SYNOPSIS [debug] [unmnt_remnt] [unmnt_only] [require_selinux]
                        [gen_hash] [ignore_config_error]
                        [ignore_instance_parent_mode] [no_unmount_on_close]
                        [use_current_context] [use_default_context]

       The pam_namespace PAM module sets up a private namespace for a session
       with polyinstantiated directories. A polyinstantiated directory
       provides a different instance of itself based on user name, or when
       using SELinux, user name, security context or both. If an executable
       script /etc/security/namespace.init exists, it is used to initialize
       the instance directory after it is set up and mounted on the
       polyinstantiated directory. The script receives the polyinstantiated
       directory path, the instance directory path, flag whether the instance
       directory was newly created (0 for no, 1 for yes), and the user name as
       its arguments.

       The pam_namespace module disassociates the session namespace from the
       parent namespace. Any mounts/unmounts performed in the parent
       namespace, such as mounting of devices, are not reflected in the
       session namespace. To propagate selected mount/unmount events from the
       parent namespace into the disassociated session namespace, an
       administrator may use the special shared-subtree feature. For
       additional information on shared-subtree feature, please refer to the
       mount(8) man page and the shared-subtree description at and

           A lot of debug information is logged using syslog

           For programs such as su and newrole, the login session has already
           setup a polyinstantiated namespace. For these programs,
           polyinstantiation is performed based on new user id or security
           context, however the command first needs to undo the
           polyinstantiation performed by login. This argument instructs the
           command to first undo previous polyinstantiation before proceeding
           with new polyinstantiation based on new id/context

           For trusted programs that want to undo any existing bind mounts and
           process instance directories on their own, this argument allows
           them to unmount currently mounted instance directories

           If selinux is not enabled, return failure

           Instead of using the security context string for the instance name,
           generate and use its md5 hash.

           isolation goals of the polyinstantiation mechanism.

           For certain trusted programs such as newrole, open session is
           called from a child process while the parent performs close session
           and pam end functions. For these commands use this option to
           instruct pam_close_session to not unmount the bind mounted
           polyinstantiated directory in the parent.

           Useful for services which do not change the SELinux context with
           setexeccon call. The module will use the current SELinux context of
           the calling process for the level and context polyinstantiation.

           Useful for services which do not use pam_selinux for changing the
           SELinux context with setexeccon call. The module will use the
           default SELinux context of the user for the level and context

       Only the session module type is provided. The module must not be called
       from multithreaded processes.

           Namespace setup was successful.

           Unexpected system error occurred while setting up namespace.

           Unexpected namespace configuration error occurred.

           Main configuration file

           Directory for additional configuration files

           Init script for instance directories

       For the <service>s you need polyinstantiation (login for example) put
       the following line in /etc/pam.d/<service> as the last line for session

       session required [arguments]

       To use polyinstantiation with graphical display manager gdm, insert the
       following line, before exit 0, in /etc/gdm/PostSession/Default:

       addition, perform the following changes to use graphical environment
       with polyinstantiation of /tmp:

                 1. Disable the use of font server by commenting out "FontPath"
                    line in /etc/X11/xorg.conf. If you do want to use the font server
                    then you will have to augment the instance initialization
                    script to appropriately provide /tmp/.font-unix from the
                    polyinstantiated /tmp.
                 2. Ensure that the gdm service is setup to use pam_namespace,
                    as described above, by modifying /etc/pam.d/gdm.
                 3. Ensure that the display manager is configured to restart X server
                    with each new session. This default setup can be verified by
                    making sure that /usr/share/gdm/defaults.conf contains
                    "AlwaysRestartServer=true", and it is not overridden by

       namespace.conf(5), pam.d(5), mount(8), pam(7).

       The namespace setup scheme was designed by Stephen Smalley, Janak Desai
       and Chad Sellers. The pam_namespace PAM module was developed by Janak
       Desai <>, Chad Sellers <> and Steve
       Grubb <>. Additional improvements by Xavier Toth
       <> and Tomas Mraz <>.

Linux-PAM Manual                  06/04/2011                  PAM_NAMESPACE(8)
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