strace  [-CdffhiqrtttTvVxxy]  [-In]  [-bexecve] [-eexpr]...  [-acolumn]
       [-ofile]  [-sstrsize]  [-Ppath]...  -ppid...  /  [-D]  [-Evar[=val]]...
       [-uusername] command [args]

       strace  -c[df]  [-In]  [-bexecve]  [-eexpr]...  [-Ooverhead] [-Ssortby]
       -ppid... / [-D] [-Evar[=val]]... [-uusername] command [args]

       In the simplest case strace runs the specified command until it  exits.
       It  intercepts  and  records  the  system  calls  which are called by a
       process and the signals which are received by a process.  The  name  of
       each  system  call,  its  arguments and its return value are printed on
       standard error or to the file specified with the -o option.

       strace is a useful diagnostic, instructional, and debugging tool.  Sys-
       tem  administrators,  diagnosticians  and trouble-shooters will find it
       invaluable for solving problems with programs for which the  source  is
       not  readily available since they do not need to be recompiled in order
       to trace them.  Students, hackers and the overly-curious will find that
       a  great  deal  can  be  learned about a system and its system calls by
       tracing even ordinary programs.  And programmers will find  that  since
       system  calls  and  signals  are  events that happen at the user/kernel
       interface, a close examination of this boundary is very useful for  bug
       isolation, sanity checking and attempting to capture race conditions.

       Each  line  in the trace contains the system call name, followed by its
       arguments in parentheses and its return value.  An example from  strac-
       ing the command ``cat /dev/null'' is:

       open("/dev/null", O_RDONLY) = 3

       Errors (typically a return value of -1) have the errno symbol and error
       string appended.

       open("/foo/bar", O_RDONLY) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)

       Signals are printed as a signal symbol and a signal string.  An excerpt
       from stracing and interrupting the command ``sleep 666'' is:

       sigsuspend([] <unfinished ...>
       --- SIGINT (Interrupt) ---
       +++ killed by SIGINT +++

       If  a  system call is being executed and meanwhile another one is being
       called from a different thread/process then strace will try to preserve
       the  order  of  those  events and mark the ongoing call as being unfin-
       ished.  When the call returns it will be marked as resumed.

       [pid 28772] select(4, [3], NULL, NULL, NULL <unfinished ...>
       [pid 28779] clock_gettime(CLOCK_REALTIME, {1130322148, 939977000}) = 0
       [pid 28772] <... select resumed> )      = 1 (in [3])

       open("xyzzy", O_WRONLY|O_APPEND|O_CREAT, 0666) = 3

       Here  the  third  argument of open is decoded by breaking down the flag
       argument into its three bitwise-OR constituents and printing  the  mode
       value in octal by tradition.  Where traditional or native usage differs
       from ANSI or POSIX, the latter forms are  preferred.   In  some  cases,
       strace output has proven to be more readable than the source.

       Structure  pointers  are  dereferenced and the members are displayed as
       appropriate.  In all cases arguments are formatted in the  most  C-like
       fashion  possible.   For  example,  the  essence of the command ``ls -l
       /dev/null'' is captured as:

       lstat("/dev/null", {st_mode=S_IFCHR|0666, st_rdev=makedev(1, 3), ...}) = 0

       Notice how the `struct stat' argument is dereferenced and how each mem-
       ber  is displayed symbolically.  In particular, observe how the st_mode
       member is carefully decoded into a bitwise-OR of symbolic  and  numeric
       values.   Also  notice in this example that the first argument to lstat
       is an input to the system call and the second argument  is  an  output.
       Since output arguments are not modified if the system call fails, argu-
       ments may not always be dereferenced.  For example, retrying  the  ``ls
       -l'' example with a non-existent file produces the following line:

       lstat("/foo/bar", 0xb004) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)

       In this case the porch light is on but nobody is home.

       Character  pointers  are  dereferenced  and printed as C strings.  Non-
       printing characters in strings are normally represented by  ordinary  C
       escape  codes.  Only the first strsize (32 by default) bytes of strings
       are printed; longer strings have an  ellipsis  appended  following  the
       closing  quote.   Here  is  a  line  from  ``ls -l'' where the getpwuid
       library routine is reading the password file:

       read(3, "root::0:0:System Administrator:/"..., 1024) = 422

       While structures are annotated using curly braces, simple pointers  and
       arrays  are  printed  using square brackets with commas separating ele-
       ments.  Here is an example from the command ``id''  on  a  system  with
       supplementary group ids:

       getgroups(32, [100, 0]) = 2

       On  the  other  hand, bit-sets are also shown using square brackets but
       set elements are separated only by a space.  Here is the shell  prepar-
       ing to execute an external command:

       sigprocmask(SIG_BLOCK, [CHLD TTOU], []) = 0

       Here the second argument is a bit-set of two signals, SIGCHLD and SIGT-
       TOU.  In some cases the bit-set is so full that printing out the  unset
       elements  is more valuable.  In that case, the bit-set is prefixed by a
       tilde like this:

       -C          Like  -c  but  also  print regular output while pro-
                   cesses are running.

