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       A typical Linux system has, among others, the following directories:

       /      This  is  the  root  directory.   This  is  where the whole tree
              starts.

       /bin   This directory contains executable programs which are needed  in
              single user mode and to bring the system up or repair it.

       /boot  Contains static files for the boot loader.  This directory holds
              only the files which are needed during the  boot  process.   The
              map  installer  and  configuration  files should go to /sbin and
              /etc.  The operating system kernel (initrd for example) must  be
              located in either / or /boot.

       /dev   Special  or  device files, which refer to physical devices.  See
              mknod(1).

       /etc   Contains configuration files which are  local  to  the  machine.
              Some larger software packages, like X11, can have their own sub-
              directories below /etc.  Site-wide configuration  files  may  be
              placed  here  or  in  /usr/etc.   Nevertheless,  programs should
              always look for these files in /etc and you may have  links  for
              these files to /usr/etc.

       /etc/opt
              Host-specific   configuration   files  for  add-on  applications
              installed in /opt.

       /etc/sgml
              This  directory  contains  the  configuration  files  for   SGML
              (optional).

       /etc/skel
              When  a  new  user account is created, files from this directory
              are usually copied into the user's home directory.

       /etc/X11
              Configuration files for the X11 window system (optional).

       /etc/xml
              This  directory  contains  the  configuration  files   for   XML
              (optional).

       /home  On  machines  with home directories for users, these are usually
              beneath this directory, directly or not.  The structure of  this
              directory depends on local administration decisions (optional).

       /lib   This  directory should hold those shared libraries that are nec-
              essary to boot the system and to run the commands  in  the  root
              filesystem.

       /lib<qual>
              These  directories  are variants of /lib on system which support
              more  than  one  binary  format  requiring  separate   libraries
              device exists for mounting a certain type of media, mount direc-
              tories can be created by appending a digit to the name of  those
              available above starting with '0', but the unqualified name must
              also exist.

       /media/floppy[1-9]
              Floppy drive (optional).

       /media/cdrom[1-9]
              CD-ROM drive (optional).

       /media/cdrecorder[1-9]
              CD writer (optional).

       /media/zip[1-9]
              Zip drive (optional).

       /media/usp[1-9]
              USB drive (optional).

       /mnt   This directory is  a  mount  point  for  a  temporarily  mounted
              filesystem.  In some distributions, /mnt contains subdirectories
              intended to be  used  as  mount  points  for  several  temporary
              filesystems.

       /opt   This  directory  should  contain  add-on  packages  that contain
              static files.

       /proc  This is a mount point for the proc  filesystem,  which  provides
              information  about  running  processes  and  the  kernel.   This
              pseudo-filesystem is described in more detail in proc(5).

       /root  This directory is usually the home directory for the  root  user
              (optional).

       /sbin  Like /bin, this directory holds commands needed to boot the sys-
              tem, but which are usually not executed by normal users.

       /srv   This directory contains site-specific data  that  is  served  by
              this system.

       /sys   This  is  a mount point for the sysfs filesystem, which provides
              information about the kernel like /proc, but better  structured,
              following the formalism of kobject infrastructure.

       /tmp   This  directory  contains  temporary  files which may be deleted
              with no notice, such as by a regular job or at system boot up.

       /usr   This directory is usually mounted from a separate partition.  It
              should  hold  only  sharable,  read-only data, so that it can be
              mounted by various machines running Linux.

       /usr/X11R6
              The X-Window system, version 11 release 6 (optional).

       /usr/X11R6/include/X11
              Contains include files needed for compiling programs  using  the
              X11  window  system.   Often,  there  is  a  symbolic  link from
              /usr/include/X11 to this directory.

       /usr/bin
              This is the primary directory  for  executable  programs.   Most
              programs executed by normal users which are not needed for boot-
              ing or for repairing the system  and  which  are  not  installed
              locally should be placed in this directory.

       /usr/bin/mh
              Commands for the MH mail handling system (optional).

