groupadd [options] group
The groupadd command creates a new group account using the values
specified on the command line plus the default values from the system.
The new group will be entered into the system files as needed.
The options which apply to the groupadd command are:
This option causes the command to simply exit with success status
if the specified group already exists. When used with -g, and the
specified GID already exists, another (unique) GID is chosen (i.e.
-g is turned off).
-g, --gid GID
The numerical value of the group's ID. This value must be unique,
unless the -o option is used. The value must be non-negative. The
default is to use the smallest ID value greater than or equal to
GID_MIN and greater than every other group.
See also the -r option and the GID_MAX description.
Display help message and exit.
-K, --key KEY=VALUE
Overrides /etc/login.defs defaults (GID_MIN, GID_MAX and others).
Multiple -K options can be specified.
Example: -K GID_MIN=100 -K GID_MAX=499
Note: -K GID_MIN=10,GID_MAX=499 doesn't work yet.
This option permits to add a group with a non-unique GID.
-p, --password PASSWORD
The encrypted password, as returned by crypt(3). The default is to
disable the password.
Note: This option is not recommended because the password (or
encrypted password) will be visible by users listing the processes.
You should make sure the password respects the system's password
Create a system group.
The numeric identifiers of new system groups are chosen in the
SYS_GID_MIN-SYS_GID_MAX range, defined in login.defs, instead of
The default value for GID_MIN (resp. GID_MAX) is 1000 (resp.
Maximum members per group entry. When the maximum is reached, a new
group entry (line) is started in /etc/group (with the same name,
same password, and same GID).
The default value is 0, meaning that there are no limits in the
number of members in a group.
This feature (split group) permits to limit the length of lines in
the group file. This is useful to make sure that lines for NIS
groups are not larger than 1024 characters.
If you need to enforce such limit, you can use 25.
Note: split groups may not be supported by all tools (even in the
Shadow toolsuite). You should not use this variable unless you
really need it.
SYS_GID_MAX (number), SYS_GID_MIN (number)
Range of group IDs used for the creation of system groups by
useradd, groupadd, or newusers.
The default value for SYS_GID_MIN (resp. SYS_GID_MAX) is 101
Group account information.
Secure group account information.
Shadow password suite configuration.
It is usually recommended to only use groupnames that begin with a
lower case letter or an underscore, followed by lower case letters,
digits, underscores, or dashes. They can end with a dollar sign. In
regular expression terms: [a-z_][a-z0-9_-]*[$]?
On Debian, the only constraints are that groupnames must neither start
with a dash ('-') nor plus ('+') nor tilde ('~') nor contain a colon
(':'), a comma (','), or a whitespace (space:' ', end of line: '\n',
tabulation: '\t', etc.).
Groupnames may only be up to 32 characters long.
You may not add a NIS or LDAP group. This must be performed on the
invalid argument to option
GID not unique (when -o not used)
group name not unique
can't update group file
chfn(1), chsh(1), passwd(1), gpasswd(8), groupdel(8), groupmod(8),
login.defs(5), useradd(8), userdel(8), usermod(8).
shadow-utils 4.2 03/26/2019 GROUPADD(8)
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