netpbm



DESCRIPTION
       Netpbm is a package of graphics programs and programming libraries.

       There are over 220 separate programs in the package, most of which have
       "pbm", "pgm", "ppm", or "pnm" in their names.   For  example,  pnmscale
       and giftopnm.

       For  example, you might use pnmscale to shrink an image by 10%.  Or use
       pnmcomp to overlay one image on top of another.  Or use pbmtext to cre-
       ate  an image of text.  Or reduce the number of colors in an image with
       pnmquant.


The Netpbm Formats
       All of the programs work with a set  of  graphics  formats  called  the
       "netpbm"  formats.   Specifically,  these  formats  are pbm(5), pgm(5),
       ppm(5), and pam(5).  The first  three  of  these  are  sometimes  known
       generically  as pnm.  Many of the Netpbm programs convert from a Netpbm
       format to another format or vice versa.  This is so  you  can  use  the
       Netpbm  programs  to work on graphics of any format.  It is also common
       to use a combination of Netpbm programs to convert from one  non-Netpbm
       format to another non-Netpbm format.  Netpbm has converters for over 80
       graphics formats, and as a package Netpbm lets  you  do  more  graphics
       format conversions than any other computer graphics facility.

       The  Netpbm formats are all raster formats, i.e. they describe an image
       as a matrix of rows and columns of pixels.  In the PBM format, the pix-
       els are black and white.  In the PGM format, pixels are shades of gray.
       In the PPM format, the pixels are in full color.   The  PAM  format  is
       more  sophisticated.  A replacement for all three of the other formats,
       it can represent matrices of general data including but not limited  to
       black and white, grayscale, and color images.

       Programs  designed  to  work with PBM images have "pbm" in their names.
       Programs designed to work with PGM, PPM, and PAM images similarly  have
       "pgm", "ppm", and "pam" in their names.

       All  Netpbm  programs  designed to read PGM images see PBM images as if
       they were PGM too.  All Netpbm programs designed to read PPM images see
       PGM  and PBM images as if they were PPM.  See the section "Implied For-
       mat Conversion" below.

       Programs that have "pnm" in their names read  PBM,  PGM,  and  PPM  but
       unlike "ppm" programs, they distinguish between them and their function
       depends on the format.  For example, pnmtogif creates a black and white
       GIF  output  image  if  its input is PBM or PGM, but a color GIF output
       image if its input is PPM.  And pnmscale produces an  output  image  of
       the  same format as the input.  A ppmscale program would read all three
       PNM input formats, but would see them all as PPM and would always  gen-
       erate PPM output.

       If  it  seems  wasteful  to  you to have three separate PNM formats, be
       were the equivalent PGM image, with a maxval of 255.

       A program that uses the PPM library to read an image  can  read  a  PGM
       image  as  well  as a PPM image and a PBM image as well as a PGM image.
       The program sees the PBM or PGM image as if it were the equivalent  PPM
       image,  with a maxval of 255 in the PBM case and the same maxval as the
       PGM in the PGM case.


Netpbm and Transparency
       In many graphics format, there's a means  of  indicating  that  certain
       parts of the image are wholly or partially transparent, meaning that if
       it were displayed "over" another image,  the  other  image  would  show
       through there.  Netpbm formats deliberately omit that capability, since
       their purpose is to be extremely simple.

       In Netpbm, you handle transparency via a transparency mask in  a  sepa-
       rate  (slightly  redefined)  PGM image.  In this pseudo-PGM, what would
       normally be a pixel's intensity is instead it an opaqueness value.  See
       pgm(5).   pnmcomp  is  an  example  of a program that uses a PGM trans-
       parency mask.


The Netpbm Programs
       The Netpbm programs are generally useful run by a person from a command
       shell,  but are also designed to be used by programs.  A common charac-
       teristic of Netpbm programs is that they are simple, fundamental build-
       ing  blocks.  They are most powerful when stacked in pipelines.  Netpbm
       programs do not use graphical user interfaces (in fact,  none  of  them
       display  graphics  at  all, except for a very simple Linux Svgalib dis-
       player) and do not seek input from a user.

       Each of these programs has its own man page.


