FSTRIM(8)                    System Administration                   FSTRIM(8)

       fstrim - discard unused blocks on a mounted filesystem

       fstrim [-Aa] [-o offset] [-l length] [-m minimum-size] [-v] mountpoint

       fstrim  is  used  on a mounted filesystem to discard (or "trim") blocks
       which are not in use by the filesystem.  This is useful for solid-state
       drives (SSDs) and thinly-provisioned storage.

       By  default,  fstrim  will discard all unused blocks in the filesystem.
       Options may be used to modify this behavior based on range or size,  as
       explained below.

       The  mountpoint  argument  is  the  pathname of the directory where the
       filesystem is mounted.

       Running fstrim frequently, or even using mount -o discard, might  nega-
       tively affect the lifetime of poor-quality SSD devices.  For most desk-
       top and server systems a sufficient trimming frequency is once a  week.
       Note  that  not all devices support a queued trim, so each trim command
       incurs a performance penalty on whatever else might be  trying  to  use
       the disk at the time.

       The  offset,  length, and minimum-size arguments may be followed by the
       multiplicative suffixes KiB (=1024), MiB (=1024*1024), and  so  on  for
       GiB,  TiB,  PiB,  EiB, ZiB and YiB (the "iB" is optional, e.g., "K" has
       the same meaning as "KiB") or the suffixes KB (=1000), MB (=1000*1000),
       and so on for GB, TB, PB, EB, ZB and YB.

       -A, --fstab
              Trim  all mounted filesystems mentioned in /etc/fstab on devices
              that support the discard operation.  The root filesystem is  de-
              termined  from  kernel command line if missing in the file.  The
              other supplied options, like --offset, --length  and  --minimum,
              are  applied to all these devices.  Errors from filesystems that
              do not support the  discard  operation,  read-only  devices  and
              read-only filesystems are silently ignored.

       -a, --all
              Trim all mounted filesystems on devices that support the discard
              operation.  The other supplied options, like --offset,  --length
              and  --minimum,  are  applied to all these devices.  Errors from
              filesystems that do not support the discard operation, read-only
              devices and read-only filesystems are silently ignored.

       -n, --dry-run
              This  option  does  everything  apart  from actually call FITRIM

       -o, --offset offset
              Byte offset in the filesystem from which to begin searching  for
              free  blocks to discard.  The default value is zero, starting at
              the beginning of the filesystem.

       -l, --length length
              The number of bytes (after the starting  point)  to  search  for
              free blocks to discard.  If the specified value extends past the
              end of the filesystem, fstrim will stop at the  filesystem  size
              boundary.   The default value extends to the end of the filesys-

       -m, --minimum minimum-size
              Minimum contiguous free range to discard, in bytes. (This  value
              is  internally  rounded up to a multiple of the filesystem block
              size.)  Free ranges smaller than this will be ignored and fstrim
              will  adjust the minimum if it's smaller than the device's mini-
              mum, and report that (fstrim_range.minlen)  back  to  userspace.
              By  increasing  this  value,  the fstrim operation will complete
              more quickly for filesystems with  badly  fragmented  freespace,
              although not all blocks will be discarded.  The default value is
              zero, discarding every free block.

       -v, --verbose
              Verbose execution.  With this option fstrim will output the num-
              ber  of bytes passed from the filesystem down the block stack to
              the device for potential discard.  This number is a maximum dis-
              card  amount  from  the  storage  device's  perspective, because
              FITRIM ioctl called repeated will keep sending the same  sectors
              for discard repeatedly.

              fstrim  will  report the same potential discard bytes each time,
              but only sectors which had been written to between the  discards
              would actually be discarded by the storage device.  Further, the
              kernel block layer reserves the  right  to  adjust  the  discard
              ranges  to fit raid stripe geometry, non-trim capable devices in
              a LVM setup, etc.  These reductions would not  be  reflected  in
              fstrim_range.len (the --length option).

              Suppress  error  messages.   This  option is meant to be used in
              systemd service file or in cron scripts to  hide  warnings  that
              are  result of known problems, such as NTFS driver reporting Bad
              file descriptor when device is mounted  read-only,  or  lack  of
              file system support for ioctl FITRIM call.

       -V, --version
              Display version information and exit.

       -h, --help
              Display help text and exit.

       0      success

       1      failure

       32     all failed

       64     some filesystem discards have succeeded, some failed

       The  command fstrim --all returns 0 (all succeeded), 32 (all failed) or
       64 (some failed, some succeeded).

       Lukas Czerner <lczerner@redhat.com>
       Karel Zak <kzak@redhat.com>

       blkdiscard(8), mount(8)

       The fstrim command is part of the util-linux package and  is  available
       from https://www.kernel.org/pub/linux/utils/util-linux/.

util-linux                         May 2019                          FSTRIM(8)
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