chat


SYNOPSIS
       chat [ options ] script

DESCRIPTION
       The chat program defines a conversational exchange between the computer
       and the modem. Its primary  purpose  is  to  establish  the  connection
       between the Point-to-Point Protocol Daemon (pppd) and the remote's pppd
       process.

OPTIONS
       -f <chat file>
              Read the chat script from the chat file. The use of this  option
              is  mutually exclusive with the chat script parameters. The user
              must have read access to the file. Multiple lines are  permitted
              in  the  file. Space or horizontal tab characters should be used
              to separate the strings.

       -t <timeout>
              Set the timeout for the expected string to be received.  If  the
              string  is  not  received  within  the time limit then the reply
              string is not sent. An alternate reply may be sent or the script
              will fail if there is no alternate reply string. A failed script
              will cause the chat program to terminate with a  non-zero  error
              code.  You  can  also use the TIMEOUT string in order to specify
              the timeout.

       -r <report file>
              Set the file for output of the report strings. If  you  use  the
              keyword  REPORT, the resulting strings are written to this file.
              If this option is not used and you still  use  REPORT  keywords,
              the stderr file is used for the report strings.

       -e     Start with the echo option turned on. Echoing may also be turned
              on or off at specific points in the chat  script  by  using  the
              ECHO keyword. When echoing is enabled, all output from the modem
              is echoed to stderr.

       -E     Enables environment variable substitution  within  chat  scripts
              using the standard $xxx syntax.

       -v     Request  that the chat script be executed in a verbose mode. The
              chat program will then log  the  execution  state  of  the  chat
              script  as well as all text received from the modem and the out-
              put strings sent to the modem.  The default is  to  log  through
              the SYSLOG; the logging method may be altered with the -S and -s
              flags.

       -V     Request that the chat script be executed  in  a  stderr  verbose
              mode.  The chat program will then log all text received from the
              modem and the output strings sent to the  modem  to  the  stderr
              device.  This device is usually the local console at the station
              running the chat or pppd program.

       -U <phone number 2>
              Pass  in  a  second string, usually a phone number, that will be
              substituted for the \U  substitution  metacharacter  in  a  send
              string.   This  is  useful when dialing an ISDN terminal adapter
              that requires two numbers.

       script If the script is not specified in a file with the -f option then
              the script is included as parameters to the chat program.

CHAT SCRIPT
       The chat script defines the communications.

       A  script consists of one or more "expect-send" pairs of strings, sepa-
       rated by spaces, with an optional "subexpect-subsend" string pair, sep-
       arated by a dash as in the following example:

              ogin:-BREAK-ogin: ppp ssword: hello2u2

       This  line  indicates  that  the  chat program should expect the string
       "ogin:". If it fails to receive a login prompt within the time interval
       allotted,  it is to send a break sequence to the remote and then expect
       the string "ogin:". If the first "ogin:" is  received  then  the  break
       sequence is not generated.

       Once it received the login prompt the chat program will send the string
       ppp and then expect the prompt "ssword:". When it receives  the  prompt
       for the password, it will send the password hello2u2.

       A  carriage  return  is normally sent following the reply string. It is
       not expected in the "expect" string unless it is specifically requested
       by using the \r character sequence.

       The  expect sequence should contain only what is needed to identify the
       string. Since it is normally stored on a disk file, it should not  con-
       tain  variable  information. It is generally not acceptable to look for
       time strings, network identification strings, or other variable  pieces
       of data as an expect string.

       To  help  correct for characters which may be corrupted during the ini-
       tial sequence, look for the string "ogin:" rather than "login:". It  is
       possible  that  the  leading "l" character may be received in error and
       you may never find the string even though it was sent  by  the  system.
       For  this  reason,  scripts  look  for "ogin:" rather than "login:" and
       "ssword:" rather than "password:".

       A very simple script might look like this:

              ogin: ppp ssword: hello2u2

       In other words, expect ....ogin:, send  ppp,  expect  ...ssword:,  send
       hello2u2.

       In  actual  practice,  simple  scripts are rare. At the vary least, you
       should include sub-expect sequences should the original string  not  be
       starts with the # (hash) character in column 1. Such comment lines  are
       just  ignored by the chat program. If a '#' character is to be expected
       as the first character of the expect sequence,  you  should  quote  the
       expect  string.   If you want to wait for a prompt that starts with a #
       (hash) character, you would have to write something like this:

              # Now wait for the prompt and send logout string
              '# ' logout

SENDING DATA FROM A FILE
       If the string to send starts with an at  sign  (@),  the  rest  of  the
       string  is  taken to be the name of a file to read to get the string to
       send.  If the last character of the data  read  is  a  newline,  it  is
       removed.   The  file can be a named pipe (or fifo) instead of a regular
       file.  This provides a way for chat to communicate  with  another  pro-
       gram,  for example, a program to prompt the user and receive a password
       typed in.

