curl


SYNOPSIS
       curl [options] [URL...]

DESCRIPTION
       curl  is  a tool to transfer data from or to a server, using one of the
       supported protocols (DICT, FILE, FTP, FTPS, GOPHER, HTTP, HTTPS,  IMAP,
       IMAPS,  LDAP,  LDAPS,  POP3, POP3S, RTMP, RTSP, SCP, SFTP, SMTP, SMTPS,
       TELNET and TFTP).  The command is designed to work without user  inter-
       action.

       curl offers a busload of useful tricks like proxy support, user authen-
       tication, FTP upload, HTTP post, SSL connections, cookies, file  trans-
       fer  resume,  Metalink,  and more. As you will see below, the number of
       features will make your head spin!

       curl is powered by  libcurl  for  all  transfer-related  features.  See
       libcurl(3) for details.

URL
       The  URL  syntax is protocol-dependent. You'll find a detailed descrip-
       tion in RFC 3986.

       You can specify multiple URLs or parts of URLs  by  writing  part  sets
       within braces as in:

        http://site.{one,two,three}.com

       or you can get sequences of alphanumeric series by using [] as in:

        ftp://ftp.numericals.com/file[1-100].txt
        ftp://ftp.numericals.com/file[001-100].txt    (with leading zeros)
        ftp://ftp.letters.com/file[a-z].txt

       Nested  sequences  are not supported, but you can use several ones next
       to each other:

        http://any.org/archive[1996-1999]/vol[1-4]/part{a,b,c}.html

       You can specify any amount of URLs on the command line.  They  will  be
       fetched in a sequential manner in the specified order.

       You  can  specify a step counter for the ranges to get every Nth number
       or letter:

        http://www.numericals.com/file[1-100:10].txt
        http://www.letters.com/file[a-z:2].txt

       If you specify URL without protocol:// prefix,  curl  will  attempt  to
       guess  what  protocol  you might want. It will then default to HTTP but
       try other protocols based on often-used host name prefixes.  For  exam-
       ple,  for  host names starting with "ftp." curl will assume you want to
       speak FTP.

       the  amount  of  transferred  data,  transfer speeds and estimated time
       left, etc.

       curl displays this data to the terminal by default, so  if  you  invoke
       curl  to do an operation and it is about to write data to the terminal,
       it disables the progress meter as otherwise it would mess up the output
       mixing progress meter and response data.

       If you want a progress meter for HTTP POST or PUT requests, you need to
       redirect the response output to a file, using shell  redirect  (>),  -o
       [file] or similar.

       It  is not the same case for FTP upload as that operation does not spit
       out any response data to the terminal.

       If you prefer a progress "bar" instead of the regular meter, -# is your
       friend.

OPTIONS
       Options  start  with  one or two dashes. Many of the options require an
       addition value next to it.

       The short "single-dash" form of the options, -d  for  example,  may  be
       used with or without a space between it and its value, although a space
       is a recommended separator. The long  "double-dash"  form,  --data  for
       example, requires a space between it and its value.

       Short version options that don't need any additional values can be used
       immediately next to each other, like for example you  can  specify  all
       the options -O, -L and -v at once as -OLv.

       In general, all boolean options are enabled with --option and yet again
       disabled with --no-option. That is, you use the exact same option  name
       but prefix it with "no-". However, in this list we mostly only list and
       show the --option version of them. (This concept with --no options  was
       added  in  7.19.0.  Previously  most  options  were  toggled  on/off on
       repeated use of the same command line option.)

       -#, --progress-bar
              Make curl display progress as a simple progress bar  instead  of
              the standard, more informational, meter.

       -0, --http1.0
              (HTTP)  Tells  curl to use HTTP version 1.0 instead of using its
              internally preferred: HTTP 1.1.

       --http1.1
              (HTTP) Tells curl to use HTTP version 1.1. This is the  internal
              default version. (Added in 7.33.0)

       --http2.0
              (HTTP)  Tells  curl  to  issue its requests using HTTP 2.0. This
              requires that the underlying libcurl was built  to  support  it.
              (Added in 7.33.0)

       -4, --ipv4
              If curl is capable of resolving an address to multiple  IP  ver-
              sions  (which  it  is  if it is IPv6-capable), this option tells
              curl to resolve names to IPv4 addresses only.

       -6, --ipv6
              If curl is capable of resolving an address to multiple  IP  ver-
              sions  (which  it  is  if it is IPv6-capable), this option tells
              curl to resolve names to IPv6 addresses only.

       -a, --append
              (FTP/SFTP) When used in an upload, this will tell curl to append
              to  the  target  file  instead  of  overwriting  it. If the file
              doesn't exist, it will be  created.   Note  that  this  flag  is
              ignored by some SSH servers (including OpenSSH).

       -A, --user-agent <agent string>
              (HTTP) Specify the User-Agent string to send to the HTTP server.
              Some  badly  done  CGIs  fail  if  this  field  isn't   set   to
              "Mozilla/4.0".  To  encode  blanks  in  the string, surround the
              string with single quote marks. This can also be  set  with  the
              -H, --header option of course.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       --anyauth
              (HTTP) Tells curl to figure out authentication method by itself,
              and use the most secure one the remote site claims  to  support.
              This is done by first doing a request and checking the response-
              headers, thus possibly inducing  an  extra  network  round-trip.
              This  is  used  instead  of  setting  a  specific authentication
              method, which you can do with  --basic,  --digest,  --ntlm,  and
              --negotiate.

              Note  that  using --anyauth is not recommended if you do uploads
              from stdin, since it may require data to be sent twice and  then
              the client must be able to rewind. If the need should arise when
              uploading from stdin, the upload operation will fail.

       -b, --cookie <name=data>
              (HTTP) Pass the data to the HTTP server as a cookie. It is  sup-
              posedly  the data previously received from the server in a "Set-
              Cookie:" line.  The data should be in the format  "NAME1=VALUE1;
              NAME2=VALUE2".

              If  no  '=' symbol is used in the line, it is treated as a file-
              name to use to read previously stored cookie lines  from,  which
              should  be used in this session if they match. Using this method
              also activates the "cookie parser" which will make  curl  record
              incoming cookies too, which may be handy if you're using this in
              combination with the -L, --location option. The file  format  of
              the  file  to  read cookies from should be plain HTTP headers or
              the Netscape/Mozilla cookie file format.

       --basic
              (HTTP)  Tells curl to use HTTP Basic authentication. This is the
              default and this option is usually pointless, unless you use  it
              to  override  a  previously  set  option  that  sets a different
              authentication method (such as --ntlm,  --digest,  or  --negoti-
              ate).

       -c, --cookie-jar <file name>
              (HTTP)  Specify to which file you want curl to write all cookies
              after a completed operation. Curl writes all cookies  previously
              read  from a specified file as well as all cookies received from
              remote server(s). If no cookies are known, no file will be writ-
              ten.  The  file  will  be written using the Netscape cookie file
              format. If you set the file name to  a  single  dash,  "-",  the
              cookies will be written to stdout.

              This  command  line  option will activate the cookie engine that
              makes curl record and use cookies. Another way to activate it is
              to use the -b, --cookie option.

              If the cookie jar can't be created or written to, the whole curl
              operation won't fail or even report an error clearly.  Using  -v
              will get a warning displayed, but that is the only visible feed-
              back you get about this possibly lethal situation.

              If this option is used several times, the  last  specified  file
              name will be used.

       -C, --continue-at <offset>
              Continue/Resume  a  previous  file transfer at the given offset.
              The given offset is the exact  number  of  bytes  that  will  be
              skipped,  counting  from the beginning of the source file before
              it is transferred to the destination.  If used with uploads, the
              FTP server command SIZE will not be used by curl.

              Use  "-C  -" to tell curl to automatically find out where/how to
              resume the transfer. It then uses the given  output/input  files
              to figure that out.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       --ciphers <list of ciphers>
              (SSL) Specifies which ciphers to use in the connection. The list
              of ciphers must specify valid ciphers. Read  up  on  SSL  cipher
              list           details           on           this          URL:
              http://www.openssl.org/docs/apps/ciphers.html

              NSS ciphers are done differently than OpenSSL  and  GnuTLS.  The
              full  list of NSS ciphers is in the NSSCipherSuite entry at this
              URL:                                          http://git.fedora-
              hosted.org/cgit/mod_nss.git/plain/docs/mod_nss.html#Directives

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.
              decrease in accuracy as the specified timeout increases in deci-
              mal precision. See also the -m, --max-time option.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       --create-dirs
              When  used  in  conjunction with the -o option, curl will create
              the necessary local directory hierarchy as needed.  This  option
              creates  the dirs mentioned with the -o option, nothing else. If
              the -o file name uses no dir or if the dirs it mentions  already
              exist, no dir will be created.

              To  create remote directories when using FTP or SFTP, try --ftp-
              create-dirs.

