chpasswd [options]

       The chpasswd command reads a list of user name and password pairs from
       standard input and uses this information to update a group of existing
       users. Each line is of the format:


       By default the passwords must be supplied in clear-text, and are
       encrypted by chpasswd. Also the password age will be updated, if

       By default, passwords are encrypted by PAM, but (even if not
       recommended) you can select a different encryption method with the -e,
       -m, or -c options.

       Except when PAM is used to encrypt the passwords,chpasswd first updates
       all the passwords in memory, and then commits all the changes to disk
       if no errors occured for any user.

       When PAM is used to encrypt the passwords (and update the passwords in
       the system database) then if a password cannot be updated chpasswd
       continues updating the passwords of the next users, and will return an
       error code on exit.

       This command is intended to be used in a large system environment where
       many accounts are created at a single time.

       The options which apply to the chpasswd command are:

       -c, --crypt-method METHOD
           Use the specified method to encrypt the passwords.

           The available methods are DES, MD5, NONE, and SHA256 or SHA512 if
           your libc support these methods.

           By default, PAM is used to encrypt the passwords.

       -e, --encrypted
           Supplied passwords are in encrypted form.

       -S, --stdout
           Report encrypted passwords to stdout instead of updating password

       -h, --help
           Display help message and exit.

       -m, --md5
           Use MD5 encryption instead of DES when the supplied passwords are
           A minimal value of 1000 and a maximal value of 999,999,999 will be

           You can only use this option with the SHA256 or SHA512 crypt

           By default, the number of rounds is defined by the
           SHA_CRYPT_MIN_ROUNDS and SHA_CRYPT_MAX_ROUNDS variables in

       Remember to set permissions or umask to prevent readability of
       unencrypted files by other users.

       The following configuration variables in /etc/login.defs change the
       behavior of this tool:

           When ENCRYPT_METHOD is set to SHA256 or SHA512, this defines the
           number of SHA rounds used by the encryption algorithm by default
           (when the number of rounds is not specified on the command line).

           With a lot of rounds, it is more difficult to brute forcing the
           password. But note also that more CPU resources will be needed to
           authenticate users.

           If not specified, the libc will choose the default number of rounds

           The values must be inside the 1000-999,999,999 range.

           If only one of the SHA_CRYPT_MIN_ROUNDS or SHA_CRYPT_MAX_ROUNDS
           values is set, then this value will be used.

           If SHA_CRYPT_MIN_ROUNDS > SHA_CRYPT_MAX_ROUNDS, the highest value
           will be used.

           Note: This only affect the generation of group passwords. The
           generation of user passwords is done by PAM and subject to the PAM
           configuration. It is recommended to set this variable consistently
           with the PAM configuration.

           User account information.

           Secure user account information.

           Shadow password suite configuration.

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