Common Options
       There are a few options that are present on all programs that are based
       on  the  Netpbm  libraries,  including  virtually  all Netpbm programs.
       These are not mentioned in the individual man pages for the programs.


       -quiet Suppress all informational  messages  that  would  otherwise  be
              issued  to  Standard  Error.  (To be precise, this only works to
              the extent that the program in question  implements  the  Netpbm
              convention of issuing all informational messages via the pm_mes-
              sage() service of the Netpbm libraries).

       -version
              Instead of doing anything else, report the version of the libpbm
              library  linked with the program (it may have been linked stati-
              cally into the program, or  dynamically  linked  at  run  time).
              Normally, the Netpbm programs and the libraries are installed at
              the same time, so this tells you the version of the program  and
              all the other Netpbm libraries and files it uses as well.

       pnmtojpeg
              convert PPM to JPEG/JFIF/EXIF format

       anytopnm
              convert any graphics format to Netpbm format

       bmptoppm
              convert Windows or OS/2 Bitmap file to PPM

       ppmtobmp
              convert PPM to Windows or OS/2 Bitmap file

       winicontoppm
              convert Windows icon file to PPM

       ppmtowinicon
              convert PPM to Windows icon file

       giftopnm
              convert GIF to portable anymap

       ppmtogif
              convert PPM to GIF

       pnmtopng
              convert Netpbm format to Portable Network Graphics

       pngtopnm
              convert PNG (Portable Network Graphics) to Netpbm formats

       palmtopnm
              convert Palm pixmap to Netpbm formats

       pnmtopalm
              convert Netpbm formats to Palm pixmap

       jbigtopbm
              convert JBIG BIE (compressed bitmap) to PBM

       pamtopnm
              convert a PAM image to PBM, PGM, or PPM

       pbmtojbig
              convert PBM to JBIG BIE (compressed bitmap)

       pnmtofiasco
              convert Netpbm image to Fiasco (wfa) highly compressed format

       fiascotopnm
              convert Fiasco (wfa) highly compressed format to Netpbm image

       hpcdtoppm
              convert photo CD to PPM

       ppmtoneo
              convert PPM image to Atari Neochrome (.neo)

       pbmtomda
              convert from PBM to Microdesign (for Amstrad PCWs)

       mdatopbm
              convert from Microdesign (for Amstrad PCWs) to PBM

       atktopbm
              convert Andrew Toolkit raster object to PBM

       pbmtoatk
              convert PBM to Andrew Toolkit raster object

       brushtopbm
              convert Xerox doodle brushes to PBM

       cmuwmtopbm
              convert CMU window manager format to PBM

       g3topbm
              convert Group 3 FAX to PBM

       pbmtog3
              convert PBM to Group 3 FAX

       icontopbm
              convert Sun icon to PBM

       pbmtoicon
              convert PBM to Sun icon

       gemtopnm
              convert GEM .img format to PBM or pixmap

       macptopbm
              convert MacPaint to PBM

       pbmtomacp
              convert PBM to MacPaint

       mgrtopbm
              convert MGR format to PBM

       pbmtomgr
              convert PBM to MGR format

       pi3topbm
              convert Atari Degas .pi3 to PBM

       pbmtopi3
              convert PBM to Atari Degas .pi3

       pbmtoybm
              convert PBM into Bennet Yee "face" file

       pbmto10x
              convert PBM to Gemini 10x printer graphics

       pbmtoascii
              convert PBM to ASCII graphic form

       asciitopgm
              convert ASCII character graphics to PGM

       pbmtobbnbg
              convert PBM to BBN BitGraph graphics

       pbmtocmuwm
              convert PBM to CMU window manager format

       pbmtoepson
              convert PBM to Epson printer graphics

       pbmtogem
              convert PBM into GEM .img file

       pbmtogo
              convert PBM to GraphOn graphics

       pbmtolj
              convert PBM to HP LaserJet black and white graphics

       ppmtolj
              convert PPM to HP LaserJet color graphics (PCL)

