dpkg-shlibdeps(1)                 dpkg suite                 dpkg-shlibdeps(1)

       dpkg-shlibdeps - generate shared library substvar dependencies

       dpkg-shlibdeps [option...] [-e]executable [option...]

       dpkg-shlibdeps  calculates  shared library dependencies for executables
       named in its arguments. The dependencies are added to the  substitution
       variables  file  debian/substvars  as variable names shlibs:dependency-
       field where dependency-field is a  dependency  field  name.  Any  other
       variables starting with shlibs: are removed from the file.

       dpkg-shlibdeps  has  two  possible  sources  of information to generate
       dependency information. Either symbols files or shlibs files. For  each
       binary that dpkg-shlibdeps analyzes, it finds out the list of libraries
       that it's linked with.  Then, for each library, it looks up either  the
       symbols  file,  or  the  shlibs file (if the former doesn't exist or if
       debian/shlibs.local contains the relevant dependency). Both  files  are
       supposed  to  be  provided  by  the  library package and should thus be
       available        as        /var/lib/dpkg/info/package.symbols        or
       /var/lib/dpkg/info/package.shlibs.  The  package  name is identified in
       two steps: find the library file on the system  (looking  in  the  same
       directories  that  ld.so  would  use), then use dpkg -S library-file to
       lookup the package providing the library.

   Symbols files
       Symbols files contain finer-grained dependency information by providing
       the  minimum  dependency  for each symbol that the library exports. The
       script tries to find a symbols file associated to a library package  in
       the following places (first match is used):

              Shared  library  information  generated  by  the  current  build
              process that also invoked dpkg-shlibdeps.  They are generated by
              dpkg-gensymbols(1).   They are only used if the library is found
              in a package's build tree. The symbols file in that  build  tree
              takes precedence over symbols files from other binary packages.


              Per-system  overriding  shared  library  dependency information.
              arch is the architecture of  the  current  system  (obtained  by
              dpkg-architecture -qDEB_HOST_ARCH).

       Output from "dpkg-query --control-path package symbols"
              Package-provided  shared library dependency information.  Unless
              overridden  by  --admindir,   those   files   are   located   in

       While  scanning  the  symbols  used  by  all  binaries,  dpkg-shlibdeps
       remembers the (biggest) minimal version needed for each library. At the
       end  of the process, it is able to write out the minimal dependency for
       every library used (provided that the information of the symbols  files
       are accurate).

       As   a   safe-guard   measure,   a   symbols   file   can   provide   a
       Build-Depends-Package meta-information field  and  dpkg-shlibdeps  will
       extract  the  minimal  version required by the corresponding package in
       the Build-Depends field and use this version if it's  higher  than  the
       minimal version computed by scanning symbols.

   Shlibs files
       Shlibs  files  associate  directly  a  library to a dependency (without
       looking at the symbols). It's thus often stronger  than  really  needed
       but very safe and easy to handle.

       The  dependencies  for  a  library are looked up in several places. The
       first file providing information for the library of interest is used:

              Package-local overriding shared library dependency information.

              Per-system overriding shared library dependency information.

              Shared  library  information  generated  by  the  current  build
              process that also invoked dpkg-shlibdeps.  They are only used if
              the library is found in a package's build tree. The shlibs  file
              in that build tree takes precedence over shlibs files from other
              binary packages.

       Output from "dpkg-query --control-path package shlibs"
              Package-provided shared library dependency information.   Unless
              overridden   by   --admindir,   those   files   are  located  in

              Per-system default shared library dependency information.

       The extracted dependencies are then directly used (except if  they  are
       filtered  out  because  they  have  been identified as duplicate, or as
       weaker than another dependency).

       dpkg-shlibdeps interprets non-option  arguments  as  executable  names,
       just as if they'd been supplied as -eexecutable.

              Include   dependencies  appropriate  for  the  shared  libraries
              required by executable.  This option can be used multiple times.

              Prepend directory to the  list  of  directories  to  search  for
              private shared libraries (since dpkg 1.17.0). This option can be
              used multiple times.

              Note: Use this option instead  of  setting  LD_LIBRARY_PATH,  as
              that environment variable is used to control the run-time linker
              and abusing it to set the shared library paths at build-time can
              be problematic when cross-compiling for example.

              Add  dependencies  to  be  added  to the control file dependency
              field dependency-field.  (The dependencies for  this  field  are
              placed in the variable shlibs:dependency-field.)

