UNZIP(1)                    General Commands Manual                   UNZIP(1)

       unzip - list, test and extract compressed files in a ZIP archive

       unzip  [-Z] [-cflptTuvz[abjnoqsCDKLMUVWX$/:^]] file[.zip] [file(s) ...]
       [-x xfile(s) ...] [-d exdir]

       unzip will list, test, or extract files from a  ZIP  archive,  commonly
       found  on MS-DOS systems.  The default behavior (with no options) is to
       extract into the current directory (and subdirectories  below  it)  all
       files  from  the  specified  ZIP archive.  A companion program, zip(1),
       creates ZIP archives; both programs are compatible with  archives  cre-
       ated  by  PKWARE's  PKZIP and PKUNZIP for MS-DOS, but in many cases the
       program options or default behaviors differ.

              Path of the ZIP archive(s).  If  the  file  specification  is  a
              wildcard, each matching file is processed in an order determined
              by the operating system (or file system).  Only the filename can
              be a wildcard; the path itself cannot.  Wildcard expressions are
              similar to those supported in commonly  used  Unix  shells  (sh,
              ksh, csh) and may contain:

              *      matches a sequence of 0 or more characters

              ?      matches exactly 1 character

              [...]  matches  any  single character found inside the brackets;
                     ranges are specified by a beginning character, a  hyphen,
                     and  an  ending  character.  If an exclamation point or a
                     caret (`!' or `^') follows the  left  bracket,  then  the
                     range  of  characters within the brackets is complemented
                     (that is,  anything  except  the  characters  inside  the
                     brackets  is  considered a match).  To specify a verbatim
                     left bracket, the three-character sequence ``[[]'' has to
                     be used.

              (Be  sure  to quote any character that might otherwise be inter-
              preted or modified by the operating system,  particularly  under
              Unix  and  VMS.)   If no matches are found, the specification is
              assumed to be a literal filename; and if that  also  fails,  the
              suffix  .zip  is  appended.  Note that self-extracting ZIP files
              are supported, as with any other ZIP archive; just  specify  the
              .exe suffix (if any) explicitly.

              An  optional  list of archive members to be processed, separated
              by spaces.  (VMS versions compiled with VMSCLI defined must  de-
              limit  files  with  commas  instead.   See -v in OPTIONS below.)
              Regular expressions (wildcards) may be used  to  match  multiple
              members;  see  above.   Again, be sure to quote expressions that
              would otherwise be expanded or modified by the operating system.

       [-x xfile(s)]
              An optional list of archive members to be excluded from process-
              ing.   Since  wildcard characters normally match (`/') directory
              separators (for exceptions see the option -W), this  option  may
              be  used  to  exclude any files that are in subdirectories.  For
              example, ``unzip foo *.[ch] -x */*'' would extract all C  source
              files  in  the  main  directory, but none in any subdirectories.
              Without the -x option, all C source  files  in  all  directories
              within the zipfile would be extracted.

       [-d exdir]
              An  optional  directory  to which to extract files.  By default,
              all files and subdirectories are recreated in the current direc-
              tory;  the -d option allows extraction in an arbitrary directory
              (always assuming one has permission to write to the  directory).
              This  option  need not appear at the end of the command line; it
              is also accepted before the zipfile specification (with the nor-
              mal  options),  immediately  after the zipfile specification, or
              between the file(s) and the -x option.  The option and directory
              may  be  concatenated  without any white space between them, but
              note that this may cause normal shell behavior to be suppressed.
              In  particular,  ``-d ~''  (tilde)  is expanded by Unix C shells
              into the name of the  user's  home  directory,  but  ``-d~''  is
              treated  as  a  literal subdirectory ``~'' of the current direc-

       Note that, in order to  support  obsolescent  hardware,  unzip's  usage
       screen  is limited to 22 or 23 lines and should therefore be considered
       only a reminder of the basic unzip syntax  rather  than  an  exhaustive
       list of all possible flags.  The exhaustive list follows:

       -Z     zipinfo(1) mode.  If the first option on the command line is -Z,
              the remaining options are taken to be zipinfo(1)  options.   See
              the appropriate manual page for a description of these options.

       -A     [OS/2,  Unix  DLL] print extended help for the DLL's programming
              interface (API).

       -c     extract files to stdout/screen (``CRT'').  This option is  simi-
              lar  to  the  -p  option  except  that  the name of each file is
              printed as it is extracted, the -a option is allowed, and ASCII-
              EBCDIC  conversion  is  automatically  performed if appropriate.
              This option is not listed in the unzip usage screen.

       -f     freshen existing files, i.e., extract only those files that  al-
              ready exist on disk and that are newer than the disk copies.  By
              default unzip queries before overwriting, but the -o option  may
              be used to suppress the queries.  Note that under many operating
              systems, the TZ (timezone) environment variable must be set cor-
              rectly  in  order for -f and -u to work properly (under Unix the
              variable is usually set automatically).  The  reasons  for  this
              are  somewhat subtle but have to do with the differences between
              DOS-format file times (always local time) and Unix-format  times
              (always  in  GMT/UTC)  and  the necessity to compare the two.  A
              typical TZ value is ``PST8PDT'' (US Pacific time with  automatic
              adjustment for Daylight Savings Time or ``summer time'').

       -l     list archive files (short format).  The names, uncompressed file
              sizes and modification dates and times of  the  specified  files
              are  printed, along with totals for all files specified.  If Un-
              Zip was compiled with OS2_EAS defined, the -l option also  lists
              columns  for  the sizes of stored OS/2 extended attributes (EAs)
              and OS/2 access control lists (ACLs).  In addition, the  zipfile
              comment and individual file comments (if any) are displayed.  If
              a file was archived from a single-case file system (for example,
              the old MS-DOS FAT file system) and the -L option was given, the
              filename is converted to lowercase and is prefixed with a  caret

       -p     extract  files  to  pipe (stdout).  Nothing but the file data is
              sent to stdout, and the files are  always  extracted  in  binary
              format, just as they are stored (no conversions).