       pjtoppm
              convert HP PaintJet file to PPM

       ppmtopj
              convert PPM to HP PaintJet file

       thinkjettopbm
              convert HP Thinkjet printer stream to PBM

       pbmtoplot
              convert PBM into Unix plot(5) file

       pbmtoptx
              convert PBM to Printronix graphics

       pbmtozinc
              convert PBM to Zinc Interface Library icon

       fitstopnm
              convert FITS format to portable anymap

       lispmtopgm
              convert a Lisp Machine bitmap file into PGM format

       pgmtolispm
              convert PGM into Lisp Machine format

       pnmtops
              convert Netpbm formats to Postscript

       pstopnm
              convert Postscript to Netpbm formats

       psidtopgm
              convert PostScript "image" data to PGM

       pbmtolps
              convert PBM image to Postscript using lines

       pbmtoepsi
              convert a PBM image to encapsulated Postscript preview bitmap

       pbmtopsg3
              convert PBM images to Postscript using G3 fax compression.

       rawtopgm
              convert raw grayscale bytes to PGM

       pgmtopbm
              convert PGM to PBM

       gouldtoppm
              convert Gould scanner file to PPM

       ilbmtoppm
              convert IFF ILBM to PPM

       ppmtoilbm
              convert PPM to IFF ILBM

       imgtoppm
              convert Img-whatnot to PPM

       mtvtoppm
              convert MTV ray-tracer output to PPM

       pcxtoppm
              convert PC Paintbrush format to PPM

       pgmtoppm
              colorize a portable graymap into a PPM

       pi1toppm
              convert Atari Degas .pi1 to PPM

       rawtoppm
              convert raw RGB bytes to PPM

       sldtoppm
              convert an AutoCAD slide file into a PPM

       spctoppm
              convert Atari compressed Spectrum to PPM

       sputoppm
              convert Atari uncompressed Spectrum to PPM

       tgatoppm
              convert TrueVision Targa file to PPM

       ppmtotga
              convert PPM to TrueVision Targa file

       ximtoppm
              convert Xim to PPM

       xpmtoppm
              convert XPM format to PPM

       ppmtoxpm
              convert PPM to XPM format

       yuvtoppm
              convert Abekas YUV format to PPM

       eyuvtoppm
              convert Encoder/Berkeley YUV format to PPM

       ppmtoeyuv
              convert PPM to Encoder/Berkeley YUV format

       ppmtoyuv
              convert PPM to Abekas YUV format

       ppmtoyuvsplit
              convert PPM to 3 subsampled raw YUV files

       yuvsplittoppm
              merge 3 subsampled raw YUV files to one PPM

       ppmtoacad
              convert PPM to AutoCAD database or slide

       ppmtoicr
              convert PPM to NCSA ICR graphics

       ppmtopcx
              convert PPM to PC Paintbrush format

       tifftopnm
              convert TIFF file to portable anymap

       pnmtotiff
              convert Netpbm formats to TIFF RGB file

       pnmtotiffcmyk
              convert Netpbm formats to TIFF CMYK file

       xwdtopnm
              convert X10 or X11 window dump to Netpbm formats

       pnmtoxwd
              convert Netpbm formats to X11 window dump

       pnmtoplainpnm
              convert regular Netpbm format image into plain Netpbm format

       pbmtopgm
              convert PBM file to PGM by averaging areas

       411toppm
              convert 411 (Sony Mavica) to PPM

       ppmtosixel
              convert PPM to DEC sixel format

       ppmtouil
              convert PPM to Motif UIL icon file

       sbigtopgm
              convert Santa Barbara Instrument Group CCD file to PGM

       vidtoppm
              convert Parallax XVideo JPEG to sequence of PPM files

       pnmtorle
              convert PNM to Utah Raster Toolkit (urt/rle) file

       rletopnm
              convert Utah Raster Toolkit (urt/rle) file to PNM

       ppmtoleaf
              convert PPM to Interleaf

       leaftoppm
              convert Interleaf to PPM

       bioradtopgm
              convert Biorad confocal image to PGM

       pbmtoln03
              convert PGM image to Dec LN03+ Sixel image

              create a blank PBM image of a specified size

       ppmmake
              create a PPM image of a specified size and color

       pgmramp
              generate a grayscale ramp

       ppmpat create a pretty PPM image

       ppmrainbow
              create a spectrum-like image with colors fading together.