       --crlf (FTP) Convert LF to CRLF in upload. Useful for MVS (OS/390).

       --crlfile <file>
              (HTTPS/FTPS) Provide a file using PEM format with a  Certificate
              Revocation  List  that may specify peer certificates that are to
              be considered revoked.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

              (Added in 7.19.7)

       -d, --data <data>
              (HTTP) Sends the specified data in a POST request  to  the  HTTP
              server,  in  the  same  way  that a browser does when a user has
              filled in an HTML form and presses the submit button. This  will
              cause curl to pass the data to the server using the content-type
              application/x-www-form-urlencoded.  Compare to -F, --form.

              -d, --data is the same as  --data-ascii.  To  post  data  purely
              binary, you should instead use the --data-binary option. To URL-
              encode the value of a form field you may use --data-urlencode.

              If any of these options is used more than once on the same  com-
              mand  line,  the  data  pieces specified will be merged together
              with a separating  &-symbol.  Thus,  using  '-d  name=daniel  -d
              skill=lousy'  would  generate  a  post  chunk  that  looks  like
              'name=daniel&skill=lousy'.

              If you start the data with the letter @, the rest  should  be  a
              file  name  to read the data from, or - if you want curl to read
              the data from stdin. Multiple files can also be specified. Post-
              ing  data  from  a  file  named 'foobar' would thus be done with
              --data @foobar. When --data is told to read  from  a  file  like
              that, carriage returns and newlines will be stripped out.

       -D, --dump-header <file>
              Write the protocol headers to the specified file.

              This  option  is handy to use when you want to store the headers
              See -d, --data.

       --data-binary <data>
              (HTTP) This posts data exactly as specified with no  extra  pro-
              cessing whatsoever.

              If  you  start  the data with the letter @, the rest should be a
              filename.  Data is posted in a similar  manner  as  --data-ascii
              does,  except  that  newlines and carriage returns are preserved
              and conversions are never done.

              If this option is used several times,  the  ones  following  the
              first will append data as described in -d, --data.

       --data-urlencode <data>
              (HTTP) This posts data, similar to the other --data options with
              the exception that this performs URL-encoding. (Added in 7.18.0)

              To be CGI-compliant, the <data> part should begin  with  a  name
              followed  by a separator and a content specification. The <data>
              part can be passed to curl using one of the following syntaxes:

              content
                     This will make curl URL-encode the content and pass  that
                     on.  Just  be careful so that the content doesn't contain
                     any = or @ symbols, as that will  then  make  the  syntax
                     match one of the other cases below!

              =content
                     This  will make curl URL-encode the content and pass that
                     on. The preceding = symbol is not included in the data.

              name=content
                     This will make curl URL-encode the content part and  pass
                     that  on.  Note that the name part is expected to be URL-
                     encoded already.

              @filename
                     This will  make  curl  load  data  from  the  given  file
                     (including  any  newlines), URL-encode that data and pass
                     it on in the POST.

              name@filename
                     This will  make  curl  load  data  from  the  given  file
                     (including  any  newlines), URL-encode that data and pass
                     it on in the POST. The  name  part  gets  an  equal  sign
                     appended, resulting in name=urlencoded-file-content. Note
                     that the name is expected to be URL-encoded already.

       --delegation LEVEL
              Set LEVEL to tell the server what it is allowed to delegate when
              it comes to user credentials. Used with GSS/kerberos.

              none   Don't allow any delegation.
              --ntlm, --negotiate and --anyauth for related options.

              If  this  option  is  used  several times, only the first one is
              used.

       --disable-eprt
              (FTP) Tell curl to disable the use of the EPRT and LPRT commands
              when doing active FTP transfers. Curl will normally always first
              attempt to use EPRT, then LPRT before using PORT, but with  this
              option,  it  will  use PORT right away. EPRT and LPRT are exten-
              sions to the original FTP protocol, and  may  not  work  on  all
              servers, but they enable more functionality in a better way than
              the traditional PORT command.

              --eprt can be used to explicitly enable EPRT again and --no-eprt
              is an alias for --disable-eprt.

              Disabling  EPRT only changes the active behavior. If you want to
              switch to passive mode you need to not  use  -P,  --ftp-port  or
              force it with --ftp-pasv.

       --disable-epsv
              (FTP)  Tell  curl  to  disable  the use of the EPSV command when
              doing passive FTP transfers. Curl  will  normally  always  first
              attempt  to  use EPSV before PASV, but with this option, it will
              not try using EPSV.

              --epsv can be used to explicitly enable EPSV again and --no-epsv
              is an alias for --disable-epsv.

              Disabling EPSV only changes the passive behavior. If you want to
              switch to active mode you need to use -P, --ftp-port.

       --dns-interface <interface>
              Tell curl to send outgoing  DNS  requests  through  <interface>.
              This  option  is  a  counterpart  to --interface (which does not
              affect DNS). The supplied string must be an interface name  (not
              an address).

              This  option  requires  that  libcurl  was built with a resolver
              backend that supports this operation. The c-ares backend is  the
              only such one. (Added in 7.33.0)

       --dns-ipv4-addr <ip-address>
              Tell curl to bind to <ip-address> when making IPv4 DNS requests,
              so that the DNS requests originate from this address. The  argu-
              ment should be a single IPv4 address.

              This  option  requires  that  libcurl  was built with a resolver
              backend that supports this operation. The c-ares backend is  the
              only such one.  (Added in 7.33.0)

       --dns-ipv6-addr <ip-address>
              Tell curl to bind to <ip-address> when making IPv6 DNS requests,

              This option requires that libcurl  was  built  with  a  resolver
              backend  that supports this operation. The c-ares backend is the
              only such one.  (Added in 7.33.0)

       -e, --referer <URL>
              (HTTP) Sends the "Referer Page" information to the HTTP  server.
              This can also be set with the -H, --header flag of course.  When
              used with -L, --location you can append ";auto" to the --referer
              URL to make curl automatically set the previous URL when it fol-
              lows a Location: header. The ";auto" string can be  used  alone,
              even if you don't set an initial --referer.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       -E, --cert <certificate[:password]>
              (SSL)  Tells  curl  to use the specified client certificate file
              when getting a file with HTTPS, FTPS or another SSL-based proto-
              col.  The  certificate must be in PKCS#12 format if using Secure
              Transport, or PEM format if using  any  other  engine.   If  the
              optional password isn't specified, it will be queried for on the
              terminal. Note that this option  assumes  a  "certificate"  file
              that  is  the  private  key and the private certificate concate-
              nated! See --cert and --key to specify them independently.

              If curl is built against the NSS SSL library  then  this  option
              can  tell curl the nickname of the certificate to use within the
              NSS database defined by the environment variable SSL_DIR (or  by
              default  /etc/pki/nssdb).  If  the  NSS PEM PKCS#11 module (lib-
              nsspem.so) is available then PEM files may  be  loaded.  If  you
              want to use a file from the current directory, please precede it
              with "./" prefix, in order to avoid confusion with  a  nickname.
              If  the nickname contains ":", it needs to be preceded by "\" so
              that it is not recognized as password delimiter.  If  the  nick-
              name  contains "\", it needs to be escaped as "\\" so that it is
              not recognized as an escape character.

              (iOS and Mac OS X only) If curl is built against  Secure  Trans-
              port,  then  the  certificate string can either be the name of a
              certificate/private key in the system or user keychain,  or  the
              path  to  a  PKCS#12-encoded certificate and private key. If you
              want to use a file from the current directory, please precede it
              with "./" prefix, in order to avoid confusion with a nickname.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       --engine <name>
              Select  the  OpenSSL crypto engine to use for cipher operations.
              Use --engine list  to  print  a  list  of  build-time  supported
              engines.  Note  that  not  all  (or  none) of the engines may be
              available at run-time.

       --environment
              (RISC OS ONLY) Sets a range of environment variables, using  the

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       --cacert <CA certificate>
              (SSL) Tells curl to use the specified certificate file to verify
              the  peer.  The  file  may contain multiple CA certificates. The
              certificate(s) must be in PEM format. Normally curl is built  to
              use a default file for this, so this option is typically used to
              alter that default file.

              curl recognizes the environment variable named  'CURL_CA_BUNDLE'
              if  it  is  set,  and uses the given path as a path to a CA cert
              bundle. This option overrides that variable.

              The windows version of curl will automatically  look  for  a  CA
              certs file named 'curl-ca-bundle.crt', either in the same direc-
              tory as curl.exe, or in the Current Working Directory, or in any
              folder along your PATH.

