verify


SYNOPSIS
       openssl verify [-CApath directory] [-CAfile file] [-purpose purpose]
       [-policy arg] [-ignore_critical] [-crl_check] [-crl_check_all]
       [-policy_check] [-explicit_policy] [-inhibit_any] [-inhibit_map]
       [-x509_strict] [-extended_crl] [-use_deltas] [-policy_print]
       [-no_alt_chains] [-untrusted file] [-help] [-issuer_checks] [-verbose]
       [-] [certificates]

DESCRIPTION
       The verify command verifies certificate chains.

COMMAND OPTIONS
       -CApath directory
           A directory of trusted certificates. The certificates should have
           names of the form: hash.0 or have symbolic links to them of this
           form ("hash" is the hashed certificate subject name: see the -hash
           option of the x509 utility). Under Unix the c_rehash script will
           automatically create symbolic links to a directory of certificates.

       -CAfile file
           A file of trusted certificates. The file should contain multiple
           certificates in PEM format concatenated together.

       -untrusted file
           A file of untrusted certificates. The file should contain multiple
           certificates

       -purpose purpose
           the intended use for the certificate. Without this option no chain
           verification will be done. Currently accepted uses are sslclient,
           sslserver, nssslserver, smimesign, smimeencrypt. See the VERIFY
           OPERATION section for more information.

       -help
           prints out a usage message.

       -verbose
           print extra information about the operations being performed.

       -issuer_checks
           print out diagnostics relating to searches for the issuer
           certificate of the current certificate. This shows why each
           candidate issuer certificate was rejected. However the presence of
           rejection messages does not itself imply that anything is wrong:
           during the normal verify process several rejections may take place.

       -policy arg
           Enable policy processing and add arg to the user-initial-policy-set
           (see RFC3280 et al). The policy arg can be an object name an OID in
           numeric form. This argument can appear more than once.

       -policy_check
           Enables certificate policy processing.
           found is not trusted, then OpenSSL will continue to check to see if
           an alternative chain can be found that is trusted. With this option
           that behaviour is suppressed so that only the first chain found is
           ever used. Using this option will force the behaviour to match that
           of previous OpenSSL versions.

       -policy_print
           Print out diagnostics, related to policy checking

       -crl_check
           Checks end entity certificate validity by attempting to lookup a
           valid CRL.  If a valid CRL cannot be found an error occurs.

       -crl_check_all
           Checks the validity of all certificates in the chain by attempting
           to lookup valid CRLs.

       -ignore_critical
           Normally if an unhandled critical extension is present which is not
           supported by OpenSSL the certificate is rejected (as required by
           RFC3280 et al). If this option is set critical extensions are
           ignored.

       -x509_strict
           Disable workarounds for broken certificates which have to be
           disabled for strict X.509 compliance.

       -extended_crl
           Enable extended CRL features such as indirect CRLs and alternate
           CRL signing keys.

       -use_deltas
           Enable support for delta CRLs.

       -check_ss_sig
           Verify the signature on the self-signed root CA. This is disabled
           by default because it doesn't add any security.

       -   marks the last option. All arguments following this are assumed to
           be certificate files. This is useful if the first certificate
           filename begins with a -.

       certificates
           one or more certificates to verify. If no certificate filenames are
           included then an attempt is made to read a certificate from
           standard input. They should all be in PEM format.

VERIFY OPERATION
       The verify program uses the same functions as the internal SSL and
       S/MIME verification, therefore this description applies to these verify
       operations too.

       There is one crucial difference between the verify operations performed
       by the verify program: wherever possible an attempt is made to continue
       The process of 'looking up the issuers certificate' itself involves a
       number of steps. In versions of OpenSSL before 0.9.5a the first
       certificate whose subject name matched the issuer of the current
       certificate was assumed to be the issuers certificate. In OpenSSL 0.9.6
       and later all certificates whose subject name matches the issuer name
       of the current certificate are subject to further tests. The relevant
       authority key identifier components of the current certificate (if
       present) must match the subject key identifier (if present) and issuer
       and serial number of the candidate issuer, in addition the keyUsage
       extension of the candidate issuer (if present) must permit certificate
       signing.

       The lookup first looks in the list of untrusted certificates and if no
       match is found the remaining lookups are from the trusted certificates.
       The root CA is always looked up in the trusted certificate list: if the
       certificate to verify is a root certificate then an exact match must be
       found in the trusted list.

       The second operation is to check every untrusted certificate's
       extensions for consistency with the supplied purpose. If the -purpose
       option is not included then no checks are done. The supplied or "leaf"
       certificate must have extensions compatible with the supplied purpose
       and all other certificates must also be valid CA certificates. The
       precise extensions required are described in more detail in the
       CERTIFICATE EXTENSIONS section of the x509 utility.

       The third operation is to check the trust settings on the root CA. The
       root CA should be trusted for the supplied purpose. For compatibility
       with previous versions of SSLeay and OpenSSL a certificate with no
       trust settings is considered to be valid for all purposes.

       The final operation is to check the validity of the certificate chain.
       The validity period is checked against the current system time and the
       notBefore and notAfter dates in the certificate. The certificate
       signatures are also checked at this point.

       If all operations complete successfully then certificate is considered
       valid. If any operation fails then the certificate is not valid.

DIAGNOSTICS
       When a verify operation fails the output messages can be somewhat
       cryptic. The general form of the error message is:

        server.pem: /C=AU/ST=Queensland/O=CryptSoft Pty Ltd/CN=Test CA (1024 bit)
        error 24 at 1 depth lookup:invalid CA certificate

       The first line contains the name of the certificate being verified
       followed by the subject name of the certificate. The second line
       contains the error number and the depth. The depth is number of the
       certificate being verified when a problem was detected starting with
       zero for the certificate being verified itself then 1 for the CA that
       signed the certificate and so on. Finally a text version of the error
       number is presented.

           complete.