       pgmnoise
              create a PGM image of white noise

       pbmtext
              render text into a PBM image

       pbmupc create a Universal Product Code PBM image

       ppmcie generate a CIE color map PPM image

       pbmpage
              create a printer test pattern page in PBM format

       ppmcolors
              create a color map (PPM image) containing all possible colors of
              given maxval



   Image Editors
       All of these work on the Netpbm formats


       ppmlabel
              Add text to an image

       pnmshadow
              add a shadow to an image so it looks like it's floating

       ppmbrighten
              brighten or dim an image -- change saturation and value

       ppmdim dim an image - different way from ppmbrighten

       pbmreduce
              reduce a PBM N times, using Floyd-Steinberg

       pgmnorm
              normalize contrast in a PGM image

       ppmnorm
              enlarge an image N times

       ppmdither
              ordered dither for color images

       pnmcolormap
              Choose  the  N  best colors to represent an image; create a col-
              ormap

       pnmremap
              Replace colors in an image with those from a color map

       ppmquant
              quantize colors in a color image down to fewer colors

       pnmquant
              quantize colors/shades in a color or  grayscale  image  down  to
              fewer

       ppmquantall
              quantize colors on many files

       ppmrelief
              run a Laplacian Relief filter on a PPM

       pnmarith
              perform arithmetic on two images

       pnmcat concatenate images

       pnmpad add borders to an image

       pnmcomp
              create composite (overlay) of images

       ppmmix mix (overlay) two images.

       pnmcrop
              crop all like-colored borders off an image

       pamcut select a rectangular region from an image

       pnmcut obsolete version of pamcut (kept because it may have fewer bugs)

       pamdice
              slice an image into many horizontally and/or vertically

       pamdeinterlace
              remove every other row from an image

       pamchannel
              extract a single plane (channel, e.g. R, G, or B) from an image

       pnmdepth
              invert an image

       pnmgamma
              perform gamma correction on an image

       pnmhisteq
              histogram equalize image to increase contrast

       pnmmargin
              add a margin to an image

       pnmpaste
              paste a rectangle into an image

       pnmrotate
              rotate an image

       pnmshear
              shear an image

       pnmsmooth
              smooth am image

       pnmtile
              replicate an image into a specified size

       pbmclean
              remove lone pixels (snow) from a PBM image

       pnmalias
              antialias an image

       ppmchange
              change all of one color to another in PPM image

       pnmnlfilt
              filter  an  image  by  replacing  each  pixel with a function of
              nearby pixels

       ppmshift
              shift lines of PPM image left or right a random amount

       ppmspread
              move pixels of PPM image a random amount

       pnmconvol
              general MxN convolution on an image

       rgb3toppm
              combine three portable graymaps into one PPM

       ppmtorgb3
              separate a PPM into three portable graymaps

       These all work on the Netpbm formats as input.


       pnmfile
              describe an image's vital characteristics

       pnmpsnr
              measure difference between two images

       pgmedge
              edge-detect a PGM image

       pgmenhance
              edge-enhance a PGM image

       pgmslice
              print grayscale values for a row or column of a PGM image

       pgmtexture
              calculate textural features on a PGM image

       pgmhist
              print a histogram of the values in a PGM image

       ppmhist
              print a histogram of a PPM

       pnmhistmap
              draw a histogram of a PGM or PPM

       ppmtomap
              generate a map of all colors in an image

       ppm3d  generate a blue/green 3D glasses image from two images


   Miscellaneous
       ppmsvgalib
              display a PPM image on a Linux virtual console using Svgalib

       pbmmask
              create a mask bitmap from a regular bitmap

       ppmcolormask
              create mask of areas of a certain color in an image

       pnmsplit
              split a multi-image Netpbm file into multiple 1-image files

       pnmindex
              build a visual index of a bunch of Netpbm images

       pcdindex
              build a visual index of a photo CD from PCD overview file

       ppmforge
              fractal forgeries of clouds, planets, and starry skies

       pgmkernel
              generate a convolution kernel

       ppmtv  Make an image lined so it looks like an old TV

       pbmto4425
              Display PBM image on AT&T 4425 ASCII terminal with gfx chars


