curl


SYNOPSIS
       curl [options] [URL...]

DESCRIPTION
       curl  is  a tool to transfer data from or to a server, using one of the
       supported protocols (HTTP, HTTPS, FTP, FTPS,  SCP,  SFTP,  TFTP,  DICT,
       TELNET,  LDAP  or  FILE).  The command is designed to work without user
       interaction.

       curl offers a busload of useful tricks like proxy support, user authen-
       tication,  FTP upload, HTTP post, SSL connections, cookies, file trans-
       fer resume and more. As you will see below, the number of features will
       make your head spin!

       curl  is  powered  by  libcurl  for  all transfer-related features. See
       libcurl(3) for details.

URL
       The URL syntax is protocol-dependent. You'll find a  detailed  descrip-
       tion in RFC 3986.

       You  can  specify  multiple  URLs or parts of URLs by writing part sets
       within braces as in:

        http://site.{one,two,three}.com

       or you can get sequences of alphanumeric series by using [] as in:

        ftp://ftp.numericals.com/file[1-100].txt
        ftp://ftp.numericals.com/file[001-100].txt    (with leading zeros)
        ftp://ftp.letters.com/file[a-z].txt

       No nesting of the sequences is supported at the moment, but you can use
       several ones next to each other:

        http://any.org/archive[1996-1999]/vol[1-4]/part{a,b,c}.html

       You  can  specify  any amount of URLs on the command line. They will be
       fetched in a sequential manner in the specified order.

       Since curl 7.15.1 you can also specify a step counter for  the  ranges,
       so that you can get every Nth number or letter:

        http://www.numericals.com/file[1-100:10].txt
        http://www.letters.com/file[a-z:2].txt

       If  you  specify  URL  without protocol:// prefix, curl will attempt to
       guess what protocol you might want. It will then default  to  HTTP  but
       try  other  protocols based on often-used host name prefixes. For exam-
       ple, for host names starting with "ftp." curl will assume you  want  to
       speak FTP.

       curl  will  do  its best to use what you pass to it as a URL. It is not
       left, etc.

       However,  since  curl displays this data to the terminal by default, if
       you invoke curl to do an operation and it is about to write data to the
       terminal,  it disables the progress meter as otherwise it would mess up
       the output mixing progress meter and response data.

       If you want a progress meter for HTTP POST or PUT requests, you need to
       redirect  the  response  output to a file, using shell redirect (>), -o
       [file] or similar.

       It is not the same case for FTP upload as that operation does not  spit
       out any response data to the terminal.

       If you prefer a progress "bar" instead of the regular meter, -# is your
       friend.

OPTIONS
       In general, all boolean options are enabled with --option and yet again
       disabled  with --no-option. That is, you use the exact same option name
       but prefix it with "no-". However, in this list we mostly only list and
       show  the --option version of them. (This concept with --no options was
       added in  7.19.0.  Previously  most  options  were  toggled  on/off  on
       repeated use of the same command line option.)

       -a/--append
              (FTP/SFTP) When used in an upload, this will tell curl to append
              to the target file  instead  of  overwriting  it.  If  the  file
              doesn't  exist,  it  will  be  created.   Note that this flag is
              ignored by some SSH servers (including OpenSSH).

       -A/--user-agent <agent string>
              (HTTP) Specify the User-Agent string to send to the HTTP server.
              Some   badly   done  CGIs  fail  if  this  field  isn't  set  to
              "Mozilla/4.0". To encode blanks  in  the  string,  surround  the
              string  with  single  quote marks. This can also be set with the
              -H/--header option of course.

              If this option is set more than once, the last one will  be  the
              one that's used.

       --anyauth
              (HTTP) Tells curl to figure out authentication method by itself,
              and use the most secure one the remote site claims  to  support.
              This is done by first doing a request and checking the response-
              headers, thus possibly inducing  an  extra  network  round-trip.
              This  is  used  instead  of  setting  a  specific authentication
              method, which you can do with  --basic,  --digest,  --ntlm,  and
              --negotiate.

              Note  that  using --anyauth is not recommended if you do uploads
              from stdin, since it may require data to be sent twice and  then
              the client must be able to rewind. If the need should arise when
              uploading from stdin, the upload operation will fail.
              combination with the -L/--location option. The  file  format  of
              the  file  to  read cookies from should be plain HTTP headers or
              the Netscape/Mozilla cookie file format.

              NOTE that the file specified with -b/--cookie is  only  used  as
              input.  No cookies will be stored in the file. To store cookies,
              use the -c/--cookie-jar option or you could even save  the  HTTP
              headers to a file using -D/--dump-header!

              If  this  option is set more than once, the last one will be the
              one that's used.

       -B/--use-ascii
              Enable ASCII transfer when using FTP or LDAP. For FTP, this  can
              also  be enforced by using an URL that ends with ";type=A". This
              option causes data sent to stdout to be in text mode  for  win32
              systems.

       --basic
              (HTTP)  Tells curl to use HTTP Basic authentication. This is the
              default and this option is usually pointless, unless you use  it
              to  override  a  previously  set  option  that  sets a different
              authentication method (such as --ntlm,  --digest,  or  --negoti-
              ate).

       --ciphers <list of ciphers>
              (SSL) Specifies which ciphers to use in the connection. The list
              of ciphers must specify valid ciphers. Read  up  on  SSL  cipher
              list           details           on           this          URL:
              http://www.openssl.org/docs/apps/ciphers.html

              NSS ciphers are done differently than OpenSSL  and  GnuTLS.  The
              full  list of NSS ciphers is in the NSSCipherSuite entry at this
              URL: http://directory.fedora.redhat.com/docs/mod_nss.html#Direc-
              tives

              If this option is used several times, the last one will override
              the others.

       --compressed
              (HTTP) Request a compressed response using one of the algorithms
              libcurl supports, and return the uncompressed document.  If this
              option is used and the server  sends  an  unsupported  encoding,
              curl will report an error.

       --connect-timeout <seconds>
              Maximum  time  in  seconds  that you allow the connection to the
              server to take.  This only limits  the  connection  phase,  once
              curl  has  connected this option is of no more use. See also the
              -m/--max-time option.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       -c/--cookie-jar <file name>

              If  this  option  is used several times, the last specified file
              name will be used.

       -C/--continue-at <offset>
              Continue/Resume a previous file transfer at  the  given  offset.
              The  given  offset  is  the  exact  number of bytes that will be
              skipped, counting from the beginning of the source  file  before
              it is transferred to the destination.  If used with uploads, the
              FTP server command SIZE will not be used by curl.

              Use "-C -" to tell curl to automatically find out  where/how  to
              resume  the  transfer. It then uses the given output/input files
              to figure that out.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       --create-dirs
              When used in conjunction with the -o option,  curl  will  create
              the  necessary  local directory hierarchy as needed. This option
              creates the dirs mentioned with the -o option, nothing else.  If
              the  -o file name uses no dir or if the dirs it mentions already
              exist, no dir will be created.

              To create remote directories when using FTP or SFTP, try  --ftp-
              create-dirs.

