ntfs-3g

NTFS-3G(8)                  System Manager's Manual                 NTFS-3G(8)

NAME
       ntfs-3g - Third Generation Read/Write NTFS Driver

SYNOPSIS
       ntfs-3g [-o option[,...]]  volume mount_point
       mount -t ntfs-3g [-o option[,...]]  volume mount_point
       lowntfs-3g [-o option[,...]]  volume mount_point
       mount -t lowntfs-3g [-o option[,...]]  volume mount_point

DESCRIPTION
       ntfs-3g  is  an  NTFS  driver,  which  can create, remove, rename, move
       files, directories, hard links, and streams;  it  can  read  and  write
       files,  including  streams,  sparse  files and transparently compressed
       files; it can handle special files like symbolic  links,  devices,  and
       FIFOs;  moreover  it provides standard management of file ownership and
       permissions, including POSIX ACLs.

       It comes in two variants ntfs-3g and lowntfs-3g with a few  differences
       mentioned below in relevant options descriptions.

       The volume to be mounted can be either a block device or an image file.

   Windows hibernation and fast restarting
       On  computers  which  can be dual-booted into Windows or Linux, Windows
       has to be fully shut down before booting into Linux, otherwise the NTFS
       file systems on internal disks may be left in an inconsistent state and
       changes made by Linux may be ignored by Windows.

       So, Windows may not be left in  hibernation  when  starting  Linux,  in
       order  to  avoid  inconsistencies.  Moreover,  the fast restart feature
       available on recent Windows systems has to be  disabled.  This  can  be
       achieved  by issuing as an Administrator the Windows command which dis-
       ables both hibernation and fast restarting :

              powercfg /h off

   Access Handling and Security
       By default, files and directories are owned by the effective  user  and
       group of the mounting process, and everybody has full read, write, exe-
       cution and directory browsing permissions.  You can also assign permis-
       sions to a single user by using the uid and/or the gid options together
       with the umask, or fmask and dmask options.

       Doing so, Windows users have  full  access  to  the  files  created  by
       ntfs-3g.

       But,  by  setting the permissions option, you can benefit from the full
       ownership and permissions features as defined by  POSIX.  Moreover,  by
       defining  a  Windows-to-Linux  user mapping, the ownerships and permis-
       sions are even applied to Windows users and conversely.

       If ntfs-3g is set setuid-root then non-root users will be also able  to
       mount volumes.

   Windows Filename Compatibility
       NTFS  supports several filename namespaces: DOS, Win32 and POSIX. While
       the ntfs-3g driver handles all of them, it always creates new files  in
       the  POSIX  namespace for maximum portability and interoperability rea-
       sons.  This means that filenames are case sensitive and all  characters
       are  allowed  except  '/' and '\0'. This is perfectly legal on Windows,
       though some application may get confused. The option windows_names  may
       be used to apply Windows restrictions to new file names.

   Alternate Data Streams (ADS)
       NTFS  stores  all  data  in streams. Every file has exactly one unnamed
       data stream and can have many named data streams.  The size of  a  file
       is  the size of its unnamed data stream.  By default, ntfs-3g will only
       read the unnamed data stream.

       By using the  options  "streams_interface=windows",  with  the  ntfs-3g
       driver  (not  possible  with  lowntfs-3g), you will be able to read any
       named data streams, simply by specifying  the  stream's  name  after  a
       colon.  For example:

              cat some.mp3:artist

       Named  data  streams  act like normal files, so you can read from them,
       write to them and even delete them (using rm).  You can  list  all  the
       named  data  streams  a  file  has  by  getting the "ntfs.streams.list"
       extended attribute.

OPTIONS
       Below is a summary of the options that ntfs-3g accepts.

       uid=value and gid=value
              Set the owner and the group of files and directories. The values
              are  numerical.  The defaults are the uid and gid of the current
              process.

       umask=value
              Set the  bitmask of the file and directory permissions that  are
              not present. The value is given in octal. The default value is 0
              which means full access to everybody.

       fmask=value
              Set the  bitmask of the file permissions that are  not  present.
              The  value is given in octal. The default value is 0 which means
              full access to everybody.

       dmask=value
              Set the  bitmask of  the  directory  permissions  that  are  not
              present.  The  value  is  given in octal. The default value is 0
              which means full access to everybody.

       usermapping=file-name
              Use file file-name as the  user  mapping  file  instead  of  the
              default  .NTFS-3G/UserMapping. If file-name defines a full path,
              the file must be located on a partition previously  mounted.  If
              it  defines  a  relative path, it is interpreted relative to the
              root of NTFS partition being mounted.