       -t     test archive files.  This option extracts each specified file in
              memory and compares the CRC (cyclic  redundancy  check,  an  en-
              hanced  checksum)  of the expanded file with the original file's
              stored CRC value.

       -T     [most OSes] set the timestamp on the archive(s) to that  of  the
              newest  file  in each one.  This corresponds to zip's -go option
              except that it can be used on wildcard zipfiles  (e.g.,  ``unzip
              -T \*.zip'') and is much faster.

       -u     update  existing  files and create new ones if needed.  This op-
              tion performs the same function as  the  -f  option,  extracting
              (with  query) files that are newer than those with the same name
              on disk, and in addition it extracts those files that do not al-
              ready  exist  on  disk.  See -f above for information on setting
              the timezone properly.

       -v     list archive files (verbose format) or show  diagnostic  version
              info.  This option has evolved and now behaves as both an option
              and a modifier.  As an option it has two purposes:  when a  zip-
              file  is specified with no other options, -v lists archive files
              verbosely, adding to the basic -l info the  compression  method,
              compressed  size, compression ratio and 32-bit CRC.  In contrast
              to most of the competing utilities, unzip removes the  12  addi-
              tional  header  bytes  of  encrypted entries from the compressed
              size numbers.  Therefore, compressed size and compression  ratio
              figures  are  independent  of  the entry's encryption status and
              show the correct compression performance.  (The complete size of
              the  encrypted compressed data stream for zipfile entries is re-
              ported by the more verbose zipinfo(1) reports, see the  separate
              manual.)   When  no  zipfile is specified (that is, the complete
              command is simply ``unzip -v''), a diagnostic screen is printed.
              In  addition to the normal header with release date and version,
              unzip lists the home Info-ZIP ftp site and where to find a  list
              of  other ftp and non-ftp sites; the target operating system for
              which it was compiled, as well as  (possibly)  the  hardware  on
              which  it  was  compiled, the compiler and version used, and the
              compilation date; any special compilation options that might af-
              fect  the  program's  operation (see also DECRYPTION below); and
              any options stored in environment variables that  might  do  the
              same (see ENVIRONMENT OPTIONS below).  As a modifier it works in
              conjunction with other options (e.g., -t) to produce  more  ver-
              bose  or debugging output; this is not yet fully implemented but
              will be in future releases.

       -z     display only the archive comment.

       -a     convert text files.  Ordinarily all files are extracted  exactly
              as  they are stored (as ``binary'' files).  The -a option causes
              files identified by zip as text files (those with the `t'  label
              in  zipinfo  listings,  rather than `b') to be automatically ex-
              tracted as such, converting line endings, end-of-file characters
              and  the  character set itself as necessary.  (For example, Unix
              files use line feeds (LFs) for end-of-line  (EOL)  and  have  no
              end-of-file (EOF) marker; Macintoshes use carriage returns (CRs)
              for EOLs; and most PC operating systems use CR+LF for  EOLs  and
              control-Z for EOF.  In addition, IBM mainframes and the Michigan
              Terminal System use EBCDIC rather than  the  more  common  ASCII
              character  set, and NT supports Unicode.)  Note that zip's iden-
              tification of text files is by no means perfect;  some  ``text''
              files  may  actually  be binary and vice versa.  unzip therefore
              prints ``[text]'' or ``[binary]'' as a  visual  check  for  each
              file  it  extracts  when  using  the  -a option.  The -aa option
              forces all files to be extracted as text, regardless of the sup-
              posed file type.  On VMS, see also -S.

       -b     [general] treat all files as binary (no text conversions).  This
              is a shortcut for ---a.

       -b     [Tandem] force the creation files with filecode type  180  ('C')
              when  extracting Zip entries marked as "text". (On Tandem, -a is
              enabled by default, see above).

       -b     [VMS] auto-convert binary files (see -a above) to  fixed-length,
              512-byte  record  format.   Doubling the option (-bb) forces all
              files to be extracted in this format. When extracting  to  stan-
              dard  output (-c or -p option in effect), the default conversion
              of text record delimiters is disabled for binary (-b) resp.  all
              (-bb) files.

       -B     [when  compiled  with  UNIXBACKUP defined] save a backup copy of
              each overwritten file. The backup file is gets the name  of  the
              target file with a tilde and optionally a unique sequence number
              (up to 5 digits) appended.  The sequence number is applied when-
              ever  another file with the original name plus tilde already ex-
              ists.  When used together with the "overwrite  all"  option  -o,
              numbered  backup  files  are  never  created.  In this case, all
              backup files are named as the original  file  with  an  appended
              tilde,  existing  backup files are deleted without notice.  This
              feature works similarly to the default behavior of  emacs(1)  in
              many locations.

              Example: the old copy of ``foo'' is renamed to ``foo~''.

              Warning:  Users should be aware that the -B option does not pre-
              vent loss of existing data under all circumstances.   For  exam-
              ple,  when  unzip  is  run  in  overwrite-all  mode, an existing
              ``foo~'' file is deleted before unzip attempts to rename ``foo''
              to  ``foo~''.  When this rename attempt fails (because of a file
              locks, insufficient  privileges,  or  ...),  the  extraction  of
              ``foo~''  gets  cancelled,  but  the  old backup file is already
              lost.  A similar scenario takes place when the  sequence  number
              range  for numbered backup files gets exhausted (99999, or 65535
              for 16-bit systems).  In this case, the  backup  file  with  the
              maximum  sequence  number  is  deleted  and  replaced by the new
              backup version without notice.