       --crlf (FTP) Convert LF to CRLF in upload. Useful for MVS (OS/390).

       --crlfile <file>
              (HTTPS/FTPS)  Provide a file using PEM format with a Certificate
              Revocation List that may specify peer certificates that  are  to
              be considered revoked.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

              (Added in 7.19.7)

       -d/--data <data>
              (HTTP)  Sends  the  specified data in a POST request to the HTTP
              server, in the same way that a browser  does  when  a  user  has
              filled  in an HTML form and presses the submit button. This will
              cause curl to pass the data to the server using the content-type
              application/x-www-form-urlencoded.  Compare to -F/--form.

              -d/--data  is  the  same  as  --data-ascii.  To post data purely
              binary, you should instead use the --data-binary option. To URL-
              encode the value of a form field you may use --data-urlencode.

              If  any of these options is used more than once on the same com-
              mand line, the data pieces specified  will  be  merged  together
              with  a  separating  &-symbol.  Thus,  using  '-d name=daniel -d
              skill=lousy'  would  generate  a  post  chunk  that  looks  like
              'name=daniel&skill=lousy'.
              If  you  start  the data with the letter @, the rest should be a
              filename.  Data is posted in a similar  manner  as  --data-ascii
              does,  except  that  newlines  are preserved and conversions are
              never done.

              If this option is used several times,  the  ones  following  the
              first will append data as described in -d/--data.

       --data-urlencode <data>
              (HTTP) This posts data, similar to the other --data options with
              the exception that this performs URL-encoding. (Added in 7.18.0)

              To be CGI-compliant, the <data> part should begin  with  a  name
              followed  by a separator and a content specification. The <data>
              part can be passed to curl using one of the following syntaxes:

              content
                     This will make curl URL-encode the content and pass  that
                     on.  Just  be careful so that the content doesn't contain
                     any = or @ symbols, as that will  then  make  the  syntax
                     match one of the other cases below!

              =content
                     This  will make curl URL-encode the content and pass that
                     on. The preceding = symbol is not included in the data.

              name=content
                     This will make curl URL-encode the content part and  pass
                     that  on.  Note that the name part is expected to be URL-
                     encoded already.

              @filename
                     This will  make  curl  load  data  from  the  given  file
                     (including  any  newlines), URL-encode that data and pass
                     it on in the POST.

              name@filename
                     This will  make  curl  load  data  from  the  given  file
                     (including  any  newlines), URL-encode that data and pass
                     it on in the POST. The  name  part  gets  an  equal  sign
                     appended, resulting in name=urlencoded-file-content. Note
                     that the name is expected to be URL-encoded already.

       --digest
              (HTTP) Enables HTTP Digest authentication. This is a authentica-
              tion that prevents the password from being sent over the wire in
              clear text. Use this in combination with  the  normal  -u/--user
              option to set user name and password. See also --ntlm, --negoti-
              ate and --anyauth for related options.

              If this option is used several times, the following  occurrences
              make no difference.

       --disable-eprt
              switch  to  passive  mode  you  need to not use -P/--ftp-port or
              force it with --ftp-pasv.

       --disable-epsv
              (FTP) Tell curl to disable the use  of  the  EPSV  command  when
              doing  passive  FTP  transfers.  Curl will normally always first
              attempt to use EPSV before PASV, but with this option,  it  will
              not try using EPSV.

              Since  curl 7.19.0, --epsv can be used to explicitly enable EPRT
              again and --no-epsv is an alias for --disable-epsv.

              Disabling EPSV only changes the passive behavior. If you want to
              switch to active mode you need to use -P/--ftp-port.

       -D/--dump-header <file>
              Write the protocol headers to the specified file.

              This  option  is handy to use when you want to store the headers
              that a HTTP site sends to you. Cookies from  the  headers  could
              then   be  read  in  a  second  curl  invocation  by  using  the
              -b/--cookie option! The -c/--cookie-jar option is however a bet-
              ter way to store cookies.

              When  used  in FTP, the FTP server response lines are considered
              being "headers" and thus are saved there.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       -e/--referer <URL>
              (HTTP) Sends the "Referer Page" information to the HTTP  server.
              This  can also be set with the -H/--header flag of course.  When
              used with -L/--location you can append ";auto" to the  --referer
              URL to make curl automatically set the previous URL when it fol-
              lows a Location: header. The ";auto" string can be  used  alone,
              even if you don't set an initial --referer.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       --engine <name>
              Select  the  OpenSSL crypto engine to use for cipher operations.
              Use --engine list  to  print  a  list  of  build-time  supported
              engines.  Note  that  not  all  (or  none) of the engines may be
              available at run-time.

       --environment
              (RISC OS ONLY) Sets a range of environment variables, using  the
              names the -w option supports, to allow easier extraction of use-
              ful information after having run curl.

       --egd-file <file>
              (SSL) Specify the path name  to  the  Entropy  Gathering  Daemon
              socket.  The  socket  is  used to seed the random engine for SSL
              connections. See also the --random-file option.
              database defined by the  environment  variable  SSL_DIR  (or  by
              default  /etc/pki/nssdb).  If  the  NSS PEM PKCS#11 module (lib-
              nsspem.so) is available then PEM files may be loaded.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       --cert-type <type>
              (SSL) Tells curl what certificate type the provided  certificate
              is in. PEM, DER and ENG are recognized types.  If not specified,
              PEM is assumed.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       --cacert <CA certificate>
              (SSL) Tells curl to use the specified certificate file to verify
              the  peer.  The  file  may contain multiple CA certificates. The
              certificate(s) must be in PEM format. Normally curl is built  to
              use a default file for this, so this option is typically used to
              alter that default file.

              curl recognizes the environment variable named  'CURL_CA_BUNDLE'
              if  it  is  set,  and uses the given path as a path to a CA cert
              bundle. This option overrides that variable.

              The windows version of curl will automatically  look  for  a  CA
              certs file named 'curl-ca-bundle.crt', either in the same direc-
              tory as curl.exe, or in the Current Working Directory, or in any
              folder along your PATH.

              If  curl  is  built against the NSS SSL library then this option
              tells curl the nickname of the CA certificate to use within  the
              NSS  database defined by the environment variable SSL_DIR (or by
              default /etc/pki/nssdb).  If the NSS PEM  PKCS#11  module  (lib-
              nsspem.so) is available then PEM files may be loaded.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       --capath <CA certificate directory>
              (SSL)  Tells  curl to use the specified certificate directory to
              verify the peer. The certificates must be in PEM format, and the
              directory  must  have  been processed using the c_rehash utility
              supplied with openssl. Using --capath can  allow  curl  to  make
              SSL-connections much more efficiently than using --cacert if the
              --cacert file contains many CA certificates.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       -f/--fail
              (HTTP) Fail silently (no output at all) on server  errors.  This
              is  mostly done to better enable scripts etc to better deal with
              failed attempts. In normal cases when a  HTTP  server  fails  to
              deliver  a  document,  it  returns  an  HTML document stating so
              (which often also describes why and more). This flag  will  pre-
              vent curl from outputting that and return error 22.

