WPA_SUPPLICANT(8)                                            WPA_SUPPLICANT(8)

       wpa_supplicant  - Wi-Fi Protected Access client and IEEE 802.1X suppli-

       wpa_supplicant [ -BddfhKLqqsTtuvW ] [ -iifname ] [ -cconfig  file  ]  [
       -Ddriver ] [ -PPID_file ] [ -foutput file ]

       Wireless  networks do not require physical access to the network equip-
       ment in the same way as wired networks. This makes it easier for  unau-
       thorized users to passively monitor a network and capture all transmit-
       ted frames.  In addition, unauthorized use of the network is much  eas-
       ier. In many cases, this can happen even without user's explicit knowl-
       edge since the wireless LAN adapter may have been configured  to  auto-
       matically join any available network.

       Link-layer  encryption  can  be used to provide a layer of security for
       wireless networks. The original wireless  LAN  standard,  IEEE  802.11,
       included a simple encryption mechanism, WEP. However, that proved to be
       flawed in many areas and network protected with WEP cannot be  consider
       secure.  IEEE  802.1X authentication and frequently changed dynamic WEP
       keys can be used to improve the network security,  but  even  that  has
       inherited  security  issues due to the use of WEP for encryption. Wi-Fi
       Protected Access and IEEE 802.11i amendment to the wireless  LAN  stan-
       dard  introduce a much improvement mechanism for securing wireless net-
       works. IEEE 802.11i enabled networks that are  using  CCMP  (encryption
       mechanism  based  on strong cryptographic algorithm AES) can finally be
       called secure used for applications which require efficient  protection
       against unauthorized access.

       wpa_supplicant  is  an  implementation of the WPA Supplicant component,
       i.e., the part that runs in the client stations. It implements WPA  key
       negotiation  with  a  WPA  Authenticator  and  EAP  authentication with
       Authentication Server. In addition, it controls the  roaming  and  IEEE
       802.11 authentication/association of the wireless LAN driver.

       wpa_supplicant  is  designed  to be a "daemon" program that runs in the
       background and acts as the backend component controlling  the  wireless
       connection.  wpa_supplicant  supports separate frontend programs and an
       example text-based frontend, wpa_cli, is included with wpa_supplicant.

       Before wpa_supplicant can do its work, the network  interface  must  be
       available.   That  means  that  the physical device must be present and
       enabled, and the driver for the device must be loaded. The daemon  will
       exit immediately if the device is not already available.

       After  wpa_supplicant  has  configured the network device, higher level
       configuration such as DHCP may proceed.  There are a variety of ways to
       integrate  wpa_supplicant into a machine's networking scripts, a few of
       which are described in sections below.

       The following steps are used when associating with an AP using WPA:

       o wpa_supplicant requests the kernel driver to scan neighboring BSSes

       o wpa_supplicant selects a BSS based on its configuration

       o wpa_supplicant requests the kernel driver to associate with the  cho-
         sen BSS

       o If WPA-EAP: integrated IEEE 802.1X Supplicant completes EAP authenti-
         cation with the authentication server (proxied by  the  Authenticator
         in the AP)

       o If WPA-EAP: master key is received from the IEEE 802.1X Supplicant

       o If WPA-PSK: wpa_supplicant uses PSK as the master session key

       o wpa_supplicant  completes WPA 4-Way Handshake and Group Key Handshake
         with the Authenticator (AP)

       o wpa_supplicant configures encryption keys for unicast and broadcast

       o normal data packets can be transmitted and received

       Supported WPA/IEEE 802.11i features:

       o WPA-PSK ("WPA-Personal")

       o WPA with EAP (e.g., with RADIUS authentication  server)  ("WPA-Enter-
         prise")  Following authentication methods are supported with an inte-
         grate IEEE 802.1X Supplicant:

         o EAP-TLS

         o EAP-PEAP/MSCHAPv2 (both PEAPv0 and PEAPv1)

         o EAP-PEAP/TLS (both PEAPv0 and PEAPv1)

         o EAP-PEAP/GTC (both PEAPv0 and PEAPv1)

         o EAP-PEAP/OTP (both PEAPv0 and PEAPv1)

         o EAP-PEAP/MD5-Challenge (both PEAPv0 and PEAPv1)