       -C     use case-insensitive matching for the selection of  archive  en-
              tries  from the command-line list of extract selection patterns.
              unzip's philosophy is ``you get what you ask for'' (this is also
              responsible  for  the -L/-U change; see the relevant options be-
              low).  Because some file systems are fully  case-sensitive  (no-
              tably  those  under  the Unix operating system) and because both
              ZIP archives and unzip itself are portable across platforms, un-
              zip's  default  behavior  is  to match both wildcard and literal
              filenames case-sensitively.  That is, specifying ``makefile'' on
              the  command  line  will only match ``makefile'' in the archive,
              not ``Makefile'' or ``MAKEFILE''  (and  similarly  for  wildcard
              specifications).  Since this does not correspond to the behavior
              of many other operating/file systems (for  example,  OS/2  HPFS,
              which  preserves  mixed case but is not sensitive to it), the -C
              option may be used to force all filename matches to be  case-in-
              sensitive.   In  the  example  above, all three files would then
              match ``makefile'' (or ``make*'', or similar).   The  -C  option
              affects  file  specs  in  both  the normal file list and the ex-
              cluded-file list (xlist).

              Please note that the -C option does neither  affect  the  search
              for the zipfile(s) nor the matching of archive entries to exist-
              ing files on the extraction path.  On a case-sensitive file sys-
              tem,  unzip  will never try to overwrite a file ``FOO'' when ex-
              tracting an entry ``foo''!

       -D     skip restoration of timestamps for extracted  items.   Normally,
              unzip  tries to restore all meta-information for extracted items
              that are supplied in the Zip archive (and do not require  privi-
              leges  or  impose  a security risk).  By specifying -D, unzip is
              told to suppress restoration of timestamps for  directories  ex-
              plicitly created from Zip archive entries.  This option only ap-
              plies to ports that support setting timestamps  for  directories
              (currently  ATheOS,  BeOS,  MacOS,  OS/2,  Unix, VMS, Win32, for
              other unzip ports, -D has no effect).  The duplicated option -DD
              forces  suppression  of  timestamp restoration for all extracted
              entries (files and directories).  This option results in setting
              the timestamps for all extracted entries to the current time.

              On  VMS,  the  default setting for this option is -D for consis-
              tency with the behaviour of  BACKUP:  file  timestamps  are  re-
              stored, timestamps of extracted directories are left at the cur-
              rent time.  To enable restoration of directory  timestamps,  the
              negated  option  --D should be specified.  On VMS, the option -D
              disables timestamp restoration for  all  extracted  Zip  archive
              items.  (Here, a single -D on the command line combines with the
              default -D to do what an explicit -DD does on other systems.)

       -E     [MacOS only] display contents of MacOS extra  field  during  re-
              store operation.

       -F     [Acorn  only]  suppress  removal  of NFS filetype extension from
              stored filenames.

       -F     [non-Acorn systems supporting long filenames with embedded  com-
              mas,  and  only if compiled with ACORN_FTYPE_NFS defined] trans-
              late filetype information from ACORN RISC OS extra field  blocks
              into  a NFS filetype extension and append it to the names of the
              extracted files.  (When the stored filename appears  to  already
              have  an  appended NFS filetype extension, it is replaced by the
              info from the extra field.)

       -i     [MacOS only] ignore filenames stored in MacOS extra fields.  In-
              stead,  the  most compatible filename stored in the generic part
              of the entry's header is used.

       -j     junk paths.  The archive's directory structure is not recreated;
              all files are deposited in the extraction directory (by default,
              the current one).

       -J     [BeOS only] junk file attributes.   The  file's  BeOS  file  at-
              tributes are not restored, just the file's data.

       -J     [MacOS  only] ignore MacOS extra fields.  All Macintosh specific
              info is skipped. Data-fork and  resource-fork  are  restored  as
              separate files.

       -K     [AtheOS,  BeOS,  Unix  only]  retain  SUID/SGID/Tacky  file  at-
              tributes.  Without this flag, these attribute bits  are  cleared
              for security reasons.

       -L     convert  to  lowercase any filename originating on an uppercase-
              only operating system or file system.  (This was unzip's default
              behavior  in releases prior to 5.11; the new default behavior is
              identical to the old behavior with the -U option, which  is  now
              obsolete and will be removed in a future release.)  Depending on
              the archiver, files  archived  under  single-case  file  systems
              (VMS,  old  MS-DOS  FAT,  etc.)  may  be stored as all-uppercase
              names; this can be ugly or inconvenient  when  extracting  to  a
              case-preserving  file  system such as OS/2 HPFS or a case-sensi-
              tive one such as under Unix.  By default  unzip  lists  and  ex-
              tracts such filenames exactly as they're stored (excepting trun-
              cation, conversion of unsupported characters, etc.); this option
              causes  the  names  of all files from certain systems to be con-
              verted to lowercase.  The -LL option forces conversion of  every
              filename  to  lowercase, regardless of the originating file sys-

       -M     pipe all output through an internal pager similar  to  the  Unix
              more(1)  command.   At  the  end of a screenful of output, unzip
              pauses with a ``--More--'' prompt; the  next  screenful  may  be
              viewed by pressing the Enter (Return) key or the space bar.  un-
              zip can be terminated by pressing the ``q''  key  and,  on  some
              systems, the Enter/Return key.  Unlike Unix more(1), there is no
              forward-searching or editing capability.   Also,  unzip  doesn't
              notice if long lines wrap at the edge of the screen, effectively
              resulting in the printing of two or more lines and  the  likeli-
              hood that some text will scroll off the top of the screen before
              being viewed.  On some systems the number of available lines  on
              the  screen  is  not  detected,  in which case unzip assumes the
              height is 24 lines.