       --ftp-create-dirs
              (FTP/SFTP) When an FTP or SFTP URL/operation uses  a  path  that
              doesn't  currently exist on the server, the standard behavior of
              curl is to fail. Using this option, curl will instead attempt to
              create missing directories.

       --ftp-method [method]
              (FTP)  Control  what method curl should use to reach a file on a
              FTP(S) server. The method argument should be one of the  follow-
              ing alternatives:

              multicwd
                     curl  does  a  single CWD operation for each path part in
                     the given URL. For deep hierarchies this means very  many
                     commands.  This  is  how  RFC1738 says it should be done.
                     This is the default but the slowest behavior.

              nocwd  curl does no CWD at all. curl will do  SIZE,  RETR,  STOR
                     etc and give a full path to the server for all these com-
                     mands. This is the fastest behavior.

              singlecwd
                     curl does one CWD with the full target directory and then
                     operates  on  the  file  "normally" (like in the multicwd
                     case). This is somewhat  more  standards  compliant  than
                     'nocwd' but without the full penalty of 'multicwd'.
       (Added in 7.15.1)

       --ftp-pasv
              (FTP)  Use  passive  mode for the data conection. Passive is the
              internal default behavior, but using this option can be used  to
              override a previous -P/-ftp-port option. (Added in 7.11.0)

              If  this option is used several times, the following occurrences
              make no difference. Undoing an  enforced  passive  really  isn't
              doable  but  you must then instead enforce the correct -P/--ftp-
              port again.

              Passive mode means that curl will try the EPSV command first and
              then PASV, unless --disable-epsv is used.

       --ftp-alternative-to-user <command>
              (FTP)  If  authenticating with the USER and PASS commands fails,
              send this  command.   When  connecting  to  Tumbleweed's  Secure
              Transport  server  over  FTPS  using a client certificate, using
              "SITE AUTH" will tell the server to retrieve the  username  from
              the certificate. (Added in 7.15.5)

       --ftp-skip-pasv-ip
              (FTP) Tell curl to not use the IP address the server suggests in
              its response to curl's PASV command when curl connects the  data
              connection.  Instead  curl  will  re-use  the same IP address it
              already uses for the control connection. (Added in 7.14.2)
              Allows  secure  authentication, but non-encrypted data transfers
              for efficiency.  Fails the transfer if the server  doesn't  sup-
              port SSL/TLS.  (Added in 7.16.0)

       --ftp-ssl-reqd
              (FTP)  Require  SSL/TLS  for the FTP connection.  Terminates the
              connection if the server doesn't  support  SSL/TLS.   (Added  in
              7.15.5)

       --ftp-ssl-ccc
              (FTP)  Use  CCC  (Clear  Command Channel) Shuts down the SSL/TLS
              layer after authenticating. The rest of the control channel com-
              munication  will be unencrypted. This allows NAT routers to fol-
              low the FTP transaction. The default mode is passive. See --ftp-
              ssl-ccc-mode for other modes.  (Added in 7.16.1)

       --ftp-ssl-ccc-mode [active/passive]
              (FTP)  Use  CCC  (Clear  Command Channel) Sets the CCC mode. The
              passive mode will not initiate the shutdown,  but  instead  wait
              for the server to do it, and will not reply to the shutdown from
              the server. The active mode initiates the shutdown and waits for
              a reply from the server.  (Added in 7.16.2)

       -F/--form <name=content>
              (HTTP)  This  lets curl emulate a filled-in form in which a user
              has pressed the submit button. This causes  curl  to  POST  data
              using the Content-Type multipart/form-data according to RFC2388.
              This enables uploading of binary files etc. To force  the  'con-
              tent' part to be a file, prefix the file name with an @ sign. To
              just get the content part from a file, prefix the file name with
              the  symbol  <.  The  difference  between @ and < is then that @
              makes a file get attached in the post as a  file  upload,  while
              the < makes a text field and just get the contents for that text
              field from a file.

              Example, to send your password file to the server, where  'pass-
              word' is the name of the form-field to which /etc/passwd will be
              the input:

              curl -F password=@/etc/passwd www.mypasswords.com

              To read the file's content from stdin instead of a file,  use  -
              where  the  file name should've been. This goes for both @ and <
              constructs.

              You can also  tell  curl  what  Content-Type  to  use  by  using
              'type=', in a manner similar to:

              curl -F "web=@index.html;type=text/html" url.com

              or

              curl -F "name=daniel;type=text/foo" url.com

              ters, and the ';type=' string in the value have no special mean-
              ing. Use this in preference to --form if there's any possibility
              that the string value may accidentally trigger the  '@'  or  '<'
              features of --form.

       -g/--globoff
              This option switches off the "URL globbing parser". When you set
              this option, you can specify URLs that contain the letters  {}[]
              without  having them being interpreted by curl itself. Note that
              these letters are not normal legal URL contents but they  should
              be encoded according to the URI standard.

       -G/--get
              When  used,  this  option  will  make  all  data  specified with
              -d/--data or --data-binary to be used  in  a  HTTP  GET  request
              instead  of  the  POST request that otherwise would be used. The
              data will be appended to the URL with a '?' separator.

              If used in combination with -I, the POST data  will  instead  be
              appended to the URL with a HEAD request.

              If  this option is used several times, the following occurrences
              make no difference. This is because undoing a GET  doesn't  make
              sense,  but  you  should  then  instead  enforce the alternative
              method you prefer.

       -h/--help
              Usage help.

       -H/--header <header>
              (HTTP) Extra header to use when getting  a  web  page.  You  may
              specify any number of extra headers. Note that if you should add
              a custom header that has the same name as one  of  the  internal
              ones  curl  would  use,  your externally set header will be used
              instead of the internal one. This allows you to make even trick-
              ier  stuff  than  curl would normally do. You should not replace
              internally set  headers  without  knowing  perfectly  well  what
              you're  doing. Remove an internal header by giving a replacement
              without content on the right  side  of  the  colon,  as  in:  -H
              "Host:".

              curl  will  make  sure  that each header you add/replace is sent
              with the proper end-of-line marker, you should thus not add that
              as a part of the header content: do not add newlines or carriage
              returns, they will only mess things up for you.

              See also the -A/--user-agent and -e/--referer options.

              This option can be used  multiple  times  to  add/replace/remove
              multiple headers.

       --hostpubmd5 <md5>
              Pass  a  string  containing  32  hexadecimal  digits. The string
              should be the 128 bit MD5 checksum of the remote  host's  public
              version and more...

       --interface <name>
              Perform  an operation using a specified interface. You can enter
              interface name, IP address or host name. An example  could  look
              like:

               curl --interface eth0:1 http://www.netscape.com/

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       -I/--head
              (HTTP/FTP/FILE) Fetch the HTTP-header only! HTTP-servers feature
              the command HEAD which this uses to get nothing but  the  header
              of  a  document.  When used on a FTP or FILE file, curl displays
              the file size and last modification time only.

       -j/--junk-session-cookies
              (HTTP) When curl is told to read cookies from a given file, this
              option  will  make  it  discard all "session cookies". This will
              basically have the same effect as if a new session  is  started.
              Typical  browsers  always  discard  session cookies when they're
              closed down.