         o EAP-TTLS/EAP-MD5-Challenge

         o EAP-TTLS/EAP-GTC

         o EAP-TTLS/EAP-OTP

         o EAP-TTLS/EAP-MSCHAPv2

         o EAP-TTLS/EAP-TLS

         o EAP-TTLS/MSCHAPv2

         o EAP-TTLS/MSCHAP

         o EAP-TTLS/PAP

         o EAP-TTLS/CHAP

         o EAP-SIM

         o EAP-AKA

         o EAP-PSK

         o EAP-PAX

         o LEAP (note: requires special  support  from  the  driver  for  IEEE
           802.11 authentication)

         o (following  methods  are  supported, but since they do not generate
           keying material, they cannot be used with WPA or  IEEE  802.1X  WEP

         o EAP-MD5-Challenge

         o EAP-MSCHAPv2

         o EAP-GTC

         o EAP-OTP

       o key management for CCMP, TKIP, WEP104, WEP40

       o RSN/WPA2 (IEEE 802.11i)

         o pre-authentication

         o PMKSA caching

       A  summary  of  available driver backends is below. Support for each of
       the driver backends is chosen at wpa_supplicant  compile  time.  For  a
       list  of  supported driver backends that may be used with the -D option
       on your system, refer to the help output of wpa_supplicant (wpa_suppli-
       cant -h).

       wext   Linux wireless extensions (generic).

       wired  wpa_supplicant wired Ethernet driver

              wpa_supplicant Broadcom switch driver

       bsd    BSD 802.11 support (Atheros, etc.).

       ndis   Windows NDIS driver.

       Most  command line options have global scope. Some are given per inter-
       face, and are only valid if at least one -i option is specified, other-
       wise  they're  ignored.  Option groups for different interfaces must be
       separated by -N option.

       -b br_ifname
              Optional bridge interface name. (Per interface)

       -B     Run daemon in the background.

       -c filename
              Path to configuration file. (Per interface)

       -C ctrl_interface
              Path to ctrl_interface socket (Per interface. Only used if -c is

       -i ifname
              Interface to listen on. Multiple instances of this option can be
              present, one per interface, separated by -N option (see below).

       -d     Increase debugging verbosity (-dd even more).

       -D driver
              Driver to use (can be  multiple  drivers:  nl80211,wext).   (Per
              interface, see the available options below.)

       -e entropy file
              File  for wpa_supplicant to use to maintain its internal entropy
              store in over restarts.

       -f output file
              Log output to specified file instead of stdout.  (This  is  only
              available if wpa_supplicant was built with the CONFIG_DEBUG_FILE

       -g global ctrl_interface
              Path to global ctrl_interface socket.  If  specified,  interface
              definitions may be omitted.

       -K     Include keys (passwords, etc.) in debug output.

       -h     Help.  Show a usage message.

       -L     Show license (BSD).

       -o override driver
              Override the driver parameter for new interfaces.

       -O override ctrl_interface
              Override the ctrl_interface parameter for new interfaces.

       -p     Driver parameters. (Per interface)

       -P PID_file
              Path to PID file.

       -q     Decrease debugging verbosity (-qq even less).

       -s     Log  output to syslog instead of stdout. (This is only available
              if  wpa_supplicant  was  built  with   the   CONFIG_DEBUG_SYSLOG

       -T     Log  output  to  Linux tracing in addition to any other destina-
              tions. (This is only available if wpa_supplicant was built  with
              the CONFIG_DEBUG_LINUX_TRACING option.)

       -t     Include timestamp in debug messages.

       -u     Enable DBus control interface. If enabled, interface definitions
              may be omitted. (This is only available  if  wpa_supplicant  was
              built with the CONFIG_DBUS option.)

       -v     Show version.

       -W     Wait for a control interface monitor before starting.

       -N     Start describing new interface.

       In most common cases, wpa_supplicant is started with:

              wpa_supplicant -B -c/etc/wpa_supplicant.conf -iwlan0

       This makes the process fork into background.