       -D          Run tracer process as a detached grandchild, not  as
                   parent  of  the  tracee.   This  reduces the visible
                   effect of strace by  keeping  the  tracee  a  direct
                   child of the calling process.

       -d          Show  some  debugging output of strace itself on the
                   standard error.

       -f          Trace child processes as they are  created  by  cur-
                   rently  traced processes as a result of the fork(2),
                   vfork(2) and clone(2) system calls. Note that -p PID
                   -f  will  attach all threads of process PID if it is
                   multi-threaded, not only  thread  with  thread_id  =

       -ff         If  the  -o  filename option is in effect, each pro-
                   cesses trace is written to where pid is
                   the  numeric  process  id  of each process.  This is
                   incompatible with -c, since  no  per-process  counts
                   are kept.

       -F          This  option  is  now  obsolete  and it has the same
                   functionality as -f.

       -h          Print the help summary.

       -i          Print the instruction pointer at  the  time  of  the
                   system call.

       -q          Suppress  messages  about  attaching, detaching etc.
                   This happens automatically when output is redirected
                   to a file and the command is run directly instead of

       -qq         If given twice, suppress messages about process exit

       -r          Print a relative timestamp upon entry to each system
                   call.  This records the time difference between  the
                   beginning of successive system calls.

       -t          Prefix each line of the trace with the time of day.

       -tt         If  given  twice,  the time printed will include the

       -ttt        If given thrice, the time printed will  include  the
                   microseconds and the leading portion will be printed
                   as the number of seconds since the epoch.

       -x          Print all non-ASCII strings  in  hexadecimal  string

       -xx         Print all strings in hexadecimal string format.

       -y          Print  paths  associated  with file descriptor argu-

       -a column   Align return values in a  specific  column  (default
                   column 40).

       -b syscall  If  specified syscall is reached, detach from traced
                   process.  Currently, only  execve  syscall  is  sup-
                   ported.  This  option is useful if you want to trace
                   multi-threaded process and therefore require -f, but
                   don't  want  to trace its (potentially very complex)

       -e expr     A qualifying expression which modifies which  events
                   to  trace  or  how to trace them.  The format of the
                   expression is:


                   where qualifier is one of  trace,  abbrev,  verbose,
                   raw,  signal,  read,  or write and value is a quali-
                   fier-dependent symbol or number.  The default quali-
                   fier  is  trace.   Using an exclamation mark negates
                   the set of values.  For example, -e open means  lit-
                   erally  -e trace=open which in turn means trace only
                   the open system call.  By  contrast,  -e trace=!open
                   means  to  trace  every system call except open.  In
                   addition, the special values all and none  have  the
                   obvious meanings.

                   Note  that some shells use the exclamation point for
                   history expansion even inside quoted arguments.   If
                   so,  you  must  escape  the exclamation point with a

       -e trace=set
                   Trace only the specified set of system  calls.   The
                   -c  option  is  useful  for determining which system
                   calls  might  be  useful  to  trace.   For  example,
                   trace=open,close,read,write   means  to  only  trace
                   those four system calls.   Be  careful  when  making
                   inferences  about the user/kernel boundary if only a
                   subset of system calls  are  being  monitored.   The
                   default is trace=all.

       -e trace=file
                   Trace  all system calls which take a file name as an
                   argument.  You can think of this as an  abbreviation
                   for  -e trace=open,stat,chmod,unlink,...   which  is
                   Trace all the network related system calls.

       -e trace=signal
                   Trace all signal related system calls.

       -e trace=ipc
                   Trace all IPC related system calls.

       -e trace=desc
                   Trace all file descriptor related system calls.

       -e trace=memory
                   Trace all memory mapping related system calls.

       -e abbrev=set
                   Abbreviate the output from printing each  member  of
                   large  structures.   The default is abbrev=all.  The
                   -v option has the effect of abbrev=none.

       -e verbose=set
                   Dereference structures for the specified set of sys-
                   tem calls.  The default is verbose=all.

       -e raw=set  Print raw, undecoded arguments for the specified set
                   of system calls.  This  option  has  the  effect  of
                   causing  all arguments to be printed in hexadecimal.
                   This is mostly useful if you don't trust the  decod-
                   ing  or you need to know the actual numeric value of
                   an argument.

       -e signal=set
                   Trace only the specified  subset  of  signals.   The
                   default is signal=all.  For example, signal =! SIGIO
                   (or signal=!io)  causes  SIGIO  signals  not  to  be

       -e read=set Perform a full hexadecimal and ASCII dump of all the
                   data read from file descriptors listed in the speci-
                   fied set.  For example, to see all input activity on
                   file descriptors 3 and 5 use -e read=3,5.  Note that
                   this  is  independent from the normal tracing of the
                   read(2) system  call  which  is  controlled  by  the
                   option -e trace=read.