       -k/--insecure
              (SSL) This option explicitly allows curl to  perform  "insecure"
              SSL connections and transfers. All SSL connections are attempted
              to be made secure by using the CA certificate  bundle  installed
              by  default.  This  makes  all connections considered "insecure"
              fail unless -k/--insecure is used.

              See    this    online    resource    for    further     details:
              http://curl.haxx.se/docs/sslcerts.html

       --keepalive-time <seconds>
              This  option  sets  the  time  a connection needs to remain idle
              before sending keepalive probes and the time between  individual
              keepalive probes. It is currently effective on operating systems
              offering  the  TCP_KEEPIDLE  and  TCP_KEEPINTVL  socket  options
              (meaning  Linux, recent AIX, HP-UX and more). This option has no
              effect if --no-keepalive is used. (Added in 7.18.0)

              If this option is used multiple times, the last occurrence  sets
              the amount.

       --key <key>
              (SSL/SSH) Private key file name. Allows you to provide your pri-
              vate key in this separate file.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       --key-type <type>
              (SSL) Private key file type. Specify which type your --key  pro-
              vided  private  key  is. DER, PEM, and ENG are supported. If not
              sion to see if your curl supports it.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       -K/--config <config file>
              Specify  which config file to read curl arguments from. The con-
              fig file is a text file in which command line arguments  can  be
              written  which  then will be used as if they were written on the
              actual command line. Options and their parameters must be speci-
              fied  on  the  same  config  file line, separated by whitespace,
              colon, the equals sign or any combination thereof (however,  the
              preferred  separator is the equals sign). If the parameter is to
              contain  whitespace,  the  parameter  must  be  enclosed  within
              quotes. Within double quotes, the following escape sequences are
              available: \\, \", \t, \n, \r and \v. A backslash preceding  any
              other letter is ignored. If the first column of a config line is
              a '#' character, the rest of the line will be treated as a  com-
              ment.  Only  write  one  option  per physical line in the config
              file.

              Specify the filename to -K/--config as '-' to make curl read the
              file from stdin.

              Note  that  to  be able to specify a URL in the config file, you
              need to specify it using the --url option,  and  not  by  simply
              writing  the  URL  on its own line. So, it could look similar to
              this:

              url = "http://curl.haxx.se/docs/"

              Long option names can optionally be given  in  the  config  file
              without the initial double dashes.

              When curl is invoked, it always (unless -q is used) checks for a
              default config file and uses it if  found.  The  default  config
              file is checked for in the following places in this order:

              1)  curl  tries  to find the "home dir": It first checks for the
              CURL_HOME and then the HOME environment variables. Failing that,
              it  uses getpwuid() on UNIX-like systems (which returns the home
              dir given the current user in your system). On Windows, it  then
              checks for the APPDATA variable, or as a last resort the '%USER-
              PROFILE%\Application Data'.

              2) On windows, if there is no _curlrc file in the home  dir,  it
              checks for one in the same dir the curl executable is placed. On
              UNIX-like systems, it will simply try to load .curlrc  from  the
              determined home dir.

              # --- Example file ---
              # this is a comment
              url = "curl.haxx.se"
              output = "curlhere.html"
              user-agent = "superagent/1.0"
              will  get  a  libcurl-using source code written to the file that
              does the equivalent of what your command-line operation does!

              NOTE: this does not properly support -F and the sending of  mul-
              tipart  formposts,  so in those cases the output program will be
              missing necessary calls to curl_formadd(3), and possibly more.

              If this option is used several times, the last given  file  name
              will be used. (Added in 7.16.1)

       --limit-rate <speed>
              Specify  the  maximum  transfer  rate you want curl to use. This
              feature is useful if you have a limited pipe and you'd like your
              transfer not to use your entire bandwidth.

              The  given speed is measured in bytes/second, unless a suffix is
              appended.  Appending 'k' or 'K' will count the number  as  kilo-
              bytes,  'm'  or M' makes it megabytes, while 'g' or 'G' makes it
              gigabytes. Examples: 200K, 3m and 1G.

              The given rate is the average speed counted  during  the  entire
              transfer. It means that curl might use higher transfer speeds in
              short bursts, but over time it uses no more than the given rate.

              If you also use the -Y/--speed-limit option,  that  option  will
              take precedence and might cripple the rate-limiting slightly, to
              help keeping the speed-limit logic working.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       -l/--list-only
              (FTP) When listing an FTP directory, this switch forces a  name-
              only  view.   Especially useful if you want to machine-parse the
              contents of an FTP directory since  the  normal  directory  view
              doesn't use a standard look or format.

              This  option  causes  an  FTP NLST command to be sent.  Some FTP
              servers list only files in their response to NLST; they  do  not
              include subdirectories and symbolic links.


       --local-port <num>[-num]
              Set a preferred number or range of local port numbers to use for
              the connection(s).  Note that  port  numbers  by  nature  are  a
              scarce resource that will be busy at times so setting this range
              to something too narrow might cause unnecessary connection setup
              failures. (Added in 7.15.2)

       -L/--location
              (HTTP/HTTPS)  If  the server reports that the requested page has
              moved to a different location (indicated with a Location: header
              and  a  3XX  response code), this option will make curl redo the
              request on the new place. If used together with -i/--include  or
              -I/--head,  headers from all requested pages will be shown. When

       --location-trusted
              (HTTP/HTTPS) Like -L/--location, but will allow sending the name
              +  password to all hosts that the site may redirect to. This may
              or may not introduce a security breach if the site redirects you
              to  a  site to which you'll send your authentication info (which
              is plaintext in the case of HTTP Basic authentication).


       --max-filesize <bytes>
              Specify the maximum size (in bytes) of a file  to  download.  If
              the  file requested is larger than this value, the transfer will
              not start and curl will return with exit code 63.

              NOTE: The file size is not always known prior to  download,  and
              for such files this option has no effect even if the file trans-
              fer ends up being larger than this given  limit.  This  concerns
              both FTP and HTTP transfers.

       -m/--max-time <seconds>
              Maximum  time  in  seconds that you allow the whole operation to
              take.  This is useful for preventing your batch jobs from  hang-
              ing  for  hours  due  to slow networks or links going down.  See
              also the --connect-timeout option.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       -M/--manual
              Manual. Display the huge help text.

       -n/--netrc
              Makes curl scan the .netrc  (_netrc  on  Windows)  file  in  the
              user's home directory for login name and password. This is typi-
              cally used for FTP on UNIX. If used with HTTP, curl will  enable
              user  authentication.  See netrc(4) or ftp(1) for details on the
              file format. Curl will not complain if that  file  doesn't  have
              the  right permissions (it should not be either world- or group-
              readable). The environment variable "HOME" is used to  find  the
              home directory.

              A  quick  and  very  simple  example of how to setup a .netrc to
              allow curl to FTP to the machine host.domain.com with user  name
              'myself' and password 'secret' should look similar to:

              machine host.domain.com login myself password secret

       --netrc-optional
              Very  similar to --netrc, but this option makes the .netrc usage
              optional and not mandatory as the --netrc option does.

