INSSERV(8)                  System Manager's Manual                 INSSERV(8)

       insserv  -  boot  sequence organizer using LSB init.d script dependency

       insserv     [-v]     [-c <config>]      [-p <path>]      [-d]      [-f]
       [[/]path/to/init.d/]script ...

       insserv            [-v]            [-c <config>]            [-p <path>]

       insserv    [-v]    [-c <config>]    [-p <path>]    -r     [-d]     [-f]
       [[/]path/to/init.d/]script ...

       insserv -h

       insserv  is  a  low level tool used by update-rc.d which enables an in-
       stalled system init script  (`boot  script')  by  reading  the  comment
       header of the script, e.g.:

         ### BEGIN INIT INFO
         # Provides:          boot_facility_1 [ boot_facility_2 ...]
         # Required-Start:    boot_facility_1 [ boot_facility_2 ...]
         # Required-Stop:     boot_facility_1 [ boot_facility_2 ...]
         # Should-Start:      boot_facility_1 [ boot_facility_2 ...]
         # Should-Stop:       boot_facility_1 [ boot_facility_2 ...]
         # X-Start-Before:    boot_facility_1 [ boot_facility_2 ...]
         # X-Stop-After:      boot_facility_1 [ boot_facility_2 ...]
         # Default-Start:     run_level_1 [ run_level_2 ...]
         # Default-Stop:      run_level_1 [ run_level_2 ...]
         # X-Interactive:     true
         # Short-Description: single_line_description
         # Description:       multiline_description
         ### END INIT INFO

       and  calculating the dependencies between all scripts. It is not recom-
       mended to execute insserv directly unless you know exactly what  you're
       doing, doing so may render your boot system inoperable.  update-rc.d is
       the recommended interface for managing init scripts.  Please  be  aware
       that the line

         # Required-Stop:  boot_facility_1 [ boot_facility_2 ...]

       declares facilities which must be available during shutdown of the ser-
       vice declared in the Provides tag.  Same holds true for

         # Should-Stop:    boot_facility_1 [ boot_facility_2 ...]

       which declares facilities which should be available during shutdown  of
       the service declared in the Provides tag. In both cases the script sys-
       tem should avoid stopping services which are declared by these two Stop
       tags until the script including these tags is stopped.

       The  optional  X-Interactive keyword implies that the script using this
       keyword should be started alone in a concurrent boot configuration  be-
       cause  it interact with the user at the console.  Only the value `true'
       is recognised.  All other are ignored.

       The optional X-Start-Before keyword implies that the script using  this
       keyword  should be started before the specified service names.  Whereas
       the optional X-Stop-After keyword implies that the  script  using  this
       keyword  should  be stopped after the specified service names. Both im-
       plies that those services now depend on the  specifying  script.   With
       known dependencies and runlevel(s) insserv sets and reorders the corre-
       sponding symbolic links of the concerned runlevels directories.

       insserv scans for System Facilities in the configuration file  /etc/in-
       sserv.conf  and  each file in the directory /etc/insserv.conf.d/.  Each
       line which begins with $ and a following name defines a system facility
       accordingly  to  the Linux Standard Base Specification (LSB), All names
       followed by such a system facility will declare the required  dependen-
       cies of the facility.  Here is an example for /etc/insserv.conf:

         # All local filesystems are mounted
         # (done during boot phase)
         $local_fs       boot

         # Low level networking
         $network        network route

         # Named is operational
         $named          named

         # All remote filesystems are mounted
         # (in some cases /usr may be remote).
         $remote_fs      $local_fs nfs

         # System logger is operational
         $syslog         syslog

         # All network daemons are running (This was removed in LSB 1.2)
         $netdaemons     portmap inetd

         # Services which need to be interactive
         <interactive>   boot.crypto

       Names  starting with a `+' sign are marked as optional.  If the service
       with the name after the plus sign is available it will be used, if  not
       available  it  is  ignored silently.  Words beginning with < and ending
       with > are keywords.  Currently <interactive> is the only know  keyword
       for  marking  a service as an interactive one, e.g. a service which re-
       quires a passphrase or password input during boot or  runlevel  change.
       The  special  facility  $null is used to enforce an empty dependency in
       case of Should-Stop and Required-Stop.

       In addition to the defined System Facilities in the configuration  file
       /etc/insserv.conf,  insserv also knows the special facility $all.  This
       facility indicates that a service should be inserted at the end of  all
       services  at  starting  and at the very beginning at stopping.  Clearly
       all services using this facility will be grouped into one  starting  or
       stopping order.

       Currently there exists nine options for insserv.