              If  curl  is  built  against  the  NSS  SSL library, the NSS PEM
              PKCS#11 module (libnsspem.so) needs to  be  available  for  this
              option to work properly.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       --capath <CA certificate directory>
              (SSL)  Tells  curl to use the specified certificate directory to
              verify the peer. Multiple paths can be  provided  by  separating
              them with ":" (e.g.  "path1:path2:path3"). The certificates must
              be in PEM format, and if curl  is  built  against  OpenSSL,  the
              directory  must  have  been processed using the c_rehash utility
              supplied with OpenSSL. Using --capath can allow  OpenSSL-powered
              curl  to  make  SSL-connections much more efficiently than using
              --cacert if the --cacert file contains many CA certificates.

              If this option is set, the default capath value will be ignored,
              and if it is used several times, the last one will be used.

       -f, --fail
              (HTTP)  Fail  silently (no output at all) on server errors. This
              is mostly done to better enable scripts etc to better deal  with
              failed  attempts.  In  normal cases when an HTTP server fails to
              deliver a document, it  returns  an  HTML  document  stating  so
              (which  often  also describes why and more). This flag will pre-
              vent curl from outputting that and return error 22.

              This method is not fail-safe and there are occasions where  non-
              successful  response  codes  will  slip through, especially when
              authentication is involved (response codes 401 and 407).

       -F, --form <name=content>
              (HTTP) This lets curl emulate a filled-in form in which  a  user
              has  pressed  the  submit  button. This causes curl to POST data
              using the  Content-Type  multipart/form-data  according  to  RFC
              curl -F password=@/etc/passwd www.mypasswords.com

              To read content from stdin instead of a file, use - as the file-
              name. This goes for both @ and < constructs.

              You can also  tell  curl  what  Content-Type  to  use  by  using
              'type=', in a manner similar to:

              curl -F "web=@index.html;type=text/html" url.com

              or

              curl -F "name=daniel;type=text/foo" url.com

              You  can  also explicitly change the name field of a file upload
              part by setting filename=, like this:

              curl -F "file=@localfile;filename=nameinpost" url.com

              If filename/path contains ',' or ';', it must be quoted by  dou-
              ble-quotes like:

              curl -F "file=@\"localfile\";filename=\"nameinpost\"" url.com

              or

              curl -F 'file=@"localfile";filename="nameinpost"' url.com

              Note  that  if  a  filename/path is quoted by double-quotes, any
              double-quote or backslash within the filename must be escaped by
              backslash.

              See further examples and details in the MANUAL.

              This option can be used multiple times.

       --ftp-account [data]
              (FTP) When an FTP server asks for "account data" after user name
              and password has been provided, this data is sent off using  the
              ACCT command. (Added in 7.13.0)

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       --ftp-alternative-to-user <command>
              (FTP)  If  authenticating with the USER and PASS commands fails,
              send this  command.   When  connecting  to  Tumbleweed's  Secure
              Transport  server  over  FTPS  using a client certificate, using
              "SITE AUTH" will tell the server to retrieve the  username  from
              the certificate. (Added in 7.15.5)

       --ftp-create-dirs
              (FTP/SFTP)  When  an  FTP or SFTP URL/operation uses a path that
              doesn't currently exist on the server, the standard behavior  of
              curl is to fail. Using this option, curl will instead attempt to

              nocwd  curl  does  no  CWD at all. curl will do SIZE, RETR, STOR
                     etc and give a full path to the server for all these com-
                     mands. This is the fastest behavior.

              singlecwd
                     curl does one CWD with the full target directory and then
                     operates on the file "normally"  (like  in  the  multicwd
                     case).  This  is  somewhat  more standards compliant than
                     'nocwd' but without the full penalty of 'multicwd'.
       (Added in 7.15.1)

       --ftp-pasv
              (FTP) Use passive mode for the data connection. Passive  is  the
              internal  default behavior, but using this option can be used to
              override a previous -P/-ftp-port option. (Added in 7.11.0)

              If this option is used several times,  only  the  first  one  is
              used.  Undoing  an  enforced passive really isn't doable but you
              must then instead enforce the correct -P, --ftp-port again.

              Passive mode means that curl will try the EPSV command first and
              then PASV, unless --disable-epsv is used.

       --ftp-skip-pasv-ip
              (FTP) Tell curl to not use the IP address the server suggests in
              its response to curl's PASV command when curl connects the  data
              connection.  Instead  curl  will  re-use  the same IP address it
              already uses for the control connection. (Added in 7.14.2)

              This option has no effect if PORT, EPRT or EPSV is used  instead
              of PASV.

       --ftp-pret
              (FTP)  Tell  curl to send a PRET command before PASV (and EPSV).
              Certain FTP servers, mainly drftpd,  require  this  non-standard
              command  for  directory  listings as well as up and downloads in
              PASV mode.  (Added in 7.20.x)

       --ftp-ssl-ccc
              (FTP) Use CCC (Clear Command Channel)  Shuts  down  the  SSL/TLS
              layer after authenticating. The rest of the control channel com-
              munication will be unencrypted. This allows NAT routers to  fol-
              low the FTP transaction. The default mode is passive. See --ftp-
              ssl-ccc-mode for other modes.  (Added in 7.16.1)

       --ftp-ssl-ccc-mode [active/passive]
              (FTP) Use CCC (Clear Command Channel) Sets  the  CCC  mode.  The
              passive  mode  will  not initiate the shutdown, but instead wait
              for the server to do it, and will not reply to the shutdown from
              the server. The active mode initiates the shutdown and waits for
              a reply from the server.  (Added in 7.16.2)

       --ftp-ssl-control
              features of --form.

       -g, --globoff
              This option switches off the "URL globbing parser". When you set
              this option, you can specify URLs that contain the letters  {}[]
              without  having them being interpreted by curl itself. Note that
              these letters are not normal legal URL contents but they  should
              be encoded according to the URI standard.

       -G, --get
              When  used,  this  option  will make all data specified with -d,
              --data, --data-binary or --data-urlencode to be used in an  HTTP
              GET  request instead of the POST request that otherwise would be
              used. The data will be appended to the URL with a '?' separator.

              If used in combination with -I, the POST data  will  instead  be
              appended to the URL with a HEAD request.

              If  this  option  is  used  several times, only the first one is
              used. This is because undoing a GET doesn't make sense, but  you
              should then instead enforce the alternative method you prefer.

       -H, --header <header>
              (HTTP)  Extra  header  to  use  when getting a web page. You may
              specify any number of extra headers. Note that if you should add
              a  custom  header  that has the same name as one of the internal
              ones curl would use, your externally set  header  will  be  used
              instead of the internal one. This allows you to make even trick-
              ier stuff than curl would normally do. You  should  not  replace
              internally  set  headers  without  knowing  perfectly  well what
              you're doing. Remove an internal header by giving a  replacement
              without  content  on  the  right  side  of  the colon, as in: -H
              "Host:". If you send the custom header with  no-value  then  its
              header  must  be terminated with a semicolon, such as -H "X-Cus-
              tom-Header;" to send "X-Custom-Header:".

              curl will make sure that each header  you  add/replace  is  sent
              with the proper end-of-line marker, you should thus not add that
              as a part of the header content: do not add newlines or carriage
              returns, they will only mess things up for you.

              See also the -A, --user-agent and -e, --referer options.

              This  option  can  be  used multiple times to add/replace/remove
              multiple headers.

       --hostpubmd5 <md5>
              (SCP/SFTP) Pass a string containing 32 hexadecimal  digits.  The
              string  should  be the 128 bit MD5 checksum of the remote host's
              public key, curl will refuse the connection with the host unless
              the md5sums match. (Added in 7.17.1)

       --ignore-content-length
              (HTTP)  Ignore  the  Content-Length header. This is particularly
              the file size and last modification time only.

       --interface <name>
              Perform an operation using a specified interface. You can  enter
              interface  name,  IP address or host name. An example could look
              like:

               curl --interface eth0:1 http://www.netscape.com/

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       -j, --junk-session-cookies
              (HTTP) When curl is told to read cookies from a given file, this
              option  will  make  it  discard all "session cookies". This will
              basically have the same effect as if a new session  is  started.
              Typical  browsers  always  discard  session cookies when they're
              closed down.

       -J, --remote-header-name
              (HTTP) This option tells the -O, --remote-name option to use the
              server-specified   Content-Disposition   filename   instead   of
              extracting a filename from the URL.

              There's no attempt to decode %-sequences (yet) in  the  provided
              file name, so this option may provide you with rather unexpected
              file names.

       -k, --insecure
              (SSL) This option explicitly allows curl to  perform  "insecure"
              SSL connections and transfers. All SSL connections are attempted
              to be made secure by using the CA certificate  bundle  installed
              by  default.  This  makes  all connections considered "insecure"
              fail unless -k, --insecure is used.

              See    this    online    resource    for    further     details:
              http://curl.haxx.se/docs/sslcerts.html

       -K, --config <config file>
              Specify  which config file to read curl arguments from. The con-
              fig file is a text file in which command line arguments  can  be
              written  which  then will be used as if they were written on the
              actual command line.

