GFDL(7)                               GNU                              GFDL(7)

       gfdl - GNU Free Documentation License

       GNU Free Documentation License

       Version 1.2, November 2002

               Copyright (c) 2000,2001,2002 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
               59 Temple Place, Suite 330, Boston, MA  02111-1307, USA

               Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies
               of this license document, but changing it is not allowed.

       0.  PREAMBLE

           The purpose of this License is to make a manual, textbook, or other
           functional and useful document free in the sense of freedom: to as-
           sure everyone the effective freedom to copy and redistribute it,
           with or without modifying it, either commercially or noncommer-
           cially.  Secondarily, this License preserves for the author and
           publisher a way to get credit for their work, while not being con-
           sidered responsible for modifications made by others.

           This License is a kind of ``copyleft'', which means that derivative
           works of the document must themselves be free in the same sense.
           It complements the GNU General Public License, which is a copyleft
           license designed for free software.

           We have designed this License in order to use it for manuals for
           free software, because free software needs free documentation: a
           free program should come with manuals providing the same freedoms
           that the software does.  But this License is not limited to soft-
           ware manuals; it can be used for any textual work, regardless of
           subject matter or whether it is published as a printed book.  We
           recommend this License principally for works whose purpose is in-
           struction or reference.


           This License applies to any manual or other work, in any medium,
           that contains a notice placed by the copyright holder saying it can
           be distributed under the terms of this License.  Such a notice
           grants a world-wide, royalty-free license, unlimited in duration,
           to use that work under the conditions stated herein.  The ``Docu-
           ment'', below, refers to any such manual or work.  Any member of
           the public is a licensee, and is addressed as ``you''.  You accept
           the license if you copy, modify or distribute the work in a way re-
           quiring permission under copyright law.

           A ``Modified Version'' of the Document means any work containing
           the Document or a portion of it, either copied verbatim, or with
           modifications and/or translated into another language.

           A ``Secondary Section'' is a named appendix or a front-matter sec-
           tion of the Document that deals exclusively with the relationship
           of the publishers or authors of the Document to the Document's
           overall subject (or to related matters) and contains nothing that
           could fall directly within that overall subject.  (Thus, if the
           Document is in part a textbook of mathematics, a Secondary Section
           may not explain any mathematics.)  The relationship could be a mat-
           ter of historical connection with the subject or with related mat-
           ters, or of legal, commercial, philosophical, ethical or political
           position regarding them.

           The ``Invariant Sections'' are certain Secondary Sections whose ti-
           tles are designated, as being those of Invariant Sections, in the
           notice that says that the Document is released under this License.
           If a section does not fit the above definition of Secondary then it
           is not allowed to be designated as Invariant.  The Document may
           contain zero Invariant Sections.  If the Document does not identify
           any Invariant Sections then there are none.

           The ``Cover Texts'' are certain short passages of text that are
           listed, as Front-Cover Texts or Back-Cover Texts, in the notice
           that says that the Document is released under this License.  A
           Front-Cover Text may be at most 5 words, and a Back-Cover Text may
           be at most 25 words.

           A ``Transparent'' copy of the Document means a machine-readable
           copy, represented in a format whose specification is available to
           the general public, that is suitable for revising the document
           straightforwardly with generic text editors or (for images composed
           of pixels) generic paint programs or (for drawings) some widely
           available drawing editor, and that is suitable for input to text
           formatters or for automatic translation to a variety of formats
           suitable for input to text formatters.  A copy made in an otherwise
           Transparent file format whose markup, or absence of markup, has
           been arranged to thwart or discourage subsequent modification by
           readers is not Transparent.  An image format is not Transparent if
           used for any substantial amount of text.  A copy that is not
           ``Transparent'' is called ``Opaque''.

           Examples of suitable formats for Transparent copies include plain
           ASCII without markup, Texinfo input format, LaTeX input format,
           @acronym{SGML} or @acronym{XML} using a publicly available @acro-
           nym{DTD}, and standard-conforming simple @acronym{HTML}, PostScript
           or @acronym{PDF} designed for human modification.  Examples of
           transparent image formats include @acronym{PNG}, @acronym{XCF} and
           @acronym{JPG}.  Opaque formats include proprietary formats that can
           be read and edited only by proprietary word processors, @acro-
           nym{SGML} or @acronym{XML} for which the @acronym{DTD} and/or pro-
           cessing tools are not generally available, and the machine-gener-
           ated @acronym{HTML}, PostScript or @acronym{PDF} produced by some
           word processors for output purposes only.