       -v, --verbose
              Write out what is currently going on.

       -c <config>, --config <config>
              Specify path to the insserv.conf file and the insserv.conf.d di-
              rectory.  Useful for testing.

       -o <path>, --override <path>
              LSB comment headers found in this path  will  override  existing
              LSB  comment headers of scripts in the init.d directory (default
              path is /etc/insserv/overrides/).

       -p <path>, --path <path>
              Specify path to init.d directory.  Useful for testing.

       -n, --dryrun
              Do not update symlinks.

       -r, --remove
              Remove the listed scripts from all runlevels.

       -d, --default
              Use default runlevels as defined in the scripts.  This  may  re-
              store an edited runlevel link scheme.

       -f, --force
              Ignore if a required service is missed. Beside this if start and
              or stop levels are specified on the  command  line  the  default
              levels of the script will be ignored.

       -u <path>, --upstart-job <path>
              Path  to  replace  existing  upstart job path.  (default path is

       -s, --showall
              Output runlevel and sequence information.  Do  not  update  sym-

       -h, --help
              Print out short usage message.

       But you may use the argument syntax described in the following section.

              Relative  or  absolute  path to the init scripts base directory.
              This defaults to /etc/init.d/ in compliance with the LSB  speci-
              fication.   In this case insserv does not add or remove a script
              to the runlevels declared in the script headers, but may  re-or-
              der  the runlevels if the order of the currently enabled scripts
              has changed (see option -d).  Note that if a  relative  path  is
              used insserv has to be called from the root directory.

       [[/]path/to/init.d/]script ...
              List  of  scripts  which have to be added to the runlevels. If a
              path is used it should point to the absolute or  relative  loca-
              tion  of  the boot scripts.  insserv checks for the existence of
              these scripts.  For the runlevels the information found  in  the
              script is used.

              List  of  scripts  which  have to be added to the specified run-
              levels to be started with.  You may use this extension to  over-
              ride  the  default  values  for  start and stop runlevels of the
              script.  Note that lvl1, lvl2, ...  are the known runlevels  ex-
              plained above.  The extension ,stop=<lvl1,lvl2,...> is also pos-

       -r [[/]path/to/init.d/]script ...
              List of scripts which should be removed from the runlevels. If a
              path  is  used it should point to the absolute or relative loca-
              tion of the boot scripts.  insserv checks for the  existence  of
              these scripts.

       Beside     using     the    extensions    ,start=<lvl1,lvl2,...>    and
       ,stop=<lvl1,lvl2,...> it is possible to use override  files  replace  a
       LSB  comment  header  or  simple  provide a missing LSB comment header.
       This can be done by placing a file with the new LSB comment header  us-
       ing  the same name as the boot or init script in the directory /etc/in-
       sserv/overrides/.  For third party boot scripts without LSB  header  it
       is  possible  to  add  a  file  with  the  same  name  in the directory
       /usr/share/insserv/overrides/ to make them completely LSB compliant.

       To allow upstart jobs to work as init.d scripts, insserv will recognize
       a  symlink  from  path/to/init.d/script to /lib/init/upstart-job as up-
       start jobs, and instead of reading the header from the  file  will  run
       the script with the argument lsb-header to get the script header.

       The exit codes have the following conditions:

              0    Service was successfully installed or removed

              1    Service was not installed or removed

       Please  be  aware that the following patterns of boot script file names
       will be not accepted by insserv:


       with the wildcard character *.  Beside this all boot script file  names
       beginning with one of the following characters


       will be ignored.

       Boot  scripts  sometimes  lack  a LSB comment header. Contact a package
       maintainer or developer of the software which provides  the  script  to
       have a LSB comment header added to it.

              configuration  file for insserv which defines the LSB System Fa-

              directory for further configuration files for declaring LSB Sys-
              tem Facilities.

              path  to  replace  existing LSB comment headers with the comment
              headers found in this path.

              path to the init script base directory as required by the  Linux
              Standard Base Specification (LSB).

              The  make(1) like dependency files produced by insserv for boot-
              ing, starting, and stopping with the help of startpar(8).

       init(8), startpar(8), update-rc.d(8).

       2000-2009 Werner Fink,
       2009 SuSE Linux Products GmbH Nuernberg, Germany.
       2000-2003 SuSE GmbH Nuernberg, Germany,
       2007-2009 SuSE Linux Products GmbH Nuernberg, Germany.

       Werner Fink <>

       Petter Reinholdtsen
       Kel Modderman

3rd Berkeley Distribution        Jul 29, 2008                       INSSERV(8)
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