       --negotiate
              (HTTP) Enables GSS-Negotiate authentication.  The  GSS-Negotiate
              method was designed by Microsoft and is used in their web appli-
              cations. It is  primarily  meant  as  a  support  for  Kerberos5
              authentication but may be also used along with another authenti-
              '-u :' is enough as the user  name  and  password  from  the  -u
              option aren't actually used.

              If  this option is used several times, the following occurrences
              make no difference.

       -N/--no-buffer
              Disables the buffering of the output stream. In normal work sit-
              uations,  curl  will  use a standard buffered output stream that
              will have the effect that it will output the data in chunks, not
              necessarily  exactly  when  the data arrives.  Using this option
              will disable that buffering.

              Note that this is the negated option name  documented.  You  can
              thus use --buffer to enforce the buffering.

       --no-keepalive
              Disables the use of keepalive messages on the TCP connection, as
              by default curl enables them.

              Note that this is the negated option name  documented.  You  can
              thus use --keepalive to enforce keepalive.

       --no-sessionid
              (SSL)  Disable curl's use of SSL session-ID caching.  By default
              all transfers are done using the cache. Note that while  nothing
              should  ever  get  hurt  by attempting to reuse SSL session-IDs,
              there seem to be broken SSL implementations in the wild that may
              require  you to disable this in order for you to succeed. (Added
              in 7.16.0)

              Note that this is the negated option name  documented.  You  can
              thus use --sessionid to enforce session-ID caching.

       --noproxy <no-proxy-list>
              Comma-separated  list  of hosts which do not use a proxy, if one
              is specified.  The only wildcard is a single * character,  which
              matches all hosts, and effectively disables the proxy. Each name
              in this list is matched as either a domain  which  contains  the
              hostname,  or  the hostname itself. For example, local.com would
              match  local.com,  local.com:80,  and  www.local.com,  but   not
              www.notlocal.com.  (Added in 7.19.4).

       --ntlm (HTTP)  Enables  NTLM  authentication.  The  NTLM authentication
              method was designed by Microsoft and is used by IIS web servers.
              It  is a proprietary protocol, reverse-engineered by clever peo-
              ple and implemented in curl based on their efforts. This kind of
              behavior  should  not be endorsed, you should encourage everyone
              who uses NTLM to switch to a public and  documented  authentica-
              tion method instead, such as Digest.

              If  you  want to enable NTLM for your proxy authentication, then
              use --proxy-ntlm.

                curl http://{one,two}.site.com -o "file_#1.txt"

              or use several variables like:

                curl http://{site,host}.host[1-5].com -o "#1_#2"

              You  may use this option as many times as the number of URLs you
              have.

              See also the --create-dirs option to create the  local  directo-
              ries  dynamically.  Specifying the output as '-' (a single dash)
              will force the output to be done to stdout.

       -O/--remote-name
              Write output to a local file named like the remote file we  get.
              (Only  the file part of the remote file is used, the path is cut
              off.)

              The remote file name to use for saving  is  extracted  from  the
              given URL, nothing else.

              You  may use this option as many times as the number of URLs you
              have.

       --remote-name-all
              This option changes the default action for all given URLs to  be
              dealt  with as if -O/--remote-name were used for each one. So if
              you want to disable that for a specific URL after --remote-name-
              all  has  been  used,  you  must use "-o -" or --no-remote-name.
              (Added in 7.19.0)

       --pass <phrase>
              (SSL/SSH) Passphrase for the private key

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       --post301
              Tells curl to respect  RFC  2616/10.3.2  and  not  convert  POST
              requests into GET requests when following a 301 redirection. The
              non-RFC behaviour is ubiquitous in web browsers,  so  curl  does
              the  conversion  by  default to maintain consistency. However, a
              server may require a POST to remain a POST after  such  a  redi-
              rection. This option is meaningful only when using -L/--location
              (Added in 7.17.1)

       --post302
              Tells curl to respect  RFC  2616/10.3.2  and  not  convert  POST
              requests into GET requests when following a 302 redirection. The
              non-RFC behaviour is ubiquitous in web browsers,  so  curl  does
              the  conversion  by  default to maintain consistency. However, a
              server may require a POST to remain a POST after  such  a  redi-
              rection. This option is meaningful only when using -L/--location
              (Added in 7.19.1)

              Tells  curl to use HTTP Digest authentication when communicating
              with the given proxy. Use --digest for enabling HTTP Digest with
              a remote host.

       --proxy-negotiate
              Tells curl to use HTTP Negotiate authentication when communicat-
              ing with the given proxy.  Use  --negotiate  for  enabling  HTTP
              Negotiate with a remote host. (Added in 7.17.1)

       --proxy-ntlm
              Tells  curl  to  use HTTP NTLM authentication when communicating
              with the given proxy. Use --ntlm for enabling NTLM with a remote
              host.

       --proxy1.0 <proxyhost[:port]>
              Use  the  specified  HTTP  1.0  proxy. If the port number is not
              specified, it is assumed at port 1080.

              The only difference between  this  and  the  HTTP  proxy  option
              (-x/--proxy),  is that attempts to use CONNECT through the proxy
              will specify an HTTP 1.0 protocol instead of  the  default  HTTP
              1.1.

       -p/--proxytunnel
              When  an HTTP proxy is used (-x/--proxy), this option will cause
              non-HTTP protocols  to  attempt  to  tunnel  through  the  proxy
              instead  of merely using it to do HTTP-like operations. The tun-
              nel approach is made with the HTTP  proxy  CONNECT  request  and
              requires that the proxy allows direct connect to the remote port
              number curl wants to tunnel through to.

       --pubkey <key>
              (SSH) Public key file name. Allows you to  provide  your  public
              key in this separate file.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       -P/--ftp-port <address>
              (FTP)  Reverses  the  default initiator/listener roles when con-
              necting with FTP. This switch makes curl  use  active  mode.  In
              practice,  curl  then  tells  the  server to connect back to the
              client's specified address and port, while passive mode asks the
              server  to  setup  an  IP address and port for it to connect to.
              <address> should be one of:

              interface
                     i.e "eth0" to specify which interface's  IP  address  you
                     want to use (Unix only)

              IP address
                     i.e "192.168.10.1" to specify the exact IP address

              host name
                     i.e "my.host.domain" to specify the machine

       works as well, but do note that it increases the risk of failure  since
       the port may not be available.

       -q     If  used  as the first parameter on the command line, the curlrc
              config file will not be read and used. See the  -K/--config  for
              details on the default config file search path.

       -Q/--quote <command>
              (FTP/SFTP)  Send  an arbitrary command to the remote FTP or SFTP
              server. Quote commands are sent BEFORE the transfer takes  place
              (just  after  the  initial PWD command in an FTP transfer, to be
              exact). To make commands take place after a successful transfer,
              prefix  them  with  a  dash '-'.  To make commands be sent after
              libcurl has changed  the  working  directory,  just  before  the
              transfer command(s), prefix the command with a '+' (this is only
              supported for FTP). You may specify any number of  commands.  If
              the  server  returns failure for one of the commands, the entire
              operation will be aborted. You must send  syntactically  correct
              FTP  commands  as  RFC959  defines to FTP servers, or one of the
              commands listed below to SFTP servers.  This option can be  used
              multiple times.