       -n     never overwrite existing files.  If a file already exists,  skip
              the extraction of that file without prompting.  By default unzip
              queries before extracting any file that already exists; the user
              may  choose  to  overwrite  only the current file, overwrite all
              files, skip extraction of the current file, skip  extraction  of
              all existing files, or rename the current file.

       -N     [Amiga] extract file comments as Amiga filenotes.  File comments
              are created with the -c option of zip(1), or with the -N  option
              of the Amiga port of zip(1), which stores filenotes as comments.

       -o     overwrite existing files without prompting.  This is a dangerous
              option, so use it with care.  (It is often used  with  -f,  how-
              ever,  and  is  the  only  way  to overwrite directory EAs under

       -P password
              use password to decrypt  encrypted  zipfile  entries  (if  any).
              THIS  IS  INSECURE!   Many  multi-user operating systems provide
              ways for any user to see the current command line of  any  other
              user;  even on stand-alone systems there is always the threat of
              over-the-shoulder peeking.  Storing the  plaintext  password  as
              part  of  a  command  line in an automated script is even worse.
              Whenever possible, use the non-echoing,  interactive  prompt  to
              enter  passwords.   (And  where security is truly important, use
              strong encryption such as Pretty Good  Privacy  instead  of  the
              relatively  weak  encryption provided by standard zipfile utili-

       -q     perform operations quietly (-qq = even quieter).  Ordinarily un-
              zip  prints  the  names of the files it's extracting or testing,
              the extraction methods, any file or zipfile comments that may be
              stored in the archive, and possibly a summary when finished with
              each archive.  The -q[q] options suppress the printing  of  some
              or all of these messages.

       -s     [OS/2,  NT,  MS-DOS] convert spaces in filenames to underscores.
              Since all PC operating systems allow spaces in filenames,  unzip
              by   default   extracts  filenames  with  spaces  intact  (e.g.,
              ``EA DATA. SF'').  This can be awkward, however, since MS-DOS in
              particular  does  not  gracefully  support  spaces in filenames.
              Conversion of spaces to underscores can eliminate  the  awkward-
              ness in some cases.

       -S     [VMS] convert text files (-a, -aa) into Stream_LF record format,
              instead of the text-file default, variable-length record format.
              (Stream_LF  is the default record format of VMS unzip. It is ap-
              plied unless conversion (-a, -aa and/or -b, -bb) is requested or
              a VMS-specific entry is processed.)

       -U     [UNICODE_SUPPORT  only]  modify or disable UTF-8 handling.  When
              UNICODE_SUPPORT is available, the option -U forces unzip to  es-
              cape  all  non-ASCII  characters  from  UTF-8 coded filenames as
              ``#Uxxxx'' (for UCS-2 characters, or  ``#Lxxxxxx''  for  unicode
              codepoints  needing  3  octets).  This option is mainly provided
              for debugging purpose when the fairly new UTF-8 support is  sus-
              pected to mangle up extracted filenames.

              The  option  -UU  allows  to entirely disable the recognition of
              UTF-8 encoded  filenames.   The  handling  of  filename  codings
              within unzip falls back to the behaviour of previous versions.

              [old, obsolete usage] leave filenames uppercase if created under
              MS-DOS, VMS, etc.  See -L above.

       -V     retain (VMS) file version numbers.  VMS files can be stored with
              a  version  number,  in  the format file.ext;##.  By default the
              ``;##'' version numbers are stripped,  but  this  option  allows
              them  to  be retained.  (On file systems that limit filenames to
              particularly short lengths, the version numbers may be truncated
              or stripped regardless of this option.)

       -W     [only  when  WILD_STOP_AT_DIR compile-time option enabled] modi-
              fies the pattern matching routine so that both `?'  (single-char
              wildcard)  and `*' (multi-char wildcard) do not match the direc-
              tory  separator  character  `/'.   (The  two-character  sequence
              ``**'' acts as a multi-char wildcard that includes the directory
              separator in its matched characters.)  Examples:

           "*.c" matches "foo.c" but not "mydir/foo.c"
           "**.c" matches both "foo.c" and "mydir/foo.c"
           "*/*.c" matches "bar/foo.c" but not "baz/bar/foo.c"
           "??*/*" matches "ab/foo" and "abc/foo"
                   but not "a/foo" or "a/b/foo"

              This modified behaviour is equivalent to  the  pattern  matching
              style used by the shells of some of UnZip's supported target OSs
              (one example is Acorn RISC OS).  This option may not  be  avail-
              able on systems where the Zip archive's internal directory sepa-
              rator character `/' is allowed as regular  character  in  native
              operating  system  filenames.   (Currently,  UnZip uses the same
              pattern matching rules for both wildcard zipfile  specifications
              and zip entry selection patterns in most ports.  For systems al-
              lowing `/' as regular filename character, the  -W  option  would
              not work as expected on a wildcard zipfile specification.)

