WNGLOSS(7WN)                       WordNettm                      WNGLOSS(7WN)

       wngloss - glossary of terms used in WordNet system

       The  WordNet  Reference  Manual consists of Unix-style manual pages di-
       vided into sections as follows:

                 |Section |               Description               |
                 |   1    | WordNet User Commands                   |
                 |   3    | WordNet Library Functions               |
                 |   5    | WordNet File Formats                    |
                 |   7    | Miscellaneous Information about WordNet |

   System Description
       The WordNet system consists of lexicographer  files,  code  to  convert
       these  files  into  a database, and search routines and interfaces that
       display information from the database.  The lexicographer  files  orga-
       nize  nouns, verbs, adjectives and adverbs into groups of synonyms, and
       describe relations between synonym  groups.   grind(1WN)  converts  the
       lexicographer  files into a database that encodes the relations between
       the synonym groups.  The different interfaces to the  WordNet  database
       utilize a common library of search routines to display these relations.
       Note that the lexicographer files and grind(1WN) program are not gener-
       ally distributed.

   Database Organization
       Information  in  WordNet  is  organized around logical groupings called
       synsets.  Each synset consists of a list of synonymous words or  collo-
       cations (eg. "fountain pen", "take in"), and pointers that describe the
       relations between this synset and other synsets.  A word or collocation
       may  appear  in  more  than  one  synset,  and in more than one part of
       speech.  The words in a synset are grouped such that  they  are  inter-
       changeable in some context.

       Two  kinds of relations are represented by pointers: lexical and seman-
       tic.  Lexical relations hold between semantically related  word  forms;
       semantic relations hold between word meanings.  These relations include
       (but are not  limited  to)  hypernymy/hyponymy  (superordinate/subordi-
       nate), antonymy, entailment, and meronymy/holonymy.

       Nouns  and  verbs  are  organized  into hierarchies based on the hyper-
       nymy/hyponymy relation between synsets.   Additional  pointers  are  be
       used to indicate other relations.

       Adjectives  are arranged in clusters containing head synsets and satel-
       lite synsets.  Each cluster is organized around antonymous  pairs  (and
       occasionally  antonymous triplets).  The antonymous pairs (or triplets)
       are indicated in the head synsets of a cluster.  Most head synsets have
       one  or more satellite synsets, each of which represents a concept that
       is similar in meaning to the concept represented by  the  head  synset.
       One  way to think of the adjective cluster organization is to visualize
       a wheel, with a head synset as the hub and  satellite  synsets  as  the
       spokes.  Two or more wheels are logically connected via antonymy, which
       can be thought of as an axle between the wheels.

       Pertainyms are relational adjectives and do not  follow  the  structure
       just described.  Pertainyms do not have antonyms; the synset for a per-
       tainym most often contains only one word or collocation and  a  lexical
       pointer to the noun that the adjective is "pertaining to".  Participial
       adjectives have lexical pointers to the verbs  that  they  are  derived

       Adverbs are often derived from adjectives, and sometimes have antonyms;
       therefore the synset for an adverb usually contains a  lexical  pointer
       to the adjective from which it is derived.

       See  wndb(5WN) for a detailed description of the database files and how
       the data are represented.

       Many terms used in the WordNet Reference Manual are unique to the Word-
       Net  system.   Other  general terms have specific meanings when used in
       the WordNet documentation.  Definitions for many  of  these  terms  are
       given  to  help with the interpretation and understanding of the refer-
       ence manual, and in the use of the WordNet system.

       In following definitions word is used in place of word or collocation.

       adjective cluster        A group of adjective synsets  that  are  orga-
                                nized around antonymous pairs or triplets.  An
                                adjective cluster contains two  or  more  head
                                synsets  which  represent antonymous concepts.
                                Each head synset has  one  or  more  satellite

       attribute                A  noun  for  which adjectives express values.
                                The noun weight is an attribute, for which the
                                adjectives light and heavy express values.

       base form                The  base form of a word or collocation is the
                                form to which inflections are added.

       basic synset             Syntactically, same as synset.  Term  is  used
                                in wninput(5WN) to help explain differences in
                                entering synsets in lexicographer files.

       collocation              A collocation in WordNet is a string of two or
                                more  words,  connected  by spaces or hyphens.
                                Examples are:  man-eating shark,  blue-collar,
                                depend on,  line of products.  In the database
                                files spaces are represented as underscore (_)

       coordinate               Coordinate  terms are nouns or verbs that have
                                the same hypernym.

       cross-cluster pointer    A semantic pointer from one adjective  cluster
                                to another.

       derivationally related forms
                                Terms  in  different syntactic categories that
                                have the same root form and  are  semantically

       direct antonyms          A  pair of words between which there is an as-
                                sociative bond resulting from  their  frequent
                                co-occurrence.   In adjective clusters, direct
                                antonyms appears only in head synsets.