              SFTP  is  a  binary protocol. Unlike for FTP, libcurl interprets
              SFTP quote commands before sending them to the server.   Follow-
              ing is the list of all supported SFTP quote commands:

              chgrp group file
                     The  chgrp command sets the group ID of the file named by
                     the file operand to the group ID specified by  the  group
                     operand. The group operand is a decimal integer group ID.

              chmod mode file
                     The  chmod  command  modifies  the  file mode bits of the
                     specified file. The mode operand is an octal integer mode
                     number.

              chown user file
                     The chown command sets the owner of the file named by the
                     file operand to the user ID specified by the  user  oper-
                     and. The user operand is a decimal integer user ID.

              ln source_file target_file
                     The ln and symlink commands create a symbolic link at the
                     target_file location pointing to  the  source_file  loca-
                     tion.

              mkdir directory_name
                     The  mkdir  command  creates  the  directory named by the
                     directory_name operand.

              pwd    The pwd command returns the absolute pathname of the cur-
                     rent working directory.

              rename source target
              symlink source_file target_file
                     See ln.

       --random-file <file>
              (SSL) Specify the path name to file containing what will be con-
              sidered as random data. The data is  used  to  seed  the  random
              engine for SSL connections.  See also the --egd-file option.

       -r/--range <range>
              (HTTP/FTP/SFTP/FILE)  Retrieve a byte range (i.e a partial docu-
              ment) from a HTTP/1.1, FTP or  SFTP  server  or  a  local  FILE.
              Ranges can be specified in a number of ways.

              0-499     specifies the first 500 bytes

              500-999   specifies the second 500 bytes

              -500      specifies the last 500 bytes

              9500-     specifies the bytes from offset 9500 and forward

              0-0,-1    specifies the first and last byte only(*)(H)

              500-700,600-799
                        specifies 300 bytes from offset 500(H)

              100-199,500-599
                        specifies two separate 100-byte ranges(*)(H)

       (*)  =  NOTE  that this will cause the server to reply with a multipart
       response!

       Only digit characters (0-9) are valid in the 'start' and 'stop'  fields
       of  the 'start-stop' range syntax. If a non-digit character is given in
       the range, the server's response will be unspecified, depending on  the
       server's configuration.

       You  should  also  be aware that many HTTP/1.1 servers do not have this
       feature enabled, so that when  you  attempt  to  get  a  range,  you'll
       instead get the whole document.

       FTP  and SFTP range downloads only support the simple 'start-stop' syn-
       tax (optionally with one of the numbers omitted). FTP  use  depends  on
       the extended FTP command SIZE.

       If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       --raw  When  used, it disables all internal HTTP decoding of content or
              transfer encodings and instead makes them passed  on  unaltered,
              raw. (Added in 7.16.2)

       -R/--remote-time
              When  used,  this  will  make  libcurl attempt to figure out the
              timestamp of the remote file, and if that is available make  the
              delay between the rest of the retries.  By  using  --retry-delay
              you   disable  this  exponential  backoff  algorithm.  See  also
              --retry-max-time to limit the total time  allowed  for  retries.
              (Added in 7.12.3)

              If  this  option  is  used  multiple  times, the last occurrence
              decide the amount.

       --retry-delay <seconds>
              Make curl sleep this amount of time before  each  retry  when  a
              transfer  has  failed  with  a  transient  error (it changes the
              default backoff time algorithm between retries). This option  is
              only  interesting if --retry is also used. Setting this delay to
              zero will make curl use the default  backoff  time.   (Added  in
              7.12.3)

              If  this  option  is  used  multiple  times, the last occurrence
              determines the amount.

       --retry-max-time <seconds>
              The retry timer is reset  before  the  first  transfer  attempt.
              Retries will be done as usual (see --retry) as long as the timer
              hasn't reached this given limit. Notice that if the timer hasn't
              reached  the  limit, the request will be made and while perform-
              ing, it may take longer than this given time period. To limit  a
              single  request's  maximum  time,  use  -m/--max-time.  Set this
              option to zero to not timeout retries. (Added in 7.12.3)

              If this option is  used  multiple  times,  the  last  occurrence
              determines the amount.

       -s/--silent
              Silent  or  quiet  mode. Don't show progress meter or error mes-
              sages.  Makes Curl mute.

       -S/--show-error
              When used with -s it makes curl show  an  error  message  if  it
              fails.

       --socks4 <host[:port]>
              Use the specified SOCKS4 proxy. If the port number is not speci-
              fied, it is assumed at port 1080. (Added in 7.15.2)

              This option overrides any previous use of  -x/--proxy,  as  they
              are mutually exclusive.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       --socks4a <host[:port]>
              Use the specified SOCKS4a proxy. If the port number is not spec-
              ified, it is assumed at port 1080. (Added in 7.18.0)

              This option overrides any previous use of  -x/--proxy,  as  they
              are mutually exclusive.
              (This  option  was  previously  wrongly  documented  and used as
              --socks without the number appended.)

       --socks5 <host[:port]>
              Use the specified SOCKS5 proxy  -  but  resolve  the  host  name
              locally.  If  the port number is not specified, it is assumed at
              port 1080.

              This option overrides any previous use of  -x/--proxy,  as  they
              are mutually exclusive.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.
              (This option was  previously  wrongly  documented  and  used  as
              --socks without the number appended.)

       --socks5-gssapi-service <servicename>
              The default service name for a socks server is rcmd/server-fqdn.
              This option allows you to change it.

              Examples:
               --socks5 proxy-name --socks5-gssapi-service sockd    would  use
              sockd/proxy-name
               --socks5   proxy-name  --socks5-gssapi-service  sockd/real-name
              would use sockd/real-name for cases where  the  proxy-name  does
              not match the princpal name.
               (Added in 7.19.4).

       --socks5-gssapi-nec
              As  part  of the gssapi negotiation a protection mode is negoti-
              ated. The rfc1961 says in section  4.3/4.4  it  should  be  pro-
              tected,  but  the  NEC  reference  implementation does not.  The
              option --socks5-gssapi-nec allows the  unprotected  exchange  of
              the protection mode negotiation. (Added in 7.19.4).

       --stderr <file>
              Redirect  all writes to stderr to the specified file instead. If
              the file name is a plain '-', it is instead written  to  stdout.
              This  option  has no point when you're using a shell with decent
              redirecting capabilities.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       --tcp-nodelay
              Turn on the TCP_NODELAY option. See the curl_easy_setopt(3)  man
              page for details about this option. (Added in 7.11.2)

       -t/--telnet-option <OPT=val>
              Pass options to the telnet protocol. Supported options are:

              TTYPE=<term> Sets the terminal type.

              XDISPLOC=<X display> Sets the X display location.

              NEW_ENV=<var,val> Sets an environment variable.
              given  file.   Alternately,  the file name "." (a single period)
              may be specified instead of "-" to  use  stdin  in  non-blocking
              mode  to  allow  reading  server  output  while  stdin  is being
              uploaded.