       -X     [VMS,  Unix,  OS/2,  NT,  Tandem]  restore owner/protection info
              (UICs and ACL  entries)  under  VMS,  or  user  and  group  info
              (UID/GID)  under Unix, or access control lists (ACLs) under cer-
              tain network-enabled versions of OS/2 (Warp Server with IBM  LAN
              Server/Requester 3.0 to 5.0; Warp Connect with IBM Peer 1.0), or
              security ACLs under Windows NT.  In most cases this will require
              special  system  privileges, and doubling the option (-XX) under
              NT instructs unzip to use privileges for extraction;  but  under
              Unix,  for example, a user who belongs to several groups can re-
              store files owned by any of those groups, as long  as  the  user
              IDs  match  his  or her own.  Note that ordinary file attributes
              are always restored--this option applies only to optional, extra
              ownership  info  available on some operating systems.  [NT's ac-
              cess control lists do not appear  to  be  especially  compatible
              with OS/2's, so no attempt is made at cross-platform portability
              of access privileges.  It is not  clear  under  what  conditions
              this would ever be useful anyway.]

       -Y     [VMS]  treat  archived  file  name  endings  of  ``.nnn'' (where
              ``nnn'' is a decimal  number) as if they were VMS  version  num-
              bers  (``;nnn'').  (The default is to treat them as file types.)
                   "a.b.3" -> "a.b;3".

       -$     [MS-DOS, OS/2, NT] restore the volume label  if  the  extraction
              medium  is  removable  (e.g.,  a diskette).  Doubling the option
              (-$$) allows fixed media (hard disks) to be  labelled  as  well.
              By default, volume labels are ignored.

       -/ extensions
              [Acorn  only] overrides the extension list supplied by Unzip$Ext
              environment variable.  During  extraction,  filename  extensions
              that  match  one of the items in this extension list are swapped
              in front of the base name of the extracted file.

       -:     [all but Acorn, VM/CMS, MVS, Tandem] allows to  extract  archive
              members into locations outside of the current `` extraction root
              folder''. For security reasons, unzip normally removes  ``parent
              dir''  path  components  (``../'')  from  the names of extracted
              file.  This safety feature (new for version 5.50) prevents unzip
              from  accidentally  writing files to ``sensitive'' areas outside
              the active extraction folder tree head.  The -: option lets  un-
              zip  switch back to its previous, more liberal behaviour, to al-
              low exact extraction of (older) archives that used ``../''  com-
              ponents  to  create multiple directory trees at the level of the
              current extraction folder.  This option does not enable  writing
              explicitly  to  the root directory (``/'').  To achieve this, it
              is necessary to set the extraction target folder to  root  (e.g.
              -d  /  ).  However, when the -: option is specified, it is still
              possible to implicitly write to the root directory by specifying
              enough ``../'' path components within the zip archive.  Use this
              option with extreme caution.

       -^     [Unix only] allow control characters in names of  extracted  ZIP
              archive  entries.   On Unix, a file name may contain any (8-bit)
              character code with the two exception '/' (directory  delimiter)
              and  NUL  (0x00, the C string termination indicator), unless the
              specific file system has more restrictive  conventions.   Gener-
              ally, this allows to embed ASCII control characters (or even so-
              phisticated control sequences) in file names, at least  on  'na-
              tive'  Unix  file systems.  However, it may be highly suspicious
              to make use of this Unix "feature".  Embedded control characters
              in  file  names  might have nasty side effects when displayed on
              screen by some listing code without sufficient filtering.   And,
              for  ordinary  users,  it  may  be difficult to handle such file
              names (e.g. when trying to specify it for open, copy,  move,  or
              delete  operations).   Therefore,  unzip applies a filter by de-
              fault that removes potentially dangerous control characters from
              the  extracted file names. The -^ option allows to override this
              filter in the rare case that embedded filename  control  charac-
              ters are to be intentionally restored.

       -2     [VMS]   force   unconditionally  conversion  of  file  names  to
              ODS2-compatible names.  The default is to exploit  the  destina-
              tion file system, preserving case and extended file name charac-
              ters on an  ODS5  destination  file  system;  and  applying  the
              ODS2-compatibility  file  name  filtering on an ODS2 destination
              file system.

       unzip's default behavior may be modified via options placed in an envi-
       ronment variable.  This can be done with any option, but it is probably
       most useful with the -a, -L, -C, -q, -o, or -n modifiers:   make  unzip
       auto-convert  text files by default, make it convert filenames from up-
       percase systems to lowercase, make it match  names  case-insensitively,
       make  it  quieter, or make it always overwrite or never overwrite files
       as it extracts them.  For example, to make unzip act as quietly as pos-
       sible,  only  reporting errors, one would use one of the following com-

         Unix Bourne shell:
              UNZIP=-qq; export UNZIP

         Unix C shell:
              setenv UNZIP -qq

         OS/2 or MS-DOS:
              set UNZIP=-qq

         VMS (quotes for lowercase):
              define UNZIP_OPTS "-qq"

       Environment options are, in effect, considered  to  be  just  like  any
       other  command-line options, except that they are effectively the first
       options on the command line.  To override an  environment  option,  one
       may use the ``minus operator'' to remove it.  For instance, to override
       one of the quiet-flags in the example above, use the command

       unzip --q[other options] zipfile

       The first hyphen is the normal switch character, and the  second  is  a
       minus  sign, acting on the q option.  Thus the effect here is to cancel
       one quantum of quietness.  To cancel both quiet flags,  two  (or  more)
       minuses may be used:

       unzip -t--q zipfile
       unzip ---qt zipfile

       (the  two  are equivalent).  This may seem awkward or confusing, but it
       is reasonably intuitive:  just ignore the  first  hyphen  and  go  from
       there.  It is also consistent with the behavior of Unix nice(1).

       As  suggested by the examples above, the default variable names are UN-
       ZIP_OPTS for VMS (where the symbol used to install unzip as  a  foreign
       command would otherwise be confused with the environment variable), and
       UNZIP for all other operating systems.  For compatibility with  zip(1),
       UNZIPOPT  is also accepted (don't ask).  If both UNZIP and UNZIPOPT are
       defined, however, UNZIP takes precedence.   unzip's  diagnostic  option
       (-v  with  no zipfile name) can be used to check the values of all four
       possible unzip and zipinfo environment variables.