              Options and their parameters must be specified on the same  con-
              fig  file  line,  separated  by whitespace, colon, or the equals
              sign. Long option names can optionally be given  in  the  config
              file  without  the initial double dashes and if so, the colon or
              equals characters can be used as separators. If  the  option  is
              specified  with  one  or  two  dashes,  there can be no colon or
              equals character between the option and its parameter.

              If the parameter is to contain whitespace, the parameter must be
              enclosed  within  quotes.  Within  double  quotes, the following
              escape sequences are available: \\, \", \t, \n,  \r  and  \v.  A

              url = "http://curl.haxx.se/docs/"

              When curl is invoked, it always (unless -q is used) checks for a
              default  config  file  and  uses it if found. The default config
              file is checked for in the following places in this order:

              1) curl tries to find the "home dir": It first  checks  for  the
              CURL_HOME and then the HOME environment variables. Failing that,
              it uses getpwuid() on UNIX-like systems (which returns the  home
              dir  given the current user in your system). On Windows, it then
              checks for the APPDATA variable, or as a last resort the '%USER-
              PROFILE%\Application Data'.

              2)  On  windows, if there is no _curlrc file in the home dir, it
              checks for one in the same dir the curl executable is placed. On
              UNIX-like  systems,  it will simply try to load .curlrc from the
              determined home dir.

              # --- Example file ---
              # this is a comment
              url = "curl.haxx.se"
              output = "curlhere.html"
              user-agent = "superagent/1.0"

              # and fetch another URL too
              url = "curl.haxx.se/docs/manpage.html"
              -O
              referer = "http://nowhereatall.com/"
              # --- End of example file ---

              This option can be used multiple times to load  multiple  config
              files.

       --keepalive-time <seconds>
              This  option  sets  the  time  a connection needs to remain idle
              before sending keepalive probes and the time between  individual
              keepalive probes. It is currently effective on operating systems
              offering  the  TCP_KEEPIDLE  and  TCP_KEEPINTVL  socket  options
              (meaning  Linux, recent AIX, HP-UX and more). This option has no
              effect if --no-keepalive is used. (Added in 7.18.0)

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.
              If unspecified, the option defaults to 60 seconds.

       --key <key>
              (SSL/SSH) Private key file name. Allows you to provide your pri-
              vate key in this separate file.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       --key-type <type>
              (SSL) Private key file type. Specify which type your --key  pro-
              vided  private  key  is. DER, PEM, and ENG are supported. If not
              sion to see if your curl supports it.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       -l, --list-only
              (FTP)  When listing an FTP directory, this switch forces a name-
              only view. This is  especially  useful  if  the  user  wants  to
              machine-parse  the contents of an FTP directory since the normal
              directory view doesn't use a standard look or format. When  used
              like  this,  the  option causes a NLST command to be sent to the
              server instead of LIST.

              Note: Some FTP servers list only  files  in  their  response  to
              NLST; they do not include sub-directories and symbolic links.

              (POP3)  When  retrieving a specific email from POP3, this switch
              forces a LIST command to be performed instead of RETR.  This  is
              particularly  useful if the user wants to see if a specific mes-
              sage id exists on the server and what size it is.

              Note: When combined with -X, --request  <command>,  this  option
              can be used to send an UIDL command instead, so the user may use
              the email's unique identifier rather than  it's  message  id  to
              make the request. (Added in 7.21.5)

       -L, --location
              (HTTP/HTTPS)  If  the server reports that the requested page has
              moved to a different location (indicated with a Location: header
              and  a  3XX  response code), this option will make curl redo the
              request on the new place. If used together with -i, --include or
              -I, --head, headers from all requested pages will be shown. When
              authentication is used, curl only sends its credentials  to  the
              initial  host.  If a redirect takes curl to a different host, it
              won't be able to intercept the user+password. See  also  --loca-
              tion-trusted  on how to change this. You can limit the amount of
              redirects to follow by using the --max-redirs option.

              When curl follows a redirect and the request is not a plain  GET
              (for example POST or PUT), it will do the following request with
              a GET if the HTTP response was 301, 302, or 303. If the response
              code  was  any  other  3xx code, curl will re-send the following
              request using the same unmodified method.

       --libcurl <file>
              Append this option to any ordinary curl command  line,  and  you
              will  get a libcurl-using C source code written to the file that
              does the equivalent of what your command-line operation does!

              If this option is used several times, the last given  file  name
              will be used. (Added in 7.16.1)

       --limit-rate <speed>
              Specify  the  maximum  transfer  rate you want curl to use. This
              feature is useful if you have a limited pipe and you'd like your
              take precedence and might cripple the rate-limiting slightly, to
              help keeping the speed-limit logic working.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       --local-port <num>[-num]
              Set a preferred number or range of local port numbers to use for
              the  connection(s).   Note  that  port  numbers  by nature are a
              scarce resource that will be busy at times so setting this range
              to something too narrow might cause unnecessary connection setup
              failures. (Added in 7.15.2)

       --location-trusted
              (HTTP/HTTPS) Like -L, --location, but  will  allow  sending  the
              name + password to all hosts that the site may redirect to. This
              may or may not introduce a security breach if the site redirects
              you  to  a  site  to  which you'll send your authentication info
              (which is plaintext in the case of HTTP Basic authentication).

       -m, --max-time <seconds>
              Maximum time in seconds that you allow the  whole  operation  to
              take.   This is useful for preventing your batch jobs from hang-
              ing for hours due to slow networks or links going  down.   Since
              7.32.0, this option accepts decimal values, but the actual time-
              out will decrease in accuracy as the specified timeout increases
              in decimal precision.  See also the --connect-timeout option.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       --mail-auth <address>
              (SMTP)  Specify  a  single address. This will be used to specify
              the authentication address (identity)  of  a  submitted  message
              that is being relayed to another server.

              (Added in 7.25.0)

       --mail-from <address>
              (SMTP)  Specify  a single address that the given mail should get
              sent from.

              (Added in 7.20.0)

       --max-filesize <bytes>
              Specify the maximum size (in bytes) of a file  to  download.  If
              the  file requested is larger than this value, the transfer will
              not start and curl will return with exit code 63.

              NOTE: The file size is not always known prior to  download,  and
              for such files this option has no effect even if the file trans-
              fer ends up being larger than this given  limit.  This  concerns
              both FTP and HTTP transfers.

       --mail-rcpt <address>
              (SMTP) Specify a single address, user name or mailing list name.

       --max-redirs <num>
              Set maximum number of  redirection-followings  allowed.  If  -L,
              --location is used, this option can be used to prevent curl from
              following redirections "in absurdum". By default, the  limit  is
              set  to 50 redirections. Set this option to -1 to make it limit-
              less.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       --metalink
              This option can tell curl to parse and process a  given  URI  as
              Metalink  file  (both  version 3 and 4 (RFC 5854) are supported)
              and make use of the mirrors listed within for failover if  there
              are  errors (such as the file or server not being available). It
              will also verify the hash of the file after  the  download  com-
              pletes.  The Metalink file itself is downloaded and processed in
              memory and not stored in the local file system.

              Example to use a remote Metalink file:

              curl --metalink http://www.example.com/example.metalink

              To use a Metalink file in the local file system, use FILE proto-
              col (file://):

              curl --metalink file://example.metalink

              Please  note  that if FILE protocol is disabled, there is no way
              to use a local Metalink file at the time of this  writing.  Also
              note  that  if  --metalink  and  --include  are  used  together,
              --include will be ignored. This is because including headers  in
              the  response  will break Metalink parser and if the headers are
              included in the file described in Metalink file, hash check will
              fail.

              (Added in 7.27.0, if built against the libmetalink library.)

       -n, --netrc
              Makes  curl  scan  the  .netrc  (_netrc  on Windows) file in the
              user's home directory for login name and password. This is typi-
              cally  used for FTP on UNIX. If used with HTTP, curl will enable
              user authentication. See netrc(4) or ftp(1) for details  on  the
              file  format.  Curl  will not complain if that file doesn't have
              the right permissions (it should not be either world- or  group-
              readable).  The  environment variable "HOME" is used to find the
              home directory.

              A quick and very simple example of how  to  setup  a  .netrc  to
              allow  curl to FTP to the machine host.domain.com with user name
              'myself' and password 'secret' should look similar to:

              machine host.domain.com login myself password secret

       -N, --no-buffer
              use.   You  can  only  specify one netrc file per invocation. If
              several --netrc-file options are provided,  only  the  last  one
              will be used.  (Added in 7.21.5)

              This  option  overrides  any use of --netrc as they are mutually
              exclusive.  It will also abide by --netrc-optional if specified.


       --netrc-optional
              Very similar to --netrc, but this option makes the .netrc  usage
              optional and not mandatory as the --netrc option does.