       /usr/bin/X11
              is  the traditional place to look for X11 executables; on Linux,
              it usually is a symbolic link to /usr/X11R6/bin.

       /usr/dict
              Replaced by /usr/share/dict.

       /usr/doc
              Replaced by /usr/share/doc.

       /usr/etc
              Site-wide configuration  files  to  be  shared  between  several
              machines  may  be  stored  in this directory.  However, commands
              should always reference those files using  the  /etc  directory.
              Links  from  files in /etc should point to the appropriate files
              in /usr/etc.

       /usr/games
              Binaries for games and educational programs (optional).

       /usr/include
              Include files for the C compiler.

       /usr/include/bsd
              BSD compatibility include files (optional).

       /usr/include/X11
              Include files for the C compiler and the X-Window system.   This
              is usually a symbolic link to /usr/X11R6/include/X11.

       /usr/include/asm
              Include files which declare some assembler functions.  This used
              to be a symbolic link to /usr/src/linux/include/asm.

       /usr/include/linux
              This contains information which may change from  system  release
              to   system   release   and  used  to  be  a  symbolic  link  to
              /usr/src/linux/include/linux to get at operating-system-specific
              information.

       /usr/lib
              Object libraries, including dynamic libraries,  plus  some  exe-
              cutables  which  usually are not invoked directly.  More compli-
              cated programs may have whole subdirectories there.

       /usr/lib<qual>
              These directories are variants of /usr/lib on system which  sup-
              port  more  than one binary format requiring separate libraries,
              except that the symbolic link /usr/lib<qual>/X11 is not required
              (optional).

       /usr/lib/X11
              The  usual  place for data files associated with X programs, and
              configuration files for the X system itself.  On Linux, it  usu-
              ally is a symbolic link to /usr/X11R6/lib/X11.

       /usr/lib/gcc-lib
              contains  executables  and include files for the GNU C compiler,
              gcc(1).

       /usr/lib/groff
              Files for the GNU groff document formatting system.

       /usr/lib/uucp
              Files for uucp(1).

       /usr/local
              This is where programs which are local to the site typically go.

       /usr/local/bin
              Binaries for programs local to the site.

       /usr/local/doc
              Local documentation.

       /usr/local/etc
              Configuration files associated with locally installed programs.

       /usr/local/games
              Binaries for locally installed games.

       /usr/local/lib
              Files associated with locally installed programs.

       /usr/local/lib<qual>
              These directories are variants of /usr/local/lib on system which
              support more than one binary format requiring separate libraries
              (optional).

       /usr/local/include
              Header files for the local C compiler.

       /usr/local/info
              Info pages associated with locally installed programs.
              Source code for locally installed software.

       /usr/man
              Replaced by /usr/share/man.

       /usr/sbin
              This  directory contains program binaries for system administra-
              tion which are not essential for the boot process, for  mounting
              /usr, or for system repair.

       /usr/share
              This directory contains subdirectories with specific application
              data, that can be shared among different  architectures  of  the
              same  OS.   Often  one  finds  stuff  here  that used to live in
              /usr/doc or /usr/lib or /usr/man.

       /usr/share/dict
              Contains the word lists used by spell checkers (optional).

       /usr/share/dict/words
              List of English words (optional).

       /usr/share/doc
              Documentation about installed programs (optional).

       /usr/share/games
              Static data files for games in /usr/games (optional).

       /usr/share/info
              Info pages go here (optional).

       /usr/share/locale
              Locale information goes here (optional).

       /usr/share/man
              Manual pages go here in subdirectories according to the man page
              sections.

       /usr/share/man/<locale>/man[1-9]
              These  directories  contain manual pages for the specific locale
              in source code form.  Systems which use a  unique  language  and
              code set for all manual pages may omit the <locale> substring.

       /usr/share/misc
              Miscellaneous  data that can be shared among different architec-
              tures of the same OS.

       /usr/share/nls
              The  message  catalogs  for  native  language  support  go  here
              (optional).