       The timezone variable (TZ) should be set according to the  local  time-
       zone in order for the -f and -u to operate correctly.  See the descrip-
       tion of -f above for details.  This variable may also be  necessary  to
       get  timestamps  of  extracted  files  to  be set correctly.  The WIN32
       (Win9x/ME/NT4/2K/XP/2K3) port of unzip gets the timezone  configuration
       from  the  registry, assuming it is correctly set in the Control Panel.
       The TZ variable is ignored for this port.

       Encrypted archives are fully supported by Info-ZIP software, but due to
       United States export restrictions, de-/encryption support might be dis-
       abled in your compiled binary.  However, since spring 2000,  US  export
       restrictions  have  been  liberated, and our source archives do now in-
       clude full crypt code.  In case  you  need  binary  distributions  with
       crypt support enabled, see the file ``WHERE'' in any Info-ZIP source or
       binary distribution for locations both inside and outside the US.

       Some compiled versions of unzip may not support decryption.  To check a
       version  for  crypt  support,  either attempt to test or extract an en-
       crypted archive, or else check unzip's diagnostic screen  (see  the  -v
       option  above)  for  ``[decryption]'' as one of the special compilation

       As noted above, the -P option may be used to supply a password  on  the
       command  line,  but  at  a  cost in security.  The preferred decryption
       method is simply to extract normally; if a zipfile member is encrypted,
       unzip  will prompt for the password without echoing what is typed.  un-
       zip continues to use the same password as long  as  it  appears  to  be
       valid,  by testing a 12-byte header on each file.  The correct password
       will always check out against the  header,  but  there  is  a  1-in-256
       chance  that  an  incorrect password will as well.  (This is a security
       feature of the PKWARE zipfile format; it helps prevent brute-force  at-
       tacks that might otherwise gain a large speed advantage by testing only
       the header.)  In the case that an incorrect password is  given  but  it
       passes  the  header test anyway, either an incorrect CRC will be gener-
       ated for the extracted data or else unzip will fail during the  extrac-
       tion  because  the  ``decrypted''  bytes do not constitute a valid com-
       pressed data stream.

       If the first password fails the header check on some file,  unzip  will
       prompt  for  another password, and so on until all files are extracted.
       If a password is not known, entering a null password (that is,  just  a
       carriage  return or ``Enter'') is taken as a signal to skip all further
       prompting.  Only unencrypted files in the archive(s) will thereafter be
       extracted.   (In  fact, that's not quite true; older versions of zip(1)
       and zipcloak(1) allowed null passwords, so unzip checks each  encrypted
       file  to  see  if  the null password works.  This may result in ``false
       positives'' and extraction errors, as noted above.)

       Archives encrypted with 8-bit passwords (for  example,  passwords  with
       accented European characters) may not be portable across systems and/or
       other archivers.  This problem stems from the use of multiple  encoding
       methods  for  such  characters,  including Latin-1 (ISO 8859-1) and OEM
       code page 850.  DOS PKZIP 2.04g uses the OEM code page;  Windows  PKZIP
       2.50 uses Latin-1 (and is therefore incompatible with DOS PKZIP); Info-
       ZIP uses the OEM code page on DOS, OS/2 and Win3.x ports but ISO coding
       (Latin-1  etc.) everywhere else; and Nico Mak's WinZip 6.x does not al-
       low 8-bit passwords at all.  UnZip 5.3 (or newer) attempts to  use  the
       default  character set first (e.g., Latin-1), followed by the alternate
       one (e.g., OEM code page) to test passwords.   On  EBCDIC  systems,  if
       both  of  these  fail, EBCDIC encoding will be tested as a last resort.
       (EBCDIC is not tested on non-EBCDIC systems, because there are no known
       archivers that encrypt using EBCDIC encoding.)  ISO character encodings
       other than Latin-1 are not supported.  The new addition of  (partially)
       Unicode (resp.  UTF-8) support in UnZip 6.0 has not yet been adapted to
       the encryption password handling in unzip.  On systems that  use  UTF-8
       as  native  character  encoding, unzip simply tries decryption with the
       native UTF-8 encoded password; the built-in attempts to check the pass-
       word in translated encoding have not yet been adapted for UTF-8 support
       and will consequently fail.

       To use unzip to extract all members of the archive letters.zip into the
       current directory and subdirectories below it, creating any subdirecto-
       ries as necessary:

       unzip letters

       To extract all members of letters.zip into the current directory only:

       unzip -j letters

       To test letters.zip, printing only a summary message indicating whether
       the archive is OK or not:

       unzip -tq letters

       To  test  all zipfiles in the current directory, printing only the sum-

       unzip -tq \*.zip

       (The backslash before the asterisk is only required if  the  shell  ex-
       pands  wildcards,  as  in  Unix; double quotes could have been used in-
       stead, as in the source examples below.)  To extract to standard output
       all  members of letters.zip whose names end in .tex, auto-converting to
       the local end-of-line convention and piping the output into more(1):

       unzip -ca letters \*.tex | more

       To extract the binary file paper1.dvi to standard output and pipe it to
       a printing program:

       unzip -p articles paper1.dvi | dvips

       To  extract  all  FORTRAN  and C source files--*.f, *.c, *.h, and Make-
       file--into the /tmp directory:

       unzip source.zip "*.[fch]" Makefile -d /tmp

       (the double quotes are necessary only in Unix and only if  globbing  is
       turned  on).   To extract all FORTRAN and C source files, regardless of
       case (e.g., both *.c and *.C, and any makefile, Makefile,  MAKEFILE  or