           The ``Title Page'' means, for a printed book, the title page it-
           self, plus such following pages as are needed to hold, legibly, the
           material this License requires to appear in the title page.  For
           works in formats which do not have any title page as such, ``Title
           Page'' means the text near the most prominent appearance of the
           work's title, preceding the beginning of the body of the text.

           A section ``Entitled XYZ'' means a named subunit of the Document
           whose title either is precisely XYZ or contains XYZ in parentheses
           following text that translates XYZ in another language.  (Here XYZ
           stands for a specific section name mentioned below, such as ``Ac-
           knowledgements'', ``Dedications'', ``Endorsements'', or ``His-
           tory''.)  To ``Preserve the Title'' of such a section when you mod-
           ify the Document means that it remains a section ``Entitled XYZ''
           according to this definition.

           The Document may include Warranty Disclaimers next to the notice
           which states that this License applies to the Document.  These War-
           ranty Disclaimers are considered to be included by reference in
           this License, but only as regards disclaiming warranties: any other
           implication that these Warranty Disclaimers may have is void and
           has no effect on the meaning of this License.


           You may copy and distribute the Document in any medium, either com-
           mercially or noncommercially, provided that this License, the copy-
           right notices, and the license notice saying this License applies
           to the Document are reproduced in all copies, and that you add no
           other conditions whatsoever to those of this License.  You may not
           use technical measures to obstruct or control the reading or fur-
           ther copying of the copies you make or distribute.  However, you
           may accept compensation in exchange for copies.  If you distribute
           a large enough number of copies you must also follow the conditions
           in section 3.

           You may also lend copies, under the same conditions stated above,
           and you may publicly display copies.


           If you publish printed copies (or copies in media that commonly
           have printed covers) of the Document, numbering more than 100, and
           the Document's license notice requires Cover Texts, you must en-
           close the copies in covers that carry, clearly and legibly, all
           these Cover Texts: Front-Cover Texts on the front cover, and Back-
           Cover Texts on the back cover.  Both covers must also clearly and
           legibly identify you as the publisher of these copies.  The front
           cover must present the full title with all words of the title
           equally prominent and visible.  You may add other material on the
           covers in addition.  Copying with changes limited to the covers, as
           long as they preserve the title of the Document and satisfy these
           conditions, can be treated as verbatim copying in other respects.

           If the required texts for either cover are too voluminous to fit
           legibly, you should put the first ones listed (as many as fit rea-
           sonably) on the actual cover, and continue the rest onto adjacent

           If you publish or distribute Opaque copies of the Document number-
           ing more than 100, you must either include a machine-readable
           Transparent copy along with each Opaque copy, or state in or with
           each Opaque copy a computer-network location from which the general
           network-using public has access to download using public-standard
           network protocols a complete Transparent copy of the Document, free
           of added material.  If you use the latter option, you must take
           reasonably prudent steps, when you begin distribution of Opaque
           copies in quantity, to ensure that this Transparent copy will re-
           main thus accessible at the stated location until at least one year
           after the last time you distribute an Opaque copy (directly or
           through your agents or retailers) of that edition to the public.

           It is requested, but not required, that you contact the authors of
           the Document well before redistributing any large number of copies,
           to give them a chance to provide you with an updated version of the


           You may copy and distribute a Modified Version of the Document un-
           der the conditions of sections 2 and 3 above, provided that you re-
           lease the Modified Version under precisely this License, with the
           Modified Version filling the role of the Document, thus licensing
           distribution and modification of the Modified Version to whoever
           possesses a copy of it.  In addition, you must do these things in
           the Modified Version:

           A.  Use in the Title Page (and on the covers, if any) a title dis-
               tinct from that of the Document, and from those of previous
               versions (which should, if there were any, be listed in the
               History section of the Document).  You may use the same title
               as a previous version if the original publisher of that version
               gives permission.