       --negotiate
              (HTTP)  Enables  GSS-Negotiate authentication. The GSS-Negotiate
              method was designed by Microsoft and is used in their web appli-
              cations.  It  is  primarily  meant  as  a  support for Kerberos5
              authentication but may be also used along with another authenti-
              cation method. For more information see IETF draft draft-brezak-
              spnego-http-04.txt.

              If you want to enable Negotiate for your  proxy  authentication,
              then use --proxy-negotiate.

              This  option  requires a library built with GSSAPI support. This
              is not very common. Use -V, --version to  see  if  your  version
              supports GSS-Negotiate.

              When  using this option, you must also provide a fake -u, --user
              option to activate the authentication code properly.  Sending  a
              '-u  :'  is  enough  as  the  user name and password from the -u
              option aren't actually used.

              If this option is used several times,  only  the  first  one  is
              used.

       --no-keepalive
              Disables the use of keepalive messages on the TCP connection, as
              by default curl enables them.

              Note that this is the negated option name  documented.  You  can
              thus use --keepalive to enforce keepalive.

       --no-sessionid
              (SSL)  Disable curl's use of SSL session-ID caching.  By default
              all transfers are done using the cache. Note that while  nothing
              should  ever  get  hurt  by attempting to reuse SSL session-IDs,
              there seem to be broken SSL implementations in the wild that may
              require  you to disable this in order for you to succeed. (Added
              in 7.16.0)

              Note that this is the negated option name  documented.  You  can
              thus use --sessionid to enforce session-ID caching.

              ple and implemented in curl based on their efforts. This kind of
              behavior  should  not be endorsed, you should encourage everyone
              who uses NTLM to switch to a public and  documented  authentica-
              tion method instead, such as Digest.

              If  you  want to enable NTLM for your proxy authentication, then
              use --proxy-ntlm.

              This option requires a library built with SSL support.  Use  -V,
              --version to see if your curl supports NTLM.

              If  this  option  is  used  several times, only the first one is
              used.

       -o, --output <file>
              Write output to <file> instead of stdout. If you are using {} or
              []  to  fetch  multiple documents, you can use '#' followed by a
              number in the <file> specifier. That variable will  be  replaced
              with the current string for the URL being fetched. Like in:

                curl http://{one,two}.site.com -o "file_#1.txt"

              or use several variables like:

                curl http://{site,host}.host[1-5].com -o "#1_#2"

              You  may use this option as many times as the number of URLs you
              have.

              See also the --create-dirs option to create the  local  directo-
              ries  dynamically.  Specifying the output as '-' (a single dash)
              will force the output to be done to stdout.

       -O, --remote-name
              Write output to a local file named like the remote file we  get.
              (Only  the file part of the remote file is used, the path is cut
              off.)

              The remote file name to use for saving  is  extracted  from  the
              given URL, nothing else.

              Consequentially,  the  file will be saved in the current working
              directory. If you want the file saved in a different  directory,
              make sure you change current working directory before you invoke
              curl with the -O, --remote-name flag!

              There is no URL decoding done on the file name. If it has %20 or
              other  URL  encoded parts of the name, they will end up as-is as
              file name.

              You may use this option as many times as the number of URLs  you
              have.

       --oauth2-bearer
              non-HTTP protocols  to  attempt  to  tunnel  through  the  proxy
              instead  of merely using it to do HTTP-like operations. The tun-
              nel approach is made with the HTTP  proxy  CONNECT  request  and
              requires that the proxy allows direct connect to the remote port
              number curl wants to tunnel through to.

       -P, --ftp-port <address>
              (FTP) Reverses the default initiator/listener  roles  when  con-
              necting  with  FTP.  This  switch makes curl use active mode. In
              practice, curl then tells the server  to  connect  back  to  the
              client's specified address and port, while passive mode asks the
              server to setup an IP address and port for  it  to  connect  to.
              <address> should be one of:

              interface
                     i.e  "eth0"  to  specify which interface's IP address you
                     want to use (Unix only)

              IP address
                     i.e "192.168.10.1" to specify the exact IP address

              host name
                     i.e "my.host.domain" to specify the machine

              -      make curl pick the same IP address that is  already  used
                     for the control connection

       If  this  option is used several times, the last one will be used. Dis-
       able the use of PORT with --ftp-pasv. Disable the attempt  to  use  the
       EPRT  command  instead  of PORT by using --disable-eprt. EPRT is really
       PORT++.

       Starting in 7.19.5, you can append ":[start]-[end]" to the right of the
       address,  to tell curl what TCP port range to use. That means you spec-
       ify a port range, from a lower to a  higher  number.  A  single  number
       works  as well, but do note that it increases the risk of failure since
       the port may not be available.

       --pass <phrase>
              (SSL/SSH) Passphrase for the private key

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       --post301
              (HTTP) Tells curl to respect RFC  2616/10.3.2  and  not  convert
              POST  requests  into GET requests when following a 301 redirect-
              ion. The non-RFC behaviour is ubiquitous  in  web  browsers,  so
              curl  does  the  conversion  by default to maintain consistency.
              However, a server may require a POST to remain a POST after such
              a  redirection.  This  option  is meaningful only when using -L,
              --location (Added in 7.17.1)

       --post302
              (HTTP) Tells curl to respect RFC  2616/10.3.2  and  not  convert
              However, a server may require a POST to remain a POST after such
              a  redirection.  This  option  is meaningful only when using -L,
              --location (Added in 7.26.0)

       --proto <protocols>
              Tells  curl  to  use  the  listed  protocols  for  its   initial
              retrieval. Protocols are evaluated left to right, are comma sep-
              arated, and are each a protocol name or 'all',  optionally  pre-
              fixed by zero or more modifiers. Available modifiers are:

              +  Permit this protocol in addition to protocols already permit-
                 ted (this is the default if no modifier is used).

              -  Deny this protocol, removing it from the  list  of  protocols
                 already permitted.

              =  Permit  only this protocol (ignoring the list already permit-
                 ted), though subject  to  later  modification  by  subsequent
                 entries in the comma separated list.

              For example:

              --proto -ftps  uses the default protocols, but disables ftps

              --proto -all,https,+http
                             only enables http and https

              --proto =http,https
                             also only enables http and https

              Unknown  protocols  produce  a  warning.  This allows scripts to
              safely rely on being able to disable potentially dangerous  pro-
              tocols,  without  relying  upon  support for that protocol being
              built into curl to avoid an error.

              This option can be used multiple times, in which case the effect
              is  the same as concatenating the protocols into one instance of
              the option.

              (Added in 7.20.2)

       --proto-redir <protocols>
              Tells curl to use the listed protocols  after  a  redirect.  See
              --proto for how protocols are represented.

              (Added in 7.20.2)

       --proxy-anyauth
              Tells  curl to pick a suitable authentication method when commu-
              nicating with  the  given  proxy.  This  might  cause  an  extra
              request/response round-trip. (Added in 7.13.2)

       --proxy-basic
              Tells  curl  to use HTTP Basic authentication when communicating
              Negotiate with a remote host. (Added in 7.17.1)

       --proxy-ntlm
              Tells curl to use HTTP NTLM  authentication  when  communicating
              with the given proxy. Use --ntlm for enabling NTLM with a remote
              host.

       --proxy1.0 <proxyhost[:port]>
              Use the specified HTTP 1.0 proxy. If  the  port  number  is  not
              specified, it is assumed at port 1080.

              The  only difference between this and the HTTP proxy option (-x,
              --proxy), is that attempts to use CONNECT through the proxy will
              specify an HTTP 1.0 protocol instead of the default HTTP 1.1.

       --pubkey <key>
              (SSH)  Public  key  file name. Allows you to provide your public
              key in this separate file.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       -q     If used as the first parameter on the command line,  the  curlrc
              config  file will not be read and used. See the -K, --config for
              details on the default config file search path.

       -Q, --quote <command>
              (FTP/SFTP) Send an arbitrary command to the remote FTP  or  SFTP
              server.  Quote commands are sent BEFORE the transfer takes place
              (just after the initial PWD command in an FTP  transfer,  to  be
              exact). To make commands take place after a successful transfer,
              prefix them with a dash '-'.  To make  commands  be  sent  after
              curl has changed the working directory, just before the transfer
              command(s), prefix the command with a '+'  (this  is  only  sup-
              ported  for FTP). You may specify any number of commands. If the
              server returns failure for one of the commands, the entire oper-
              ation  will  be aborted. You must send syntactically correct FTP
              commands as RFC 959 defines to FTP servers, or one of  the  com-
              mands  listed  below  to  SFTP servers.  This option can be used
              multiple times. When speaking to an FTP server, prefix the  com-
              mand with an asterisk (*) to make curl continue even if the com-
              mand fails as by default curl will stop at first failure.