       unzip -C source.zip "*.[fch]" makefile -d /tmp

       To extract any such files but convert any uppercase MS-DOS or VMS names
       to lowercase and convert the line-endings of all of the  files  to  the
       local standard (without respect to any files that might be marked ``bi-

       unzip -aaCL source.zip "*.[fch]" makefile -d /tmp

       To extract only newer versions of the files already in the current  di-
       rectory,  without querying (NOTE:  be careful of unzipping in one time-
       zone a zipfile created in another--ZIP archives other than  those  cre-
       ated  by  Zip  2.1  or  later  contain  no  timezone information, and a
       ``newer'' file from an eastern timezone may, in fact, be older):

       unzip -fo sources

       To extract newer versions of the files already in the current directory
       and  to create any files not already there (same caveat as previous ex-

       unzip -uo sources

       To display a diagnostic screen showing which unzip and zipinfo  options
       are  stored  in  environment  variables, whether decryption support was
       compiled in, the compiler with which unzip was compiled, etc.:

       unzip -v

       In the last five examples, assume that UNZIP or UNZIP_OPTS  is  set  to
       -q.  To do a singly quiet listing:

       unzip -l file.zip

       To do a doubly quiet listing:

       unzip -ql file.zip

       (Note  that the ``.zip'' is generally not necessary.)  To do a standard

       unzip --ql file.zip
       unzip -l-q file.zip
       unzip -l--q file.zip
       (Extra minuses in options don't hurt.)

       The current maintainer, being a lazy sort, finds it very useful to  de-
       fine  a  pair of aliases:  tt for ``unzip -tq'' and ii for ``unzip -Z''
       (or ``zipinfo'').  One may then simply type ``tt zipfile'' to  test  an
       archive,  something  that  is worth making a habit of doing.  With luck
       unzip will report ``No errors  detected  in  compressed  data  of  zip-
       file.zip,'' after which one may breathe a sigh of relief.

       The  maintainer also finds it useful to set the UNZIP environment vari-
       able to ``-aL'' and is tempted to add  ``-C''  as  well.   His  ZIPINFO
       variable is set to ``-z''.

       The exit status (or error level) approximates the exit codes defined by
       PKWARE and takes on the following values, except under VMS:

              0      normal; no errors or warnings detected.

              1      one or more warning errors were encountered, but process-
                     ing  completed  successfully  anyway.  This includes zip-
                     files where one or more files was skipped due  to  unsup-
                     ported  compression  method or encryption with an unknown

              2      a generic error in the zipfile format was detected.  Pro-
                     cessing may have completed successfully anyway; some bro-
                     ken zipfiles created by other archivers have simple work-

              3      a  severe error in the zipfile format was detected.  Pro-
                     cessing probably failed immediately.

              4      unzip was unable to allocate memory for one or more  buf-
                     fers during program initialization.

              5      unzip was unable to allocate memory or unable to obtain a
                     tty to read the decryption password(s).

              6      unzip was unable to allocate memory during  decompression
                     to disk.

              7      unzip  was unable to allocate memory during in-memory de-

              8      [currently not used]

              9      the specified zipfiles were not found.

              10     invalid options were specified on the command line.

              11     no matching files were found.

              50     the disk is (or was) full during extraction.

              51     the end of the ZIP archive was encountered prematurely.

              80     the user aborted unzip  prematurely  with  control-C  (or

              81     testing  or extraction of one or more files failed due to
                     unsupported compression methods  or  unsupported  decryp-

              82     no  files  were  found due to bad decryption password(s).
                     (If even one file is successfully processed, however, the
                     exit status is 1.)

       VMS  interprets  standard Unix (or PC) return values as other, scarier-
       looking things, so unzip instead maps them into VMS-style status codes.
       The  current  mapping  is  as  follows:    1 (success) for normal exit,
       0x7fff0001  for  warning  errors,  and  (0x7fff000?   +   16*normal_un-
       zip_exit_status)  for  all other errors, where the `?' is 2 (error) for
       unzip values 2, 9-11 and 80-82, and 4 (fatal error) for  the  remaining
       ones  (3-8, 50, 51).  In addition, there is a compilation option to ex-
       pand upon this behavior:  defining RETURN_CODES  results  in  a  human-
       readable explanation of what the error status means.

       Multi-part  archives  are not yet supported, except in conjunction with
       zip.  (All parts must be concatenated together in order, and then ``zip
       -F''  (for  zip  2.x) or ``zip -FF'' (for zip 3.x) must be performed on
       the concatenated archive in order to ``fix'' it.   Also,  zip  3.0  and
       later  can  combine multi-part (split) archives into a combined single-
       file archive using ``zip -s- inarchive -O outarchive''.  See the zip  3
       manual  page  for more information.)  This will definitely be corrected
       in the next major release.

       Archives read from standard input are not yet  supported,  except  with
       funzip  (and  then  only  the  first  member  of the archive can be ex-

       Archives encrypted with 8-bit passwords (e.g., passwords with  accented
       European  characters)  may  not be portable across systems and/or other
       archivers.  See the discussion in DECRYPTION above.

       unzip's -M (``more'') option tries to take into account automatic wrap-
       ping  of  long  lines. However, the code may fail to detect the correct
       wrapping locations. First, TAB  characters  (and  similar  control  se-
       quences)  are  not  taken  into  account,  they are handled as ordinary
       printable characters.  Second, depending on  the  actual  system  /  OS
       port,  unzip may not detect the true screen geometry but rather rely on
       "commonly used" default dimensions.  The correct handling of tabs would
       require the implementation of a query for the actual tabulator setup on
       the output console.