              The  -ddependency-field  option takes effect for all executables
              after  the  option,  until  the  next  -ddependency-field.   The
              default dependency-field is Depends.

              If the same dependency entry (or set of alternatives) appears in
              more  than  one  of  the  recognized  dependency   field   names
              Pre-Depends,  Depends,  Recommends,  Enhances  or  Suggests then
              dpkg-shlibdeps will automatically remove the dependency from all
              fields   except   the   one   representing  the  most  important

              Start substitution variables  with  varname-prefix:  instead  of
              shlibs:.  Likewise, any existing substitution variables starting
              with varname-prefix: (rather than shlibs:) are removed from  the
              substitution variables file.

              Print  substitution  variable  settings  to  standard output (or
              filename if specified, since dpkg  1.17.2),  rather  than  being
              added  to  the  substitution variables file (debian/substvars by

       -ttype Prefer shared library  dependency  information  tagged  for  the
              given package type. If no tagged information is available, falls
              back to untagged information. The default package type  is  deb.
              Shared library dependency information is tagged for a given type
              by prefixing it  with  the  name  of  the  type,  a  colon,  and

              Read  overriding  shared  library  dependency  information  from
              local-shlibs-file instead of debian/shlibs.local.

              Write substitution variables in substvars-file; the  default  is

       -v     Enable  verbose mode (since dpkg 1.14.8).  Numerous messages are
              displayed to explain what dpkg-shlibdeps does.

              Exclude the package from the generated dependencies (since  dpkg
              1.14.8).  This is useful to avoid self-dependencies for packages
              which provide ELF  binaries  (executables  or  library  plugins)
              using  a  library contained in the same package. This option can
              be used multiple times to exclude several packages.

              Look into package-build-dir first when trying to find a  library
              (since  dpkg  1.14.15).   This is useful when the source package
              builds multiple flavors of the same  library  and  you  want  to
              ensure  that you get the dependency from a given binary package.
              You can use this option  multiple  times:  directories  will  be
              tried  in  the  same  order  before  directories of other binary

              Ignore package-build-dir when looking for shlibs,  symbols,  and
              shared  library  files  (since  dpkg  1.18.5).  You can use this
              option multiple times.

              Do not fail if dependency  information  can't  be  found  for  a
              shared  library  (since  dpkg  1.14.8).  Usage of this option is
              discouraged, all libraries should provide dependency information
              (either  with  shlibs files, or with symbols files) even if they
              are not yet used by other packages.

              value is a bit field defining the set of warnings  that  can  be
              emitted by dpkg-shlibdeps (since dpkg 1.14.17).  Bit 0 (value=1)
              enables the warning "symbol sym used by binary found in none  of
              the  libraries",  bit  1  (value=2) enables the warning "package
              could avoid a useless dependency" and bit  2  (value=4)  enables
              the  warning "binary should not be linked against library".  The
              default value is  3:  the  first  two  warnings  are  active  by
              default,  the  last  one  is not. Set value to 7 if you want all
              warnings to be active.

              Change the location of the dpkg database  (since  dpkg  1.14.0).
              The default location is /var/lib/dpkg.

       -?, --help
              Show the usage message and exit.

              Show the version and exit.

              Sets the color mode (since dpkg 1.18.5).  The currently accepted
              values are: auto (default), always and never.

              If set, it will be used to decide  whether  to  activate  Native
              Language  Support,  also known as internationalization (or i18n)
              support (since dpkg 1.19.0).  The accepted values are: 0  and  1

       Since dpkg-shlibdeps analyzes the set of symbols used by each binary of
       the generated package, it is able to emit warnings  in  several  cases.
       They  inform you of things that can be improved in the package. In most
       cases, those improvements concern the  upstream  sources  directly.  By
       order  of decreasing importance, here are the various warnings that you
       can encounter:

       symbol sym used by binary found in none of the libraries.
              The indicated symbol has not been found in the libraries  linked
              with  the  binary.  The  binary  is most likely a library and it
              needs to be linked with an additional library during  the  build
              process (option -llibrary of the linker).

       binary  contains an unresolvable reference to symbol sym: it's probably
       a plugin
              The indicated symbol has not been found in the libraries  linked
              with  the  binary.  The  binary  is most likely a plugin and the
              symbol is probably provided  by  the  program  that  loads  this
              plugin.  In  theory  a  plugin  doesn't have any SONAME but this
              binary does have one  and  as  such  it  could  not  be  clearly
              identified  as  such. However the fact that the binary is stored
              in a non-public directory is a strong indication that's it's not
              a  normal shared library. If the binary is really a plugin, then
              disregard this warning. But there's always the possibility  that
              it's a real library and that programs linking to it are using an
              RPATH so that the dynamic loader finds it.  In  that  case,  the
              library is broken and needs to be fixed.