       -e write=set
                   Perform a full hexadecimal and ASCII dump of all the
                   data written to file descriptors listed in the spec-
                   ified  set.  For example, to see all output activity
                   on file descriptors 3 and 5 use -e write=3,5.   Note
                   that  this is independent from the normal tracing of
                   the write(2) system call which is controlled by  the
                   option -e trace=write.

       -I interruptible
                   output  is piped to it.  This is convenient for pip-
                   ing  the  debugging  output  to  a  program  without
                   affecting the redirections of executed programs.

       -O overhead Set  the  overhead for tracing system calls to over-
                   head microseconds.  This is  useful  for  overriding
                   the  default heuristic for guessing how much time is
                   spent in mere measuring  when  timing  system  calls
                   using  the -c option.  The accuracy of the heuristic
                   can be gauged by timing a given program run  without
                   tracing  (using  time(1))  and comparing the accumu-
                   lated system call time to the total  produced  using

       -p pid      Attach  to  the  process with the process ID pid and
                   begin tracing.  The trace may be terminated  at  any
                   time   by  a  keyboard  interrupt  signal  (CTRL-C).
                   strace will respond by  detaching  itself  from  the
                   traced  process(es)  leaving  it  (them) to continue
                   running.  Multiple -p options can be used to  attach
                   to many processes.  -p "`pidof PROG`" syntax is sup-

       -P path     Trace only system calls accessing path.  Multiple -P
                   options can be used to specify several paths.

       -s strsize  Specify  the  maximum  string  size  to  print  (the
                   default is 32).  Note that filenames are not consid-
                   ered strings and are always printed in full.

       -S sortby   Sort  the  output of the histogram printed by the -c
                   option by the specified criterion.  Legal values are
                   time, calls, name, and nothing (default is time).

       -u username Run  command with the user ID, group ID, and supple-
                   mentary groups of username.   This  option  is  only
                   useful  when running as root and enables the correct
                   execution of setuid and/or setgid binaries.   Unless
                   this  option  is used setuid and setgid programs are
                   executed without effective privileges.

       -E var=val  Run command with var=val in its list of  environment

       -E var      Remove  var  from  the inherited list of environment
                   variables before passing it on to the command.

       When command exits, strace exits with the same exit status.   If
       command is terminated by a signal, strace terminates itself with
       the same signal, so that strace can be used as a wrapper process
       transparent to the invoking parent process.

       When  using  -p,  the exit status of strace is zero unless there
       group trace, where members of the trace group are trusted users.
       If you do use this feature, please remember to  install  a  non-
       setuid version of strace for ordinary lusers to use.

       ltrace(1), time(1), ptrace(2), proc(5)

       It is a pity that so much tracing clutter is produced by systems
       employing shared libraries.

       It is instructive to think about system call inputs and  outputs
       as  data-flow  across  the  user/kernel boundary.  Because user-
       space and kernel-space are separate and address-protected, it is
       sometimes  possible  to  make deductive inferences about process
       behavior using inputs and outputs as propositions.

       In some cases, a system call will  differ  from  the  documented
       behavior  or  have  a different name.  For example, on System V-
       derived systems the true time(2) system call does  not  take  an
       argument  and  the  stat  function  is called xstat and takes an
       extra leading argument.   These  discrepancies  are  normal  but
       idiosyncratic  characteristics  of the system call interface and
       are accounted for by C library wrapper functions.

       On some platforms a process that has a system call trace applied
       to  it  with  the -p option will receive a SIGSTOP.  This signal
       may interrupt a system call that is not restartable.   This  may
       have an unpredictable effect on the process if the process takes
       no action to restart the system call.

       Programs that use the setuid bit do not have effective  user  ID
       privileges while being traced.

       A traced process runs slowly.

       Traced  processes  which  are descended from command may be left
       running after an interrupt signal (CTRL-C).

       The -i option is weakly supported.

       strace The original strace was written by  Paul  Kranenburg  for
       SunOS  and was inspired by its trace utility.  The SunOS version
       of strace was ported to Linux and enhanced by Branko  Lankester,
       who  also  wrote  the  Linux  kernel  support.  Even though Paul
       released strace 2.5 in 1992, Branko's work was based  on  Paul's
       strace  1.5  release  from  1991.   In 1993, Rick Sladkey merged
       strace 2.5 for SunOS and the second release of strace for Linux,
       added  many  of the features of truss(1) from SVR4, and produced
       an strace that worked on both platforms.  In  1994  Rick  ported
       strace to SVR4 and Solaris and wrote the automatic configuration
       support.  In 1995 he ported strace to Irix and tired of  writing
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