              You can specify one -T for each URL on the command line. Each -T
              + URL pair specifies what to upload and to where. curl also sup-
              ports "globbing" of the -T argument, meaning that you can upload
              multiple  files  to  a single URL by using the same URL globbing
              style supported in the URL, like this:

              curl -T "{file1,file2}" http://www.uploadtothissite.com

              or even

              curl -T "img[1-1000].png" ftp://ftp.picturemania.com/upload/

       --trace <file>
              Enables a full trace dump of all  incoming  and  outgoing  data,
              including descriptive information, to the given output file. Use
              "-" as filename to have the output sent to stdout.

              This option overrides previous uses of -v/--verbose or  --trace-
              ascii.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       --trace-ascii <file>
              Enables  a  full  trace  dump of all incoming and outgoing data,
              including descriptive information, to the given output file. Use
              "-" as filename to have the output sent to stdout.

              This is very similar to --trace, but leaves out the hex part and
              only shows the ASCII part of the dump. It makes  smaller  output
              that might be easier to read for untrained humans.

              This option overrides previous uses of -v/--verbose or --trace.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       --trace-time
              Prepends  a  time  stamp to each trace or verbose line that curl
              displays.  (Added in 7.14.0)

       -u/--user <user:password>
              Specify the user name and password to use for server authentica-
              tion. Overrides -n/--netrc and --netrc-optional.

              If  you  just give the user name (without entering a colon) curl
              will prompt for a password.

              If you use an SSPI-enabled curl binary and do  NTLM  authentica-
              tion,  you  can force curl to pick up the user name and password
              from your environment by simply specifying a single  colon  with

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       --url <URL>
              Specify  a  URL  to  fetch. This option is mostly handy when you
              want to specify URL(s) in a config file.

              This option may be used any number of times.  To  control  where
              this URL is written, use the -o/--output or the -O/--remote-name
              options.

       -v/--verbose
              Makes the fetching more  verbose/talkative.  Mostly  useful  for
              debugging.  A line starting with '>' means "header data" sent by
              curl, '<' means "header data" received by curl that is hidden in
              normal cases, and a line starting with '*' means additional info
              provided by curl.

              Note  that  if  you  only  want  HTTP  headers  in  the  output,
              -i/--include might be the option you're looking for.

              If  you think this option still doesn't give you enough details,
              consider using --trace or --trace-ascii instead.

              This option overrides previous uses of --trace-ascii or --trace.

              Use -S/--silent to make curl quiet.

       -V/--version
              Displays information about curl and the libcurl version it uses.

              The first line includes the full version of  curl,  libcurl  and
              other 3rd party libraries linked with the executable.

              The  second  line (starts with "Protocols:") shows all protocols
              that libcurl reports to support.

              The third line (starts with "Features:") shows specific features
              libcurl reports to offer. Available features include:

              IPv6   You can use IPv6 with this.

              krb4   Krb4 for FTP is supported.

              SSL    HTTPS and FTPS are supported.

              libz   Automatic  decompression of compressed files over HTTP is
                     supported.

              NTLM   NTLM authentication is supported.

              GSS-Negotiate
                     Negotiate authentication and krb5 for FTP is supported.


              IDN    This curl supports IDN - international domain names.

              SSPI   SSPI  is  supported. If you use NTLM and set a blank user
                     name, curl will authenticate with your current  user  and
                     password.

       -w/--write-out <format>
              Defines what to display on stdout after a completed and success-
              ful operation. The format is a string  that  may  contain  plain
              text mixed with any number of variables. The string can be spec-
              ified as "string", to get read from a particular file you  spec-
              ify  it  "@filename"  and  to  tell curl to read the format from
              stdin you write "@-".

              The variables present in the output format will  be  substituted
              by  the  value or text that curl thinks fit, as described below.
              All variables are specified as %{variable_name} and to output  a
              normal  % you just write them as %%. You can output a newline by
              using \n, a carriage return with \r and a tab space with \t.

              NOTE: The %-symbol is a special symbol in the win32-environment,
              where  all  occurrences  of  %  must  be doubled when using this
              option.

              The variables available at this point are:

              url_effective  The URL that was fetched last. This is most mean-
                             ingful  if  you've  told curl to follow location:
                             headers.

              http_code      The numerical response code that was found in the
                             last  retrieved  HTTP(S)  or  FTP(s) transfer. In
                             7.18.2 the alias response_code was added to  show
                             the same info.

              http_connect   The  numerical  code  that  was found in the last
                             response  (from  a  proxy)  to  a  curl   CONNECT
                             request. (Added in 7.12.4)

              time_total     The  total time, in seconds, that the full opera-
                             tion lasted. The time will be displayed with mil-
                             lisecond resolution.

              time_namelookup
                             The  time,  in  seconds,  it  took from the start
                             until the name resolving was completed.

              time_connect   The time, in seconds,  it  took  from  the  start
                             until  the  TCP  connect  to  the remote host (or
                             proxy) was completed.

              time_appconnect
                             The time, in seconds,  it  took  from  the  start
                             and transfer before  the  final  transaction  was
                             started.  time_redirect shows the complete execu-
                             tion time for multiple  redirections.  (Added  in
                             7.12.3)

              time_starttransfer
                             The  time,  in  seconds,  it  took from the start
                             until the first byte was just about to be  trans-
                             ferred.  This  includes time_pretransfer and also
                             the time  the  server  needed  to  calculate  the
                             result.

              size_download  The total amount of bytes that were downloaded.

              size_upload    The total amount of bytes that were uploaded.

              size_header    The total amount of bytes of the downloaded head-
                             ers.

              size_request   The total amount of bytes that were sent  in  the
                             HTTP request.

              speed_download The average download speed that curl measured for
                             the complete download.

              speed_upload   The average upload speed that curl  measured  for
                             the complete upload.

              content_type   The  Content-Type  of  the requested document, if
                             there was any.

              num_connects   Number of new connects made in the recent  trans-
                             fer. (Added in 7.12.3)

              num_redirects  Number  of  redirects  that  were followed in the
                             request. (Added in 7.12.3)

              redirect_url   When a HTTP request was made without -L to follow
                             redirects, this variable will show the actual URL
                             a redirect would take you to. (Added in 7.18.2)

              ftp_entry_path The initial path libcurl ended up in when logging
                             on to the remote FTP server. (Added in 7.15.4)

              ssl_verify_result
                             The  result of the SSL peer certificate verifica-
                             tion that was requested. 0 means the verification
                             was successful. (Added in 7.19.0)

       If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       -x/--proxy <proxyhost[:port]>
              Use  the  specified HTTP proxy. If the port number is not speci-
              fied, it is assumed at port 1080.
              same  way as the proxy environment variables, including the pro-
              tocol prefix (http://) and the embedded user + password.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       -X/--request <command>
              (HTTP) Specifies a custom request method to use when communicat-
              ing  with  the  HTTP server.  The specified request will be used
              instead of the method otherwise used (which  defaults  to  GET).
              Read  the  HTTP  1.1 specification for details and explanations.
              Common additional HTTP requests  include  PUT  and  DELETE,  but
              related technologies like WebDAV offers PROPFIND, COPY, MOVE and
              more.