       package  could  avoid  a  useless  dependency  if binary was not linked
       against library (it uses none of the library's symbols)
              None of the binaries that are linked with library use any of the
              symbols provided by the library. By fixing all the binaries, you
              would avoid the dependency associated to  this  library  (unless
              the same dependency is also generated by another library that is
              really used).

       package could avoid a useless dependency if binaries  were  not  linked
       against library (they use none of the library's symbols)
              Exactly  the  same  as  the  above  warning,  but  for  multiple

       binary should not be linked  against  library  (it  uses  none  of  the
       library's symbols)
              The binary is linked to a library that it doesn't need. It's not
              a problem but some small performance improvements in binary load
              time can be obtained by not linking this library to this binary.
              This warning checks the same information as the previous one but
              does  it  for each binary instead of doing the check globally on
              all binaries analyzed.

       dpkg-shlibdeps will fail if it can't find a public library  used  by  a
       binary  or  if  this  library  has no associated dependency information
       (either shlibs file or symbols file). A public library has a SONAME and
       is  versioned  (libsomething.so.X).  A  private library (like a plugin)
       should not have a SONAME and doesn't need to be versioned.

       couldn't find library library-soname needed by  binary  (its  RPATH  is
              The   binary   uses   a   library   called   library-soname  but
              dpkg-shlibdeps  has   been   unable   to   find   the   library.
              dpkg-shlibdeps  creates  a  list  of  directories  to  check  as
              following: directories  listed  in  the  RPATH  of  the  binary,
              directories  added  by  the -l option, directories listed in the
              LD_LIBRARY_PATH   environment    variable,    cross    multiarch
              directories   (ex.  /lib/arm64-linux-gnu,  /usr/lib/arm64-linux-
              gnu), standard public directories (/lib, /usr/lib),  directories
              listed  in  /etc/ld.so.conf,  and  obsolete multilib directories
              (/lib32, /usr/lib32, /lib64, /usr/lib64).  Then it checks  those
              directories  in  the  package's  build  tree of the binary being
              analyzed, in the packages' build trees  indicated  with  the  -S
              command-line   option,  in  other  packages'  build  trees  that
              contains a DEBIAN/shlibs or DEBIAN/symbols file and  finally  in
              the root directory.  If the library is not found in any of those
              directories, then you get this error.

              If the library not found is in a private directory of  the  same
              package,  then you want to add the directory with -l. If it's in
              another binary package being built, you want to make  sure  that
              the  shlibs/symbols  file of this package is already created and
              that -l contains the appropriate directory if it also  is  in  a
              private directory.

       no dependency information found for library-file (used by binary).
              The library needed by binary has been found by dpkg-shlibdeps in
              library-file but dpkg-shlibdeps has  been  unable  to  find  any
              dependency  information  for  that  library.  To  find  out  the
              dependency, it has tried to map the library to a Debian  package
              with  the  help  of  dpkg  -S library-file.  Then it checked the
              corresponding shlibs and symbols files  in  /var/lib/dpkg/info/,
              and in the various package's build trees (debian/*/DEBIAN/).

              This failure can be caused by a bad or missing shlibs or symbols
              file in the package of the library. It might also happen if  the
              library  is  built  within  the  same  source package and if the
              shlibs files has not yet been created (in which  case  you  must
              fix   debian/rules   to   create   the   shlibs  before  calling
              dpkg-shlibdeps). Bad RPATH can also lead to  the  library  being
              found      under      a     non-canonical     name     (example:
              /usr/lib/openoffice.org/../lib/libssl.so.0.9.8    instead     of
              /usr/lib/libssl.so.0.9.8)  that's not associated to any package,
              dpkg-shlibdeps tries to work around this by trying  to  fallback
              on  a canonical name (using realpath(3)) but it might not always
              work. It's always best to clean up the RPATH of  the  binary  to
              avoid problems.

              Calling  dpkg-shlibdeps  in  verbose mode (-v) will provide much
              more information about where it tried  to  find  the  dependency
              information.  This  might  be useful if you don't understand why
              it's giving you this error.

       deb-shlibs(5), deb-symbols(5), dpkg-gensymbols(1).

1.19.7                            2022-05-25                 dpkg-shlibdeps(1)
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