       Dates, times and permissions of stored directories are not restored ex-
       cept  under Unix. (On Windows NT and successors, timestamps are now re-

       [MS-DOS] When extracting or testing files from an archive on  a  defec-
       tive  floppy  diskette,  if  the  ``Fail''  option is chosen from DOS's
       ``Abort, Retry, Fail?'' message, older versions of unzip may  hang  the
       system, requiring a reboot.  This problem appears to be fixed, but con-
       trol-C (or control-Break) can still be used to terminate unzip.

       Under DEC Ultrix, unzip would sometimes fail on long zipfiles (bad CRC,
       not always reproducible).  This was apparently due either to a hardware
       bug (cache memory) or an operating system  bug  (improper  handling  of
       page  faults?).   Since  Ultrix  has been abandoned in favor of Digital
       Unix (OSF/1), this may not be an issue anymore.

       [Unix] Unix special files such as FIFO buffers (named pipes), block de-
       vices  and  character devices are not restored even if they are somehow
       represented in the zipfile, nor are hard-linked files relinked.   Basi-
       cally the only file types restored by unzip are regular files, directo-
       ries and symbolic (soft) links.

       [OS/2] Extended attributes for existing directories are only updated if
       the  -o  (``overwrite  all'') option is given.  This is a limitation of
       the operating system; because directories only have a creation time as-
       sociated  with  them,  unzip has no way to determine whether the stored
       attributes are newer or older than those on disk.  In practice this may
       mean  a  two-pass  approach is required:  first unpack the archive nor-
       mally (with or without freshening/updating existing files), then  over-
       write just the directory entries (e.g., ``unzip -o foo */'').

       [VMS]  When  extracting to another directory, only the [.foo] syntax is
       accepted for the -d option; the simple Unix foo syntax is silently  ig-
       nored (as is the less common VMS foo.dir syntax).

       [VMS]  When the file being extracted already exists, unzip's query only
       allows skipping, overwriting or renaming; there should additionally  be
       a  choice for creating a new version of the file.  In fact, the ``over-
       write'' choice does create a new version; the old version is not  over-
       written or deleted.

       funzip(1),  zip(1),  zipcloak(1),  zipgrep(1),  zipinfo(1), zipnote(1),

       The Info-ZIP home page is currently at
       ftp://ftp.info-zip.org/pub/infozip/ .

       The primary Info-ZIP authors (current semi-active members of  the  Zip-
       Bugs workgroup) are:  Ed Gordon (Zip, general maintenance, shared code,
       Zip64, Win32, Unix, Unicode); Christian Spieler (UnZip maintenance  co-
       ordination,  VMS, MS-DOS, Win32, shared code, general Zip and UnZip in-
       tegration and optimization); Onno van  der  Linden  (Zip);  Mike  White
       (Win32,  Windows  GUI,  Windows  DLLs);  Kai  Uwe Rommel (OS/2, Win32);
       Steven M. Schweda (VMS, Unix, support of new  features);  Paul  Kienitz
       (Amiga,  Win32,  Unicode);  Chris Herborth (BeOS, QNX, Atari); Jonathan
       Hudson (SMS/QDOS); Sergio Monesi (Acorn RISC OS); Harald Denker (Atari,
       MVS);  John  Bush  (Solaris, Amiga); Hunter Goatley (VMS, Info-ZIP Site
       maintenance); Steve Salisbury (Win32); Steve Miller (Windows  CE  GUI),
       Johnny Lee (MS-DOS, Win32, Zip64); and Dave Smith (Tandem NSK).

       The  following  people  were former members of the Info-ZIP development
       group and provided major contributions to  key  parts  of  the  current
       code: Greg ``Cave Newt'' Roelofs (UnZip, unshrink decompression); Jean-
       loup Gailly (deflate compression); Mark Adler  (inflate  decompression,

       The  author  of the original unzip code upon which Info-ZIP's was based
       is Samuel H. Smith; Carl Mascott did the first Unix port; and David  P.
       Kirschbaum  organized and led Info-ZIP in its early days with Keith Pe-
       tersen hosting the original mailing list at  WSMR-SimTel20.   The  full
       list  of  contributors  to UnZip has grown quite large; please refer to
       the CONTRIBS file in the UnZip source  distribution  for  a  relatively
       complete version.

       v1.2   15 Mar 89   Samuel H. Smith
       v2.0    9 Sep 89   Samuel H. Smith
       v2.x   fall 1989   many Usenet contributors
       v3.0    1 May 90   Info-ZIP (DPK, consolidator)
       v3.1   15 Aug 90   Info-ZIP (DPK, consolidator)
       v4.0    1 Dec 90   Info-ZIP (GRR, maintainer)
       v4.1   12 May 91   Info-ZIP
       v4.2   20 Mar 92   Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, GRR)
       v5.0   21 Aug 92   Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, GRR)
       v5.01  15 Jan 93   Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, GRR)
       v5.1    7 Feb 94   Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, GRR)
       v5.11   2 Aug 94   Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, GRR)
       v5.12  28 Aug 94   Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, GRR)
       v5.2   30 Apr 96   Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, GRR)
       v5.3   22 Apr 97   Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, GRR)
       v5.31  31 May 97   Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, GRR)
       v5.32   3 Nov 97   Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, GRR)
       v5.4   28 Nov 98   Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, SPC)
       v5.41  16 Apr 00   Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, SPC)
       v5.42  14 Jan 01   Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, SPC)
       v5.5   17 Feb 02   Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, SPC)
       v5.51  22 May 04   Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, SPC)
       v5.52  28 Feb 05   Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, SPC)
       v6.0   20 Apr 09   Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, SPC)

Info-ZIP                     20 April 2009 (v6.0)                     UNZIP(1)
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