INSSERV(8)                  System Manager's Manual                 INSSERV(8)

       insserv  -  boot  sequence organizer using LSB init.d script dependency

       insserv     [-v]     [-c <config>]      [-p <path>]      [-d]      [-f]
       [[/]path/to/init.d/]script ...

       insserv            [-v]            [-c <config>]            [-p <path>]

       insserv    [-v]    [-c <config>]    [-p <path>]    -r     [-d]     [-f]
       [[/]path/to/init.d/]script ...

       insserv -h

       insserv  is  a  low  level  tool  used  by update-rc.d which enables an
       installed system init script (`boot script')  by  reading  the  comment
       header of the script, e.g.:

         ### BEGIN INIT INFO
         # Provides:          boot_facility_1 [ boot_facility_2 ...]
         # Required-Start:    boot_facility_1 [ boot_facility_2 ...]
         # Required-Stop:     boot_facility_1 [ boot_facility_2 ...]
         # Should-Start:      boot_facility_1 [ boot_facility_2 ...]
         # Should-Stop:       boot_facility_1 [ boot_facility_2 ...]
         # X-Start-Before:    boot_facility_1 [ boot_facility_2 ...]
         # X-Stop-After:      boot_facility_1 [ boot_facility_2 ...]
         # Default-Start:     run_level_1 [ run_level_2 ...]
         # Default-Stop:      run_level_1 [ run_level_2 ...]
         # X-Interactive:     true
         # Short-Description: single_line_description
         # Description:       multiline_description
         ### END INIT INFO

       and  calculating the dependencies between all scripts. It is not recom-
       mended to execute insserv directly unless you know exactly what  you're
       doing, doing so may render your boot system inoperable.  update-rc.d is
       the recommended interface for managing init scripts.  Please  be  aware
       that the line

         # Required-Stop:  boot_facility_1 [ boot_facility_2 ...]

       declares facilities which must be available during shutdown of the ser-
       vice declared in the Provides tag.  Same holds true for

         # Should-Stop:    boot_facility_1 [ boot_facility_2 ...]

       which declares facilities which should be available during shutdown  of
       the service declared in the Provides tag. In both cases the script sys-
       tem should avoid stopping services which are declared by these two Stop
       tags until the script including these tags is stopped.

       The  optional  X-Interactive keyword implies that the script using this
       keyword should be started alone  in  a  concurrent  boot  configuration
       because  it  interact  with  the  user  at the console.  Only the value
       `true' is recognised.  All other are ignored.

       The optional X-Start-Before keyword implies that the script using  this
       keyword  should be started before the specified service names.  Whereas
       the optional X-Stop-After keyword implies that the  script  using  this
       keyword  should  be  stopped  after  the  specified service names. Both
       implies that those services now depend on the specifying script.   With
       known dependencies and runlevel(s) insserv sets and reorders the corre-
       sponding symbolic links of the concerned runlevels directories.

       insserv  scans  for  System  Facilities  in  the   configuration   file
       /etc/insserv.conf  and each file in the directory /etc/insserv.conf.d/.
       Each line which begins with $ and a following  name  defines  a  system
       facility  accordingly  to  the Linux Standard Base Specification (LSB),
       All names followed by such a system facility will declare the  required
       dependencies    of    the   facility.    Here   is   an   example   for

         # All local filesystems are mounted
         # (done during boot phase)
         $local_fs       boot

         # Low level networking
         $network        network route

         # Named is operational
         $named          named

         # All remote filesystems are mounted
         # (in some cases /usr may be remote).
         $remote_fs      $local_fs nfs

         # System logger is operational
         $syslog         syslog

         # All network daemons are running (This was removed in LSB 1.2)
         $netdaemons     portmap inetd

         # Services which need to be interactive
         <interactive>   boot.crypto

       Names starting with a `+' sign are marked as optional.  If the  service
       with  the name after the plus sign is available it will be used, if not
       available it is ignored silently.  Words beginning with  <  and  ending
       with  > are keywords.  Currently <interactive> is the only know keyword
       for marking a service as an  interactive  one,  e.g.  a  service  which
       requires a passphrase or password input during boot or runlevel change.
       The special facility $null is used to enforce an  empty  dependency  in
       case of Should-Stop and Required-Stop.

       In  addition to the defined System Facilities in the configuration file
       /etc/insserv.conf, insserv also knows the special facility $all.   This
       facility  indicates that a service should be inserted at the end of all
       services at starting and at the very beginning  at  stopping.   Clearly
       all  services  using this facility will be grouped into one starting or
       stopping order.

       Currently there exists nine options for insserv.