              When a user mapping file is defined,  the  options  uid=,  gid=,
              umask=, fmask=, dmask= and silent are ignored.

       permissions
              Set  standard  permissions  on  created  files  and use standard
              access control.  This option is set by default when a user  map-
              ping file is present.

       acl    Enable  setting  Posix  ACLs  on  created files and use them for
              access control.  This  option  is  only  available  on  specific
              builds. It is set by default when a user mapping file is present
              and the permissions mount option is not set.

       inherit
              When creating a new file, set its initial protections  according
              to  inheritance  rules  defined in parent directory. These rules
              deviate from Posix specifications, but yield  a  better  Windows
              compatibility.  The  permissions  option or a valid user mapping
              file is required for this option to be effective.

       ro     Mount filesystem read-only. Useful if Windows is  hibernated  or
              the NTFS journal file is unclean.

       locale=value
              This  option  can  be  useful  when  wanting a language specific
              locale environment.  It is however discouraged as  it  leads  to
              files with untranslatable chars to not be visible.

       force  This  option  is obsolete. It has been superseded by the recover
              and norecover options.

       recover
              Recover and try to mount a partition  which  was  not  unmounted
              properly  by  Windows. The Windows logfile is cleared, which may
              cause inconsistencies.  Currently this is the default option.

       norecover
              Do not try to mount a partition which was not unmounted properly
              by Windows.

       ignore_case (only with lowntfs-3g)
              Ignore character case when accessing a file (FOO, Foo, foo, etc.
              designate the same file). All files  are  displayed  with  lower
              case in directory listings.

       remove_hiberfile
              Unlike  in  case  of  read-only  mount,  the read-write mount is
              denied if the NTFS volume is hibernated.  One  needs  either  to
              resume  Windows  and  shutdown  it  properly, or use this option
              which will remove the Windows  hibernation  file.  Please  note,
              this  means  that  the  saved Windows session will be completely
              lost. Use this option under your own responsibility.

       atime, noatime, relatime
              The atime option updates inode access time for each access.

              The noatime option disables inode access time updates which  can
              speed  up  file operations and prevent sleeping (notebook) disks
              spinning up too often thus saving energy and disk lifetime.

              The relatime option is very  similar  to  noatime.   It  updates
              inode  access  times  relative  to  modify  or change time.  The
              access time is only updated if the previous access time was ear-
              lier than the current modify or change time. Unlike noatime this
              option doesn't break applications that need to know  if  a  file
              has  been read since the last time it was modified.  This is the
              default behaviour.

       delay_mtime[= value]
              Only update the file modification time and the file change  time
              of  a  file  when it is closed or when the indicated delay since
              the previous update has elapsed. The argument  is  a  number  of
              seconds,  with a default value of 60.  This is mainly useful for
              big files which are kept open for a long  time  and  written  to
              without  changing  their  size, such as databases or file system
              images mounted as loop.

       show_sys_files
              Show the metafiles in directory listings. Otherwise the  default
              behaviour is to hide the metafiles, which are special files used
              to store the NTFS structure. Please note  that  even  when  this
              option  is  specified,  "$MFT" may not be visible due to a glibc
              bug. Furthermore, irrespectively of  show_sys_files,  all  files
              are  accessible  by  name,  for example you can always do "ls -l
              '$UpCase'".

       hide_hid_files
              Hide the hidden files and directories in directory listings, the
              hidden files and directories being the ones whose NTFS attribute
              have the hidden flag set.  The hidden files will not be selected
              when  using wildcards in commands, but all files and directories
              remain accessible by full name, for example you can always  dis-
              play  the  Windows  trash  bin  directory  by  : "ls -ld '$RECY-
              CLE.BIN'".

       hide_dot_files
              Set the hidden flag in the NTFS attribute for created files  and
              directories  whose  first  character  of the name is a dot. Such
              files and directories normally do not appear in directory  list-
              ings,  and  when  the  flag is set they do not appear in Windows
              directory displays either.  When a file  is  renamed  or  linked
              with a new name, the hidden flag is adjusted to the latest name.

       windows_names
              This  option prevents files, directories and extended attributes
              to be created with a name not allowed by windows, because

                     - it contains some not allowed character,
                     - or the last character is a space or a dot,
                     - or the name is reserved.