           B.  List on the Title Page, as authors, one or more persons or en-
               tities responsible for authorship of the modifications in the
               Modified Version, together with at least five of the principal
               authors of the Document (all of its principal authors, if it
               has fewer than five), unless they release you from this re-

           C.  State on the Title page the name of the publisher of the Modi-
               fied Version, as the publisher.

           D.  Preserve all the copyright notices of the Document.

           E.  Add an appropriate copyright notice for your modifications ad-
               jacent to the other copyright notices.

           F.  Include, immediately after the copyright notices, a license no-
               tice giving the public permission to use the Modified Version
               under the terms of this License, in the form shown in the Ad-
               dendum below.

           G.  Preserve in that license notice the full lists of Invariant
               Sections and required Cover Texts given in the Document's li-
               cense notice.

           H.  Include an unaltered copy of this License.

           I.  Preserve the section Entitled ``History'', Preserve its Title,
               and add to it an item stating at least the title, year, new au-
               thors, and publisher of the Modified Version as given on the
               Title Page.  If there is no section Entitled ``History'' in the
               Document, create one stating the title, year, authors, and pub-
               lisher of the Document as given on its Title Page, then add an
               item describing the Modified Version as stated in the previous

           J.  Preserve the network location, if any, given in the Document
               for public access to a Transparent copy of the Document, and
               likewise the network locations given in the Document for previ-
               ous versions it was based on.  These may be placed in the
               ``History'' section.  You may omit a network location for a
               work that was published at least four years before the Document
               itself, or if the original publisher of the version it refers
               to gives permission.

           K.  For any section Entitled ``Acknowledgements'' or ``Dedica-
               tions'', Preserve the Title of the section, and preserve in the
               section all the substance and tone of each of the contributor
               acknowledgements and/or dedications given therein.

           L.  Preserve all the Invariant Sections of the Document, unaltered
               in their text and in their titles.  Section numbers or the
               equivalent are not considered part of the section titles.

           M.  Delete any section Entitled ``Endorsements''.  Such a section
               may not be included in the Modified Version.

           N.  Do not retitle any existing section to be Entitled ``Endorse-
               ments'' or to conflict in title with any Invariant Section.

           O.  Preserve any Warranty Disclaimers.

           If the Modified Version includes new front-matter sections or ap-
           pendices that qualify as Secondary Sections and contain no material
           copied from the Document, you may at your option designate some or
           all of these sections as invariant.  To do this, add their titles
           to the list of Invariant Sections in the Modified Version's license
           notice.  These titles must be distinct from any other section ti-

           You may add a section Entitled ``Endorsements'', provided it con-
           tains nothing but endorsements of your Modified Version by various
           parties---for example, statements of peer review or that the text
           has been approved by an organization as the authoritative defini-
           tion of a standard.

           You may add a passage of up to five words as a Front-Cover Text,
           and a passage of up to 25 words as a Back-Cover Text, to the end of
           the list of Cover Texts in the Modified Version.  Only one passage
           of Front-Cover Text and one of Back-Cover Text may be added by (or
           through arrangements made by) any one entity.  If the Document al-
           ready includes a cover text for the same cover, previously added by
           you or by arrangement made by the same entity you are acting on be-
           half of, you may not add another; but you may replace the old one,
           on explicit permission from the previous publisher that added the
           old one.

           The author(s) and publisher(s) of the Document do not by this Li-
           cense give permission to use their names for publicity for or to
           assert or imply endorsement of any Modified Version.


           You may combine the Document with other documents released under
           this License, under the terms defined in section 4 above for modi-
           fied versions, provided that you include in the combination all of
           the Invariant Sections of all of the original documents, unmodi-
           fied, and list them all as Invariant Sections of your combined work
           in its license notice, and that you preserve all their Warranty

           The combined work need only contain one copy of this License, and
           multiple identical Invariant Sections may be replaced with a single
           copy.  If there are multiple Invariant Sections with the same name
           but different contents, make the title of each such section unique
           by adding at the end of it, in parentheses, the name of the origi-
           nal author or publisher of that section if known, or else a unique
           number.  Make the same adjustment to the section titles in the list
           of Invariant Sections in the license notice of the combined work.

           In the combination, you must combine any sections Entitled ``His-
           tory'' in the various original documents, forming one section Enti-
           tled ``History''; likewise combine any sections Entitled ``Acknowl-
           edgements'', and any sections Entitled ``Dedications''.  You must
           delete all sections Entitled ``Endorsements.''