       3 X509_V_ERR_UNABLE_TO_GET_CRL: unable to get certificate CRL
           the CRL of a certificate could not be found.

       4 X509_V_ERR_UNABLE_TO_DECRYPT_CERT_SIGNATURE: unable to decrypt
       certificate's signature
           the certificate signature could not be decrypted. This means that
           the actual signature value could not be determined rather than it
           not matching the expected value, this is only meaningful for RSA
           keys.

       5 X509_V_ERR_UNABLE_TO_DECRYPT_CRL_SIGNATURE: unable to decrypt CRL's
       signature
           the CRL signature could not be decrypted: this means that the
           actual signature value could not be determined rather than it not
           matching the expected value. Unused.

       6 X509_V_ERR_UNABLE_TO_DECODE_ISSUER_PUBLIC_KEY: unable to decode
       issuer public key
           the public key in the certificate SubjectPublicKeyInfo could not be
           read.

       7 X509_V_ERR_CERT_SIGNATURE_FAILURE: certificate signature failure
           the signature of the certificate is invalid.

       8 X509_V_ERR_CRL_SIGNATURE_FAILURE: CRL signature failure
           the signature of the certificate is invalid.

       9 X509_V_ERR_CERT_NOT_YET_VALID: certificate is not yet valid
           the certificate is not yet valid: the notBefore date is after the
           current time.

       10 X509_V_ERR_CERT_HAS_EXPIRED: certificate has expired
           the certificate has expired: that is the notAfter date is before
           the current time.

       11 X509_V_ERR_CRL_NOT_YET_VALID: CRL is not yet valid
           the CRL is not yet valid.

       12 X509_V_ERR_CRL_HAS_EXPIRED: CRL has expired
           the CRL has expired.

       13 X509_V_ERR_ERROR_IN_CERT_NOT_BEFORE_FIELD: format error in
       certificate's notBefore field
           the certificate notBefore field contains an invalid time.

       14 X509_V_ERR_ERROR_IN_CERT_NOT_AFTER_FIELD: format error in
       certificate's notAfter field
           the certificate notAfter field contains an invalid time.

       15 X509_V_ERR_ERROR_IN_CRL_LAST_UPDATE_FIELD: format error in CRL's
       lastUpdate field
           the CRL lastUpdate field contains an invalid time.

       19 X509_V_ERR_SELF_SIGNED_CERT_IN_CHAIN: self signed certificate in
       certificate chain
           the certificate chain could be built up using the untrusted
           certificates but the root could not be found locally.

       20 X509_V_ERR_UNABLE_TO_GET_ISSUER_CERT_LOCALLY: unable to get local
       issuer certificate
           the issuer certificate could not be found: this occurs if the
           issuer certificate of an untrusted certificate cannot be found.

       21 X509_V_ERR_UNABLE_TO_VERIFY_LEAF_SIGNATURE: unable to verify the
       first certificate
           no signatures could be verified because the chain contains only one
           certificate and it is not self signed.

       22 X509_V_ERR_CERT_CHAIN_TOO_LONG: certificate chain too long
           the certificate chain length is greater than the supplied maximum
           depth. Unused.

       23 X509_V_ERR_CERT_REVOKED: certificate revoked
           the certificate has been revoked.

       24 X509_V_ERR_INVALID_CA: invalid CA certificate
           a CA certificate is invalid. Either it is not a CA or its
           extensions are not consistent with the supplied purpose.

       25 X509_V_ERR_PATH_LENGTH_EXCEEDED: path length constraint exceeded
           the basicConstraints pathlength parameter has been exceeded.

       26 X509_V_ERR_INVALID_PURPOSE: unsupported certificate purpose
           the supplied certificate cannot be used for the specified purpose.

       27 X509_V_ERR_CERT_UNTRUSTED: certificate not trusted
           the root CA is not marked as trusted for the specified purpose.

       28 X509_V_ERR_CERT_REJECTED: certificate rejected
           the root CA is marked to reject the specified purpose.

       29 X509_V_ERR_SUBJECT_ISSUER_MISMATCH: subject issuer mismatch
           the current candidate issuer certificate was rejected because its
           subject name did not match the issuer name of the current
           certificate. Only displayed when the -issuer_checks option is set.

       30 X509_V_ERR_AKID_SKID_MISMATCH: authority and subject key identifier
       mismatch
           the current candidate issuer certificate was rejected because its
           subject key identifier was present and did not match the authority
           key identifier current certificate. Only displayed when the
           -issuer_checks option is set.

       31 X509_V_ERR_AKID_ISSUER_SERIAL_MISMATCH: authority and issuer serial
       number mismatch
           the current candidate issuer certificate was rejected because its

BUGS
       Although the issuer checks are a considerably improvement over the old
       technique they still suffer from limitations in the underlying
       X509_LOOKUP API. One consequence of this is that trusted certificates
       with matching subject name must either appear in a file (as specified
       by the -CAfile option) or a directory (as specified by -CApath. If they
       occur in both then only the certificates in the file will be
       recognised.

       Previous versions of OpenSSL assume certificates with matching subject
       name are identical and mishandled them.

       Previous versions of this documentation swapped the meaning of the
       X509_V_ERR_UNABLE_TO_GET_ISSUER_CERT and 20
       X509_V_ERR_UNABLE_TO_GET_ISSUER_CERT_LOCALLY error codes.

SEE ALSO
       x509(1)

HISTORY
       The -no_alt_chains options was first added to OpenSSL 1.0.1n and
       1.0.2b.



1.0.1                             2017-01-30                      VERIFY(1SSL)
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