insserv      [-v]      [-c <config>]      [-p <path>]     [-d]     [-f]
       [[/]path/to/init.d/]script ...

       insserv            [-v]            [-c <config>]            [-p <path>]

       insserv     [-v]     [-c <config>]    [-p <path>]    -r    [-d]    [-f]
       [[/]path/to/init.d/]script ...

       insserv -h

       insserv enables an installed system  init  script  (`boot  script')  by
       reading the comment header of the script, e.g.:

         ### BEGIN INIT INFO
         # Provides:          boot_facility_1 [ boot_facility_2 ...]
         # Required-Start:    boot_facility_1 [ boot_facility_2 ...]
         # Required-Stop:     boot_facility_1 [ boot_facility_2 ...]
         # Should-Start:      boot_facility_1 [ boot_facility_2 ...]
         # Should-Stop:       boot_facility_1 [ boot_facility_2 ...]
         # X-Start-Before:    boot_facility_1 [ boot_facility_2 ...]
         # X-Stop-After:      boot_facility_1 [ boot_facility_2 ...]
         # Default-Start:     run_level_1 [ run_level_2 ...]
         # Default-Stop:      run_level_1 [ run_level_2 ...]
         # X-Interactive:     true
         # Short-Description: single_line_description
         # Description:       multiline_description
         ### END INIT INFO

       and  calculating the dependencies between all scripts.  Please be aware
       that the line

         # Required-Stop:  boot_facility_1 [ boot_facility_2 ...]

       declares facilities which must be available during shutdown of the ser-
       vice declared in the Provides tag.  Same holds true for

         # Should-Stop:    boot_facility_1 [ boot_facility_2 ...]

       which  declares facilities which should be available during shutdown of
       the service declared in the Provides tag. In both cases the script sys-
       tem should avoid stopping services which are declared by these two Stop
       tags until the script including these tags is stopped.

       The optional X-Interactive keyword implies that the script  using  this
       keyword  should  be  started  alone  in a concurrent boot configuration
       because it interact with the user  at  the  console.   Only  the  value
       `true' is recognised.  All other are ignored.

       The  optional X-Start-Before keyword implies that the script using this
       keyword should be started before the specified service names.   Whereas

         # All local filesystems are mounted
         # (done during boot phase)
         $local_fs       boot

         # Low level networking
         $network        network route

         # Named is operational
         $named          named

         # All remote filesystems are mounted
         # (in some cases /usr may be remote).
         $remote_fs      $local_fs nfs

         # System logger is operational
         $syslog         syslog

         # All network daemons are running (This was removed in LSB 1.2)
         $netdaemons     portmap inetd

         # Services which need to be interactive
         <interactive>   boot.crypto

       Names  starting with a `+' sign are marked as optional.  If the service
       with the name after the plus sign is available it will be used, if  not
       available  it  is  ignored silently.  Words beginning with < and ending
       with > are keywords.  Currently <interactive> is the only know  keyword
       for  marking  a  service  as  an  interactive one, e.g. a service which
       requires a passphrase or password input during boot or runlevel change.
       The  special  facility  $null is used to enforce an empty dependency in
       case of Should-Stop and Required-Stop.

       In addition to the defined System Facilities in the configuration  file
       /etc/insserv.conf,  insserv also knows the special facility $all.  This
       facility indicates that a service should be inserted at the end of  all
       services  at  starting  and at the very beginning at stopping.  Clearly
       all services using this facility will be grouped into one  starting  or
       stopping order.

       Currently there exists nine options for insserv.

       -v, --verbose
              Write out what is currently going on.

       -c <config>, --config <config>
              Specify  path  to  the  insserv.conf file and the insserv.conf.d
              directory.  Useful for testing.

       -o <path>, --override <path>
              LSB comment headers found in this path  will  override  existing
              LSB  comment headers of scripts in the init.d directory (default
              Use default runlevels as  defined  in  the  scripts.   This  may
              restore an edited runlevel link scheme.

       -f, --force
              Ignore if a required service is missed. Beside this if start and
              or stop levels are specified on the  command  line  the  default
              levels of the script will be ignored.

       -u <path>, --upstart-job <path>
              Path  to  replace  existing  upstart job path.  (default path is

       -h, --help
              Print out short usage message.

       But you may use the argument syntax described in the following section.

              Relative or absolute path to the init  scripts  base  directory.
              This  defaults to /etc/init.d/ in compliance with the LSB speci-
              fication.  In this case insserv does not add or remove a  script
              to  the  runlevels  declared  in  the  script  headers,  but may
              re-order the runlevels if the order  of  the  currently  enabled
              scripts  has  changed  (see option -d).  Note that if a relative
              path is used insserv has to be called from the root directory.

       [[/]path/to/init.d/]script ...
              List of scripts which have to be added to the  runlevels.  If  a
              path  is  used it should point to the absolute or relative loca-
              tion of the boot scripts.  insserv checks for the  existence  of
              these  scripts.   For the runlevels the information found in the
              script is used.

              List of scripts which have to be added  to  the  specified  run-
              levels  to be started with.  You may use this extension to over-
              ride the default values for start  and  stop  runlevels  of  the
              script.   Note  that  lvl1, lvl2, ...   are  the known runlevels
              explained above.  The extension  ,stop=<lvl1,lvl2,...>  is  also

       -r [[/]path/to/init.d/]script ...
              List of scripts which should be removed from the runlevels. If a
              path is used it should point to the absolute or  relative  loca-
              tion  of  the boot scripts.  insserv checks for the existence of
              these scripts.

       Beside    using    the    extensions     ,start=<lvl1,lvl2,...>     and
       ,stop=<lvl1,lvl2,...>  it  is  possible to use override files replace a
       LSB comment header or simple provide  a  missing  LSB  comment  header.
       This  can  be  done  by  placing a file with the new LSB comment header
       using the same name as  the  boot  or  init  script  in  the  directory

              0    Service was successfully installed or removed

              1    Service was not installed or removed

       Please be aware that the following patterns of boot script  file  names
       will be not accepted by insserv:


       with  the wildcard character *.  Beside this all boot script file names
       beginning with one of the following characters


       will be ignored.

       Boot scripts sometimes lack a LSB comment  header.  Contact  a  package
       maintainer  or  developer  of the software which provides the script to
       have a LSB comment header added to it.

              configuration file for insserv  which  defines  the  LSB  System

              directory for further configuration files for declaring LSB Sys-
              tem Facilities.

              path to replace existing LSB comment headers  with  the  comment
              headers found in this path.

              path  to the init script base directory as required by the Linux
              Standard Base Specification (LSB).

              The make(1) like dependency files produced by insserv for  boot-

       Werner Fink <>

       Petter Reinholdtsen
       Kel Modderman

3rd Berkeley Distribution        Jul 29, 2008                       INSSERV(8)
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