           You may make a collection consisting of the Document and other doc-
           uments released under this License, and replace the individual
           copies of this License in the various documents with a single copy
           that is included in the collection, provided that you follow the
           rules of this License for verbatim copying of each of the documents
           in all other respects.

           You may extract a single document from such a collection, and dis-
           tribute it individually under this License, provided you insert a
           copy of this License into the extracted document, and follow this
           License in all other respects regarding verbatim copying of that


           A compilation of the Document or its derivatives with other sepa-
           rate and independent documents or works, in or on a volume of a
           storage or distribution medium, is called an ``aggregate'' if the
           copyright resulting from the compilation is not used to limit the
           legal rights of the compilation's users beyond what the individual
           works permit.  When the Document is included an aggregate, this Li-
           cense does not apply to the other works in the aggregate which are
           not themselves derivative works of the Document.

           If the Cover Text requirement of section 3 is applicable to these
           copies of the Document, then if the Document is less than one half
           of the entire aggregate, the Document's Cover Texts may be placed
           on covers that bracket the Document within the aggregate, or the
           electronic equivalent of covers if the Document is in electronic
           form.  Otherwise they must appear on printed covers that bracket
           the whole aggregate.

       8.  TRANSLATION

           Translation is considered a kind of modification, so you may dis-
           tribute translations of the Document under the terms of section 4.
           Replacing Invariant Sections with translations requires special
           permission from their copyright holders, but you may include trans-
           lations of some or all Invariant Sections in addition to the origi-
           nal versions of these Invariant Sections.  You may include a trans-
           lation of this License, and all the license notices in the Docu-
           ment, and any Warrany Disclaimers, provided that you also include
           the original English version of this License and the original ver-
           sions of those notices and disclaimers.  In case of a disagreement
           between the translation and the original version of this License or
           a notice or disclaimer, the original version will prevail.

           If a section in the Document is Entitled ``Acknowledgements'',
           ``Dedications'', or ``History'', the requirement (section 4) to
           Preserve its Title (section 1) will typically require changing the
           actual title.

       9.  TERMINATION

           You may not copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute the Document
           except as expressly provided for under this License.  Any other at-
           tempt to copy, modify, sublicense or distribute the Document is
           void, and will automatically terminate your rights under this Li-
           cense.  However, parties who have received copies, or rights, from
           you under this License will not have their licenses terminated so
           long as such parties remain in full compliance.


           The Free Software Foundation may publish new, revised versions of
           the GNU Free Documentation License from time to time.  Such new
           versions will be similar in spirit to the present version, but may
           differ in detail to address new problems or concerns.  See

           Each version of the License is given a distinguishing version num-
           ber.  If the Document specifies that a particular numbered version
           of this License ``or any later version'' applies to it, you have
           the option of following the terms and conditions either of that
           specified version or of any later version that has been published
           (not as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation.  If the Document
           does not specify a version number of this License, you may choose
           any version ever published (not as a draft) by the Free Software

       ADDENDUM: How to use this License for your documents

       To use this License in a document you have written, include a copy of
       the License in the document and put the following copyright and license
       notices just after the title page:

                 Copyright (C)  <year>  <your name>.
                 Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document
                 under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.2
                 or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation;
                 with no Invariant Sections, no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover Texts.
                 A copy of the license is included in the section entitled ``GNU
                 Free Documentation License''.

       If you have Invariant Sections, Front-Cover Texts and Back-Cover Texts,
       replace the ``with...Texts.'' line with this:

                   with the Invariant Sections being <list their titles>, with
                   the Front-Cover Texts being <list>, and with the Back-Cover Texts
                   being <list>.

       If you have Invariant Sections without Cover Texts, or some other com-
       bination of the three, merge those two alternatives to suit the situa-

       If your document contains nontrivial examples of program code, we rec-
       ommend releasing these examples in parallel under your choice of free
       software license, such as the GNU General Public License, to permit
       their use in free software.

       gpl(7), fsf-funding(7).

       Copyright (c) 2000 Free Software Foundation, Inc.  59 Temple Place,
       Suite 330, Boston, MA  02111-1307, USA

       Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies of this
       license document, but changing it is not allowed.

gcc-3.3                           2003-03-01                           GFDL(7)
Man Pages Copyright Respective Owners. Site Copyright (C) 1994 - 2024 Hurricane Electric. All Rights Reserved.