              The forbidden characters are the nine characters " * / : < > ? \
              | and those whose code is less than 0x20, and the reserved names
              are CON, PRN, AUX, NUL, COM1..COM9, LPT1..LPT9, with  no  suffix
              or followed by a dot.

              Existing such files can still be read (and renamed).

       allow_other
              This  option  overrides  the  security  measure restricting file
              access to the user mounting the filesystem. This option is  only
              allowed  to  root, but this restriction can be overridden by the
              'user_allow_other' option in the /etc/fuse.conf file.

       max_read=value
              With this option the maximum size of read operations can be set.
              The default is infinite.  Note that the size of read requests is
              limited anyway to 32 pages (which is 128kbyte on i386).

       silent Do nothing, without returning any  error,  on  chmod  and  chown
              operations  and  on permission checking errors, when the permis-
              sions option is not set and no user  mapping  file  is  defined.
              This  option  is on by default, and when set off (through option
              no_def_opts) ownership and permissions  parameters  have  to  be
              set.

       no_def_opts
              By default ntfs-3g acts as if "silent" (ignore permission errors
              when permissions are not enabled), "allow_other" (allow any user
              to  access  files)  and  "nonempty" (allow mounting on non-empty
              directories) were set, and "no_def_opts" cancels  these  default
              options.

       streams_interface=value
              This  option  controls  how  the  user can access Alternate Data
              Streams (ADS) or in other words, named data streams. It  can  be
              set  to,  one of none, windows or xattr. If the option is set to
              none, the user will have no access to the named data streams. If
              it  is  set  to windows (not possible with lowntfs-3g), then the
              user can access them just like in Windows (eg. cat file:stream).
              If  it's set to xattr, then the named data streams are mapped to
              xattrs and user can manipulate them using {get,set}fattr  utili-
              ties. The default is xattr.

       user_xattr
              Same as streams_interface=xattr.

       efs_raw
              This  option should only be used in backup or restore situation.
              It changes the apparent size of files and the behavior  of  read
              and  write  operation  so  that encrypted files can be saved and
              restored without being decrypted. The user.ntfs.efsinfo extended
              attribute  has  also to be saved and restored for the file to be
              decrypted.

       compression
              This option enables creating new transparently compressed  files
              in directories marked for compression. A directory is marked for
              compression by setting the bit 11 (value 0x00000800) in its Win-
              dows  attribute. In such a directory, new files are created com-
              pressed and new subdirectories are themselves  marked  for  com-
              pression.  The  option  and  the flag have no effect on existing
              files. Currently this is the default option.

       nocompression
              This option disables creating new transparently compressed files
              in directories marked for compression. Existing compressed files
              can still be read and updated.

       big_writes
              This option prevents fuse from splitting write buffers  into  4K
              chunks,  enabling  big  write buffers to be transferred from the
              application in a single step (up to some system limit, generally
              128K bytes).

       debug  Makes ntfs-3g to print a lot of debug output from libntfs-3g and
              FUSE.

       no_detach
              Makes ntfs-3g to not detach from terminal and print  some  debug
              output.

USER MAPPING
       NTFS  uses specific ids to record the ownership of files instead of the
       uid and gid used by Linux. As a consequence a mapping between  the  ids
       has  to  be  defined for ownerships to be recorded into NTFS and recog-
       nized.

       By default, this mapping is fetched from the file  .NTFS-3G/UserMapping
       located  in  the NTFS partition. The option usermapping= may be used to
       define another location. When the option permissions is set and no map-
       ping file is found, a default mapping is used.