              SFTP is a binary protocol. Unlike for FTP, curl interprets  SFTP
              quote  commands  itself before sending them to the server.  File
              names may be quoted shell-style to embed spaces or special char-
              acters.   Following is the list of all supported SFTP quote com-
              mands:

              chgrp group file
                     The chgrp command sets the group ID of the file named  by
                     the  file  operand to the group ID specified by the group
                     operand. The group operand is a decimal integer group ID.

              chmod mode file
                     tion.

              mkdir directory_name
                     The mkdir command creates  the  directory  named  by  the
                     directory_name operand.

              pwd    The pwd command returns the absolute pathname of the cur-
                     rent working directory.

              rename source target
                     The rename command renames the file or directory named by
                     the  source  operand to the destination path named by the
                     target operand.

              rm file
                     The rm command removes the file specified by the file op-
                     erand.

              rmdir directory
                     The  rmdir  command removes the directory entry specified
                     by the directory operand, provided it is empty.

              symlink source_file target_file
                     See ln.

       -r, --range <range>
              (HTTP/FTP/SFTP/FILE) Retrieve a byte range (i.e a partial  docu-
              ment)  from  a  HTTP/1.1,  FTP  or  SFTP server or a local FILE.
              Ranges can be specified in a number of ways.

              0-499     specifies the first 500 bytes

              500-999   specifies the second 500 bytes

              -500      specifies the last 500 bytes

              9500-     specifies the bytes from offset 9500 and forward

              0-0,-1    specifies the first and last byte only(*)(H)

              500-700,600-799
                        specifies 300 bytes from offset 500(H)

              100-199,500-599
                        specifies two separate 100-byte ranges(*)(H)

       (*) = NOTE that this will cause the server to reply  with  a  multipart
       response!

       Only  digit characters (0-9) are valid in the 'start' and 'stop' fields
       of the 'start-stop' range syntax. If a non-digit character is given  in
       the  range, the server's response will be unspecified, depending on the
       server's configuration.

              stamp  of  the  remote  file,  and if that is available make the
              local file get that same timestamp.

       --random-file <file>
              (SSL) Specify the path name to file containing what will be con-
              sidered  as  random  data.  The  data is used to seed the random
              engine for SSL connections.  See also the --egd-file option.

       --raw  (HTTP) When used, it disables all internal HTTP decoding of con-
              tent  or  transfer  encodings  and  instead makes them passed on
              unaltered, raw. (Added in 7.16.2)

       --remote-name-all
              This option changes the default action for all given URLs to  be
              dealt with as if -O, --remote-name were used for each one. So if
              you want to disable that for a specific URL after --remote-name-
              all  has  been  used,  you  must use "-o -" or --no-remote-name.
              (Added in 7.19.0)

       --resolve <host:port:address>
              Provide a custom address for a  specific  host  and  port  pair.
              Using  this,  you  can make the curl requests(s) use a specified
              address and prevent the otherwise normally resolved  address  to
              be  used.  Consider it a sort of /etc/hosts alternative provided
              on the command line. The port number should be the  number  used
              for  the  specific  protocol the host will be used for. It means
              you need several entries if you want to provide address for  the
              same host but different ports.

              This  option  can  be  used many times to add many host names to
              resolve.

              (Added in 7.21.3)

       --retry <num>
              If a transient error is returned when curl tries  to  perform  a
              transfer,  it  will retry this number of times before giving up.
              Setting the number to 0 makes curl do no retries (which  is  the
              default).  Transient  error  means either: a timeout, an FTP 4xx
              response code or an HTTP 5xx response code.

              When curl is about to retry a transfer, it will first  wait  one
              second  and  then for all forthcoming retries it will double the
              waiting time until it reaches 10 minutes which then will be  the
              delay  between  the rest of the retries.  By using --retry-delay
              you  disable  this  exponential  backoff  algorithm.  See   also
              --retry-max-time  to  limit  the total time allowed for retries.
              (Added in 7.12.3)

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       --retry-delay <seconds>
              Make curl sleep this amount of time before  each  retry  when  a
              transfer  has  failed  with  a  transient  error (it changes the
              ing,  it may take longer than this given time period. To limit a
              single request's maximum time, use  -m,  --max-time.   Set  this
              option to zero to not timeout retries. (Added in 7.12.3)

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       -s, --silent
              Silent  or  quiet  mode. Don't show progress meter or error mes-
              sages.  Makes Curl mute. It will still output the data  you  ask
              for, potentially even to the terminal/stdout unless you redirect
              it.

       --sasl-ir
              Enable initial  response  in  SASL  authentication.   (Added  in
              7.31.0)

       -S, --show-error
              When  used  with  -s  it  makes curl show an error message if it
              fails.

       --ssl  (FTP, POP3, IMAP, SMTP) Try to use SSL/TLS for  the  connection.
              Reverts to a non-secure connection if the server doesn't support
              SSL/TLS.  See also --ftp-ssl-control and --ssl-reqd for  differ-
              ent levels of encryption required. (Added in 7.20.0)

              This  option  was formerly known as --ftp-ssl (Added in 7.11.0).
              That option name can still be used but  will  be  removed  in  a
              future version.

       --ssl-reqd
              (FTP,  POP3,  IMAP,  SMTP)  Require  SSL/TLS for the connection.
              Terminates the connection if the server doesn't support SSL/TLS.
              (Added in 7.20.0)

              This  option  was  formerly  known  as  --ftp-ssl-reqd (added in
              7.15.5). That option name can still be used but will be  removed
              in a future version.

       --ssl-allow-beast
              (SSL)  This option tells curl to not work around a security flaw
              in the SSL3 and TLS1.0 protocols known as BEAST.  If this option
              isn't  used,  the  SSL layer may use work-arounds known to cause
              interoperability problems with some older  SSL  implementations.
              WARNING: this option loosens the SSL security, and by using this
              flag you ask for exactly that.  (Added in 7.25.0)

       --socks4 <host[:port]>
              Use the specified SOCKS4 proxy. If the port number is not speci-
              fied, it is assumed at port 1080. (Added in 7.15.2)

              This  option  overrides any previous use of -x, --proxy, as they
              are mutually exclusive.

              Since 7.21.7, this option is superfluous since you can specify a
              socks4a proxy with -x, --proxy using a socks4a:// protocol  pre-
              fix.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       --socks5-hostname <host[:port]>
              Use  the  specified  SOCKS5 proxy (and let the proxy resolve the
              host name). If the port number is not specified, it  is  assumed
              at port 1080. (Added in 7.18.0)

              This  option  overrides any previous use of -x, --proxy, as they
              are mutually exclusive.

              Since 7.21.7, this option is superfluous since you can specify a
              socks5 hostname proxy with -x, --proxy using a socks5h:// proto-
              col prefix.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.
              (This  option  was  previously  wrongly  documented  and used as
              --socks without the number appended.)

       --socks5 <host[:port]>
              Use the specified SOCKS5 proxy  -  but  resolve  the  host  name
              locally.  If  the port number is not specified, it is assumed at
              port 1080.

              This option overrides any previous use of -x, --proxy,  as  they
              are mutually exclusive.

              Since 7.21.7, this option is superfluous since you can specify a
              socks5 proxy with -x, --proxy using a socks5:// protocol prefix.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.
              (This  option  was  previously  wrongly  documented  and used as
              --socks without the number appended.)

              This option (as well as --socks4) does not work with IPV6,  FTPS
              or LDAP.

       --socks5-gssapi-service <servicename>
              The default service name for a socks server is rcmd/server-fqdn.
              This option allows you to change it.

              Examples:  --socks5  proxy-name  --socks5-gssapi-service   sockd
              would  use sockd/proxy-name --socks5 proxy-name --socks5-gssapi-
              service sockd/real-name  would  use  sockd/real-name  for  cases
              where  the proxy-name does not match the principal name.  (Added
              in 7.19.4).

       --socks5-gssapi-nec
              As part of the gssapi negotiation a protection mode  is  negoti-
              ated.  RFC  1961 says in section 4.3/4.4 it should be protected,
              but the NEC  reference  implementation  does  not.   The  option
              --socks5-gssapi-nec  allows the unprotected exchange of the pro-

              XDISPLOC=<X display> Sets the X display location.

              NEW_ENV=<var,val> Sets an environment variable.

       -T, --upload-file <file>
              This  transfers  the  specified local file to the remote URL. If
              there is no file part in the specified URL, Curl will append the
              local file name. NOTE that you must use a trailing / on the last
              directory to really prove to Curl that there is no file name  or
              curl will think that your last directory name is the remote file
              name to use. That will most likely cause the upload operation to
              fail. If this is used on an HTTP(S) server, the PUT command will
              be used.

              Use the file name "-" (a single dash) to use stdin instead of  a
              given  file.   Alternately,  the file name "." (a single period)
              may be specified instead of "-" to  use  stdin  in  non-blocking
              mode  to  allow  reading  server  output  while  stdin  is being
              uploaded.