       The  easiest  way  to  debug  problems,  and  to  get debug log for bug
       reports, is  to  start  wpa_supplicant  on  foreground  with  debugging

              wpa_supplicant -c/etc/wpa_supplicant.conf -iwlan0 -d

       If  the specific driver wrapper is not known beforehand, it is possible
       to specify multiple comma separated  driver  wrappers  on  the  command
       line.  wpa_supplicant will use the first driver wrapper that is able to
       initialize the interface.

              wpa_supplicant -Dnl80211,wext -c/etc/wpa_supplicant.conf -iwlan0

       wpa_supplicant can control multiple interfaces (radios) either by  run-
       ning  one  process for each interface separately or by running just one
       process and list of options at command line. Each  interface  is  sepa-
       rated  with  -N  argument. As an example, following command would start
       wpa_supplicant for two interfaces:

              wpa_supplicant \
                   -c wpa1.conf -i wlan0 -D nl80211 -N \
                   -c wpa2.conf -i ath0 -D wext

       Current hardware/software requirements:

       o Linux kernel 2.4.x or 2.6.x with Linux  Wireless  Extensions  v15  or

       o FreeBSD 6-CURRENT

       o Microsoft  Windows  with WinPcap (at least WinXP, may work with other

       Linux wireless extensions
              In theory, any driver that supports  Linux  wireless  extensions
              can  be  used  with  IEEE  802.1X  (i.e.,  not  WPA)  when using
              ap_scan=0 option in configuration file.

       Wired Ethernet drivers
              Use ap_scan=0.

       BSD net80211 layer (e.g., Atheros driver)
              At the moment, this is for FreeBSD 6-CURRENT branch.

       Windows NDIS
              The  current  Windows   port   requires   WinPcap   (http://win-
              pcap.polito.it/).  See README-Windows.txt for more information.

       wpa_supplicant  was  designed  to be portable for different drivers and
       operating systems. Hopefully, support for more wlan cards and OSes will
       be  added  in  the future. See developer.txt for more information about
       the design of wpa_supplicant and porting to  other  drivers.  One  main
       goal  is  to  add full WPA/WPA2 support to Linux wireless extensions to
       allow new drivers to be  supported  without  having  to  implement  new
       driver-specific interface code in wpa_supplicant.

       The wpa_supplicant system consists of the following components:

              the  configuration  file  describing  all networks that the user
              wants the computer to connect to.

              the program that directly interacts with the network interface.

              the client program that provides a high-level interface  to  the
              functionality of the daemon.

              a  utility  needed  to  construct wpa_supplicant.conf files that
              include encrypted passwords.

       First, make a configuration file, e.g.  /etc/wpa_supplicant.conf,  that
       describes   the  networks  you  are  interested  in.   See  wpa_suppli-
       cant.conf(5) for details.

       Once the configuration is ready, you can test whether the configuration
       works  by  running wpa_supplicant with following command to start it on
       foreground with debugging enabled:

              wpa_supplicant -iwlan0 -c/etc/wpa_supplicant.conf -d

       Assuming everything goes fine, you can start using following command to
       start wpa_supplicant on background without debugging:

              wpa_supplicant -iwlan0 -c/etc/wpa_supplicant.conf -B

       Please  note that if you included more than one driver interface in the
       build time configuration (.config),  you  may  need  to  specify  which
       interface  to  use  by  including -D<driver name> option on the command

       For example, following small changes to pcmcia-cs scripts can  be  used
       to enable WPA support:

       Add  MODE="Managed"  and  WPA="y"  to  the  network scheme in /etc/pcm-

       Add the following block to the end of start action handler in /etc/pcm-

              if [ "$WPA" = "y" -a -x /usr/local/bin/wpa_supplicant ]; then
                  /usr/local/bin/wpa_supplicant -B -c/etc/wpa_supplicant.conf -i$DEVICE

       Add  the following block to the end of stop action handler (may need to
       be separated from other actions) in /etc/pcmcia/wireless:

              if [ "$WPA" = "y" -a -x /usr/local/bin/wpa_supplicant ]; then
                  killall wpa_supplicant

       This will make cardmgr start wpa_supplicant when the  card  is  plugged

       wpa_background(8) wpa_supplicant.conf(5) wpa_cli(8) wpa_passphrase(8)

       wpa_supplicant  is copyright (c) 2003-2016, Jouni Malinen <j@w1.fi> and
       contributors.  All Rights Reserved.

       This program is licensed under the BSD license (the one with advertise-
       ment clause removed).

                                 01 March 2021               WPA_SUPPLICANT(8)
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