ABORT STRINGS
       Many modems will report the status of  the  call  as  a  string.  These
       strings  may  be CONNECTED or NO CARRIER or BUSY. It is often desirable
       to terminate the script should the modem fail to connect to the remote.
       The  difficulty  is  that  a  script would not know exactly which modem
       string it may receive. On one attempt, it may receive  BUSY  while  the
       next time it may receive NO CARRIER.

       These  "abort"  strings  may be specified in the script using the ABORT
       sequence. It is written in the script as in the following example:

              ABORT BUSY ABORT 'NO CARRIER' '' ATZ OK ATDT5551212 CONNECT

       This sequence will expect nothing; and then send the  string  ATZ.  The
       expected  response  to  this is the string OK. When it receives OK, the
       string ATDT5551212 to dial the telephone. The expected string  is  CON-
       NECT.  If the string CONNECT is received the remainder of the script is
       executed. However, should the modem find a busy telephone, it will send
       the  string BUSY. This will cause the string to match the abort charac-
       ter sequence. The script will then fail because it found a match to the
       abort  string.  If it received the string NO CARRIER, it will abort for
       the same reason. Either string may be received. Either string will ter-
       minate the chat script.

CLR_ABORT STRINGS
       This  sequence allows for clearing previously set ABORT strings.  ABORT
       strings are kept in an array of a pre-determined size  (at  compilation
       time); CLR_ABORT will reclaim the space for cleared entries so that new
       strings can use that space.

SAY STRINGS
       The SAY directive allows the script to send strings to the user at  the
       terminal via standard error.  If chat is being run by pppd, and pppd is
       running as a daemon (detached from its controlling terminal),  standard
       error will normally be redirected to the file /etc/ppp/connect-errors.

              TIMEOUT 120
              SAY "Waiting up to 2 minutes for connection ... "
              CONNECT ''
              SAY "Connected, now logging in ...0
              ogin: account
              ssword: pass
              $ SAY "Logged in OK ...0 etc ...

       This sequence will only present the SAY strings to the user and all the
       details of the script will remain hidden. For  example,  if  the  above
       script works, the user will see:

              Dialling your ISP...
              Waiting  up  to 2 minutes for connection ... Connected, now log-
              ging in ...
              Logged in OK ...

REPORT STRINGS
       A report string is similar to the ABORT string. The difference is  that
       the strings, and all characters to the next control character such as a
       carriage return, are written to the report file.

       The report strings may be used to isolate the transmission rate of  the
       modem's connect string and return the value to the chat user. The anal-
       ysis of the report string logic occurs in conjunction  with  the  other
       string processing such as looking for the expect string. The use of the
       same string for a report and abort sequence is probably not  very  use-
       ful, however, it is possible.

       The report strings to no change the completion code of the program.

       These  "report" strings may be specified in the script using the REPORT
       sequence. It is written in the script as in the following example:

              REPORT CONNECT  ABORT  BUSY  ''  ATDT5551212  CONNECT  ''  ogin:
              account

       This sequence will expect nothing; and then send the string ATDT5551212
       to dial the telephone. The expected string is CONNECT.  If  the  string
       CONNECT  is  received the remainder of the script is executed. In addi-
       tion the program will write to the  expect-file  the  string  "CONNECT"
       plus any characters which follow it such as the connection rate.

CLR_REPORT STRINGS
       This  sequence  allows  for  clearing  previously  set  REPORT strings.
       REPORT strings are kept in an array of a pre-determined size (at compi-
       lation  time); CLR_REPORT will reclaim the space for cleared entries so
       that new strings can use that space.

ECHO
       The echo options controls whether the output from the modem  is  echoed
       to  stderr.  This option may be set with the -e option, but it can also
       be controlled by the ECHO  keyword.  The  "expect-send"  pair  ECHO  ON
       enables  echoing,  and  ECHO OFF disables it. With this keyword you can
       all  output resulting from modem configuration and dialing is not visi-
       ble, but starting with the CONNECT (or BUSY) message,  everything  will
       be echoed.

HANGUP
       The  HANGUP options control whether a modem hangup should be considered
       as an error or not.  This option is useful in scripts for dialling sys-
       tems  which will hang up and call your system back.  The HANGUP options
       can be ON or OFF.
       When HANGUP is set OFF and the modem hangs up (e.g.,  after  the  first
       stage  of  logging in to a callback system), chat will continue running
       the script (e.g., waiting for the incoming call and second stage  login
       prompt).  As soon as the incoming call is connected, you should use the
       HANGUP ON directive to reinstall normal hang up signal behavior.   Here
       is an (simple) example script:

              ABORT   'BUSY'
              ''      ATZ
              OK\r\n  ATD1234567
              \r\n    \c
              CONNECT \c
              'Callback login:' call_back_ID
              HANGUP OFF
              ABORT "Bad Login"
              'Callback Password:' Call_back_password
              TIMEOUT 120
              CONNECT \c
              HANGUP ON
              ABORT "NO CARRIER"
              ogin:--BREAK--ogin: real_account
              etc ...