   Uncatalogued As Yet
       pnmtoddif

       pnmtosgi

       pnmtosir

       ppmflash

       ppmqvga

       ppmtomitsu

       ppmtopjxl

       sgitopnm

       sirtopnm

       spottopgm

       xvminitoppm

       zeisstopnm



The Netpbm Libraries
       The Netpbm programming libraries, libpbm(3), libpgm(3), libppm(3),  and
       libpnm(3),  make  it  easy  to  write  programs that manipulate graphic
       images.  Their main function is to read and write files in  the  Netpbm
       format,  and because the Netpbm package contains converters for all the
       popular graphics formats, if your program reads and writes  the  Netpbm
       formats, you can use it with any formats.

       But  the libraries also contain some utility functions, such as charac-
       ter drawing and RGB/YCrCb conversion.

       The libraries have the conventional C linkage.  Virtually all  programs
       in the Netpbm package are based on the Netpbm libraries.


       As  a  rule, Netpbm programs take one input file and produce one output
       file, usually on Standard Output.  This is for flexibility,  since  you
       so often have to pipeline many tools together.

       Here  is an example of a shell command to convert all your of PNG files
       (named *.png) to JPEG files named *.jpg:

       for i in *.png; do pngtopnm $i |  ppmtojpeg  >`basename  $i  .png`.jpg;
       done

       Or  you  might just generate a stream of individual shell commands, one
       per file, with awk or perl.  Here's how to brighten 30 YUV images  that
       make up one second of a movie, keeping the images in the same files:

       ls *.yuv .br | perl -ne 'chomp;
       print yuvtoppm $_ | ppmbrighten -v 100 | ppmtoyuv >tmp$$.yuv; ,
       mv tmp$$.yuv $_0
       ' .br | sh

       The  tools  find  (with the -exec option) and xargs are also useful for
       simple manipulation of groups of files.

       Some shells' "process substitution" facility  can  help  where  a  non-
       Netpbm  program  expects  you to identify a disk file for input and you
       want it to use the result of  a  Netpbm  manipulation.   Say  printcmyk
       takes  the filename of a Tiff CMYK file as input and what you have is a
       PNG file abc.png.  Try:

       printcmyk <({ pngtopnm abc.png | pnmtotiffcmyk ; })

       It works in the other direction too, if you have a program  that  makes
       you name its output file and you want the output to go through a Netpbm
       tool.


   Other Graphics Software
       Netpbm contains primitive building blocks.  It certainly is not a  com-
       plete graphics library.

       The  first  thing  you will need to make use of any of these tools is a
       viewer.   For  the  X  inclined,  there  is  xzgv.    See   ftp://meta-
       lab.unc.edu/pub/Linux/apps/graphics/viewers/X.

       xloadimage  and  its  extension  xli  are also common ways to display a
       graphic image in X.

       ImageMagick is like a visual version of  Netpbm.   Using  the  X/Window
       system  on  Unix, you can do basic editing of images and lots of format
       conversions.  The package does include at least some non-visual  tools.
       Convert,  Mogrify,  Montage,  and Animate are popular programs from the
       ImageMagick package.  ImageMagick runs on Unix,  Windows,  Windows  NT,
       Macintosh, and VMS.

       The  Gimp is a visual image editor for Unix and X, in the same category
       information on the Utah Raster Toolkit, but does not tell where to  get
       it.


       There  are some Netpbm-like graphics tools distributed by the Army High
       Performance Computing Research  Center  at  http://www.arc.umn.edu/gvl-
       software/media-tools.html.  These operate directly on non-Netpbm format
       images, so they aren't included in the Netpbm  package.   However,  you
       can  use them with any image format by using the Netpbm format convert-
       ers.


       Ivtools is a suite of free X Windows drawing  editors  for  Postscript,
       Tex,  and web graphics production, as well as an embeddable and extend-
       able vector  graphic  shell.   It  uses  the  Netpbm  facilities.   See
       http://www.ivtools.org.