       /usr/share/sgml
              Files for SGML (optional).

       /usr/share/terminfo
              The database for terminfo (optional).

       /usr/share/tmac
              Troff macros that are not distributed with groff (optional).

       /usr/share/xml
              Files for XML (optional).

       /usr/share/xml/docbook
              DocBook DTD (optional).

       /usr/share/xml/xhtml
              XHTML DTD (optional).

       /usr/share/xml/mathml
              MathML DTD (optional).

       /usr/share/zoneinfo
              Files for timezone information (optional).

       /usr/src
              Source  files  for  different parts of the system, included with
              some packages for reference purposes.  Don't work here with your
              own  projects,  as  files  below /usr should be read-only except
              when installing software (optional).

       /usr/src/linux
              This was the traditional place for the kernel source.  Some dis-
              tributions put here the source for the default kernel they ship.
              You should probably use another directory when building your own
              kernel.

       /usr/tmp
              Obsolete.   This  should  be  a  link to /var/tmp.  This link is
              present only for compatibility reasons and shouldn't be used.

       /var   This directory contains files which may change in size, such  as
              spool and log files.

       /var/account
              Process accounting logs (optional).

       /var/adm
              This  directory  is  superseded by /var/log and should be a sym-
              bolic link to /var/log.

       /var/backups
              Reserved for historical reasons.

       /var/cache
              Data cached for programs.

       /var/cache/fonts
              These directories contain preformatted manual pages according to
              their  man  page section.  (The use of preformatted manual pages
              is deprecated.)

       /var/crash
              System crash dumps (optional).

       /var/cron
              Reserved for historical reasons.

       /var/games
              Variable game data (optional).

       /var/lib
              Variable state information for programs.

       /var/lib/hwclock
              State directory for hwclock (optional).

       /var/lib/misc
              Miscellaneous state data.

       /var/lib/xdm
              X display manager variable data (optional).

       /var/lib/<editor>
              Editor backup files and state (optional).

       /var/lib/<name>
              These directories must be used for  all  distribution  packaging
              support.

       /var/lib/<package>
              State data for packages and subsystems (optional).

       /var/lib/<pkgtool>
              Packaging support files (optional).

       /var/local
              Variable data for /usr/local.

       /var/lock
              Lock  files are placed in this directory.  The naming convention
              for device lock files is LCK..<device>  where  <device>  is  the
              device's name in the filesystem.  The format used is that of HDU
              UUCP lock files, that is, lock files contain a PID as a  10-byte
              ASCII decimal number, followed by a newline character.

       /var/log
              Miscellaneous log files.

       /var/opt
              Variable data for /opt.

              tory are usually cleared when the system boots.

       /var/spool
              Spooled (or queued) files for various programs.

       /var/spool/at
              Spooled jobs for at(1).

       /var/spool/cron
              Spooled jobs for cron(8).

       /var/spool/lpd
              Spooled files for printing (optional).

       /var/spool/lpd/printer
              Spools for a specific printer (optional).

       /var/spool/mail
              Replaced by /var/mail.

       /var/spool/mqueue
              Queued outgoing mail (optional).

       /var/spool/news
              Spool directory for news (optional).

       /var/spool/rwho
              Spooled files for rwhod(8) (optional).

       /var/spool/smail
              Spooled files for the smail(1) mail delivery program.

       /var/spool/uucp
              Spooled files for uucp(1) (optional).

       /var/tmp
              Like  /tmp,  this  directory holds temporary files stored for an
              unspecified duration.

       /var/yp
              Database files for NIS, formerly known as the Sun  Yellow  Pages
              (YP).

CONFORMING TO
       The Filesystem Hierarchy Standard, Version 2.3 <http://www.pathname.com
       /fhs/>.

BUGS
       This list is not exhaustive; different systems may be  configured  dif-
       ferently.

SEE ALSO
       find(1), ln(1), proc(5), mount(8)
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