TIMEOUT
       The  initial timeout value is 45 seconds. This may be changed using the
       -t parameter. You can also specify "TIMEOUT 0".

       To change the timeout value for the next expect string,  the  following
       example may be used:

              ATZ  OK  ATDT5551212  CONNECT  TIMEOUT 10 ogin:--ogin: TIMEOUT 5
              assword: hello2u2

       This will change the timeout to 10 seconds when it expects  the  login:
       prompt.  The timeout is then changed to 5 seconds when it looks for the
       password prompt.

       The timeout, once changed, remains in effect until it is changed again.

SENDING EOT
       The special reply string of EOT indicates that the chat program  should
       send  an  EOT character to the remote. This is normally the End-of-file
       character sequence. A return character is not sent following the EOT.

       The EOT sequence may  be  embedded  into  the  send  string  using  the

ESCAPE SEQUENCES
       The expect and reply strings may contain escape sequences. All  of  the
       sequences  are legal in the reply string. Many are legal in the expect.
       Those which are not valid in the expect sequence are so indicated.

       ''     Expects or sends a null string. If you send a null  string  then
              it  will  still  send  the  return  character. This sequence may
              either be a pair of apostrophe or quote characters.

       \b     represents a backspace character.

       \c     Suppresses the newline at the end of the reply string.  This  is
              the only method to send a string without a trailing return char-
              acter. It must be at the end of the send  string.  For  example,
              the sequence hello\c will simply send the characters h, e, l, l,
              o.  (not valid in expect.)

       \d     Delay for one second. The program uses sleep(1) which will delay
              to a maximum of one second.  (not valid in expect.)

       \K     Insert a BREAK (not valid in expect.)

       \n     Send a newline or linefeed character.

       \N     Send  a  null character. The same sequence may be represented by
              \0.  (not valid in expect.)

       \p     Pause for a fraction of a second. The delay is 1/10th of a  sec-
              ond.  (not valid in expect.)

       \q     Suppress  writing  the  string  to  the  SYSLOG file. The string
              ?????? is written to the  log  in  its  place.   (not  valid  in
              expect.)

       \r     Send or expect a carriage return.

       \s     Represents  a  space  character  in the string. This may be used
              when it is not desirable to quote  the  strings  which  contains
              spaces. The sequence 'HI TIM' and HI\sTIM are the same.

       \t     Send or expect a tab character.

       \T     Send  the  phone  number  string as specified with the -T option
              (not valid in expect.)

       \U     Send the phone number 2 string as specified with the  -U  option
              (not valid in expect.)

       \\     Send or expect a backslash character.

       \ddd   Collapse  the  octal  digits (ddd) into a single ASCII character
              and send that character.  (some  characters  are  not  valid  in
              expect.)

       The chat program will terminate with the following completion codes.

       0      The  normal  termination of the program. This indicates that the
              script was executed without error to the normal conclusion.

       1      One or more of the parameters are invalid or  an  expect  string
              was  too large for the internal buffers. This indicates that the
              program as not properly executed.

       2      An error occurred during the execution of the program. This  may
              be  due  to a read or write operation failing for some reason or
              chat receiving a signal such as SIGINT.

       3      A timeout event occurred when there was an expect string without
              having  a "-subsend" string. This may mean that you did not pro-
              gram the script correctly for the condition or that  some  unex-
              pected  event  has occurred and the expected string could not be
              found.

       4      The first string marked as an ABORT condition occurred.

       5      The second string marked as an ABORT condition occurred.

       6      The third string marked as an ABORT condition occurred.

       7      The fourth string marked as an ABORT condition occurred.

       ...    The other termination codes are also strings marked as an  ABORT
              condition.

       Using  the  termination  code,  it is possible to determine which event
       terminated the script. It is possible to decide if  the  string  "BUSY"
       was  received  from  the  modem as opposed to "NO DIAL TONE". While the
       first event may be retried, the second will probably have little chance
       of succeeding during a retry.

SEE ALSO
       Additional  information about chat scripts may be found with UUCP docu-
       mentation. The chat script was taken from the  ideas  proposed  by  the
       scripts used by the uucico program.

       uucico(1), uucp(1)

COPYRIGHT
       The  chat  program  is  in  public  domain.  This is not the GNU public
       license. If it breaks then you get to keep both pieces.



Chat Version 1.22                 22 May 1999                          CHAT(8)
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