       Ilib  is  a  C  subroutine library with functions for adding text to an
       image (as you might do at a higher level with pbmtext, pnmcomp,  etc.).
       It    works    with    Netpbm   input   and   output.    Find   it   at
       http://www.radix.net/~cknudsen/Ilib.  Netpbm  also  includes  character
       drawing  functions in the libppm library, but they do not have as fancy
       font capabilities (see ppmlabel for an example of  use  of  the  Netpbm
       character drawing functions).

       GD  is  a  library  of graphics routines that is part of PHP.  It has a
       subset of Netpbm's functions and has been found to resize  images  more
       slowly and with less quality.

       pnm2ppa  converts  to  HP's  "Winprinter" format (for HP 710, 720, 820,
       1000, etc).  It  is  a  superset  of  Netpbm's  pbmtoppa  and  handles,
       notably, color.  However, it is more of a printer driver than a Netpbm-
       style  primitive   graphics   building   block.    See   http://source-
       forge.net/project/?group_id=1322.

       The  program morph morphs one image into another.  It uses Targa format
       images, but you can use tgatoppm and ppmtotga to deal with that format.
       You  have  to  use the graphical (X/Tk) Xmorph to create the mesh files
       that you must feed to morph.  morph is part of the Xmorph package.  See
       http://www.colorado-research.com/~gourlay/software/Graphics/Xmorph.

       To  create  an animated GIF, or extract a frame from one, use gifsicle.
       gifsicle converts between animated GIF and still GIF, and you  can  use
       ppmtogif  and  giftopnm to connect up to all the Netpbm utilities.  See
       http://www.lcdf.org/gifsicle.

       To convert an image of text to text (optical  character  recongition  -
       OCR), use gocr (think of it as an inverse of pbmtext).  See http://alt-
       mark.nat.uni-magdeburg.de/~jschulen/ocr/.

       http://schaik.com/pngsuite contains a PNG test suite -- a  whole  bunch
       of PNG images exploiting the various features of the PNG format.

       Another       version       of       pnmtopng/pngtopnm       is      at
       a little image information because JPEG is a lossy compression.   jpeg-
       tran  comes with the Independent Jpeg Group's (http://www.ijg.org) JPEG
       library.

       Some tools to deal with EXIF files (see  also  Netpbm's  jpegtopnm  and
       pnmtojpeg):    To   dump   (interpret)   an   EXIF   header:   Exifdump
       ((http://topo.math.u-psud.fr/~bousch/exifdump.py)       or        Jhead
       (http://www.sentex.net/~mwandel/jhead).

       A Python EXIF library and dumper:  http://pyexif.sourceforge.net.

       Latex2html  converts  Latex  document  source  to HTML document source.
       Part of that involves graphics, and Latex2html uses  Netpbm  tools  for
       some  of  that.  But Latex2html through its history has had some rather
       esoteric codependencies with Netpbm.   Older  Latex2html  doesn't  work
       with current Netpbm.  Latex2html-99.2beta8 works, though.



   Other Graphics Formats
       People never seem to tire of inventing new graphics formats, often com-
       pletely redundant with pre-existing ones.  Netpbm cannot keep  up  with
       them.   Here  is  a  list  of a few that we know Netpbm does not handle
       (yet).

         CAL (originated by US Department Of Defense, favored by  architects).
       http://www.landfield.com/faqs/graphics/fileformats-faq/part3/sec-
       tion-24.html

         array formats dx, general, netcdf, CDF, hdf, cm

         CGM+

         Windows Meta File (.WMF).  Libwmf converts from WMF  to  things  like
       Latex, PDF, PNG.  Some of these can be input to Netpbm.

         Microsoft  Word,  RTF.   Microsoft  keeps a proprietary hold on these
       formats.  Any software you see that can handle them is likely  to  cost
       money.

         DXF (AutoCAD)


HISTORY
       Netpbm  has a long history, starting with Jef Poskanzer's Pbmplus pack-
       age in 1988.  The file HISTORY in the Netpbm  source  code  contains  a
       historical overview as well as a detailed history release by release.


AUTHOR
       Netpbm is based on the Pbmplus package by Jef Poskanzer, first distrib-
       uted in 1988 and maintained by him until 1991.  But  the  package  con-
       tains work by countless other authors, added since Jef's original work.
       In fact, the name is derived from the fact that the work  was  contrib-
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