              You can specify one -T for each URL on the command line. Each -T
              + URL pair specifies what to upload and to where. curl also sup-
              ports "globbing" of the -T argument, meaning that you can upload
              multiple  files  to  a single URL by using the same URL globbing
              style supported in the URL, like this:

              curl -T "{file1,file2}" http://www.uploadtothissite.com

              or even

              curl -T "img[1-1000].png" ftp://ftp.picturemania.com/upload/

       --tcp-nodelay
              Turn on the TCP_NODELAY option. See the curl_easy_setopt(3)  man
              page for details about this option. (Added in 7.11.2)

       --tftp-blksize <value>
              (TFTP) Set TFTP BLKSIZE option (must be >512). This is the block
              size that curl will try to use when transferring data to or from
              a TFTP server. By default 512 bytes will be used.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

              (Added in 7.20.0)

       --tlsauthtype <authtype>
              Set  TLS  authentication  type.  Currently,  the  only supported
              option is "SRP",  for  TLS-SRP  (RFC  5054).  If  --tlsuser  and
              --tlspassword  are specified but --tlsauthtype is not, then this
              option defaults to "SRP".  (Added in 7.21.4)

       --tlspassword <password>
              Set password for use with the TLS authentication  method  speci-

       --tlsv1.1
              (SSL) Forces curl to use TLS version 1.1 when negotiating with a
              remote TLS server.  (Added in 7.34.0)

       --tlsv1.2
              (SSL) Forces curl to use TLS version 1.2 when negotiating with a
              remote TLS server.  (Added in 7.34.0)

       --tr-encoding
              (HTTP) Request a compressed Transfer-Encoding response using one
              of the algorithms curl supports, and uncompress the  data  while
              receiving it.

              (Added in 7.21.6)

       --trace <file>
              Enables  a  full  trace  dump of all incoming and outgoing data,
              including descriptive information, to the given output file. Use
              "-" as filename to have the output sent to stdout.

              This option overrides previous uses of -v, --verbose or --trace-
              ascii.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       --trace-ascii <file>
              Enables a full trace dump of all  incoming  and  outgoing  data,
              including descriptive information, to the given output file. Use
              "-" as filename to have the output sent to stdout.

              This is very similar to --trace, but leaves out the hex part and
              only  shows  the ASCII part of the dump. It makes smaller output
              that might be easier to read for untrained humans.

              This option overrides previous uses of -v, --verbose or --trace.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       --trace-time
              Prepends a time stamp to each trace or verbose  line  that  curl
              displays.  (Added in 7.14.0)

       -u, --user <user:password;options>
              Specify  the  user  name, password and optional login options to
              use  for  server  authentication.  Overrides  -n,  --netrc   and
              --netrc-optional.

              If  you  simply specify the user name, with or without the login
              options, curl will prompt for a password.

              If you use an SSPI-enabled curl binary and perform NTLM  authen-
              tication,  you  can force curl to select the user name and pass-
              word from your environment by simply specifying a  single  colon
              with  this  option:  "-u :" or by specfying the login options on
              Specify  the user name and password to use for proxy authentica-
              tion.

              If you use an SSPI-enabled curl binary and do  NTLM  authentica-
              tion,  you  can force curl to pick up the user name and password
              from your environment by simply specifying a single  colon  with
              this option: "-U :".

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       --url <URL>
              Specify  a  URL  to  fetch. This option is mostly handy when you
              want to specify URL(s) in a config file.

              This option may be used any number of times.  To  control  where
              this  URL  is written, use the -o, --output or the -O, --remote-
              name options.

       -v, --verbose
              Makes the fetching more  verbose/talkative.  Mostly  useful  for
              debugging.  A line starting with '>' means "header data" sent by
              curl, '<' means "header data" received by curl that is hidden in
              normal cases, and a line starting with '*' means additional info
              provided by curl.

              Note that if you only want  HTTP  headers  in  the  output,  -i,
              --include might be the option you're looking for.

              If  you think this option still doesn't give you enough details,
              consider using --trace or --trace-ascii instead.

              This option overrides previous uses of --trace-ascii or --trace.

              Use -s, --silent to make curl quiet.

       -w, --write-out <format>
              Defines what to display on stdout after a completed and success-
              ful  operation.  The  format  is a string that may contain plain
              text mixed with any number of variables. The string can be spec-
              ified  as "string", to get read from a particular file you spec-
              ify it "@filename" and to tell curl  to  read  the  format  from
              stdin you write "@-".

              The  variables  present in the output format will be substituted
              by the value or text that curl thinks fit, as  described  below.
              All  variables are specified as %{variable_name} and to output a
              normal % you just write them as %%. You can output a newline  by
              using \n, a carriage return with \r and a tab space with \t.

              NOTE: The %-symbol is a special symbol in the win32-environment,
              where all occurrences of %  must  be  doubled  when  using  this
              option.

              The variables available are:
                             to the remote FTP server. (Added in 7.15.4)

              http_code      The numerical response code that was found in the
                             last retrieved HTTP(S)  or  FTP(s)  transfer.  In
                             7.18.2  the alias response_code was added to show
                             the same info.

              http_connect   The numerical code that was  found  in  the  last
                             response   (from  a  proxy)  to  a  curl  CONNECT
                             request. (Added in 7.12.4)

              local_ip       The IP address of  the  local  end  of  the  most
                             recently  done connection - can be either IPv4 or
                             IPv6 (Added in 7.29.0)

              local_port     The local port number of the most  recently  done
                             connection (Added in 7.29.0)

              num_connects   Number  of new connects made in the recent trans-
                             fer. (Added in 7.12.3)

              num_redirects  Number of redirects that  were  followed  in  the
                             request. (Added in 7.12.3)

              redirect_url   When  an HTTP request was made without -L to fol-
                             low redirects, this variable will show the actual
                             URL  a  redirect  would  take  you  to. (Added in
                             7.18.2)

              remote_ip      The remote IP address of the most  recently  done
                             connection - can be either IPv4 or IPv6 (Added in
                             7.29.0)

              remote_port    The remote port number of the most recently  done
                             connection (Added in 7.29.0)

              size_download  The total amount of bytes that were downloaded.

              size_header    The total amount of bytes of the downloaded head-
                             ers.

              size_request   The total amount of bytes that were sent  in  the
                             HTTP request.

              size_upload    The total amount of bytes that were uploaded.

              speed_download The average download speed that curl measured for
                             the complete download. Bytes per second.

              speed_upload   The average upload speed that curl  measured  for
                             the complete upload. Bytes per second.

              ssl_verify_result
                             The  result of the SSL peer certificate verifica-

              time_namelookup
                             The  time,  in  seconds,  it  took from the start
                             until the name resolving was completed.

              time_pretransfer
                             The time, in seconds,  it  took  from  the  start
                             until  the file transfer was just about to begin.
                             This includes all pre-transfer commands and nego-
                             tiations that are specific to the particular pro-
                             tocol(s) involved.

              time_redirect  The time, in seconds, it took for all redirection
                             steps  include  name lookup, connect, pretransfer
                             and transfer before  the  final  transaction  was
                             started.  time_redirect shows the complete execu-
                             tion time for multiple  redirections.  (Added  in
                             7.12.3)

              time_starttransfer
                             The  time,  in  seconds,  it  took from the start
                             until the first byte was just about to be  trans-
                             ferred.  This  includes time_pretransfer and also
                             the time  the  server  needed  to  calculate  the
                             result.

              time_total     The  total time, in seconds, that the full opera-
                             tion lasted. The time will be displayed with mil-
                             lisecond resolution.

              url_effective  The URL that was fetched last. This is most mean-
                             ingful if you've told curl  to  follow  location:
                             headers.

       If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       -x, --proxy <[protocol://][user:password@]proxyhost[:port]>
              Use the specified proxy.

              The  proxy  string can be specified with a protocol:// prefix to
              specify alternative proxy protocols. Use socks4://,  socks4a://,
              socks5:// or socks5h:// to request the specific SOCKS version to
              be used. No protocol specified, http:// and all others  will  be
              treated as HTTP proxies. (The protocol support was added in curl
              7.21.7)

              If the port number is not specified in the proxy string,  it  is
              assumed to be 1080.

              This  option  overrides  existing environment variables that set
              the proxy to use. If there's an environment variable  setting  a
              proxy, you can set proxy to "" to override it.

              All operations that are performed over an HTTP proxy will trans-
              parently be converted to HTTP. It means  that  certain  protocol
              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       -X, --request <command>
              (HTTP) Specifies a custom request method to use when communicat-
              ing with the HTTP server.  The specified request  will  be  used
              instead  of  the  method otherwise used (which defaults to GET).
              Read the HTTP 1.1 specification for  details  and  explanations.
              Common  additional  HTTP  requests  include  PUT and DELETE, but
              related technologies like WebDAV offers PROPFIND, COPY, MOVE and
              more.

              Normally  you  don't  need  this option. All sorts of GET, HEAD,
              POST and PUT requests are rather invoked by using dedicated com-
              mand line options.

