MDMON(8)                    System Manager's Manual                   MDMON(8)

       mdmon - monitor MD external metadata arrays

       mdmon [--all] [--takeover] [--foreground] CONTAINER

       The  2.6.27  kernel brings the ability to support external metadata ar-
       rays.  External metadata implies that user space handles all updates to
       the metadata.  The kernel's responsibility is to notify user space when
       a "metadata event" occurs, like disk failures and clean-to-dirty  tran-
       sitions.   The kernel, in important cases, waits for user space to take
       action on these notifications.

   Metadata updates:
       To service metadata update requests a  daemon,  mdmon,  is  introduced.
       Mdmon is tasked with polling the sysfs namespace looking for changes in
       array_state, sync_action, and per disk state attributes.  When a change
       is  detected it calls a per metadata type handler to make modifications
       to the metadata.  The following actions are taken:

              array_state - inactive
                     Clear the dirty bit for the volume and let the  array  be

              array_state - write pending
                     Set  the dirty bit for the array and then set array_state
                     to active.  Writes are blocked until userspace writes ac-

              array_state - active-idle
                     The  safe  mode  timer  has expired so set array state to
                     clean to block writes to the array

              array_state - clean
                     Clear the dirty bit for the volume

              array_state - read-only
                     This is the initial state that all arrays start at.   md-
                     mon takes one of the three actions:

                     1/     Transition  the  array  to  read-auto  keeping the
                            dirty bit clear if the metadata handler determines
                            that  the  array  does not need resyncing or other

                     2/     Transition the array to  active  if  the  metadata
                            handler  determines a resync or some other manipu-
                            lation is necessary

                     3/     Leave the array read-only if the volume is  marked
                            to  not  be  monitored;  for example, the metadata
                            version has been set to "external:-dev/md127"  in-
                            stead of "external:/dev/md127"

              sync_action - resync-to-idle
                     Notify  the  metadata handler that a resync may have com-
                     pleted.  If a resync process is idled before it completes
                     this  event  allows  the  metadata  handler to checkpoint

              sync_action - recover-to-idle
                     A spare may have completed rebuilding so tell  the  meta-
                     data  handler  about the state of each disk.  This is the
                     metadata handler's opportunity to clear any "out-of-sync"
                     bits and clear the volume's degraded status.  If a recov-
                     ery process is idled before it completes this  event  al-
                     lows the metadata handler to checkpoint recovery.

              <disk>/state - faulty
                     A  disk failure kicks off a series of events.  First, no-
                     tify the metadata handler that a  disk  has  failed,  and
                     then  notify  the  kernel that it can unblock writes that
                     were dependent on this disk.  After unblocking the kernel
                     this  disk  is  set to be removed+ from the member array.
                     Finally the disk is marked failed in all other member ar-
                     rays in the container.

                     +  Note This behavior differs slightly from native MD ar-
                     rays where removal  is  reserved  for  a  mdadm  --remove
                     event.  In the external metadata case the container holds
                     the final reference on a block device and a  mdadm  --re-
                     move <container> <victim> call is still required.

       External metadata formats, like DDF, differ from the native MD metadata
       formats in that they define a set of disks and a series  of  sub-arrays
       within  those disks.  MD metadata in comparison defines a 1:1 relation-
       ship between a set of block devices and a RAID array.  For  example  to
       create  2  arrays at different RAID levels on a single set of disks, MD
       metadata requires the disks be partitioned and then each array  can  be
       created with a subset of those partitions.  The supported external for-
       mats perform this disk carving internally.

       Container devices simply hold references to all member disks and  allow
       tools  like mdmon to determine which active arrays belong to which con-
       tainer.  Some array management commands like disk removal and disk  add
       are  now  only valid at the container level.  Attempts to perform these
       actions on member arrays are blocked with error messages like:

              "mdadm: Cannot remove disks from a 'member' array, perform  this
              operation on the parent container"

       Containers  are  identified  in  /proc/mdstat  with  a metadata version
       string "external:<metadata name>". Member  devices  are  identified  by
       "external:/<container device>/<member index>", or "external:-<container
       device>/<member index>" if the array is to remain readonly.

              The container device to monitor.  It can be  a  full  path  like
              /dev/md/container, or a simple md device name like md127.

              Normally,  mdmon  will  fork  and  continue  in  the background.
              Adding this option will skip that step  and  run  mdmon  in  the

              This  instructs  mdmon to replace any active mdmon which is cur-
              rently monitoring the array.  This is primarily used late in the
              boot  process  to  replace  any  mdmon which was started from an
              initramfs before the root filesystem was mounted.   This  avoids
              holding  a  reference on that initramfs indefinitely and ensures
              that the pid and sock files used to communicate with  mdmon  are
              in a standard place.

       --all  This  tells  mdmon to find any active containers and start moni-
              toring each of them if appropriate.  This is normally used  with
              --takeover  late in the boot sequence.  A separate mdmon process
              is started for each container as the  --all  argument  is  over-
              written with the name of the container.  To allow for containers
              with names longer than 5 characters, this argument can be  arbi-
              trarily extended, e.g. to --all-active-arrays.

              Note that
              mdmon  is automatically started by mdadm when needed and so does
              not need to be considered when working with  RAID  arrays.   The
              only  times  it  is  run  other  than  by mdadm is when the boot
              scripts need to restart it after mounting the new root  filesys-

       As  mdmon  needs to be running whenever any filesystem on the monitored
       device is mounted  there  are  special  considerations  when  the  root
       filesystem  is  mounted  from  an mdmon monitored device.  Note that in
       general mdmon is needed even if the filesystem is mounted read-only  as
       some  filesystems can still write to the device in those circumstances,
       for example to replay a journal after an unclean shutdown.

       When the array is assembled by the initramfs code, mdadm will automati-
       cally start mdmon as required.  This means that mdmon must be installed
       on the initramfs and there must be  a  writable  filesystem  (typically
       tmpfs) in which mdmon can create a .pid and .sock file.  The particular
       filesystem to use is given to mdmon at compile  time  and  defaults  to

       This filesystem must persist through to shutdown time.

       After  the  final  root  filesystem  has  be instantiated (usually with
       pivot_root) mdmon should be run with --all --takeover so that the mdmon
       running from the initramfs can be replaced with one running in the main
       root, and so the memory used by the initramfs can be released.

       At shutdown time, mdmon should not be  killed  along  with  other  pro-
       cesses.  Also as it holds a file (socket actually) open in /dev (by de-
       fault) it will not be possible to unmount /dev  if  it  is  a  separate

         mdmon --all-active-arrays --takeover
       Any  mdmon  which  is currently running is killed and a new instance is
       started.  This should  be  run  during  in  the  boot  sequence  if  an
       initramfs  was  used, so that any mdmon running from the initramfs will
       not hold the initramfs active.

       mdadm(8), md(4).

v4.1-rc2                                                              MDMON(8)
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