has not been compressed.

       file: Corrupt input. Use zcat to recover some data.
              The  compressed  file has been damaged. The data up to the point
              of failure can be recovered using

                    zcat file > recover

       file: compressed with xx bits, can only handle yy bits
              File was compressed (using LZW) by a  program  that  could  deal
              with more bits than the decompress code on this machine.  Recom-
              press the file with gzip, which compresses better and uses  less

       file: already has .gz suffix -- no change
              The  file  is assumed to be already compressed.  Rename the file
              and try again.

       file already exists; do you wish to overwrite (y or n)?
              Respond "y" if you want the output file to be replaced;  "n"  if

       gunzip: corrupt input
              A  SIGSEGV  violation  was detected which usually means that the
              input file has been corrupted.

       xx.x% Percentage of the input saved by compression.
              (Relevant only for -v and -l.)

       -- not a regular file or directory: ignored
              When the input file is not a regular file or directory, (e.g.  a
              symbolic link, socket, FIFO, device file), it is left unaltered.

       -- has xx other links: unchanged
              The  input  file has links; it is left unchanged.  See ln(1) for
              more information. Use the -f flag to force compression of multi-
              ply-linked files.

       GNU tar. Make sure that the same block size (-b option of tar) is  used
       for  reading  and  writing  compressed  data  on  tapes.  (This example
       assumes you are using the GNU version of tar.)

       The gzip format represents the input size modulo 2^32,  so  the  --list
       option  reports incorrect uncompressed sizes and compression ratios for
       uncompressed files 4 GB and larger.  To work around this  problem,  you
       can  use  the following command to discover a large uncompressed file's
       true size:

             zcat file.gz | wc -c

       The --list option reports sizes as -1 and crc as ffffffff if  the  com-
       pressed file is on a non seekable media.

       In  some rare cases, the --best option gives worse compression than the
       default compression level (-6). On some highly  redundant  files,  com-
       press compresses better than gzip.

       Copyright (C) 1998, 1999, 2001, 2002 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
       Copyright (C) 1992, 1993 Jean-loup Gailly

       Permission  is  granted  to make and distribute verbatim copies of this
       manual provided the copyright notice and  this  permission  notice  are
       preserved on all copies.

       Permission  is granted to copy and distribute modified versions of this
       manual under the conditions for verbatim  copying,  provided  that  the
       entire  resulting derived work is distributed under the terms of a per-
       mission notice identical to this one.

       Permission is granted to copy and distribute translations of this  man-
       ual into another language, under the above conditions for modified ver-
       sions, except that this permission notice may be stated in  a  transla-
       tion approved by the Foundation.

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