       domain                   A topical classification to which a synset has
                                been  linked  with a CATEGORY, REGION or USAGE

       domain term              A synset belonging to a topical class.  A  do-
                                main  term  is  further  identified as being a
                                CATEGORY_TERM, REGION_TERM or USAGE_TERM.

       entailment               A verb X entails Y if X cannot be done  unless
                                Y is, or has been, done.

       exception list           Morphological  transformations  for words that
                                are not regular and therefore cannot  be  pro-
                                cessed in an algorithmic manner.

       group                    Verb  senses  that similar in meaning and have
                                been manually grouped together.

       gloss                    Each synset contains  gloss  consisting  of  a
                                definition and optionally example sentences.

       head synset              Synset  in  an adjective cluster containing at
                                least one word that has a direct antonym.

       holonym                  The name of the whole  of  which  the  meronym
                                names  a  part.  Y is a holonym of X if X is a
                                part of Y.

       hypernym                 The generic term used  to  designate  a  whole
                                class  of specific instances.  Y is a hypernym
                                of X if X is a (kind of) Y.

       hyponym                  The specific term used to designate  a  member
                                of  a  class.   X  is a hyponym of Y if X is a
                                (kind of) Y.

       indirect antonym         An adjective in a satellite synset  that  does
                                not  have  a  direct  antonym  has an indirect
                                antonyms via the direct antonym  of  the  head

       instance                 A  proper  noun  that  refers to a particular,
                                unique referent (as distinguished  from  nouns
                                that  refer  to  classes).  This is a specific
                                form of hyponym.

       lemma                    Lower case ASCII text of word as found in  the
                                WordNet  database  index  files.   Usually the
                                base form for a word or collocation.

       lexical pointer          A lexical pointer indicates a relation between
                                words in synsets (word forms).

       lexicographer file       Files  containing  the  raw  data  for WordNet
                                synsets, edited by  lexicographers,  that  are
                                input to the grind program to generate a Word-
                                Net database.

       lexicographer id (lex id)
                                A decimal integer  that,  when  appended  onto
                                lemma,  uniquely  identifies  a sense within a
                                lexicographer file.

       monosemous               Having only one sense in a syntactic category.

       meronym                  The name of a constituent part  of,  the  sub-
                                stance  of,  or a member of something.  X is a
                                meronym of Y if X is a part of Y.

       part of speech           WordNet defines "part  of  speech"  as  either
                                noun,  verb,  adjective,  or  adverb.  Same as
                                syntactic category.

       participial adjective    An adjective that is derived from a verb.

       pertainym                A relational adjective.  Adjectives  that  are
                                pertainyms are usually defined by such phrases
                                as "of or  pertaining  to"  and  do  not  have
                                antonyms.   A pertainym can point to a noun or
                                another pertainym.

       polysemous               Having more than one sense in a syntactic cat-

       polysemy count           Number of senses of a word in a syntactic cat-
                                egory, in WordNet.

       postnominal              A postnominal adjective  occurs  only  immedi-
                                ately following the noun that it modifies.

       predicative              An  adjective  that can be used only in predi-
                                cate positions.  If X is  a  predicate  adjec-
                                tive,  it  can only be used in such phrases as
                                "it is X" and never prenominally.

       prenominal               An adjective that can occur  only  before  the
                                noun that it modifies: it cannot be used pred-

       satellite synset         Synset in an adjective cluster representing  a
                                concept that is similar in meaning to the con-
                                cept represented by its head synset.

       semantic concordance     A textual corpus (e.g. the Brown Corpus) and a
                                lexicon  (e.g. WordNet) so combined that every
                                substantive word in the text is linked to  its
                                appropriate  sense in the lexicon via a seman-
                                tic tag.

       semantic tag             A pointer from a word in a text file to a spe-
                                cific  sense of that word in the WordNet data-
                                base.  A semantic tag in  a  semantic  concor-
                                dance is represented by a sense key.

       semantic pointer         A  semantic  pointer  indicates a relation be-
                                tween synsets (concepts).

       sense                    A meaning of a word in WordNet.  Each sense of
                                a word is in a different synset.

       sense key                Information  necessary  to find a sense in the
                                WordNet database.   A  sense  key  combines  a
                                lemma  field  and  codes  for the synset type,
                                lexicographer id, lexicographer  file  number,
                                and   information  about  a  satellite's  head
                                synset, if required.  See senseidx(5WN) for  a
                                description of the format of a sense key.

       subordinate              Same as hyponym.

       superordinate            Same as hypernym.

       synset                   A  synonym set; a set of words that are inter-
                                changeable in some  context  without  changing
                                the  truth  value  of the preposition in which
                                they are embedded.

       troponym                 A verb expressing a specific  manner  elabora-
                                tion of another verb.  X is a troponym of Y if
                                to X is to Y in some manner.

       unique beginner          A noun synset with no superordinate.

WordNet 3.0                        Dec 2006                       WNGLOSS(7WN)
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