              This  option  only  changes  the  actual  word  used in the HTTP
              request, it does not alter the way curl behaves. So for  example
              if  you  want  to make a proper HEAD request, using -X HEAD will
              not suffice. You need to use the -I, --head option.

              (FTP) Specifies a custom FTP command to use instead of LIST when
              doing file lists with FTP.

              (POP3) Specifies a custom POP3 command to use instead of LIST or
              RETR. (Added in 7.26.0)

              (IMAP) Specifies a custom IMAP command to use  insead  of  LIST.
              (Added in 7.30.0)

              (SMTP) Specifies a custom SMTP command to use instead of HELP or
              VRFY. (Added in 7.34.0)

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       --xattr
              When saving output to a file, this option tells  curl  to  store
              certain  file  metadata  in extended file attributes. Currently,
              the URL is stored in the xdg.origin.url attribute and, for HTTP,
              the  content  type  is stored in the mime_type attribute. If the
              file system does not support extended attributes, a  warning  is
              issued.


       -y, --speed-time <time>
              If a download is slower than speed-limit bytes per second during
              a speed-time period, the download gets aborted. If speed-time is
              used, the default speed-limit will be 1 unless set with -Y.

              This  option  controls  transfers  and thus will not affect slow
              connects etc. If this is a concern for you, try  the  --connect-
              timeout option.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

              and  tries  to  get  the  modification  date (mtime) from <file>
              instead. See the curl_getdate(3) man pages for  date  expression
              details.

              Start the date expression with a dash (-) to make it request for
              a document that is older than the given date/time, default is  a
              document that is newer than the specified date/time.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       -h, --help
              Usage help.

       -M, --manual
              Manual. Display the huge help text.

       -V, --version
              Displays information about curl and the libcurl version it uses.

              The  first  line  includes the full version of curl, libcurl and
              other 3rd party libraries linked with the executable.

              The second line (starts with "Protocols:") shows  all  protocols
              that libcurl reports to support.

              The third line (starts with "Features:") shows specific features
              libcurl reports to offer. Available features include:

              IPv6   You can use IPv6 with this.

              krb4   Krb4 for FTP is supported.

              SSL    HTTPS and FTPS are supported.

              libz   Automatic decompression of compressed files over HTTP  is
                     supported.

              NTLM   NTLM authentication is supported.

              GSS-Negotiate
                     Negotiate authentication and krb5 for FTP is supported.

              Debug  This  curl  uses a libcurl built with Debug. This enables
                     more error-tracking and memory debugging etc.  For  curl-
                     developers only!

              AsynchDNS
                     This curl uses asynchronous name resolves.

              SPNEGO SPNEGO Negotiate authentication is supported.

              Largefile
                     This curl supports transfers of large files, files larger
                     than 2GB.
                     This  curl  supports  Metalink (both version 3 and 4 (RFC
                     5854)), which describes mirrors and  hashes.   curl  will
                     use mirrors for failover if there are errors (such as the
                     file or server not being available).

FILES
       ~/.curlrc
              Default config file, see -K, --config for details.

ENVIRONMENT
       The environment variables can be specified in lower case or upper case.
       The lower case version has precedence. http_proxy is an exception as it
       is only available in lower case.

       Using an environment variable to set the proxy has the same  effect  as
       using the --proxy option.


       http_proxy [protocol://]<host>[:port]
              Sets the proxy server to use for HTTP.

       HTTPS_PROXY [protocol://]<host>[:port]
              Sets the proxy server to use for HTTPS.

       [url-protocol]_PROXY [protocol://]<host>[:port]
              Sets  the proxy server to use for [url-protocol], where the pro-
              tocol is a protocol that curl supports and  as  specified  in  a
              URL. FTP, FTPS, POP3, IMAP, SMTP, LDAP etc.

       ALL_PROXY [protocol://]<host>[:port]
              Sets  the  proxy  server to use if no protocol-specific proxy is
              set.

       NO_PROXY <comma-separated list of hosts>
              list of host names that shouldn't go through any proxy.  If  set
              to a asterisk '*' only, it matches all hosts.

PROXY PROTOCOL PREFIXES
       Since  curl  version  7.21.7,  the proxy string may be specified with a
       protocol:// prefix to specify alternative proxy protocols.

       If no protocol is specified in  the  proxy  string  or  if  the  string
       doesn't  match  a  supported  one, the proxy will be treated as an HTTP
       proxy.

       The supported proxy protocol prefixes are as follows:

       socks4://
              Makes it the equivalent of --socks4

       socks4a://
              Makes it the equivalent of --socks4a

       socks5://

       2      Failed to initialize.

       3      URL malformed. The syntax was not correct.

       4      A  feature  or  option  that  was  needed to perform the desired
              request was not enabled or was  explicitly  disabled  at  build-
              time.  To  make  curl able to do this, you probably need another
              build of libcurl!

       5      Couldn't resolve proxy.  The  given  proxy  host  could  not  be
              resolved.

       6      Couldn't resolve host. The given remote host was not resolved.

       7      Failed to connect to host.

       8      FTP  weird  server  reply.  The  server  sent data curl couldn't
              parse.

       9      FTP access denied. The server denied login or denied  access  to
              the  particular  resource or directory you wanted to reach. Most
              often you tried to change to a directory that doesn't  exist  on
              the server.

       11     FTP  weird PASS reply. Curl couldn't parse the reply sent to the
              PASS request.

       13     FTP weird PASV reply, Curl couldn't parse the reply sent to  the
              PASV request.

       14     FTP  weird  227  format.  Curl  couldn't  parse the 227-line the
              server sent.

       15     FTP can't get host. Couldn't resolve the host IP we got  in  the
              227-line.

       17     FTP  couldn't  set  binary.  Couldn't  change transfer method to
              binary.

       18     Partial file. Only a part of the file was transferred.

       19     FTP couldn't download/access the given file, the RETR (or  simi-
              lar) command failed.

       21     FTP quote error. A quote command returned error from the server.

       22     HTTP  page  not  retrieved.  The  requested url was not found or
              returned another error with the HTTP error  code  being  400  or
              above. This return code only appears if -f, --fail is used.

       23     Write  error.  Curl couldn't write data to a local filesystem or
              similar.

              instead!

       31     FTP couldn't use REST. The REST command failed. This command  is
              used for resumed FTP transfers.

       33     HTTP range error. The range "command" didn't work.

       34     HTTP post error. Internal post-request generation error.

       35     SSL connect error. The SSL handshaking failed.

       36     FTP  bad  download  resume. Couldn't continue an earlier aborted
              download.

       37     FILE couldn't read file. Failed to open the file. Permissions?

       38     LDAP cannot bind. LDAP bind operation failed.

       39     LDAP search failed.

       41     Function not found. A required LDAP function was not found.

       42     Aborted by callback. An application told curl to abort the oper-
              ation.

       43     Internal error. A function was called with a bad parameter.

       45     Interface  error.  A  specified  outgoing interface could not be
              used.

       47     Too many redirects. When following redirects, curl hit the maxi-
              mum amount.

       48     Unknown  option  specified  to  libcurl. This indicates that you
              passed a weird option to curl that was passed on to libcurl  and
              rejected. Read up in the manual!

       49     Malformed telnet option.

       51     The peer's SSL certificate or SSH MD5 fingerprint was not OK.

       52     The  server  didn't  reply anything, which here is considered an
              error.

       53     SSL crypto engine not found.

       54     Cannot set SSL crypto engine as default.

       55     Failed sending network data.

       56     Failure in receiving network data.

       58     Problem with the local certificate.


       65     Sending the data requires a rewind that failed.

       66     Failed to initialise SSL Engine.

       67     The  user  name,  password, or similar was not accepted and curl
              failed to log in.

       68     File not found on TFTP server.

       69     Permission problem on TFTP server.

       70     Out of disk space on TFTP server.

       71     Illegal TFTP operation.

       72     Unknown TFTP transfer ID.

       73     File already exists (TFTP).

       74     No such user (TFTP).

       75     Character conversion failed.

       76     Character conversion functions required.

       77     Problem with reading the SSL CA cert (path? access rights?).

       78     The resource referenced in the URL does not exist.

       79     An unspecified error occurred during the SSH session.

       80     Failed to shut down the SSL connection.

       82     Could not load CRL file,  missing  or  wrong  format  (added  in
              7.19.0).

       83     Issuer check failed (added in 7.19.0).

       84     The FTP PRET command failed

       85     RTSP: mismatch of CSeq numbers

       86     RTSP: mismatch of Session Identifiers

       87     unable to parse FTP file list

       88     FTP chunk callback reported error

       89     No connection available, the session will be queued

       XX     More error codes will appear here in future releases. The exist-
              ing ones are meant to never change.




Curl 7.27.0                      27 July 2012                          curl(1)
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