              (FTP) Specifies a custom FTP command to use instead of LIST when
              doing file lists with FTP.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       -y/--speed-time <time>
              If a download is slower than speed-limit bytes per second during
              a speed-time period, the download gets aborted. If speed-time is
              used, the default speed-limit will be 1 unless set with -Y.

              This  option  controls  transfers  and thus will not affect slow
              connects etc. If this is a concern for you, try  the  --connect-
              timeout option.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       -Y/--speed-limit <speed>
              If a download is slower than this given speed (in bytes per sec-
              ond) for speed-time seconds it gets aborted. speed-time  is  set
              with -y and is 30 if not set.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       -z/--time-cond <date expression>
              (HTTP/FTP)  Request a file that has been modified later than the
              given time and date, or one that has been modified  before  that
              time. The date expression can be all sorts of date strings or if
              it doesn't match any internal ones, it tries  to  get  the  time
              from  a  given  file  name  instead! See the curl_getdate(3) man
              pages for date expression details.

              Start the date expression with a dash (-) to make it request for
              a  document that is older than the given date/time, default is a
              document that is newer than the specified date/time.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       --max-redirs <num>
              Set  maximum  number  of  redirection-followings   allowed.   If
              -L/--location  is  used, this option can be used to prevent curl
              remote TLS server.

       -2/--sslv2
              (SSL) Forces curl to use SSL version 2 when negotiating  with  a
              remote SSL server.

       -3/--sslv3
              (SSL)  Forces  curl to use SSL version 3 when negotiating with a
              remote SSL server.

       -4/--ipv4
              If libcurl is capable of resolving an  address  to  multiple  IP
              versions  (which it is if it is IPv6-capable), this option tells
              libcurl to resolve names to IPv4 addresses only.

       -6/--ipv6
              If libcurl is capable of resolving an  address  to  multiple  IP
              versions  (which it is if it is IPv6-capable), this option tells
              libcurl to resolve names to IPv6 addresses only.

       -#/--progress-bar
              Make curl display progress information as a progress bar instead
              of the default statistics.

FILES
       ~/.curlrc
              Default config file, see -K/--config for details.

ENVIRONMENT
       The environment variables can be specified in lower case or upper case.
       The lower case version has precedence. http_proxy is an exception as it
       is only available in lower case.

       http_proxy [protocol://]<host>[:port]
              Sets the proxy server to use for HTTP.

       HTTPS_PROXY [protocol://]<host>[:port]
              Sets the proxy server to use for HTTPS.

       FTP_PROXY [protocol://]<host>[:port]
              Sets the proxy server to use for FTP.

       ALL_PROXY [protocol://]<host>[:port]
              Sets  the  proxy  server to use if no protocol-specific proxy is
              set.

       NO_PROXY <comma-separated list of hosts>
              list of host names that shouldn't go through any proxy.  If  set
              to a asterisk '*' only, it matches all hosts.

EXIT CODES
       There  are  a  bunch  of  different error codes and their corresponding
       error messages that may appear during bad conditions. At  the  time  of
       this writing, the exit codes are:

       7      Failed to connect to host.

       8      FTP  weird  server  reply.  The  server  sent data curl couldn't
              parse.

       9      FTP access denied. The server denied login or denied  access  to
              the  particular  resource or directory you wanted to reach. Most
              often you tried to change to a directory that doesn't  exist  on
              the server.

       11     FTP  weird PASS reply. Curl couldn't parse the reply sent to the
              PASS request.

       13     FTP weird PASV reply, Curl couldn't parse the reply sent to  the
              PASV request.

       14     FTP  weird  227  format.  Curl  couldn't  parse the 227-line the
              server sent.

       15     FTP can't get host. Couldn't resolve the host IP we got  in  the
              227-line.

       17     FTP  couldn't  set  binary.  Couldn't  change transfer method to
              binary.

       18     Partial file. Only a part of the file was transferred.

       19     FTP couldn't download/access the given file, the RETR (or  simi-
              lar) command failed.

       21     FTP quote error. A quote command returned error from the server.

       22     HTTP  page  not  retrieved.  The  requested url was not found or
              returned another error with the HTTP error  code  being  400  or
              above. This return code only appears if -f/--fail is used.

       23     Write  error.  Curl couldn't write data to a local filesystem or
              similar.

       25     FTP couldn't STOR file. The server denied  the  STOR  operation,
              used for FTP uploading.

       26     Read error. Various reading problems.

       27     Out of memory. A memory allocation request failed.

       28     Operation  timeout.  The  specified  time-out period was reached
              according to the conditions.

       30     FTP PORT failed. The PORT command failed. Not  all  FTP  servers
              support  the  PORT  command,  try  doing  a  transfer using PASV
              instead!

       37     FILE couldn't read file. Failed to open the file. Permissions?

       38     LDAP cannot bind. LDAP bind operation failed.

       39     LDAP search failed.

       41     Function not found. A required LDAP function was not found.

       42     Aborted by callback. An application told curl to abort the oper-
              ation.

       43     Internal error. A function was called with a bad parameter.

       45     Interface  error.  A  specified  outgoing interface could not be
              used.

       47     Too many redirects. When following redirects, curl hit the maxi-
              mum amount.

       48     Unknown TELNET option specified.

       49     Malformed telnet option.

       51     The peer's SSL certificate or SSH MD5 fingerprint was not ok.

       52     The  server  didn't  reply anything, which here is considered an
              error.

       53     SSL crypto engine not found.

       54     Cannot set SSL crypto engine as default.

       55     Failed sending network data.

       56     Failure in receiving network data.

       58     Problem with the local certificate.

       59     Couldn't use specified SSL cipher.

       60     Peer certificate cannot be authenticated with known CA  certifi-
              cates.

       61     Unrecognized transfer encoding.

       62     Invalid LDAP URL.

       63     Maximum file size exceeded.

       64     Requested FTP SSL level failed.

       65     Sending the data requires a rewind that failed.

       66     Failed to initialise SSL Engine.
       72     Unknown TFTP transfer ID.

       73     File already exists (TFTP).

       74     No such user (TFTP).

       75     Character conversion failed.

       76     Character conversion functions required.

       77     Problem with reading the SSL CA cert (path? access rights?).

       78     The resource referenced in the URL does not exist.

       79     An unspecified error occurred during the SSH session.

       80     Failed to shut down the SSL connection.

       82     Could not load CRL file,  missing  or  wrong  format  (added  in
              7.19.0).

       83     Issuer check failed (added in 7.19.0).

       XX     More error codes will appear here in future releases. The exist-
              ing ones are meant to never change.

AUTHORS / CONTRIBUTORS
       Daniel Stenberg is the main author, but the whole list of  contributors
       is found in the separate THANKS file.

WWW
       http://curl.haxx.se

FTP
       ftp://ftp.sunet.se/pub/www/utilities/curl/

SEE ALSO
       ftp(1), wget(1)




Curl 7.19.0                      10 July 2008                          curl(1)
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