       Each  line  in the user mapping file defines a mapping. It is organized
       in three fields separated by colons. The first field identifies a  uid,
       the second field identifies a gid and the third one identifies the cor-
       responding NTFS id, known as a SID. The uid and the  gid  are  optional
       and defining both of them for the same SID is not recommended.

       If  no  interoperation  with  Windows is needed, you can use the option
       permissions to define a standard mapping. Alternately, you  may  define
       your  own  mapping  by setting a single default mapping with no uid and
       gid. In both cases, files created on Linux will appear  to  Windows  as
       owned  by  a  foreign user, and files created on Windows will appear to
       Linux as owned by root. Just copy the example below and replace  the  9
       and  10-digit  numbers  by  any number not greater than 4294967295. The
       resulting behavior is the same as the one with  the  option  permission
       set with no ownership option and no user mapping file available.

              ::S-1-5-21-3141592653-589793238-462643383-10000

       If  a  strong interoperation with Windows is needed, the mapping has to
       be defined for each user and group known in both system, and  the  SIDs
       used  by  Windows has to be collected. This will lead to a user mapping
       file like :

              john::S-1-5-21-3141592653-589793238-462643383-1008
              mary::S-1-5-21-3141592653-589793238-462643383-1009
              :smith:S-1-5-21-3141592653-589793238-462643383-513
              ::S-1-5-21-3141592653-589793238-462643383-10000

       The  utility  ntfs-3g.usermap may be used to create such a user mapping
       file.

EXAMPLES
       Mount /dev/sda1 to /mnt/windows:

              ntfs-3g /dev/sda1 /mnt/windows
       or
              mount -t ntfs-3g /dev/sda1 /mnt/windows

       Mount the ntfs data partition  /dev/sda3  to  /mnt/data  with  standard
       Linux permissions applied :

              ntfs-3g -o permissions /dev/sda3 /mnt/data
       or
              mount -t ntfs-3g -o permissions /dev/sda3 /mnt/data

       Read-only mount /dev/sda5 to /home/user/mnt and make user with uid 1000
       to be the owner of all files:

              ntfs-3g /dev/sda5 /home/user/mnt -o ro,uid=1000

       /etc/fstab entry for the above (the sixth and last field has to be zero
       to avoid a file system check at boot time) :

              /dev/sda5 /home/user/mnt ntfs-3g ro,uid=1000 0 0

       Unmount /mnt/windows:

              umount /mnt/windows

EXIT CODES
       To facilitate the use of the ntfs-3g driver in scripts, an exit code is
       returned to give an indication of the mountability status of a  volume.
       Value  0  means  success,  and all other ones mean an error. The unique
       error codes are documented in the ntfs-3g.probe(8) manual page.

KNOWN ISSUES
       Please see

              http://www.tuxera.com/support/

       for common questions and known issues.  If you would find a new one  in
       the latest release of the software then please send an email describing
       it  in  detail.  You  can  contact  the   development   team   on   the
       ntfs-3g-devel@lists.sf.net address.

AUTHORS
       ntfs-3g  was  based on and a major improvement to ntfsmount and libntfs
       which were written by Yura  Pakhuchiy  and  the  Linux-NTFS  team.  The
       improvements were made, the ntfs-3g project was initiated and currently
       led  by  long  time  Linux-NTFS  team  developer  Szabolcs   Szakacsits
       (szaka@tuxera.com).

THANKS
       Several people made heroic efforts, often over five or more years which
       resulted the ntfs-3g driver. Most  importantly  they  are  Anton  Alta-
       parmakov,  Jean-Pierre Andre, Richard Russon, Szabolcs Szakacsits, Yura
       Pakhuchiy, Yuval Fledel, and the  author  of  the  groundbreaking  FUSE
       filesystem development framework, Miklos Szeredi.

SEE ALSO
       ntfs-3g.probe(8), ntfsprogs(8), attr(5), getfattr(1)

ntfs-3g 2015.3.14AR.1              Mar 2014                         NTFS-3G(8)
Man Pages Copyright Respective Owners. Site Copyright (C) 1994 - 2021 Hurricane Electric. All Rights Reserved.