       -v, --verbose
              Write out what is currently going on.

       -c <config>, --config <config>
              Specify path to the insserv.conf  file  and  the  insserv.conf.d
              directory.  Useful for testing.

       -o <path>, --override <path>
              LSB  comment  headers  found in this path will override existing
              LSB comment headers of scripts in the init.d directory  (default
              path is /etc/insserv/overrides/).

       -p <path>, --path <path>
              Specify path to init.d directory.  Useful for testing.

       -n, --dryrun
              Do not update symlinks.

       -r, --remove
              Remove the listed scripts from all runlevels.

       -d, --default
              Use  default  runlevels  as  defined  in  the scripts.  This may
              restore an edited runlevel link scheme.

       -f, --force
              Ignore if a required service is missed. Beside this if start and
              or  stop  levels  are  specified on the command line the default
              levels of the script will be ignored.

       -u <path>, --upstart-job <path>
              Path to replace existing upstart job  path.   (default  path  is

       -s, --showall
              Output  runlevel  and  sequence  information. Do not update sym-

       -h, --help
              Print out short usage message.

       But you may use the argument syntax described in the following section.

              Relative or absolute path to the init  scripts  base  directory.
              This  defaults to /etc/init.d/ in compliance with the LSB speci-
              fication.  In this case insserv does not add or remove a  script
              to  the  runlevels  declared  in  the  script  headers,  but may
              re-order the runlevels if the order  of  the  currently  enabled
              scripts  has  changed  (see option -d).  Note that if a relative
              path is used insserv has to be called from the root directory.

       [[/]path/to/init.d/]script ...
              List of scripts which have to be added to the  runlevels.  If  a
              path  is  used it should point to the absolute or relative loca-
              tion of the boot scripts.  insserv checks for the  existence  of
              these  scripts.   For the runlevels the information found in the
              script is used.

              List of scripts which have to be added  to  the  specified  run-
              levels  to be started with.  You may use this extension to over-
              ride the default values for start  and  stop  runlevels  of  the
              script.   Note  that  lvl1, lvl2, ...   are  the known runlevels
              explained above.  The extension  ,stop=<lvl1,lvl2,...>  is  also

       -r [[/]path/to/init.d/]script ...
              List of scripts which should be removed from the runlevels. If a
              path is used it should point to the absolute or  relative  loca-
              tion  of  the boot scripts.  insserv checks for the existence of
              these scripts.

       Beside    using    the    extensions     ,start=<lvl1,lvl2,...>     and
       ,stop=<lvl1,lvl2,...>  it  is  possible to use override files replace a
       LSB comment header or simple provide  a  missing  LSB  comment  header.
       This  can  be  done  by  placing a file with the new LSB comment header
       using the same name as  the  boot  or  init  script  in  the  directory
       /etc/insserv/overrides/.   For  third  party  boot  scripts without LSB
       header it is possible to add a file with the same name in the directory
       /usr/share/insserv/overrides/ to make them completely LSB compliant.

       To allow upstart jobs to work as init.d scripts, insserv will recognize
       a  symlink  from  path/to/init.d/script  to  /lib/init/upstart-job   as
       upstart  jobs, and instead of reading the header from the file will run
       the script with the argument lsb-header to get the script header.

       The exit codes have the following conditions:

              0    Service was successfully installed or removed

              1    Service was not installed or removed

       Please be aware that the following patterns of boot script  file  names
       will be not accepted by insserv:


       with  the wildcard character *.  Beside this all boot script file names
       beginning with one of the following characters


       will be ignored.

       Boot scripts sometimes lack a LSB comment  header.  Contact  a  package
       maintainer  or  developer  of the software which provides the script to
       have a LSB comment header added to it.

              configuration file for insserv  which  defines  the  LSB  System

              directory for further configuration files for declaring LSB Sys-
              tem Facilities.

              path to replace existing LSB comment headers  with  the  comment
              headers found in this path.

              path  to the init script base directory as required by the Linux
              Standard Base Specification (LSB).

              The make(1) like dependency files produced by insserv for  boot-
              ing, starting, and stopping with the help of startpar(8).

       init(8), startpar(8), update-rc.d(8).

       2000-2009 Werner Fink,
       2009 SuSE Linux Products GmbH Nuernberg, Germany.
       2000-2003 SuSE GmbH Nuernberg, Germany,
       2007-2009 SuSE Linux Products GmbH Nuernberg, Germany.

       Werner Fink <>

       Petter Reinholdtsen
       Kel Modderman

3rd Berkeley Distribution        Jul 29, 2008                       INSSERV(8)
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